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1

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

2

Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

4

Premixed direct injection disk  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Premixed direct injection nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

8

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine technology in the near term as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost...

9

Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. p-10gibbs.pdf...

10

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

11

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

13

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

14

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

16

Gasoline direct injection: Actual trends and future strategies for injection and combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments have raised increased interest on the concept of gasoline direct injection as the most promising future strategy for fuel economy improvement of SI engines. The general requirements for mixture preparation and combustion systems in a GDI engine are presented in view of known and actual systems regarding fuel economy and emission potential. The characteristics of the actually favored injection systems are discussed and guidelines for the development of appropriate combustion systems are derived. The differences between such mixture preparation strategies as air distributed fuel and fuel wall impingement are discussed, leading to the alternative approach to the problem of mixture preparation with the fully air distributing concept of direct mixture injection.

Fraidl, G.K.; Piock, W.F.; Wirth, M.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Engines - Spark Ignition Engines - Direct Injection - Omnivorous Engine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Injection, Spark-Ignited Engines Direct Injection, Spark-Ignited Engines Omnivorous Engine Omnivorous Engine Setup Omnivorous Engine Setup New engine technology has made possible engines that will operate on a wide variety of fuel inputs, from gasoline to naptha to ethanol to methanol, without driver intervention. Although flexible fuel vehicles have been produced in the millions, their engines have always been optimized for gasoline operation while accepting significant performance and efficiency degradations when using the alternative fuel. This project seeks to combine in-cylinder measurement technology, and advanced controls to optimize spark timing, the quantity and timing of injected fuel, to produce an "omnivorous engine"--one that will be able to run on any liquid spark ignition fuel with optimal efficiency and low

18

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H[sub 2]O[sub 2], and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H[sub 2]O[sub 2] injection as an oxygenation technique.

Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injection as an oxygenation technique.

Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications This...

22

Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

23

Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program  

SciTech Connect

The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

Carl L. Anderson

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

24

Iron beam acceleration using direct plasma injection scheme  

SciTech Connect

A new set of vanes of radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator was commissioned using highly charged iron beam. To supply high intensity heavy ion beams to the RFQ, direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) with a confinement solenoid was adopted. One of the difficulties to utilize the combination of DPIS and a solenoid field is a complexity of electro magnetic field at the beam extraction region, since biasing high static electric field for ion extraction, RFQ focusing field, and the solenoid magnetic field fill the same space simultaneously. To mitigate the complexity, a newly designed magnetic field clamps were used. The intense iron beam was observed with bunched structure and the total accelerated current reached 2.5 nC.

Okamura, M., E-mail: okamura@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kanesue, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Yamamoto, T. [Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)] [Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Fuwa, Y. [Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) [Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Effects of the Secondary Oxygen Injection on the Performance of a Staged-Entrained Flow Coal Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a staged entrained flow coal-slurry gasifier, the secondary oxygen was injected into the gasifier in order to protect the refractory in ... model, simulations were conducted for the staged gasifier at differen...

Cai Chunrong; WU Yuxin; Zhang Jiansheng…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Multiple Injection and Boosting Benefits for Improved Fuel Consumption on a Spray Guided Direct Injection Gasoline Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of turbocharging and direct injection offers a significant potential for SI engines to improve fuel consumption, specific power output, raw emissions and ... shows the latest results of the T-SGDI...

Jason King; Oliver Böcker

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Effect of stratified water injection on exhaust gases and fuel consumption of a direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct injection Diesel engine with its specific fuel consumption of about 200 g/kWh is one of the most efficient thermal engines. However in case of relatively low CH...x...concentration in the exhaust gas t...

Rainer Pauls; Christof Simon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

DIRECT OXYGEN ABUNDANCES FOR LOW-LUMINOSITY LVL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present MMT spectroscopic observations of H II regions in 42 low luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey. For 31 of the 42 galaxies in our sample, we were able to measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line at a strength of 4{sigma} or greater, and thus determine oxygen abundances using the 'direct' method. Our results provide the first 'direct' estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 of these galaxies. 'Direct' oxygen abundances were compared to B-band luminosities, 4.5 {mu}m luminosities, and stellar masses in order to characterize the luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity relationships at low luminosity. We present and analyze a 'Combined Select' sample composed of 38 objects (drawn from a sub-set of our parent sample and the literature) with 'direct' oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (based on the tip of the red giant branch or Cepheid variables). Consistent with previous studies, the B band and 4.5 {mu}m luminosity-metallicity relationships for the 38 objects were found to be 12 + log(O/H) = (6.27 {+-} 0.21) + (- 0.11 {+-} 0.01)M{sub B} and 12 + log(O/H) = (6.10 {+-} 0.21) + (- 0.10 {+-} 0.01)M{sub [4.5]} with dispersions of {sigma} = 0.15 and 0.14, respectively. The slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships have been reported to be different for galaxies with luminosities greater than that of the LMC. However, the similarity of the slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships for our sample probably reflects little influence by dust extinction in the low luminosity galaxies. For this sample, we derive a mass-metallicity relationship of 12 + log(O/H) = (5.61 {+-} 0.24) + (0.29 {+-} 0.03)log (M{sub *}), which agrees with previous studies; however, the dispersion ({sigma} = 0.15) is not significantly lower than that of the L-Z relationships. Because of the low dispersions in these relationships, if an accurate distance is available, the luminosity of a low luminosity galaxy is often a better indicator of metallicity than that derived using certain 'strong-line' methods, so significant departures from the L-Z relationships may indicate that caution is prudent in such cases. With these new 'direct' metallicities we also revisit the 70/160 {mu}m color metallicity relationship. Additionally, we examine N/O abundance trends with respect to oxygen abundance and B - V color. We find a positive correlation between N/O ratio and B - V color for 0.05 {approx}< B - V {approx}< 0.75: log (N/O) = (1.18 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign (B - V) + (- 1.92 {+-} 0.08), with a dispersion of {sigma} = 0.14, which is in agreement with previous studies.

Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D. [Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marble, Andrew R.; Engelbracht, Charles W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Van Zee, Liese [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lee, Janice C. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Johnson, Benjamin D., E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: cengelbracht@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: amarble@nso.edu, E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jlee@stsci.edu, E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu, E-mail: johnson@iap.fr [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Bvd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost.

30

Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

32

Investigation of Cluster-Nozzle Concepts for Direct Injection Diesel Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of Cluster-Nozzle Concepts for Direct Injection Diesel Engines Von der Fakultät für Investigation of Cluster-Nozzle Concepts for Direct Injection Diesel Engines WICHTIG: D 82 überprüfen !!! #12" in Zusammenarbeit mit General Motors R&D and Strategic Planning, Warren, MI, USA durchgeführt. Ein Teil der Arbeit

Peters, Norbert

33

Direct injection tunnel spectroscopy of a p-n junction Edward M. Likovich,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct injection tunnel spectroscopy of a p-n junction Edward M. Likovich,1 Kasey J. Russell,1,a tunnel injection of electrons. In contrast to the metal-base transistor design of conventional ballistic the semiconductor before they scatter and thermal- ize to the chemical potential of the base layer. For systems

Russell, Kasey

34

A Detailed Multi-Zone Thermodynamic Simulation For Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed multi-zone thermodynamic simulation has been developed for the direct-injection (DI) diesel engine combustion process. For the purpose of predicting heterogeneous type combustion systems, the model explores the formation of pre...

Xue, Xingyu 1985-

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Numerical modeling of combustion processes and pollutant formations in direct-injection diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) concept has been applied to numerically simulate the combustion processes and pollutant formation in the direct injection...X formation including thermal NO path, pro...

Seong-Ku Kim; Joon Kyu Lee; Yong-Mo Kim; Jae-Hyun Ahn

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Combustion and emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine using biofuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Impact of biofuel (2-methlyfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethanol) on the performance of a gasoline direct injection engine has been investigated. MF demonstrates better knock resistance properties… (more)

Wang, Chongming

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

38

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Alexoff, David (Westhampton, NY)

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

39

In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct of engines with gasoline direct injection. Exhaust gas aftertreatment requires storage catalysts fractions in a gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF

Lee, Tonghun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concen- tration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estima- tion of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust

Stefanopoulou, Anna

42

CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams and sequestration. Carbon sequestration is often associated with the planting of trees. As they mature, the trees INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has

43

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Study of Combustion and Soot Formation in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Study of Combustion and Soot Formation in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine ... The major problems associated with diesel engines are the high levels of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate emissions. ... (11)?Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H. Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering; Prentice Hall Inc.:? New York, 1988. ...

T. L. Chan; X. B. Cheng

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

44

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Published April 28, 2010. Metal silicides such as TiSi2 and CoSi2 have been commonly used as the contactsFormation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide NiSi , which is a key material for source, drain

45

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings ... Because of their fuel economy and high reliability, compression-ignition (CI) engines known as diesel engines have been penetrating a number of markets around the world. ...

Mustafa Canakci; Cenk Sayin; Metin Gumus

2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

46

Application of semi-direct injection for spark-ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes an application of a motorcycle engine lean-burn system for improving engine efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. This Semi-Direct Injection (SDI) system consists of a high swirl charge, injection during intake-valve opening, and air-assisted fuel injection. The fuel enters the cylinder directly through the intake valve near the middle intake stroke for a richer mixture around the spark plug. A 125 cc, 4-valve, Port-Fuel-Injection (PFI) engine was retrofitted by designing a control plate to enhance the swirl. The swirl ratio was increased to 3.8 and the lean limit was extended to 1.7 of lambda (excess air ratio). The engine was tested at the low-load region, which includes most operation points of the ECE-40 driving cycle. A complete engine performance map was conducted for comparison between SDI and original PFI engines. The results show that Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) decreased by 11.3%. Brake-specific exhaust emissions of NOx and CO decreased by 32.0% and 92.9%, respectively. The HC emission increased by 47.7%.

Yuh-Yih Wu; Bo-Chiuan Chen; Anh-Trung Tran

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Direct-write milling of diamond by a focused oxygen ion beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances in focused ion beam technology have enabled high-resolution, direct-write nanofabrication using light ions. Studies with light ions to date have, however, focused on milling of materials where sub-surface ion beam damage does not inhibit device performance. Here we report on direct-write milling of single crystal diamond using a focused beam of oxygen ions. Material quality is assessed by Raman and luminescence analysis, and reveals that the damage layer generated by oxygen ions can be removed by nonintrusive post-processing methods such as localised electron beam induced chemical etching.

Martin, Aiden A; Botman, Aurelien; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

FY2001 Progress Report for the Spark Ignition Direct Injection R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPARK IGNITION, SPARK IGNITION, DIRECT INJECTION ENGINE R&D 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Argonne National Laboratory and Computer Systems Management, Inc., for their artistic and technical contributions in preparing and publishing this report. In addition, we would like to thank all our program participants for their contributions to the programs and all the authors who prepared the project abstracts that comprise this report. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 2001 Progress Report for the Spark Ignition Direct Injection R&D Program

49

FY2002 Progress Report for Fuels for Advanced Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels for Advanced Compression Fuels for Advanced Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Approved by Stephen Goguen November 2002 Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines FY 2002 Progress Report iii CONTENTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii INDEX OF PRIMARY CONTACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. FUEL/LUBRICANT EFFECTS TESTING ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . 13 A. Oil Consumption Contribution to CIDI PM Emissions during Transient Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

50

Development of Innovative Combustion Processes for a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) emissions and fuel economy goals, a small-bore, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel facility in which to conduct research into the physics of the combustion process relevant to these engines has been developed. The characteristics of this facility are described, and the motivation for selecting these characteristics and their relation to high efficiency, low-emission HSDI engine technology is discussed.

John Dec; Paul Miles

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Performance and Emissions of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel Fuel Containing Dissolved Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, People's Republic of China ... soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solns., one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liq. ... (16)?Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals; McGraw-Hill:? New York, 1988. ...

Junqiang Zhang; Deming Jiang; Zuohua Huang; Xibin Wang; Qi Wei

2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

52

New Phenomenological Six-Zone Combustion Model for Direct-Injection Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New Phenomenological Six-Zone Combustion Model for Direct-Injection Diesel Engines ... Nevertheless, to comply with ever more stringent emission standards, particularly regarding NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions, such as EURO 6 in Europe, diesel engine manufacturers have to find new in-cylinder combustion strategies and/or complex after-treatment devices to reduce their emissions. ... Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1988. ...

Alain Maiboom; Xavier Tauzia; Samiur Rahman Shah; Jean-François Hétet

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

53

Determination of desorption efficiency utilizing direct injection: a dynamic calibration system and phase equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Ronald H. Williams B. S. , Purdue University B. S. , University of Arkansas Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . R. B. Konzen Three methods for determining desorption efficiency for or ganic solvents adsorbed on activated charcoal were compared.... The three methods involved a dynamic calibra- tion system, direct injection, and phase equilibrium. The methods differed in the manner in which the analyte was placed on the adsorbent. The desorption efficiencies ob- tained using the dynamic calibration...

Williams, Ronald H

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

An experimental investigation of high performance natural gas engine with direct injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental results of a new compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine that has been developed from modification of a multi cylinder gasoline port injection (PI) engine. The original gasoline-PI engine was also modified to a CNG bi-fuel system. The test results obtained from CNG fuel using two different systems (i.e. bi-fuel and DI) have been investigated and compared with the original gasoline engine. The objective of this investigation is to compare the test results between CNG-DI, with CNG-BI and gasoline-PI engines with the same displacement volume. It was found that the CNG-DI engine produces similar brake power at 6000 rpm and wide open throttle (WOT) but produces higher brake power at part load condition as compared to the original gasoline. The CNG-BI engine produces 23% lower brake power than the CNG-DI engine. The average brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the CNG-DI engine was 0.28% and 8% lower than gasoline-PI and CNG-BI engines respectively. The CNG-DI engine reduces 42% \\{NOx\\} emission as compared to the base engine. However, the CNG-DI engine produces higher HC and CO emissions as compared to the base engine. This paper discusses a review on the direct injection (DI) natural gas engine with new information along with other investigations.

M.A. Kalam; H.H. Masjuki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Kinetics of oxygen interstitial injection and lattice exchange in rutile TiO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The existence of a facile surface pathway for generation of O interstitials (O{sub i}) in rutile that can facilitate annihilation of O undesirable vacancies has been demonstrated recently. Through isotopic self-diffusion experiments, the present work determines a value of approximately 1.8?eV for the activation energy of O{sub i} injection from TiO{sub 2} (110). The mean path length for O{sub i} diffusion decreases by nearly an order of magnitude upon adsorption of 0.1 monolayer of sulfur. Sulfur apparently inhibits the surface annihilation rate of Ti interstitials, lowering their bulk concentration and the corresponding catalytic effect they seem to exert upon O{sub i} exchange with the lattice.

Gorai, Prashun; Hollister, Alice G.; Pangan-Okimoto, Kristine; Seebauer, Edmund G., E-mail: eseebaue@illinois.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

57

Controlling combustion noise in direct injection diesel engine through mechanical vibration measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The next generations of direct injection diesel engines have greatly improved their performances compared with petrol engines. However, one of the pending subjects is the noise and vibration levels, due to working cycle itself. The design effort to reduce the emissions of noise and vibration transmitted to the vehicle's driver could be lessened because of the assembly process variation. In this paper, a procedure to control this variation has been suggested in order to maintain noise and vibration performances within the limits of design.

J.A. Calvo; V. Diaz; J.L. San Roman

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Effects on Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Effects on Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions ... The test fuels indicate variable hydrocarbon composition and physical and chemical properties, and they were prepared under a European Union research program aiming to identify future fuel formulations for use in modern DI diesel engines. ... 1,2,4-9,13,14,16,17,24-26 In general, there is an interrelation between the molecular structure (paraffins, olefins, napthenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons), the chemical properties (cetane number, ignition point, etc.), and the physical properties (density, viscosity, surface tension, etc.) of the diesel fuel. ...

Theodoros C. Zannis; Dimitrios T. Hountalas; Roussos G. Papagiannakis

2007-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

59

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

60

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

Dimou, Iason

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

70-108B One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 December 2, 1997 Key Words: Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, humidification, gas distribution, direct liquid water injection, interdigitated flow fields. * Corresponding... of the catalyst layers were made of waterproof, carbon fiber cloths. Liquid water was injected by two metering pumps into two heated stainless steel coils, where it was preheated to the cell operating temperatures, and then directly into the gas streams...

Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Nguyen, Trung Van

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Linear accelerator design study with direct plasma injection scheme for warm dense matter  

SciTech Connect

Warm Dense Matter (WDM) is a challenging science field, which is related to heavy ion inertial fusion and planetary science. It is difficult to expect the behavior because the state with high density and low temperature is completely different from ideal condition. The well-defined WDM generation is required to understand it. Moderate energy ion beams ({approx} MeV/u) slightly above Bragg peak is an advantageous method for WDM because of the uniform energy deposition. Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with a Interdigital H-mode (IH) accelerator has a potential for the beam parameter. We show feasible parameters of the IH accelerator for WDM. WDM physics is a challenging science and is strongly related to Heavy Ion Fusion science. WDM formation by Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with IH accelerator, which is a compact system, is proposed. Feasible parameters for IH accelerator are shown for WDM state. These represents that DPIS with IH accelerator can access a different parameter region of WDM.

Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Experimental investigation of direct injection charge cooling in optical GDI engine using tracer-based PLIF technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Investigation of direct injection charge cooling effects is indispensable in design and development of new combustion systems for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. The charge cooling can be utilized to increase engine volumetric efficiency or compression ratio. It can be employed to suppress pre-ignition of highly boosted downsized engines or knocking combustion of naturally aspirated engines. The main purpose of this work was to develop an experimental setup for quantitative measurements of charge cooling during fuel injection process inside the combustion chamber of a GDI engine with optical access. For this purpose a tracer-based two-line Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique was implemented for the measurements. A specially designed Constant Volume Chamber (CVC) was utilized for quasi in situ calibration measurement so in-cylinder charge temperature measurements can be achieved independent of the photophysical model of dopant tracer. The thermometry technique was evaluated by measurements of average in-cylinder charge temperature during compression stroke for both motoring and firing cycles and comparing the results with temperature values calculated from in-cylinder pressure data assuming a polytropic compression. The PLIF technique was successfully utilized to quantify the extend of global temperature decrease as a result of direct injection charge cooling of two injection timings of 90 and 250 °CA ATDC and two injection quantities of 10 and 30 mg/cycle. Test results demonstrated the capability of the two-line PLIF thermometry technique in quantitative study of direct injection charge cooling effects.

Mohammadreza Anbari Attar; Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh; Hua Zhao; Alasdair Cairns

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Performance and exhaust emissions of a two-stroke spark-ignition engine with a direct-injection system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A direct fuel-injection system has been adapted to a small two-stroke spark-ignition engine to prevent the charge from flowing through the cylinder during the scavenging process. The injection system consists of a jerk-type pump and a single-hole nozzle which supplies gasoline to the cylinder. Engine tests were carried out for comparison with the carburettor version of the same engine. The results show that the direct-injection version can achieve greatly improved thermal efficiency and lower HC and CO emissions without intake throttling. In addition, NOx can be reduced to a much lower level than that of the ordinary four-stroke engine. Heat release analysis and high-speed photography indicate that stratified charge combustion takes place in the direct-injection engine.

Yasuhiro Daisho; Takeshi Saito; Noriaki Ishibe; Mitsuhiro Tsukada; Masashi Yukawa

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Direct injection of ionospheric O sup + into the dayside low latitude boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Observations from the AMPTE/Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) indicate the presence of two distinct O{sup +} populations in the dayside subsolar low latitude boundary layer during some periods of northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The first population is O{sup +} convected into the boundary layer from the outer magnetosphere and has been reported previously. It is suggested here that the new, second, O{sup +} population is injected into the dayside boundary layer directly from the high latitude ionosphere. This second population can have a significant density and distinct characteristics such as field-aligned flow relative to boundary layer H{sup +} that modify both the plasma composition and dynamics in the low latitude boundary layer. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

Fuselier, S.A.; Klumpar, D.M.; Peterson, W.K.; Shelley, E.G. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, California (US))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Optical-Engine Study of a Low-Temperature Combustion Strategy Employing a Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle and Early, Direct Injection of Diesel Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Insight into mechanisms causing observed sharp emissions increase with diesel fuel injection is gained through experiments in an optical engine employing a similar low-temperature combustion strategy of early, direct injection of diesel fuel.

67

Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine  

SciTech Connect

With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

68

Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization. Tabs, figs, refs.

Shum, S.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines. Part 1: Study of unconfined and in-cylinder plume behavior  

SciTech Connect

A study of natural gas (NG) direct injection (DI) processes has been performed using multidimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis. The purpose was to improve the understanding of mixing in DI NG engines. Calculations of injection into a constant-volume chamber were performed to document unconfined plume behavior. A full three-dimensional calculation of injection into a medium heavy-duty diesel engine cylinder was also performed to study plume behavior in engine geometries. The structure of the NG plume is characterized by a core of unmixed fuel confined to the near-field of the jet. This core contains the bulk of the unmixed fuel and is mixed by the turbulence generated by the jet shear layer. The NG plume development in the engine is dominated by combustion chamber surface interactions. A Coanda effect causes plume attachment to the cylinder head, which has a detrimental impact on mixing. Unconfined plume calculations with different nozzle hole sizes demonstrate that smaller nozzle holes are more effective at mixing the fuel and air.

Jennings, M.J.; Jeske, F.R. (Ricardo North America, Burr Ridge, IL (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-liquid-injection Chemical-vapor-deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

SciTech Connect

Smooth, continuous, and highly conformal nickel nitride (NiN{sub x}) films were deposited by direct liquid injection (DLI)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of bis(N,N{prime}-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) in tetrahydronaphthalene as the nickel (Ni) source and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the coreactant gas. The DLI-CVD NiNx films grown on HF-last (100) silicon and on highly doped polysilicon substrates served as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide (NiSi), which is a key material for source, drain, and gate contacts in microelectronic devices. Rapid thermal annealing in the forming gas of DLI-CVD NiNx films formed continuous NiSi films at temperatures above 400 C. The resistivity of the NiSi films was 15{mu}{Omega} cm, close to the value for bulk crystals. The NiSi films have remarkably smooth and sharp interfaces with underlying Si substrates, thereby producing contacts for transistors with a higher drive current and a lower junction leakage. Resistivity and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in real-time during annealing of NiNx films showed the formation of a NiSi film at about 440 C, which is morphologically stable up to about 650 C. These NiSi films could find applications in future nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices or three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices such as Fin-type field effect transistors for the 22 nm technology node and beyond.

Li, Z.; Gordon, R; Li, H; Shenai, D; Lavoie, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct-injection spark engine : gasoline and gasohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to better understand the effects on hydrocarbon emissions of loading, engine temperature, fuel type, and injection timing, a series of experiments was performed. The effect of loading was observed by running the ...

Tharp, Ronald S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson Submitted to the graduate degree program..., Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson...

Mattson, Jonathan Michael Stearns

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ultrafast and quantitative X-tomography and simulation of hollow-cone gasoline direct-injection sprays.  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has the potential to greatly improve internal combustion engine performance through precise control of the injection rate, timing, and combustion of the fuel. A thorough characterization of the hydrodynamics of fuel injection has to come from a precise, quantitative analysis of the sprays, especially in the near-nozzle region. A lack of knowledge of the fuel-spray dynamics has severely limited computational modeling of the sprays and design of improved injection systems. Previously, the structure and dynamics of highly transient fuel sprays have never been visualized or reconstructed in three dimensions (3D) due to numerous technical difficulties. By using an ultrafast x-ray detector and intense monochromatic x-ray beams from synchrotron radiation, the fine structures and dynamics of 1-ms GDI fuel sprays from an outwardly opening nozzle were elucidated by a newly developed, ultrafast, microsecond computed microtomography (CT) technique. In a time-resolved manner, many detailed features associated with the transient fuel flows are readily observable in the quantitatively reconstructed 3D fuel spray density distribution as a result of the quantitative CT technique. More importantly, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model has also been performed using the boundary and initial conditions obtained from the experiment data. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement quantitatively. These results not only reveal the characteristics of the GDI fuel sprays with unprecedented detail, but will also facilitate realistic computational fluid dynamic simulations in highly transient, multiphase systems.

Liu, X.; Im, K-S; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Tate, M.W.; Ercan, A.; Schuette, D.R.; Gruner, S.M. (X-Ray Science Division); (Cornell Univ.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines.

Hershberger, J.; Ozturk, O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Woodford, J. B.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

2002-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

75

Determination of Depleted Uranium in Urine via Isotope Ratio Measurements Using Large-Bore Direct Injection High Efficiency Nebulizer–Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), coupled with a large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN), was utilized to determine the concentration and...

Westphal, Craig S; McLean, John A; Hakspiel, Shelly J; Jackson, William E; McClain, David E; Montaser, Akbar

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Effect of palm methyl ester-diesel blends performance and emission of a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate engine performance and exhaust emission when using several blends of neat palm oil methyl ester (POME) with conventional diesel (D2) in a small direct injection diesel engine and to compare the outcomes to that of the D2 fuel. Engine performances exhaust emissions and some other important parameters were observed as a function of engine load and speed. In addition the effect of modifying compression ratio was also carried out in this study. From the engine experimental work neat and blended fuels behaved comparably to diesel (D2) in terms of fuel consumption thermal efficiency and rate of heat released. Smoke density showed better results than that emitted by D2 operating under similar conditions due to the presence of inherited oxygen and lower sulphur content in the biofuel and its blends. The emissions of CO CO2 and HC were also lower using blended mixtures and in its neat form. However NOx concentrations were found to be slight higher for POME and its blends and this was largely due to higher viscosity of POME and possibly the presence of nitrogen in the palm methyl ester. General observation indicates that biofuel blends can be use without many difficulties in this type of engine but for optimized operation minor modifications to the engine and its auxiliaries are required.

Mazlan Said; Azhar Abdul Aziz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Emissions and fuel economy of a vehicle with a spark-ignition, direct-injection engine : Mitsubishi Legnum GDI{trademark}.  

SciTech Connect

A 1997 Mitsubishi Legnum station wagon with a 150-hp, 1.8-L, spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engine was tested for emissions by using the FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 test cycles and four different fuels. The purpose of the tests was to obtain fuel-economy and emissions data on SIDI vehicles and to compare the measurements obtained with those of a port-fuel-injection (PFI) vehicle. The PFI vehicle chosen for the comparison was a 1995 Dodge Neon, which meets the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) emissions goals of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) less than 0.125 g/mi, carbon monoxide (CO) less than 1.7 g/mi, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) less than 0.2 g/mi, and particulate matter (PM) less than 0.01 g/mi. The Mitsubishi was manufactured for sale in Japan and was not certified to meet current US emissions regulations. Results show that the SIDI vehicle can provide up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle does, with correspondingly lower greenhouse gas emissions. The SIDI vehicle as designed does not meet the PNGV goals for NMHC or NO{sub x} emissions, but it does meet the goal for CO emissions. Meeting the goal for PM emissions appears to be contingent upon using low-sulfur fuel and an oxidation catalyst. One reason for the difficulty in meeting the NMHC and NO{sub x} goals is the slow (200 s) warm-up of the catalyst. Catalyst warm-up time is primarily a matter of design. The SIDI engine produces more NMHC and NO{sub x} than the PFI engine does, which puts a greater burden on the catalyst to meet the emissions goals than is the case with the PFI engine. Oxidation of NMHC is aided by unconsumed oxygen in the exhaust when the SIDI engine operates in stratified-charge mode, but the same unconsumed oxygen inhibits chemical reduction of NO{sub x} . Thus, meeting the NO{sub x} emissions goal is likely to be the greatest challenge for the SIDI engine.

Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

78

Combustion analysis of a direct injection diesel engine when fuelled with sunflower methyl ester and its diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uncertainty in the availability of petroleum-based fuels in the near future and stringent pollution norms have triggered a search for renewable and clean-burning fuels. The use of vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has for long been in the pipeline, but its direct use has been limited because of its higher viscosity. In this work, sunflower oil was taken as feedstock and the feasibility of sunflower oil methyl ester (SFME) as an alternative fuel for diesel engines was investigated. Tests were conducted in a 4.4 kW, single cylinder, naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the premixed combustion phase of SFME and its blends were less intense compared with diesel oil. In addition, it was observed that SFME and its blends had slightly lower thermal efficiency and lower tailpipe emissions than diesel oil.

G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Saravanan; P. Selva Ilavarasi; G. Devasagayam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

An Experimental Study on the Two-Stage Combustion Characteristics of a Direct-Injection-Type HCCI Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa-1 Dong, Sangrok-gu Ansan-si, Gyenggi-do, 426-791, Korea ... This research was achieved using a direct-injection-type diesel method during the intake stroke in real single-cylinder engines, and observations were made regarding the cool and hot flame characteristics, according to the air:fuel ratio and engine speed (given in units of rpm), an additive that influences the auto-ignition and the start times, and the combustion and emission characteristics, according to these times. ... This work was supported by the “Development of techniques on the fundamental and practical use of a HCCI” project at Korea Automotive Technology Institute, 2004. ...

Kihyung Lee; Changsik Lee; Jeaduk Ryu; Hyungmin Kim

2005-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Evaluation of oxides of nitrogen emissions for the purpose of their transient regulation from a direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of defining a regulatory standard for the maximum allowable emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a heavy-duty diesel engine on an instantaneous basis is presented. The significance of this concept from a regulatory point of view is the possibility to realise a steady brake specific NOx emissions result independent of the test schedule used. The emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engine have been examined on an integral as well as on an instantaneous basis over the Federal Test Procedure as well as over several other arbitrary transient cycles generated for this study. Three candidate standards of specific NOx emissions have been evaluated on a real-time, continuous basis. These include brake power specific, fuel mass specific, and carbon dioxide mass specific NOx emissions. Retaining the stock engine control module, the carbon dioxide specific emissions of NOx have been shown to be the most uniform, varying only by about 30% of its mean value regardless of the test schedule or engine operation. The instantaneous fuel specific NOx emissions are shown to be relatively less invariant and the least steady are the brake power specific emissions with a coefficient of variation of up to 200%. Advancing injection timing has been shown to have a wide range of authority over the specific emissions of oxides of nitrogen regardless of the units used, when operating at full load in the vicinity of peak torque speeds. The carbon dioxide specific NOx emissions have shown a linear dependence on the power specific emissions, independent of the examined operating conditions. The trade-off between better brake thermal efficiency, lower exhaust gas temperature at advanced timing and lower NOx emissions has also been shown to be independent of the units of the specific standard used.

Yasser Yacoub; Chris Atkinson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on the Emissions of a Direct-Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Canola Oil Methyl Ester?Diesel Fuel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(3, 4) A lot of researchers have reported that using biodiesel as a fuel in diesel engines causes a diminution in harmful exhaust emissions as well as equivalent engine performance with diesel fuel. ... Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke d. and NOx to evaluate and compute the behavior of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. ... Ma, Z.; Huang, Z. H.; Li, C.; Wang, X. B.; Miao, H.Effects of fuel injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel?propane blends Energy Fuels 2007, 21 ( 3) 1504– 1510 ...

Cenk Sayin; Metin Gumus; Mustafa Canakci

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

83

Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (���© pilot �¢���¼ 0.2-0.6 and ���© overall �¢���¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ���© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ���© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ���© overall (at constant ���© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

84

The effect of ethanol-water fumigation on the performance and emissions from a direct-injection diesel engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of ethanol fumigation and water injection on the performance and exhaust emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen TDI diesel engine was investigated. The engine… (more)

Olson, André Louis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Investigation of Fuel Effects on Dilute, Mixing-Controlled Combustion in an Optical Direct-Injection Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

School of Engineering, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, and Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 ... Additionally, data obtained from this study provide fundamental insights into NOx and PM formation mechanisms in diesel engines. ... Results show that increasing fuel oxygenation produces lower in-cylinder and engine-out soot levels, consistent with existing studies of the effects of fuel oxygenation on soot emissions from diesel engines. ...

A. S. (Ed) Cheng; Ansis Upatnieks; Charles J. Mueller

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

86

Study of mixture formation and early flame development in a research GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine through numerical simulation and UV-digital imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The analysis of the mixture formation and early combustion processes in a slightly lean burn gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is performed by using experimental and numerical techniques. UV–visible natural emission digital imaging is applied in the optically accessible combustion chamber of a research engine. This is equipped with the four-valve head and the same injection system of a commercial turbocharged engine. Optical accessibility is obtained through a quartz window placed on the piston head. Numerical simulations are performed by means of a 3D model developed within the AVL FireTM environment, which exploits an in-house developed sub-model for simulating the spray dynamics. Tests are carried out using commercial gasoline. The cyclic variability of the engine is first analysed in order to properly define a reference average pressure cycle to be used for the validation of the numerical model. This last is then proved as being highly predictive as the start of injection is moved in the working cycle. The main effects of the injection and ignition timing on the characteristic flame development angles, namely on the flame initiation and propagation, are analysed. Flame initiation is visualised both numerically and experimentally.

M. Costa; L. Marchitto; S.S. Merola; U. Sorge

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Direct Probing of Charge Injection and Polarization-Controlled Ionic Mobility on Ferroelectric LiNbO3 Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Mapping surface potential with time-resolved Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (tr-KPFM) in LiNbO3 periodically-poled single crystal revealed activation of the surface ionic subsystem. Electric fields higher than certain threshold value but lower than the switching field induce injection of charge from the biased electrode, formation of an active region in its vicinity and uneven distribution of screening charge on the opposite ferroelectric domains. Tr-KPFM technique allows investigating these phenomena in details.

Strelcov, Evgheni [ORNL] [ORNL; Ievlev, Dr. Anton [Ural State University, Russia] [Ural State University, Russia; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Shur, V.Y. [Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University] [Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiolysis products and internal dose distribution - Calculation of...products and internal distribution of doses Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen...stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Influence of Biodiesel Fuel on the Combustion and Emission Formation in a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The injector needle lift trace at low engine speed was almost identical for both fuels, while at maximum engine speed, a shorter injection delay was observed for biodiesel fuel and the injector needle opened earlier as with D2 fuel. ... Figure 1 Comparison of the engine torque (M), fuel consumption (Gh), and brake specific energy consumption (ge) at full load for biodiesel fuel (BD) and D2 fuel in (a) TAM and (b) MAN engines. ... (7)?Sanatore, A.; Cardone, M.; Rocco, V.; Prati, M. V. A comparative analysis of combustion process in DI diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ...

Ales Hribernik; Breda Kegl

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Oxygen enriched fireflooding  

SciTech Connect

Both pure oxygen and enriched air have been considered in fireflooding for enhanced oil recovery. Laboratory and field testing have conclusively shown that oxygen is practical and cost effective for this application. For reservoirs that require a large volume of high pressure gas, oxygen is cheaper than air simply based on compression costs. Additional process benefits with oxygen include: Faster Oil Production; Lower Injection Pressure; Greater Well Spacing; Increased Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure; Lower Gas-to-Oil Ratios; and Purer Produced Gas. These features provide a compelling case for oxygen, once the safety and materials compatibility issues are properly addressed.

Shahani, G.H.; Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, PA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Combustion Characteristics of Diesohol Using Biodiesel as an Additive in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine under Various Compression Ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies on combustion characteristics are essential for the optimization of engine design with the use of alternative fuels as compression ignition (CI) engines are basically designed to operate with neat diesel. ... Fleisch et al.,(6) Kapus and Ofner,(7) and Sorenson and Mikkelsen(8) have studied the utilization of pure oxygenated fuels in diesel engines and found that they can achieve ultralow emissions without a fundamental change in the combustion system. ... Engines Research Laboratory in the Mechanical Engineering Department with modern computerized experimental facilities to the international standards. ...

V. Arul Mozhi Selvan; R. B. Anand; M. Udayakumar

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

92

Comparison of PM emissions from a gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injected (PFI) vehicle measured by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) with two fuels: Gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two Euro 4 gasoline passenger vehicles (one gasoline direct injected vehicle and one port fuel injected vehicle) were tested over the cold start New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Each vehicle was respectively fueled with gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline. Particle number concentrations were measured by the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particle masses were measured by gravimetric method and estimated from the number distributions using two density distributions (one is constant with the particle size and one is power law related with the size). The first 7 stages of ELPI were used for estimation. The results show that for each vehicle, PM masses measured by gravimetric method, the total PM numbers measured by ELPI and estimated PM masses for M15 are lower than those for gasoline. For each kind of fuel, PM masses by two methods and total PM numbers from the GDI vehicle are higher than those from the PFI one. PM number distribution curves of the four vehicle/fuel combinations are similar. All decline gradually and the maximum number of each curve occurs in the first stage. More than 99.9% numbers locate in the first 8 stages of which diameters are less than 1 ?m. PM number emissions correlate well with the acceleration of the two vehicles. The estimated particle masses were much lower than the gravimetric measurements.

Bin Liang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Xiukun Han; Liping Gao; Lijun Hao; Wentao Ye; Peipei Dai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel?Diethyl Adipate Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The advantage of a diesel engine compared with a gasoline engine is the fuel economy benefits; however, the high NOx and smoke emissions still remain the main obstacles for the increasing application of diesel engines with the increasing concerns for environmental protection and implementation of more stringent exhaust gas regulations, thus further reduction in engine emissions becomes one of major tasks in engine development. ... In the application of pure oxygenated fuels, Fleisch et al.,1 Kapus et al.,2 and Sorenson et al.3 have studied dimethyl ether (DME) in the modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow emission prospects without fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Murayama, T.; Zheng, M.; Chikahisa, T. Simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx from a DI diesel engine with EGR and dimethyl carbonate; SAE paper 952518, Society of Automotive Engineers:? Warrendale, PA, 1995. ...

Yi Ren; Zuohua Huang; Haiyan Miao; Deming Jiang; Ke Zeng; Bing Liu; Xibin Wang

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

94

Analysis of an extremely fast valve opening camless system to improve transient performance in a turbocharged high speed direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes a theoretical study on the performance optimisation of a high speed direct injection turbocharged diesel engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic variable valve actuation 'camless' system. This system provides extremely fast valve opening and closing slopes. Thus, its potential for recovering part of the energy lost in the valves by reducing gas flow sonic conditions in the valve throat has been investigated. This study has been mainly focused on the analysis of engine performance during a load transient evolution, but the full load steady state attained at the end of the load transient has been also discussed. The results of this investigation have confirmed important improvements in engine performance during the load transient owing to less energy being lost across the valves, which directly results in more energy being available in the turbine. This benefit has also been observed at full load steady state conditions.

J. Benajes; J.R. Serrano; V. Dolz; R. Novella

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect experimental cylinder pressure for different gasoline-ethanol blends and various speeds and loads on a 2.0 L

Stefanopoulou, Anna

96

High-pressure late cycle direct injection of natural gas in a rail medium speed diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The performance of an Electro-Motive Division (EMD) 567B, two-cylinder locomotive research engine, when operated on high-pressure/late-cycle injection of natural gas, is presented in this paper. A redesign and fabrication of the fuel system was undertaken to facilitate the consumption of natural gas. A small percentage of No.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) was used to ignite the natural gas. Engine performance, while running natural gas, resulted in matching rated speed and power with slightly lower thermal efficiency. Full power was achieved with a ratio of 99 percent natural gas and 1 percent diesel fuel. However, at high natural gas to diesel fuel ratios, audible knock was detected. The primary objective of the project was to establish technical feasibility of, and basic technology for, operating medium-speed rail diesel engines on high-pressure natural gas. Secondary objectives were to attain adequate engine performance levels for rail application, develop a system oriented toward retrofit of in-service locomotives, and realize any potential improvements in thermal efficiency due to use of the high-pressure/late-cycle approach.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.B.; Baker, Q.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

Not Available

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Syngas (H2/CO) in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine. Part 1: Combustion, performance and emissions comparison with CNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The combustion, performance, and emissions of syngas (H2/CO) in a four-stroke, direct-injection, spark-ignition engine were experimentally investigated. The engine was operated at various speeds, ranging from 1500 to 2400 rev/min, with the throttle being held in the wide-open position. The start of fuel injection was fixed at 180° before the top dead center, and the ignition advance was set at the maximal brake torque. The air/fuel ratio was varied from the technically possible lowest excess air ratio (?) to lean operation limits. The results indicated that a wider air/fuel operating ratio is possible with syngas with a very low coefficient of variation. The syngas produced a higher in-cylinder peak pressure and heat-release rate peak and faster combustion than for CNG. However, CNG produced a higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The BTE and BSFC of the syngas were on par to those of CNG at higher speeds. For the syngas, the total hydrocarbon emission was negligible at all load conditions, and the carbon monoxide emission was negligible at higher loads and increased under lower load conditions. However, the emission of nitrogen oxides was higher at higher loads with syngas.

Ftwi Yohaness Hagos; A. Rashid A. Aziz; Shaharin A. Sulaiman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Direct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

interactions, and the pollutant emission is hence directly proportional to the bulk neutral density. Simultaneously monitoring the total emission at 1040 nm and the...

100

Experimental investigation of the effect of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the particulate size distribution from a high speed direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels on the exhaust particulate matter size distribution in a diesel engine have been investigated. The experiments were performed on a 2.0 litre, 4-cylinder, direct injection engine equipped with a modern high-pressure common rail. A nano-Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) was used in this work to study the particulate matter size distribution. All tests were conducted at the set operating point of 1,500 rpm. The experimental work showed that the particulate matter size distribution was not dramatically altered by the addition of EGR, but the main peak was shifted towards the nucleation mode with the addition of hydrogen. The addition of hydrogen increases the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), but reduces the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons (THC). Conversely, the addition of EGR reduces NOx, but can increase THC. Hydrogen addition increases the peak cylinder pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise.

L. McWilliam; A. Megaritis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Artificial neural networks based prediction of performance and exhaust emissions in direct injection engine using castor oil biodiesel-diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using castor oil biodiesel (COB)-diesel blended fuels were investigated experimentally and then predicted by artificial neural networks. For this aim castor oil was converted to its biodiesel via transesterification approach. Then the effects of the biodiesel percentage in blend engine load and speed on brake power brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) nitrogen oxides (NOx) carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and particle matter (PM) have been considered. Fuel blends with various percentages of biodiesel (0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% and 30%) at various engine speeds and loads were tested. The results indicated that blends of COB with diesel fuel provide admissible engine performance; on the other side emissions decreased so much. Two types of neural networks a group method of data handling (GMDH) and feed forward were used for modeling of the diesel engine to predict brake power BSFC and exhaust emissions such as CO CO2 NOx and PM values. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the feed forward neural networkmodels over GMDH type models in terms of the statistical measures in the training and testing data but in the number of hidden neurons and model simplicity GMDH models are preferred.

M. H. Shojaeefard; M. M. Etghani; M. Akbari; A. Khalkhali; B. Ghobadian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

103

Injection-Induced Earthquakes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sounds safe enough. But if the deep aquifer system was originally underpressured...directed toward protection of potable aquifers by requiring injection into formations...much smaller magnitudes. The largest fracking-induced earthquakes (24, 26) have all been below the damage...

William L. Ellsworth

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

Tevatron injection timing  

SciTech Connect

Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effect of feedwater oxygen control at the Vermont Yankee BWR  

SciTech Connect

Results of a test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen injection on the release and transport of iron, nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc in the feedwater system at the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR) are presented. Design and operation of the oxygen injection system are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations relative to generic application of oxygen injection for corrosion product control in BWRs during normal operation are presented. Application of oxygen injection to assist in feedwater system materials passivation after an extended outage also is discussed. 12 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Hobart, R.L.; Palino, G.F.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Investigations on emission characteristics of the pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled twin cylinder compression ignition direct injection engine using exhaust gas recirculation methodology and dimethyl carbonate as additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out on a twin cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend as fuel with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as additive. The experimental results showed that pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled engine with EGR and DMC can simultaneously reduce smoke and nitric oxide ( NO x ) emission. The NO x emission was reduced by about 17.68% for 10% of EGR introduction and about 13.55% increase in smoke emission. When dimethyl carbonate was added with EGR the engine emits lower smoke with lesser NO x emission and it showed that the smoke reduction rate had a linear relationship with DMC percentage. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions also decreased when DMC was added. However the addition of DMC with EGR caused an increase in both BSEC and BTE.

M. Pandian; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Method for minimizing decarburization and other high temperature oxygen reactions in a plasma sprayed material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for spray coating material which employs a plasma gun that has a cathode, an anode, an arc gas inlet, a first powder injection port, and a second powder injection port. A suitable arc gas is introduced through the arc gas inlet, and ionization of the arc gas between the cathode and the anode forms a plasma. The plasma is directed to emenate from an open-ended chamber defined by the boundary of the anode. A coating is deposited upon a base metal part by suspending a binder powder within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the first powder injection port; a material subject to degradation by high temperature oxygen reactions is suspended within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the second injection port. The material fed through the second injection port experiences a cooler portion of the plasma and has a shorter dwell time within the plasma to minimize high temperature oxygen reactions. The material of the first port and the material of the second port intermingle within the plasma to form a uniform coating having constituent percentages related to the powder-feed rates of the materials through the respective ports.

Lenling, William J. (Madison, WI); Henfling, Joseph A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

108

Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

Fronk, Matthew H. (Honeove Falls, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Oxygen detection using evanescent fields  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion system includes "micro" stratified charge capability Air Flow & Air Fuel Spatial & Temporal Evolution "Micro" Stratified Charge * Overall Lean Homogeneous * Early...

111

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Company proposed a 4 year project addressing the solicitation from the Department of Energy Recovery Act - Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration...

112

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace065rinkevich2011...

113

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace065weaver2012...

114

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Oxygenation cost estimates for Cherokee, Douglas, and Norris reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The capital and annual costs associated with reoxygenation of the turbine releases at Cherokee, Douglas and Norris Reservoirs using the small bubble injection technique developed for Ft. Patrick Henry Dam were computed. The weekly average dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits were computed for each reservoir for an average year (based on 16 years of records). The total annual cost of an oxygen supply and injection system for each reservoir is presented. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Fain, T.G.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

increasingly turning to gasoline direct injection (GDI) coupled with turbocharging as a cost-effective option for improving the efficiency and performance of gasoline engines....

117

Current Injection Spiral-Shaped Chaotic Microcavity Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report room temperature operation of current-injection quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic microresonators, capable of directional, single mode emission, operating...

Belkin, Mikhail A; Audet, Ross M; Fan, Jonathan A; Capasso, Federico; Narimanov, Evgenii; Bour, D; Corzine, S; Zhu, J; Höfler, G

118

Rich catalytic injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A systematic study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of blending five different oxygenated compounds, diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA) and butanol (Bu) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD), on engine performance, particulate mass concentrations, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles and particle size distributions from a single cylinder, direct injection stationary diesel engine with the engine working at a constant engine speed and at three engine loads. A small increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was observed with the use of oxygenates blended with ULSD. All five oxygenates were found to be effective at reducing particulate mass emissions at medium and high engine loads, with butanol being the most effective and DGM being the least effective. Analysis of the relative contribution of changes in the OC and EC emissions to the reduction of particulate matter indicated that under the same oxygen content, EC made a dominant contribution to the reduction of particulate mass. The results also indicated that reduction in both particle mass and number emissions was affected not only by the oxygen content, but also by the chemical structure and thermophysical properties of oxygenates as well as engine operating conditions.

Zhi-Hui Zhang; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Activated Carbon Injection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

124

NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy, coming from an electron source, are injected intodischarges. In an electron bombardment source electrons ofsimply called electron bombardment sources (Kaufman, 1974).

Kunkel, W.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Activated Carbon Injection  

SciTech Connect

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

126

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO 2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies present data on operating characteristics materials of construction and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

Dale E. Lueck; Clyde F. Parrish; William J. Buttner; Jan M. Surma

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory . Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using...

130

Injection-Induced Earthquakes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...injected into the reservoir under high pressure...core samples of the reservoir rocks and in situ determination...fracture-dominated porosity of less than 6...Implications for reservoir fracture permeability . AAPG Bull. 93...

William L. Ellsworth

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

131

Injection Laser System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection Laser System For each of NIF's 192 beams: The pulse shape as a function of time must be generated with a high degree of precision The energy delivered to the target must...

132

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-I12 Optimization of Injection Scheduling in Geothermal Fields James Lovekin May 1987&injection optimization problem is broke$ into two subpmbkm:(1) choosing a configuration of injectorsfrom an existing set is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells

Stanford University

134

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

135

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN); Cernohous, Bob R. (Rochester, MN); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

139

Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Injection-controlled laser resonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

Chang, J.J.

1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection  

SciTech Connect

A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tyunkov, A. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

144

Algae for Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

145

Liquid Propane Injection Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

146

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Solar energy: Hydrogen and oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy: Hydrogen and oxygen ... Demonstrating the electrolysis of water with solar energy. ...

John J. Farrell

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Experimental Target Injection and Tracking System  

SciTech Connect

Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant with an accuracy of and plusmn; 5 mm at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 each second. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy {+-}200{mu}m for indirect drive and {+-}20{mu}m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been designed and is being constructed at General Atomics to investigate injection and tracking of both direct drive and indirect drive targets. The design is modular to allow testing of alternate target acceleration and tracking methods. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feed back to the target designers. This 30 m long system will be the centerpiece of a Facility for developing IFE target fabrication and injection technologies. A high-speed high-flow gas valve (designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will provide helium propellant gas to the targets. To avoid target damage from excessive acceleration, an 8 m gun barrel is being built to achieve 400 m/s target speed while not exceeding 10,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Gas expansion chambers and orifices, keep propellant gas out of the target-tracking region. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line scan cameras. High-speed computations will calculate target position in less than 2 ms based on the output from the line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time to a plane in the reaction chamber center will be predicted in real-time based on early target position measurements. The system design, construction progress, and early testing results will be presented.

Petzoldt, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Alexander, N.B. [General Atomics (United States); Drake, T.J. [General Atomics (United States); Goodin, D.T. [General Atomics (United States); Stemke, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Jonestrask, K

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

150

Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

151

Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

152

Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Injectivity Test Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Permeability of the well Thermal: Dictionary.png Injectivity Test: A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can

153

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

154

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Advanced Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

calculation. It strongly influences the atomization and break-up processes, the spray penetration, the inter-phase transfer processes, and the droplet-droplet interaction. The...

157

Advanced Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerzellat.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Ambient Density and...

158

Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

159

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

160

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

- A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers...

162

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

163

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Development of an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley, an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley, Nevada geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Development of an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley, Nevada geothermal field Abstract Evaporative cooling at geothermal power plants generally reduces reservoir pressures even if all available geothermal liquids are reinjected. Controlled programs of injecting non geothermal waters directly into reservoirs have been tested or implemented at only four fields, three of them being vapor dominated. At the liquid-dominated Dixie Valley geothermal field an unsuccessful search for a large volume source of warm,chemically desirable fluid for augmentation was conducted.After determining water

167

Injection nozzle for a turbomachine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

168

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Oxygen abundances in the most oxygen-rich spiral galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen abundances in the spiral galaxies expected to be richest in oxygen are estimated. The new abundance determinations are based on the recently discovered ff-relation between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in HII regions. We find that the maximum gas-phase oxygen abundance in the central regions of spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H)~8.75. This value is significantly lower than the previously accepted value. The central oxygen abundance in the Milky Way is similar to that in other large spirals.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

173

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria,” J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Category:Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sign Up Search Category Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Category:Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Injectivity Test page?...

176

Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Oxygenation cost estimates in 1983 dollars for Cherokee and Douglas Dams  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Reservoir Releases Program, estimates of costs associated with providing high purity oxygen injection systems at Cherokee and Douglas Dams were computed in 1983 dollars. This report presents results of the computations. An 8.125% interest rate, a 25-year economic life, and a 10-year diffuser life were assumed. Weekly average dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and turbine flowrate data were available for the years 1958 through 1980. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Fain, T.G.; Boyd, J.W.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effect of Oxygenated Fuel on Combustion and Emissions in a Light-Duty Turbo Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of fuel oxygen content on soot reduction in diesel engines is well-known. ... Fuel consumption was determined by weighing the fuel at the beginning and end of each test mode or each fuel blend through a Sartorius precision scale, with an accuracy of ±2 g. ... studies on effects of oxygenated fuels in conjunction with single and split fuel injections were conducted at high and low loads on a Caterpillar SCOTE DI diesel engine. ...

Juhun Song; Kraipat Cheenkachorn; Jinguo Wang; Joseph Perez; André L. Boehman; Philip John Young; Francis J. Waller

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Composite oxygen transport membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Spheromak injection into a tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results from the Caltech spheromak injection experiment [to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.] are reported. First current drive by spheromak injection into the ENCORE tokamak as a result of the process of magnetic helicity injection is observed. An initial 30% increase in plasma current is observed followed by a drop by a factor of 3 because of sudden plasma cooling. Second spheromak injection results in an increase of tokamak central density by a factor of 6. The high?current/high?density discharge is terminated by a sharp peaking of the density profile followed by an interchange instability. In a second experiment the spheromak is injected into the magnetized toroidal vacuum vessel (with no tokamak plasma) fitted with magnetic probe arrays. An m=1 (nonaxisymmetric) magnetic structure forms in the vessel after the spheromak undergoes a double tilt; once in the cylindrical entrance between gun and tokamak then again in the tokamak vessel. In the absence of net toroidal flux the structure develops a helical pitch (the sense of pitch depends on the helicity sign). Experiments with a number of refractory metal electrode coatings have shown that tungsten and chrome coatings provide some improvement in spheromak parameters. Design details of a larger higher?current spheromak gun with a new accelerator section are also discussed.

M. R. Brown; P. M. Bellan

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

BWR oxygen control demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

A number of cracks have occurred recently in certain BWR piping systems. The operating environment associated with oxidizing species such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide is considered one of the factors in the mechanism of cracking. In April 1976, NWT Corporation was contracted to perform a BWR oxygen control demonstration program. Means for reducing reactor water oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations during startup and shutdown transients were defined and demonstrated at Vermont Yankee and Browns Ferry Unit 3. Results of the demonstrations and an analytical review of impacts of major system variables on oxygen transients are discussed herein.

Pearl, W.L.; Kassen, W.R.; Sawochka, S.G.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Oxygen to the core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

188

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Well injection valve with retractable choke  

SciTech Connect

An injection valve is described for use in a well conduit consisting of: a housing having a bore, a valve closure member in the bore moving between open and closed positions, a flow tube telescopically movable in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, means for biasing the flow tube in a direction for allowing the valve closure member to move to the closed position, an expandable and contractible fluid restriction connected to the flow tube and extending into the bore for moving the flow tube to the open position in response to injection fluid, but allowing the passage of well tools through the valve, the restriction contractible in response to fluid flow, the restriction includes, segments movable into and out of the bore, and biasing means yieldably urging the segments into the bore, a no-go shoulder on the flow tube, and releasable lockout means between the flow tube and the housing for locking the flow tube and valve in the open position.

Pringle, R.E.

1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

Linked Injectives and Ore Localizations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......injective right (Z?//)-module. By (a), L is ^-divisible and hence ^-divisible. Consider xeE and c e ^ such that xceL. Then xc = yc for some yeL, whence x = y and so xeL. Thus E/L is ^-torsion-free. In view of Lemma 1.1, we investigate......

K. R. Goodearl

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

Lacy, Jeffrey M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 190 kg of two micron-diameter zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles were injected into a test zone in the top two meters of an unconfined aquifer within a trichloroethene (TCE) source area. A shear-thinning fluid was used to enhance ZVI delivery in the subsurface to a radial distance of up to four meters from a single injection well. The ZVI particles were mixed in-line with the injection water, shear-thinning fluid, and a low concentration of surfactant. ZVI was observed at each of the seven monitoring wells within the targeted radius of influence during injection. Additionally, all wells within the targeted zone showed low TCE concentrations and primarily dechlorination products present 44 days after injection. These results suggest that ZVI can be directly injected into an aquifer with shear-thinning fluids and extends the applicability of ZVI to situations where other emplacement methods may not be viable.

Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Macbeth, Tamzen

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

194

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

196

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

197

DME-to-oxygenates process studies  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Kulik, C.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay Jeremy Testa Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Why we care about low oxygen? What causes low oxygen? Where and When does Chesapeake Bay lose oxygen? #12;#12;Hypoxia and Chesapeake Animals Low dissolved oxygen

Boynton, Walter R.

200

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Injection Technology for Marine Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The introduction of new emission limits faces modern injection systems with new challenges. Increasing the system pressures puts higher loads on the injection components as regards stability, wear and temperature...

Dr. Rolf Leonhard; Dr.-Ing. Marcus Parche…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

An environmental analysis of injection molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates injection molding from an environmental standpoint, yielding a system-level environmental analysis of the process. There are three main objectives: analyze the energy consumption trends in injection ...

Thiriez, Alexandre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, 2 edition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." ¿¿Richard ...

Justin Clarke; Kevvie Fowler; Erlend Oftedal; Rodrigo Marcos Alvarez; Dave Hartley; Alexander Kornbrust; Gary O'Leary-Steele; Alberto Revelli; Sumit Siddharth; Marco Slaviero

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Oxygen transfer in the implant environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature dependence of oxygen diffusion and consumptionRN. Influence of temperature on oxygen diffusion in hamster341-347, 1988. Cox ME. Oxygen Diffusion in Poly(dimethyl

Goor, Jared Braden

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

Kim, K.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Engines - Fuel Injection and Spray Research - Gasoline Sprays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasoline Sprays Gasoline Sprays Animated image of fuel emerging from a gasoline injector Animated image of fuel emerging from a gasoline injector (simulated environment). Some newer automobiles in the U.S. use gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. These advanced gasoline engines inject the fuel directly into the engine cylinder rather than into the intake port. These engines can achieve higher fuel efficiency, but they depend on a precise fuel/air mixture at the spark plug to initiate ignition. This leads to more stringent requirements on spray quality and reproducibility. GDI also enables new combustion strategies for gasoline engines such as lean burn engines that use less fuel and air. Lean burn engines may achieve efficiencies near those of diesels while producing low emissions. This

209

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturingassembly guidelines, maintenancerepair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as...

210

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

Mallin, Michael

211

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATION Ya. V. Getmanov, O. A acceleration #12;Storage ring with laser injection CYCLIC ACCELERATOR RF Electron injection The LWFA beam ­ accelerating light, 5 ­ accelerated electrons, 6 ­fast kicker - + accelerating laser pulse evaporatinglaser

212

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

213

Mechanical injection of magnetic helicity during spheromak formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental evidence is reported for the presence of oppositely rotating plasma cells during spheromak formation. The toroidal rotations are caused by j×B forces and cause a twisting of axial (i.e., poloidal) magnetic field into the toroidal direction. Calculations of the magnetic helicity input are consistent with measured helicity values. This method of flux conversion can be interpreted as a mechanical source of magnetic helicity injection possibly useful for magnetic confinement of plasmas.

B. Barrow and G. C. Goldenbaum

1990-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

214

Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

VanVeller, Brett

215

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

216

Angling chromium to let oxygen through | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which enable facile oxygen anion diffusion at low temperature. Brighter spheres are strontium ions; less-bright spheres are chromium ions. Oxygen anions are barely visible, and...

217

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

218

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

220

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

222

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

223

The System Boron—Oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This presentation covers the years 1985 to 1988 and, in part, to 1992. It continues the previous discussion of the system boron—oxygen in “Boron Compounds” 3rd Suppl. Vol. 2, 1987, pp. 1/184, and earlier liter...

Gert Heller

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Converting solar energy into laser radiation using a fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser with solar pumping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of a system for directly converting solar energy into laser radiation on the basis of a fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser has been developed. It is shown that this system has...

Mak, A A; Belousova, I M; Kiselev, V M; Grenishin, A S; Danilov, O B; Sosnov, E N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Derived from Polyaniline, Iron, and Cobalt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...especially in the fuel cell cathode...G. Popov B. N. , Development of high performance...A new fuel cell cathode catalyst...high-area carbon as an electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction...Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program. Microscopy...

Gang Wu; Karren L. More; Christina M. Johnston; Piotr Zelenay

2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

229

Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen depletion in tidal creeks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Five study sites were chosen in Futch Creek, Hewletts Creek and Pages Creek,...1). Sites were chosen to reflect a range in the values of dissolved oxygen levels, chlorophyll a concentrations and nutrient (nitroge...

Tara A. MacPherson; Lawrence B. Cahoon; Michael A. Mallin

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Allergy Injection Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Millions of Americans suffer from perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy immunotherapy is an effective way to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis by desensitizing the patient to the allergen(s) by giving escalating doses of an extract via regular injections. Receiving weekly injections at a private physician's office is time consuming, reduces productivity, and can quickly deplete an employee's earned leave. FOH offers the convenience of receiving allergy injections at the OHC as a physician-prescribed service, reducing time away from work for many federal employees. Allergy Injection Policy.pdf More Documents & Publications Physician Treatment Order Handicapped Parking Guidance

231

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Alteration of permeability by fine particle movement -- A water injectivity problem  

SciTech Connect

Siri field is located off shore of Iran in the Persian Gulf and is producing from the Mishrif Formation, which is common between Iran and United Arab Emirates. Existence of an active aquifer and other appropriate conditions led to the decision of a water injection program. Sea water from the Persian Gulf was found to be compatible with the formation water and was directly injected into the formation after passing through 10 micron filters. Water injectivity was drastically decreased from an initial injection rate of 9,100 bbl/day to 2,200 bbl/day within six years. Because of the severe injectivity loss, the water injection was stopped. An experimental investigation was undertaken to look into the possible causes of the injectivity loss. Two sets of experimental investigations were undertaken with different objectives in mind. In the first part glass bead packs were used to test the experimental set up and to observe the general behavior of fine particle movement in porous media. In the second part a core plug from the field and sea water were used to determine the possible cause of injectivity loss in the field. The experiments were conducted with injection rates of 0.9 cm{sup 3}/s to 3.1 cm{sup 3}/s. Particles of bentonite were suspended in the injected water to simulate fine particles migration in porous media. The particles were injected at concentrations ranged from 20 g/l to 40 g/l. It was observed that the build up in flow resistance was mostly due to the frontal face plugging. Particles of bentonite and alumina were added to the glass beads to study the effect of particles initially present in the glass beads pack medium. Field and laboratory data clearly indicate the importance of the water quality in a waterflood project. Experimental data suggest that a smaller size filter should have been implemented to avoid the injectivity loss.

Asghari, K.; Kharrat, R.; Vossoughi, S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. Final report Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Resistivity measurements were made prior to, and after an injection test at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. The objectives of the resistivity measurements were to determine if measureable changes could be observed and whether they could be used to infer the direction of fluid flow. Most of the apparent resistivity changes observed after the injection phase of Test 5 are smaller than the estimated standard deviation of the measurements. However, the contour map of the changes suggest an anomalous trend to the

234

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

235

Long distance transmission of SC-FDMA signals by directly-modulated OIL-VCSEL  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate the long distance transmission of single-carrier frequency division multiple address signals by directly-modulated optically injection-locked ...

Guo, Peng; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Juhao; Yang, Weijian; Parekh, Devang; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J; Hu, Weiwei; Xu, Anshi; Chen, Zhangyuan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Interaction of mineral matter of coal with oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) processes are novel solutions for efficient combustion with direct separation of carbon dioxide. These processes use a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor, where the fuel reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. When utilizing coal in CLC, the oxygen carrier particles could be affected through interaction with the ash-forming mineral matter found in coal, causing deactivation and/or agglomeration. In this work, possible interactions between minerals commonly encountered in coal and several promising oxygen carriers that are currently under investigation for their use in CLC are studied by both experiment and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Possible interaction was studied for both highly reducing and oxidizing conditions at 900 °C. Under highly reducing conditions pyrite was found to have by far the most deteriorating effect on the oxygen carrier particles, as the sulfur in the pyrite reacted with the oxygen carrier to form sulfides. Quartz and clay minerals were found to have a rather low influence on the oxygen carriers. Out of the oxygen carriers investigated, CuO/MgAl2O4 and the Mn3O4/ZrO2 oxygen carriers tended to be quite reactive towards mineral matter whereas ilmenite has been shown to be the most robust oxygen carrier. Although sulfur can clearly deactivate Ni, Cu and Mn based oxygen carriers under sub-stoichiometric conditions, when the fuel is converted fully to CO2 and H2O, sulfides are only expected for Ni-based oxygen carriers.

Martin Keller; Mehdi Arjmand; Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma  

SciTech Connect

We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

239

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Directives Help  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?°C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Impact of fuel and injection system on particle emissions from a GDI engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years, particulate emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, especially the ultrafine particulates, have become a subject of concern. In this study, the impact of fuel (gasoline versus ethanol) and injection system (injection pressure and injector condition) on particle emissions was investigated in a single cylinder spray-guided GDI research engine, under the operating conditions of stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, 1500 rpm engine speed and 3.5–8.5 bar IMEP. The results show that, in a spray guided GDI engine, ethanol combustion yields much lower particle mass (PM) but higher particle number (PN) emissions, compared to gasoline. Depending on the fuel used, the PM and PN emissions respond differently to injection pressure and injector condition. For gasoline, the injection system has a significant impact on the PM and PN emissions. High injection pressure and clean injector condition are both essential for low particle emissions. Compared to gasoline, the particle emissions from ethanol combustion is less sensitive to the injection system, due to its higher volatility and diffusive combustion which produces less soot. Furthermore, a PM and PN trade-off was observed when using gasoline and ethanol, and when using high injection pressures.

Chongming Wang; Hongming Xu; Jose Martin Herreros; Jianxin Wang; Roger Cracknell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Magnetism of solid oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic susceptibilities of single-crystal ?-O2 and preferentially oriented polycrystalline samples of ?-O2 and ?-O2 have been measured, employing a mutual-inductance bridge method. The susceptibility of paramagnetic ?-O2 is isotropic and exhibits a temperature dependence which is not strictly Curie-Weiss, due to short-range correlations and partially hindered rotation. The susceptibility of ?-O2 exhibits very little anisotropy, but has an unusual temperature dependence which is probably due to the novel behavior of the lattice constants, modulation of inplane and out-of-plane exchange interactions, and short-range order. The susceptibility of anti-ferromagnetic ?-O2 is anisotropic, and data from five differently oriented samples have been analyzed in terms of principal antiferromagnetic susceptibilities. The data are consistent with the assumption that the easy axis is the twofold axis, b??, though the direction a?? cannot be excluded. A comprehensive analysis of the present susceptibility results and other magnetic, spectroscopic, and thermal measurements is made, with special reference to ?-O2. The perpendicular susceptibility implies an unreasonably large Néel temperature, 211 K, and a correspondingly large intersublattice exchange interaction, |J2|k=19.8 K. The effects of anisotropy and zeropoint spin deviations do not reduce this estimate by more than 15%. The temperature dependence of the parallel susceptibility suggests a much smaller value for the effective exchange interaction, |J|k=5.3 K, and appears to be well accounted for assuming a single spin-wave excitation. Antiferromagnetic resonance frequencies are analyzed and shown to yield, on assuming a dominant anisotropy equal to that of the free molecule, |J2|k=4.3 K. An approximate separation of lattice and magnetic heat capacities is effected, and a value |J|k=3.0 K deduced. The data appear to require the assumption of two spin-wave modes. Except for the perpendicular susceptibility, experimental results suggest a Néel temperature between 30 and 40 K. Meanfield and other theories lead to similar estimates, assuming that |J|k is between 3 and 4 K. The effect of the anisotropy on TN is minor, and no significant spin-shortening effect is predicted. Other experimental results are considered, and a disparate set of estimates for the exchange interaction and zone-boundary spin-wave energies is discussed. Including the effects of intrasublattice exchange interactions within the context of a two-sublattice model does not seem sufficient to remove the various discrepancies. An approximate calculation of relative overlap integrals and exchange interactions between different pairs of molecules in ?-O2 is made. It is suggested that a multisublattice model for the magnetic structure, and possibly one involving noncollinear sublattices, may provide an eventual resolution of the various difficulties. A "quasi-two-dimensional" description of ?-O2 is also considered, but appears not to offer a satisfactory explanation of the unusual and imperfectly correlated properties of this phase.

Gary C. DeFotis

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Fuel Distributor Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Texas Program Type Environmental Regulations Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Chapter 27 of the Texas Water Code (the Injection Well Act) defines an "injection well" as "an artificial excavation or opening in the ground made by digging, boring, drilling, jetting, driving, or some other

245

Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A low temperature oxidation catalyst applied to a DOC and DPF combined with a unique fuel injection system remove soot from a diesel exhaust system.

246

NONLINEAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS OF AC HELICITY INJECTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

parameter: the driving fre- quency . The lower the frequency, the greater the classical penetration and the higher the helicity injection rate. On the other hand, the field...

247

Energy-efficient control in injection molding.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As an energy-intensive process, in injection molding, energy cost is one of the major cost components. The energy expenditure during molding can be divided into… (more)

Yao, Ke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permitting Webpage | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permitting Webpage Author State of Hawaii Department of...

249

Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

250

Suppression of super-knock in TC-GDI engine using two-stage injection in intake stroke (TSII)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turbocharging and direct injection are main technologies used for energy-saving gasoline engines. But the biggest challenge is super-knock, whose mechanism is unclear and has no effective strategy to suppress thi...

Zhi Wang; YaQi Xu; JianXin Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Effect of different percentages of biodiesel–diesel blends on injection, spray, combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A comparative study of effect of different biodiesel–diesel blends (B5, B10, B15, B20, B25, B50 and B100) on injection, spray, combustion, performance, and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine at constant speed (1500 rpm) was carried out. The penetration distance increased with increase in percentage of biodiesel in diesel due to enhanced in-line fuel pressure. The simulation results indicate the spray penetration with biodiesel–diesel blend up to B15 does not lead to wall impingement but B20 is to be a critical limit of wall impingement (within uncertainty ±1.3%). However, it is observed clearly from the simulation results that probability of wall impingement is more with higher blends (B25, B50 and B100). The ignition delay period decreased with all biodiesel blends due to higher cetane number resulting in less rate of pressure rise and the smooth engine running operation. The engine torque does not change significantly with biodiesel–diesel blends up to 20% (B20). However, the torque reduction is about 2.7% with B100 at the rated load. Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions decreased with all biodiesel–diesel blends. However, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission increased in the range of 1.4–22.8% with all biodiesel–diesel blends at rated load due to oxygenated fuel, automatic advance in dynamic injection timing (DIT), higher penetration and higher in-cylinder temperature. A notable conclusion emerged from this study is the optimum biodiesel–diesel blend based on no wall impingement (B15: 0% and B20 ±1.3% uncertainty limit) and increase in \\{NOx\\} emission (B15: 4.1% and B20: 15.6%) in a conventional (unmodified) diesel engine is up to B15.

Subhash Lahane; K.A. Subramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Direct memory access transfer completion notification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for direct memory access (`DMA`) transfer completion notification. Embodiments include determining, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node, whether a data descriptor for an application message to be sent to a target compute node is currently in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer in dependence upon a sequence number previously associated with the data descriptor, the total number of descriptors currently in the injection FIFO buffer, and the current sequence number for the newest data descriptor stored in the injection FIFO buffer; and notifying a processor core on the origin DMA engine that the message has been sent if the data descriptor for the message is not currently in the injection FIFO buffer.

Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

253

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

254

Quantifying the areal extent and dissolved oxygen concentrations of Archean oxygen oases.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Several lines of evidence indicate that the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis preceded the oxygenation of the atmosphere—perhaps by as much as 300 million years. The… (more)

Olson, Stephanie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

Chandel, Navdeep S

257

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

258

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

259

Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

Golfinopoulos, Theodore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close ARRA-enabled upgrades enhance research capabilities STM images of the same TiO2(110) area upon O2 chemisorption...

262

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

263

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

SciTech Connect

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

264

Respiration, photosynthesis, and oxygen isotope fractionation in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jan 25, 1971 ... Respiration, photosynthesis, and oxygen isotope fractionation in oceanic surface water1. Peter M. Kroopnick. Department of Oceanography,.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

265

MEASURED TRANSVERSE COUPLING IMPEDANCE OF RHIC INJECTION AND ABORT KICKERS.  

SciTech Connect

Concerns regarding possible transverse instabilities in RHIC and the SNS pointed to the need for measurements of the transverse coupling impedance of ring components. The impedance of the RHIC injection and abort kicker was measured using the conventional method based on the S{sub 21} forward transmission coefficient. A commercial 450 {Omega} twin-wire Lecher line were used and the data was interpreted via the log-formula. All measurements, were performed in test stands fully representing operational conditions including pulsed power supplies and connecting cables. The measured values for the transverse coupling impedance in kick direction and perpendicular to it are comparable in magnitude, but differ from Handbook predictions.

HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

266

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 19 AUGUST 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3393 Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentration and homogeneity in solid-oxide fuel-cell cathode materials on the subunit-cell level Young-Min Kim * Oxygen vacancy distributions and dynamics directly control the operation of solid-oxide fuel cells solid-oxide fuel cells, gas sensors and electrochemical pumps that operate by directing and control

Pennycook, Steve

267

Oxygen and Nitrogen in Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present long slit optical spectroscopy of 67 HII regions in 21 dwarf irregular galaxies to investigate the enrichment of oxygen, nitrogen, neon, sulfur, and argon in low mass galaxies. Oxygen abundances are obtained via direct detection of the temperature sensitive emission lines for 25 HII regions; for the remainder of the sample, oxygen abundances are estimated from strong line calibrations. The direct abundance determinations are compared to the strong-line abundance calibrations of both McGaugh (1991) and Pilyugin (2000). Global oxygen and nitrogen abundances for this sample of dwarf irregular galaxies are examined in the context of open and closed box chemical evolution models. While several galaxies are consistent with closed box chemical evolution, the majority of this sample have an effective yield ~1/4 of the expected yield for a constant star formation rate and Salpeter IMF, indicating that either outflow of enriched gas or inflow of pristine gas has occurred. The effective yield strongly correlates with M_H/L_B in the sense that gas-rich galaxies are more likely to be closed systems. However, the effective yield does not appear to correlate with other global parameters such as dynamical mass, absolute magnitude, star formation rate or surface brightness. A correlation is found between the observed nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio and the color of the underlying stellar population; redder dwarf irregular galaxies have higher N/O ratios than blue dwarf irregular galaxies. The relative abundance ratios are interpreted in the context of delayed release of nitrogen and varied star formation histories.

L. van Zee; M. P. Haynes

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

268

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

Ghosh, Ruby N.

269

8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 8, 2225­2248, 2008 Detection of oxygen emission related to spring bloom H. Yamagishi et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio H. Yamagishi 1 , Y

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, mechanisms, and expected levels of oxygen and nitrogen contamination during gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc indicating the importance of dec9mposition of SiOz into silicon monoxide and oxygen are presented, indicating

Eagar, Thomas W.

271

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Slurry Injection of Drilling Wastes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Slurry Injection Slurry Injection Fact Sheet - Slurry Injection of Drilling Wastes Underground Injection of Drilling Wastes Several different approaches are used for injecting drilling wastes into underground formations for permanent disposal. Salt caverns are described in a separate fact sheet. This fact sheet focuses on slurry injection technology, which involves grinding or processing solids into small particles, mixing them with water or some other liquid to make a slurry, and injecting the slurry into an underground formation at pressures high enough to fracture the rock. The process referred to here as slurry injection has been given other designations by different authors, including slurry fracture injection (this descriptive term is copyrighted by a company that provides slurry injection services), fracture slurry injection, drilled cuttings injection, cuttings reinjection, and grind and inject.

272

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

273

Oxygen consumption of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The oxygen consumption rate of granulosa cells is considered to be a key determinant of oocyte oxygenation in follicles. The oxygen status of the oocyte… (more)

Li, Dongxing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Abstract: High temperature oxygen...

275

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as cancer treatment, photosensitized oxidations, and biomolecular degradation. Ground state oxygen state of an oxygen molecule is a singlet state, which can readily react with other singlet molecules

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

276

Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

INJECTION OF SUPERNOVA DUST IN NEARBY PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

The early solar system contained a number of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) such as {sup 26}Al with half-lives <15 Myr. The one-time presence of {sup 60}Fe strongly suggests that the source of these radionuclides was a nearby supernova. In this paper, we investigate the 'aerogel' model, which hypothesizes that the solar system's SLRs were injected directly into the solar system's protoplanetary disk from a supernova within the same star-forming region. Previous work has shown that disks generally survive the impact of supernova ejecta, but also that little gaseous ejecta can be injected into the disk. The aerogel model hypothesizes that radionuclides in the ejecta condensed into micron-sized dust grains that were injected directly into the solar nebula disk. Here, we discuss the density structure of supernova ejecta and the observational support for dust condensation in the ejecta. We argue that supernova ejecta are clumpy and describe a model to quantify this clumpiness. We also argue that infrared observations may be underestimating the fraction of material that condenses into dust. Building on calculations of how supernova ejecta interact with protoplanetary disks, we calculate the efficiency with which dust grains in the ejecta are injected into a disk. We find that about 70% of material in grains roughly 0.4 {mu}m in diameter can be injected into disks. If ejecta are clumpy, the solar nebula was struck by a clump with higher-than-average {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe, and these elements condensed efficiently into large grains, then the abundances of SLRs in the early solar system can be explained, even if the disk lies 2 pc from the supernova explosion. The probability that all these factors are met is low, perhaps {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2}, and receiving as much {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe as the solar system did may be a rare event. Still, the aerogel model remains a viable explanation for the origins of the radionuclides in the early solar system, and may be the most plausible one.

Ouellette, N. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Desch, S. J.; Hester, J. J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

278

Identification and lattice location of oxygen impurities in -Si3N4 J. C. Idrobo,1,2,3,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identification and lattice location of oxygen impurities in -Si3N4 J. C. Idrobo,1,2,3,a M. P. Oxley but there is no direct evidence for their identity or lattice location. In bulk materials electron microscopy can of oxygen in the bulk material. Scanning transmission electron microscopy S/TEM has the spatial resolution

Pennycook, Steve

279

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

282

Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

Hadley, G. Ronald (Albuquerque, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Owyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Direct costing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oau 5e reduced. Under the same oonOitions, even ~Me on a bread scale entails not mere1y the conduct of the direct oyeraticns cf yrccessing the materials into finished products, but also the performance of auxiliary functions. these may 'ba power y... purposes have been advanced as folkway le Most of a o03RyaxO' 8 products Grc usual13r sold at prices which oovex' full product costs y plus 861ling a%el administrative expenses, plus normal profit. The inventoi~ valuate. on should be consistent...

Browning, Donald Bullock

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures This program targets fundamental understanding of nanoscale charge transfer processes. The proposed work draws on the strengths of the Brookhaven Chemistry Department in the areas of electron transfer experiment and theory, and extends the area of inquiry to nanoscale processes. Electron/hole injection into a wire, a nanocrystal, a nanotube or other nanostructure in solution may be brought about by light absorption, by an electron pulse (pulse radiolysis, LEAF), by a chemical reagent, or through an electrode. These processes are being studied by transient methods by following conductivity, current, but most generally, spectroscopic changes in the solutions to determine the dynamics of charge injection. The observed transient spectra can also provide values for electron-transfer coupling elements and energetics. Theoretical/computational studies can help in materials design and in the interpretation of the experimental results. The experimental systems being examined include molecular wires and metal nanoclusters.

285

Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 9209 (United States)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

286

Resonantly pumped optical pumping injection cavity lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An optical parametric oscillator is tuned to the resonance wavelength of the etalon in an optical pumping injection cavity (OPIC) laser with a type-II "W" active region, thereby minimizing the threshold pump intensity and ...

Santilli, Michael Robert; McAlpine, T. C.; Greene, K. R.; Olafsen, L. J.; Bewley, W. W.; Felix, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Lee, H.; Martinelli, R. U.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Injection Technologies for Fault Attacks on Microprocessors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fault injection technique we will analyze in detail in Sect. 16.3, is the constant under-powering of a computing device. By running the chip with a depleted power supply, the attacker is able to insert transi...

Alessandro Barenghi; Guido M. Bertoni; Luca Breveglieri…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Efficient Spin Injection into Silicon and the Role of the Schottky Barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Implementing spin functionalities in Si, and understanding the fundamental processes of spin injection and detection, are the main challenges in spintronics. Here we demonstrate large spin polarizations at room temperature, 34% in n-type and 10% in p-type degenerate Si bands, using a narrow Schottky and a SiO2 tunnel barrier in a direct tunneling regime. Furthermore, by increasing the width of the Schottky barrier in non-degenerate p-type Si, we observed a systematic sign reversal of the Hanle signal in the low bias regime. This dramatic change in the spin injection and detection processes with increased Schottky barrier resistance may be due to a decoupling of the spins in the interface states from the bulk band of Si, yielding a transition from a direct to a localized state assisted tunneling. Our study provides a deeper insight into the spin transport phenomenon, which should be considered for electrical spin injection into any semiconductor.

André Dankert; Ravi S. Dulal; Saroj P. Dash

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

289

Smart Materials for Fuel Injection Actuation  

SciTech Connect

The demands of stringent emissions and a robust engine dynamic torque response characteristic require innovative, accurate and repeatable control of the fuel injection event. Recent advances in piezo-material actuators have warranted the pursuit of its application to advanced heavy-duty truck fuel injection systems. This presentation will report on design and testing of an advanced electronic unit injector for the Detroit Diesel Series 60 truck engine.

Hakim, Nabil

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

290

Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tissue reaction. Don?t inject more than 10 cc (ml) in one site. If more ? medication must be given, use several injection sites. Use the recommended route of administration. There ? are three main routs of administration. Subcutaneously (SQ... sunlight and in a controlled environment. When finished vaccinating for ? the day, properly dispose of any remaining vaccine. Once a vaccine vial is opened, the expiration date is void. Using sanitary methods Protect needles and medicines ? from dust...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

291

Muon Capture in Oxygen-16  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The muon capture rate in oxygen is used as a means for measuring the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant (CP) of weak interactions. The capture rate between the JP=0+ ground state of O16 and the 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3- states of N16 are calculated as a function of CP with different nuclear models. Using the experimental values of the transition rates, we then determine CP. We find that the transition rate, and therefore CP, depends strongly on the nuclear model. We conclude that 5

Vincent Gillet and David A. Jenkins

1965-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

An investigation of high pressure/late cycle injection of CNG (compressed natural gas) as a fuel for rail applications  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration effort to investigate the use of natural gas in a medium-speed diesel engine. The effort was unique in the sense that natural gas was injected directly into the combustion chamber late in the compression stroke, as a high pressure gas rather than through low pressure fumigation or low pressure injection early in the compression stroke. Tests were performed on a laboratory two-cylinder, two-stroke cycle medium-speed diesel engine in an attempt to define its ability to operate on the high pressure/late cycle injection concept and to define the performance and emission characteristics of the engine under such operation. A small quantity of No.-2 diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder slightly before the gas injection to be used as an ignition source for the gas. Pilot (diesel fuel) and main (natural gas) timing and injection duration were systematically varied to optimize engine performance. The test demonstrated that the medium-speed engine was capable of attaining full rated speed and load (unlike the low pressure approach) with very low percentages of pilot injection with the absence of knock. Thermal efficiency was as much as 10 percent less than thermal efficiency levels obtained with neat diesel fuel. This was primarily due to the placement and injection characteristics of the pilot and main injectors. Optimization of the injection system would undoubtedly result in increased thermal efficiency. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.G.; Baker, Q.A.; Urban, C.M.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

294

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Presentation...

295

Injection risk behavior among women syringe exchangers in San Francisco.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injection supplies (cotton, cookers, water, and bleach),injection equipment, such as cookers, cottons, and rinsepartners, n=148 Shared cooker, cotton, or rinse water

Lum, Paula J; Sears, Clare; Guydish, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important Geologic CO2 Storage Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important...

297

Shaking from Injection?Induced Earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ellsworth (2013), hydraulic fracturing or fracking, itself appears to induce only small...largest earthquake associated directly with fracking was an M w-3.8 event in the Horn...waste fluid by injection into subsurface aquifers triggers earthquake swarm in central...

Susan E. Hough

298

Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Transonic Combustion ?- Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Novel fuel injection equipment enables knock-free ignition with low noise and smoke in compression-ignition engines and low-particulates in spark-ignition engines.

300

Self-Guided Laser Wakefield Acceleration beyond 1 GeV Using Ionization-Induced Injection  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of matched-beam, self-guided laser propagation and ionization-induced injection have been combined to accelerate electrons up to 1.45 GeV energy in a laser wakefield accelerator. From the spatial and spectral content of the laser light exiting the plasma, we infer that the 60 fs, 110 TW laser pulse is guided and excites a wake over the entire 1.3 cm length of the gas cell at densities below 1.5x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. High-energy electrons are observed only when small (3%) amounts of CO{sub 2} gas are added to the He gas. Computer simulations confirm that it is the K-shell electrons of oxygen that are ionized and injected into the wake and accelerated to beyond 1 GeV energy.

Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Pak, A.; Tsung, F. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ralph, J. E.; Albert, F.; Glenzer, S. H.; Froula, D. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fonseca, R. A.; Martins, S. F.; Silva, L. O. [GoLP/IPFN-LA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Pollock, B. B.; Ross, J. S. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); MAE Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Opacity reduction using hydrated lime injection  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of injecting dry hydrated lime into flue gas to reduce sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) concentrations and consequently stack opacity at the University of Missouri, Columbia power plant. Burning of high sulfur coal (approx. 4% by weight) at the power plant resulted in opacity violations. The opacity problem was due to sulfuric acid mist (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) forming at the stack from high SO{sub 3} concentrations. As a result of light scattering by the mist, a visible plume leaves the stack. Therefore, reducing high concentrations of SO{sub 3} reduces the sulfuric acid mist and consequently the opacity problem. The current hydrated lime injection system has reduced the opacity to acceptable limits. To reduce SO{sub 3} concentrations, dry hydrated lime is injected into the flue gas upstream of a particulate collection device (baghouse) and downstream of the induced draft fan. The lime is periodically injected into the flue via a pneumatic piping system. The hydrated lime is transported down the flue and deposited on the filter bags in the baghouse. As the hydrated lime is deposited on the bags a filter cake is established. The reaction between the SO{sub 3} and the hydrated lime takes place on the filter bags. The hydrated lime injection system has resulted in at least 95% reduction in the SO{sub 3} concentration. Low capital equipment requirements and operating cost coupled with easy installation and maintenance makes the system very attractive to industries with similar problems. This paper documents the hydrated lime injection system and tests the effectiveness of the system on SO{sub 3} removal and subsequent opacity reduction. Measurements Of SO{sub 3} concentrations, flue gas velocities, and temperatures have been performed at the duct work and baghouse. A complete analysis of the hydrated lime injection system is provided.

Wolf, D.E.; Seaba, J.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Study of the control strategies on soot reduction under early-injection conditions on a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To explore the more effective method to fulfill soot reduction challenges of early-injection conditions, different engine operating parameters such as intake pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), equivalence ratio, intake temperature, coolant temperature, injection pressure and fuel properties such as using the blends of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol and dual-fuel were investigated on a diesel engine. A wide range of injection timing from 5° CA to ?70° CA ATDC were tested, which covered both conventional diesel injection and early-injection conditions. Results showed that the soot emission increased as the injection timing was advanced from ?35° CA to ?55° CA ATDC, which was attributed to that more spray liquid was out of the piston bowl and impinged on the piston top and cylinder liner. The soot emission decreased as the injection timing further advanced from ?55° to ?70° CA ATDC, which was attributed to the suppressed soot formation. Although more advanced injection (?55° to ?70° CA ATDC) decreased soot emissions, the combustion efficiency was deteriorated. EGR combined with higher intake pressure resulted in lower soot emissions than that of sole EGR control under the same equivalence ratio. Increasing intake temperature and coolant temperature reduced soot emissions at the injection timing later than ?55° CA ATDC but barely affected the soot peak-value. Increasing injection pressure had little impact on soot emissions at early-injection conditions. Regarding to fuel properties, employing the diesel/gasoline and diesel/n-butanol blends dramatically reduced soot emissions and the smokeless combustion was achieved by using pure gasoline or n-heptane. Soot peak-value of diesel/gasoline combustion was higher than that of diesel/n-butanol at low diesel replacement ratio (30%), while for high replacement ratio (70%) the opposite trend was presented. The dual-fuel injection composed by port-injection of gasoline and direct-injection of diesel was more effective in reducing soot emissions than that of single direct-injection under the same gasoline/diesel ratio.

Haifeng Liu; Shuaiying Ma; Zhong Zhang; Zunqing Zheng; Mingfa Yao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Supported-sorbent injection. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

Nelson, S. Jr.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Magnetic reconnection process in transient coaxial helicity injection  

SciTech Connect

The physics of magnetic reconnection and fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection experiments in NSTX is examined using resistive MHD simulations. These simulations have been performed using the NIMROD code with fixed boundary flux (including NSTX poloidal coil currents) in the NSTX experimental geometry. Simulations show that an X point is formed in the injector region, followed by formation of closed flux surfaces within 0.5 ms after the driven injector voltage and injector current begin to rapidly decrease. As the injector voltage is turned off, the field lines tend to untwist in the toroidal direction and magnetic field compression exerts a radial J × B force and generates a bi-directional radial E{sub toroidal}×B{sub poloidal} pinch flow to bring oppositely directed field lines closer together to reconnect. At sufficiently low magnetic diffusivity (high Lundquist number), and with a sufficiently narrow injector flux footprint width, the oppositely directed field lines have sufficient time to reconnect (before dissipating), leading to the formation of closed flux surfaces. The reconnection process is shown to have transient Sweet-Parker characteristics.

Ebrahimi, F. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hooper, E. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Oxygen penetration into the bulk of palladium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen penetration into the bulk of palladium ... During heating, the reaction rate exhibited an activity maximum at 650 K, whereas no activity maximum was found during the ... ...

C. T. Campbell; D. C. Foyt; J. M. White

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING...

310

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Energy Fuels, 2011, 25 (10), ...

Earl Christensen; Janet Yanowitz; Matthew Ratcliff; Robert L. McCormick

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

311

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is a growing need for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradients onto a tissue or culture sample in vitro. This dissertation introduces the… (more)

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Research on a Two-Stage Split Injection Control Strategy for Reducing the HC Emission from a GDI Engine during Hot Start  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The start-stop technology is one of the fuel saving strategies at city driving condition, and the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can obtain thermal efficiency improvements and fewer heat losses due to the stratified-charge combustion realized ... Keywords: Hydrocarbon emission, engine control, Two-stage, Split injection, start-stop

Shichun Yang; Chong Wang; Chunming Zhao; Kun Deng

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

Tsuo, Y.S.

1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

314

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Definition: Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Injectivity Test A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can be calculated.[1] References ↑ https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/pdf/IGAstandard/ISS/2008Croatia/Hole03.pdf Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You and one other like this.One person likes this. Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Injectivity_Test&oldid=688681"

316

Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

Hals, Kjetil M D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

Low, Clarke Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

Stewart, Chris Lee (Normal, IL); Tian, Ye (Bloomington, IL); Wang, Lifeng (Normal, IL); Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Evidence for Separatrix Formation and Sustainment with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first sustainment of toroidal plasma current of 50 kA at up to 3 times the injected currents, added in quadrature, using steady inductive helicity injection is described. Separatrix currents—currents not linking the helicity injectors—are sustained up to 40 kA. Decreases in the n=1 toroidal mode of the poloidal magnetic field at higher current amplifications indicate more quiescent, direct toroidal current drive. Results are achieved in HIT-SI (with a spheromak of major radius 0.3 m) during deuterium operations immediately after helium operation. These results represent a breakthrough in the development of this new current drive method for magnetic confinement fusion.

B. S. Victor; T. R. Jarboe; A. C. Hossack; D. A. Ennis; B. A. Nelson; R. J. Smith; C. Akcay; C. J. Hansen; G. J. Marklin; N. K. Hicks; J. S. Wrobel

2011-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

322

Spin-Electricity Conversion Induced by Spin Injection into Topological Insulators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report successful spin injection into the surface states of topological insulators by using a spin pumping technique. By measuring the voltage that shows up across the samples as a result of spin pumping, we demonstrate that a spin-electricity conversion effect takes place in the surface states of bulk-insulating topological insulators Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 and Sn-doped Bi2Te2Se. In this process, the injected spins are converted into a charge current along the Hall direction due to the spin-momentum locking on the surface state.

Y. Shiomi; K. Nomura; Y. Kajiwara; K. Eto; M. Novak; Kouji Segawa; Yoichi Ando; E. Saitoh

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

323

Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

Sibener, Steven

325

Discovery of Critical Oxygen Content for Glass Formation in Zr80Pt20 Melt Spun Ribbons  

SciTech Connect

Zr{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} alloys may form meta-stable quasicrystals either during devitrification of an amorphous phase or directly upon cooling from a liquid depending on processing conditions. To date, little attention has been given to the role of oxygen on the glass formation or devitrification behavior of Zr-Pt and similar alloys. This study reveals that oxygen content during melt spinning indeed strongly influences the formation of the as-quenched structure. A critical amount of oxygen was found to be required to form amorphous ribbons at a fixed quench rate. At lower oxygen levels (i.e., <500 ppm mass), a fully crystallized is formed; the structure is composed mainly of meta-stable {beta}-Zr with a small fraction of a quasicrystalline phase. At higher oxygen levels, the as-quenched structure transitions to a fully amorphous structure ({approx}1000 ppm mass), and with further oxygen addition forms a mixture of amorphous and quasicrystalline ({approx}1500 ppm mass) or crystalline phases (>2500 ppm mass). Details regarding the structure of the meta-stable {beta}-Zr phase in the low-oxygen ribbons are provided along with a discussion of the structural similarity between this phase and the quasicrystal structure that formed in this alloy.

D.J. Sordelet; E.A. Rozhkova; X. Yang; M.J. Kramer

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

326

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

On the flat length of injective modules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......that I has a projective resolution of length n + m and hence pdRI n + m. Therefore, spli R n + m, as needed. The second inequality...n - 1. Proof. Let I be an injective left R-module. Then pdRI spli R n and hence Corol- lary 2.12 implies that fdRI n......

Ioannis Emmanouil; Olympia Talelli

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Enhanced oil recovery using hydrogen peroxide injection  

SciTech Connect

NOVATEC received an US Patent on a novel method to recovery viscous oil by hydrogen peroxide injection. The process appears to offer several significant improvements over existing thermal methods of oil recovery. Tejas joined NOVATEC to test the process in the laboratory and to develop oil field applications and procedures.

Moss, J.T. Jr.; Moss, J.T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

Zhang, Yannan

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

332

Refueling Tokamaks by Injection of Compact Toroids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that transverse injection of a hypervelocity high-density spheromak plasmoid into a tokamak plasma may be a viable fueling scheme. Three important processes occur and are discussed individually: establishment of equilibrium, slowing down, and disassembly of the compact toroid.

P. B. Parks

1988-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

333

Injection of solids to lift coastal areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...used to inject sand into oil or gas reservoirs because the...in sandstone (Western Missouri) at depths ranging from...Delavaud2006Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale...seismicity near the Lacq gas field southwestern FranceJ...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Injection of solids to lift coastal areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...formations, although additional investigations are needed to improve this...Sparks2006An experimental investigation of sill formation and propagation...fracturing soil to improve remedial actions NTIS report PB91-181818Washington...D. Bolton2004Laboratory investigation of multiple injection into...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A study on Raman Injection Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Raman Injection Laser is a new type of laser which is based on triply resonant stimulated Raman scattering between quantum confined states within the active region of a Quantum Cascade Laser that serves as an internal optical pump. The Raman...

Liu, Debin

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting nanowire single Triplet State Singlet State 1O2 Ground State Oxygen 3O2 Singlet oxygen Free space singlet oxygen luminescence detection Fibre-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection References Superconducting Detector

Greenaway, Alan

338

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

342

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen increased animal activity associated with increasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. We examined faunal community responses to oxygen and organic matter gradients across the lower oxygen minimum zone (OMZ

Levin, Lisa

343

Feasibility of Injection/Extraction Systems for Muon FFAG Rings in the Neutrino Factory  

SciTech Connect

Non-scaling FFAG rings have been proposed for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory. In order to achieve small orbit excursion and small time of flight variation, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry places very challenging constraints on the injection/extraction systems. The feasibility of injection/extraction is discussed and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. The injection and extraction systems in the nonscaling FFAG for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory were studied in the ring based on FODO lattice. The vertical direction was found to be preferential for both injection and extraction, which allows for lower kicker strengths and facilitates the distribution of kickers due to a lower phase advance per cell in comparison with the horizontal plane. It is possible to design mirror-symmetric schemes in which the kickers can be reused for both signs of muons. The disadvantage of these solutions is a need for special magnets with large aperture in the injection/extraction region due to the large kicked beam oscillations. The strengths of the required kickers are still very challenging and the fields in the septum magnets dictates the need for a superconducting design.

Pasternak, J.; Berg, J.; Aslaninejad, M.; Kelliher, D.; Machida, S.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion ... Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. ...

Hanjing Tian; Ranjani Siriwardane; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

345

Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Blood oxygen transport and depletion : the key of consummate divers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Dill, D. B. (1935). Oxygen dissociation curves of birdE. (1964). A venous blood oxygen reservoir in the divingand Torrance, J. D. (1977). Oxygen-Affinity of Avian Blood.

Meir, Jessica Ulrika

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Abstract: Since oxygen atom...

348

Oxygen Tension Modulates Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Through A Mechanism Involving HIF and VEGF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neural repair. Keywords Oxygen tension . Neurite extension .respective physiological oxygen microenvironments (Chen etet al. 2008). For example, oxygen tension differentially

Genetos, Damian C.; Cheung, Whitney K.; Decaris, Martin L.; Leach, J. Kent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Long-term oxygen sensor implantation in the porcine subcutaneous environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane-­?Covered  Oxygen  Electrode.   Analytical  Microvascular  and  tissue  oxygen   distribution.  vitro  stability  of  an  oxygen  sensor.   Anal  Chem,  

Kumosa, Lucas Stefan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

351

Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon: combined effects on ionization electron charge and scintillation light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dedicated test of the effects of Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. Two detectors have been used: the WArP 2.3 lt prototype and a small (0.7 lt) dedicated detector, coupled with a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Oxygen. Purpose of the test with the 0.7 lt detector is to detect the reduction of the long-lived component lifetime of the Argon scintillation light emission at increasing O2 concentration. Data from the WArP prototype are used for determining the behavior of both the ionization electron lifetime and the scintillation long-lived component lifetime during the O2-purification process activated in closed loop during the acquisition run. The electron lifetime measurements allow to infer the O2 content of the Argon and correlate it with the long-lived scintillation lifetime data. The effect of Oxygen contamination on the scintillation light has been thus measured over a wide range of O2 concentration, spanning from about 10^-3 ppm up to about 10 ppm. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Oxygen in LAr has been found to be k'(O2)=0.54+-0.03 micros^-1 ppm^-1.

R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; F. Tortorici; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

352

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

Lazerson, Samuel

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

353

Terahertz graphene lasers: Injection versus optical pumping  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The model used accounts for intraband and interband relaxation processes as well as deviation of the optical phonon system from equilibrium. As shown, optical pumping suffers from a significant heating of both the electron-hole plasma and the optical phonon system, which can suppress the formation of population inversion. In the graphene structures with p-i-n junction, the injected electrons and holes have relatively low energies, so that the effect of cooling can be rather pronounced, providing a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers.

Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, Maxim [Computational Nanoelectronics Laboratory, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, Vladimir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260-1920 (United States)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

354

Spheromak Formation by Steady Inductive Helicity Injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A spheromak is formed for the first time using a new steady state inductive helicity injection method. Using two inductive injectors with odd symmetry and oscillating at 5.8 kHz, a steady state spheromak with even symmetry is formed and sustained through nonlinear relaxation. A spheromak with about 13 kA of toroidal current is formed and sustained using about 3 MW of power. This is a much lower power threshold for spheromak production than required for electrode-based helicity injection. Internal magnetic probe data, including oscillations driven by the injectors, agree with the plasma being in the Taylor state. The agreement is remarkable considering the only fitting parameter is the amplitude of the spheromak component of the state.

T. R. Jarboe; W. T. Hamp; G. J. Marklin; B. A. Nelson; R. G. O’Neill; A. J. Redd; P. E. Sieck; R. J. Smith; J. S. Wrobel

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

356

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies. Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies....

357

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Abstract: The...

359

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL...

360

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency &...

362

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

363

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

364

Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD)...

365

Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer Reaction, and the Determination of the Bond Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer...

366

Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Abstract: Oxygen uptake and conductivity were measured by nuclear...

367

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...

368

Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

369

Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water. Abstract: The low-energy, electron-stimulated production of molecular oxygen from pure amorphous...

370

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Abstract: The research described in...

371

LED–LED portable oxygen gas sensor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A portable instrument for oxygen determination, based on the quenching of phosphorescent octaethylporphyrin by gaseous O2..., has been developed using the fluorimetric paired emitter–detector diode technique (FPE...

I. M. Perez de Vargas-Sansalvador; C. Fay…

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electron-impact excitation of neutral oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: To calculate transition rates from ground and excited states in neutral oxygen atoms due to electron collisions for non-LTE modelling of oxygen in late-type stellar atmospheres, thus enabling reliable interpretation of oxygen lines in stellar spectra. Methods: A 38-state R-matrix calculation in LS-coupling has been performed. Basis orbitals from the literature (Thomas et al.) are adopted, and a large set of configurations are included to obtain good representations of the target wavefunctions. Rate coefficients are calculated by averaging over a Maxwellian velocity distribution. Results: Estimates for the cross sections and rate coefficients are presented for transitions between the seven lowest LS states of neutral oxygen. The cross sections for excitation from the ground state compare well with existing experimental and recent theoretical results.

P. S. Barklem

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

374

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Interactions of oxygen with Zr(0001)  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of oxygen with Zr(0001) have been studied using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), work function ([Delta][phi]), static and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS, DSIMS), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The initial sticking coefficient of oxygen is close to unity up to [approximately]0.75 ML at 90, 293 and 473 K. Oxygen chemisorption is disordered at room temperature and below. Heating the disordered surface to [approximately]473 K causes all oxygen to move to subsurface sites. A (1x2) ordered oxygen underlayer is formed consisting of three rotated domains of (1x2) superstructure with the oxygen atoms located between the first and second planes of zirconium atoms. This structure is stable up to about 573 K, above which temperature oxygen diffuses into the bulk. AES measurements employing oxide and metal signals were used to model the growth of oxide which was found to be temperature dependent. Both NRA and AES indicate linear oxygen uptake kinetics at 90 K with abrupt passivation as the limiting thickness is reached. SSIMS ion yield data taken during the oxidation of Zr(0001) at 90, 293 and 473 K was interpretable in the context of the oxygen coverage. Dissolution into the bulk of the saturated oxide layer grown at 90 K appears to occur by an island-type mechanism rather than layer-by-layer dissolution from the oxide-metal interface. Large [Delta][phi] changes that occur upon oxidation at 90 K and temperature ramping of the saturated oxide to 300 K are attributable to reversible molecular oxygen adsorption on the oxide. The diffusion of oxygen normal to the [0001] plane of zirconium has been measured by AES: D[sub 0] = (4.14.[+-]1.92) x 10[sup [minus]2] cm[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] and E[sub a]= 199.1 [+-]2.6 kJ mol[sup [minus]1]. The fundamental vibrational frequency for the [alpha]-Zr lattice was calculated to be (6.3 [+-] 2.9) x 10[sup 13]s[sup [minus]1].

Flinn, B.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Injection and Extraction Lines for the ILC Damping Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INJECTION AND EXTRACTION LINES FOR THE ILC DAMPING RINGS ?the injection and extraction lines into and out of the ILCas the design for the abort line. Due to changes of the geo-

Reichel, Ina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

378

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analyse of the Injection System * Simulation * Hydraulic Characterisation * Optical Spray Diagnostics Engine Investigations * Experimental Results * Optical Combustion...

382

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility  

SciTech Connect

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Trapping of Gun-Injected Plasma by a Tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that a plasma produced by a Marshall gun can be injected into and trapped by a tokamak plasma. Gun injection raises the line-averaged density and peaks the density profile. Trapping of the gun-injected plasma is explainable in terms of a depolarization current mechanism.

A. W. Leonard; R. N. Dexter; J. C. Sprott

1986-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

385

Gun Injection into a Microwave Plasma J. C. Sprott  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gun Injection into a Microwave Plasma by J. C. Sprott May, 1970 Plasma Studies University high densities by rapid pulsed gun injection. TIlis no te describes measurements made -Cwo years ago in which a gun plasma was injected into a background microwave plasma of variable density in the toroidal

Sprott, Julien Clinton

386

Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

Arnold, S.C.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Electron Cloud at Injection Region BNL/SNS TECHNICAL NOTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's tangential plane. The stripped electrons from the injection beam cause about 145W thermal damage. They haveElectron Cloud at Injection Region BNL/SNS TECHNICAL NOTE NO. 143 Y.Y. Lee, G. Mahler, W. Meng, D, NEW YORK 11973 #12;1 ELECTRON CLOUD AT INJECTION REGEION Y.Y. Lee, G. Mahler, W. Meng, D. Raparia, L

388

Transient injection-locking of an unstable ring dye laser  

SciTech Connect

The transient injection-locking properties of an unstable ring resonator dye laser have been investigated. When a narrow line optical pulse was injected into the ring resonator, the energy emitted from the ring increased and the lasing spectrum narrowed to that of the injected pulse. However, the polarization control of the emitted radiation was incomplete.

Harris, D.G.; Waite, T.R.; Holmes, D.A. (Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division, Canoga Park, California 91303 (USA))

1990-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

Injection Solvent Effect on Peak Height in Ion Exchange HPLC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2. To further evaluate the effect of the injection volume only...injection volume were varied. Effect of weak injection solvent There...same eluent ion strength. The effect of eluent ion strength. Figure...nitrate in the mobile phase. 418 ship of the peak height of phenylacetate......

Hyunjoo Kim Lee; Norman E. Hoffman

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB in the injection site. Copper per os dosing is efficient for treating deficient animals (Lamand et al., 1969 consuming. Therefore we tried to per- fect a copper and zinc deficiency treatment allowing the injection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Experimental Investigation of Optimal Timing of the Diesel Engine Injection Pump Using Biodiesel Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor ... Compared to mineral diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends in general show lower CO, smoke, and HC emissions but higher NOx emission and higher specific fuel consumption. ... In this sense, to gain knowledge about the implications of its use, waste olive oil Me ester was evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines during a 50 h short-term performance test in a diesel direct-injection Perkins engine. ...

Breda Kegl

2006-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

392

Low Dissolved Oxygen in an Estuarine Channel (San Joaquin River, California): Mechanisms and Models Based on Long-term Time Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

peak, the net effect on the Ship Channel compared toThe actual effect of these materials on Ship Channelits direct effects on dissolved oxygen balance in the Ship

Jassby, Alan; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Erwin E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade laser by direct phase synchronization  

SciTech Connect

Mode-locking of a terahertz quantum cascade laser is achieved using multimode injection seeding. Contrary to standard methods that rely on gain modulation, here a fixed phase relationship is directly imprinted to the laser modes. In this work, we demonstrate the generation of 9 ps phase mode-locked pulses around 2.75 THz. A direct measurement of the emitted field phase shows that it results from the phase of the initial injection.

Maussang, K.; Maysonnave, J.; Jukam, N.; Freeman, J. R.; Cavalié, P.; Dhillon, S. S.; Tignon, J. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Université P. et M. Curie, Université D. Diderot, 75005 Paris (France); Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS9 2JT (United Kingdom); Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Lab, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

394

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

SciTech Connect

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Evaluation of the effects of contaminant injection location and injection method on the determination of overall relative room ventilation efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Calculation of zeroeth moment Calculation of first moment. . 29 30 Diagram of flows in and out of a perfectly mixed room. 30 Floor plan of test room. 31 Carbon dioxide concentration versus time for supply... duct injection point and pulse injection method. 32 Example of use of moments to determine mean age of air. . . . 29 Figure 7. Carbon dioxide concentration versus time for short circuit injection point and pulse injection method. 32 Figure 8...

Pierce, Stephen Dale

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Measurements of injected impurity assimilation during massive gas injection experiments in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Impurities (H-2, D-2, He, Ne or Ar) injected into steady (non-disrupting) discharges with massive gas injection (MGI) are shown to mix into the plasma core dominantly via magnetohydrodynamic activity during the plasma thermal quench (TQ). Mixing efficiencies of injected impurities into the plasma core are measured to be of order 0.05-0.4. 0D modelling of the experiments is found to reproduce observed TQ and current quench durations reasonably well (typically within +/- 25% or so), although shutdown onset times are underestimated (by around 2 x). Preliminary 0D modelling of ITER based on DIII-D mixing efficiencies suggests that MGI will work well in ITER with regard to disruption heat load and vessel force mitigation, but may not collisionally suppress runaway electrons.

Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego; Jernigan, T. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Boedo, J.A. [University of California, San Diego; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Humphreys, D A [General Atomics, San Diego; James, A. N. [University of California, San Diego; Lanctot, M J [Columbia University; Nishijima, D. [University of California, San Diego; Rudakov, D.L. [University of California, San Diego; Scott, H A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Strait, E. J. [General Atomics; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics; Wesley, J. C. [General Atomics; West, J C [General Atomics, San Diego; Wu, W [General Atomics, San Diego; Yu, J.H. [University of California, San Diego

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

E-Print Network 3.0 - ar injection experiment Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in 553AR. The cumulative steam injected after 400 days on injection and the injection rate both similar... ... Source: Patzek, Tadeusz W. - Department of Petroleum and...

399

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Direct memory access transfer completion notification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node in an injection FIFO buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target compute node on behalf of an application on the origin compute node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying an address of a completion notification field in application storage for the application; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target compute node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that the transfer of the message is complete, including performing a local direct put operation to store predesignated notification data at the address of the completion notification field.

Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

402

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

403

Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E. Management of exposure to oxygen toxicity myself using the good ole' FORTRAN programming language, I found that incorporating oxygen toxicity for others. Background Two oxygen toxicity parameters are typically "tracked" in technical diving

Read, Charles

404

Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen S. Barabash and M. Holmstro of the Martian oxygen exosphere/corona results in the production of planetary oxygen ions. The newborn ions start. The oxygen ions can then charge exchange with the neutral gases (H, H2, and O) of the Martian exosphere

Lukyanov, Alex

405

Partially Premixed Combustion in a Diesel Engine Induced by a Pilot Injection at the Low-pressure Top Dead Center  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The engine used in this research is a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection diesel research engine since this type of facility generates much more accurate data compared to multicylinder engines. ... Aside from those considerations on the general evolution of ISFC with respect to the EPI ratio, a peak of ISFC appears at EPI ratio of 30%. ... (Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd.) ...

Jesús Benajes; Ricardo Novella; Antonio García; Simon Arthozoul

2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

On the solar nickel and oxygen abundances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on the neutral forbidden transition at 630 nm depend upon the nickel abundance, due to a Ni I blend. Here we rederive the solar nickel abundance, using the same ab initio 3D hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere employed in the recent revision of the abundances of C, N, O and other elements. Using 17 weak, unblended lines of Ni I together with the most accurate atomic and observational data available we find log epsilon_Ni = 6.17 +/- 0.02 (statistical) +/- 0.05 (systematic), a downwards shift of 0.06 to 0.08 dex relative to previous 1D-based abundances. We investigate the implications of the new nickel abundance for studies of the solar oxygen abundance based on the [O I] 630 nm line in the quiet Sun. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen abundance implied by the recent sunspot spectropolarimetric study of Centeno & Socas-Navarro needs to be revised downwards from log epsilon_O = 8.86 +/- 0.07 to 8.71 +/- 0.10. This revision is based on the new nickel abundance, application of the best available gf-value for the 630 nm forbidden oxygen line, and a more transparent treatment of CO formation. Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on forbidden lines now appear to converge around log epsilon_O = 8.7.

Pat Scott; Martin Asplund; Nicolas Grevesse; A. Jacques Sauval

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

408

Oxygen abundance of open cluster dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present oxygen abundances of dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665 deduced from the OI $\\lambda$7774 triplet lines and of dwarfs in the open cluster Pleiades derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line. Stellar parameters and oxygen abundances were derived using the spectroscopic synthesis tool SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy). We find a dramatic increase in the upper boundary of the OI triplet abundances with decreasing temperature in the dwarfs of IC 4665, consistent with the trend found by Schuler et al. in the open clusters Pleiades and M 34, and to a less extent in the cool dwarfs of Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006a) and UMa (King & Schuler 2005). By contrast, oxygen abundances derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line for stars in Pleiades and Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006b) are constant within the errors. Possible mechanisms that may lead a varying oxygen triplet line abundance are examined, including systematic errors in the stellar parameter determinations, the NLTE effects, surface activities and granulation. The age-related effects stellar surface activities (especially the chromospheric activities) are suggested by our analysis to blame for the large spreads of oxygen triplet line abundances.

Z. -X. Shen; X. -W. Liu; H. -W. Zhang; B. Jones; D. N. C. Lin

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

409

Oxygen Hydration Mechanism for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Pt and Pd Fuel Cell Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen Hydration Mechanism for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Pt and Pd Fuel Cell Catalysts ... Catalytic Reactions on the Open-Edge Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as Cathode Catalyst for Hydrogen Fuel Cells ... Despite significant progress made the past decade on reducing the platinum catalyst loading in the PEMFC electrodes, further ... ...

Yao Sha; Ted H. Yu; Boris V. Merinov; Pezhman Shirvanian; William A. Goddard; III

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

410

Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination  

SciTech Connect

Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection- A Fuel Economy Solution for The US  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers double digit fuel economy benefits, much lower cost than diesel or hybrid.

412

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet describes a new technology with the potential to reduce operating costs and increase productivity in bar and flat-rolled products for the steel industry.

413

Evaluation of Oxydiesel as a Fuel for Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

speed and maximum power for 500 hours on a blend of ethanol, No. 2 diesel, and an additive as compared and diesel with a special additive, has been shown to be a promising new alternative fuel for existing diesel the mixing of diesel fuel with ethanol. The Illinois DCCA has embarked on a widespread research program

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

414

Mixing Correlations for Smoke and Fuel Consumption of Direct Injection Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mixing of fuel with air in a diesel engine strongly dictates the specific fuel consumption and exhaust smoke. Many experimental studies reported the optimum swirl for a given diesel engine at a given operatin...

P. A. Lakshminarayanan; Yogesh V. Aghav

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

416

Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

417

Improving gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine efficiency and emissions with hydrogen from exhaust gas fuel reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas fuel reforming has been identified as a thermochemical energy recovery technology with potential to improve gasoline engine efficiency, and thereby reduce CO2 in addition to other gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The principle relies on achieving energy recovery from the hot exhaust stream by endothermic catalytic reforming of gasoline and a fraction of the engine exhaust gas. The hydrogen-rich reformate has higher enthalpy than the gasoline fed to the reformer and is recirculated to the intake manifold, i.e. reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR). The REGR system was simulated by supplying hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) into a conventional EGR system. The hydrogen and CO concentrations in the REGR stream were selected to be achievable in practice at typical gasoline exhaust temperatures. Emphasis was placed on comparing REGR to the baseline gasoline engine, and also to conventional EGR. The results demonstrate the potential of REGR to simultaneously increase thermal efficiency, reduce gaseous emissions and decrease PM formation.

Daniel Fennell; Jose Herreros; Athanasios Tsolakis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Laser-induced ignition and combustion in a SI engine with direct injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser-induced ignition has shown huge advantages for the combustion ... (KIT) to investigate the potential of the laser-induced ignition. The emphasis was on improving combustion initiation...

Dipl.-Ing. Volker Gross; Dr.-Ing. Heiko Kubach…

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

420

Determination of Volatile Compounds in Cider Spirits by Gas Chromatography with Direct Injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......described for cider and wine distillates (4,5...used were of analytical quality, of at least 97% purity...liquid chromatography quality) was purchased from...levels of above 1 g/L) increases. Moreover, the life...repercussion on the aromatic quality. Sci. Aliments 22......

Roberto Rodríguez Madrera; Belén Suárez Valles

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the first Technical Progress Report covering the period from project execution through the end of December 1990. Due to the power plant's planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Directives Quarterly Updates  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

423

Another face of DIRECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

authors, see for example, tree-Direct [5]. This paper ..... [4] J.M. Gablonsky, Modifications of the DIRECT Algorithm, Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State. University ...

chiter

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Experimental investigation on the characteristics of diesel oxygenated fuel blends in a di diesel engine using two spring split injection;.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Diesel engines are efficient prime movers for heavy duty vehicles, so they have attracted many automobile and research institutions for their use as main prime… (more)

Kumaresan M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully influence organisms living in near  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully to the winter of 2014. Their scholarly work is presented in this collection. #12;1 Oxygen: From Environment", 2013, 2014 Table of contents Page 2. Laura Lilly - Low-oxygen formation along the California current. 6

426

Photochemical Escape of Oxygen from Early Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photochemical escape is an important process for oxygen escape from present Mars. In this work, a 1-D Monte-Carlo Model is developed to calculate escape rates of energetic oxygen atoms produced from O2+ dissociative recombination reactions (DR) under 1, 3, 10, and 20 times present solar XUV fluxes. We found that although the overall DR rates increase with solar XUV flux almost linearly, oxygen escape rate increases from 1 to 10 times present solar XUV conditions but decreases when increasing solar XUV flux further. Analysis shows that atomic species in the upper thermosphere of early Mars increases more rapidly than O2+ when increasing XUV fluxes. While the latter is the source of energetic O atoms, the former increases the collision probability and thus decreases the escape probability of energetic O. Our results suggest that photochemical escape be a less important escape mechanism than previously thought for the loss of water and/or CO2 from early Mars.

Zhao, Jinjin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Inelastic neutron scattering from confined molecular oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inelastic neutron-scattering measurements were carried out on condensed bulk and confined molecular oxygen. The phase transitions of the oxygen confined in cylindrical pores with diameter of ?94?Å are suppressed below their bulk temperatures or in the case of the lowest-temperature transition to the ? phase are suppressed entirely. This last observation is possibly due to the low latent heat of transition for this transition. Both elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering data indicate a mixing of oxygen crystal phases upon confinement. Magnetic ordering fluctuations in the ? phase are found to have similar energy-dependent profiles for confined and bulk excitations showing that the magnetic correlation function decay is unaffected by the finite crystal size in confinement.

Duncan Kilburn; Paul E. Sokol; Craig M. Brown

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

428

Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4. 1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology  

SciTech Connect

Babcock Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Oxygen control in makeup water for PWRs  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the oxygen control program and improvements to the make-up water system components of PWR nuclear plants with the ultimate goal of reducing corrosion related problems in the steam generators and other secondary system components. A PWR plant that has a vacuum degasifier has been selected to establish the basis for the program. Following the investigation of the make-up water system components, the report presents instrumentation developed for the program. Recommendations are provided for improvements to the various make-up water system components to lower the dissolved oxygen levels. 5 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Silaghy, F. (Burns and Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

D/sub 2/ - pellet injection system  

SciTech Connect

For density build-up of a target plasma for neutral injection in the stellarator ''Wendelstein W VIIA''and for refuelling of the divertor tokamak ASSDEX, pellet light gas guns have been developed. In a continuous flow cryostat cooled by liquid helium with a comsumption of 2 - 3 liter liquid helium per hour deuterium was condensed and solidified. To prevent the propeller gas entering the torus was used. In one system a 3.6 mm guiding tube following the barrel was applied successfully. By optical diagnostics pellet velocity, pellet size and pellet trajectory is measured. For a pellet centrifuge system investigations of carbon fiber rotors were made up to surface velocities of 1500 m/s.

Buechl, K.; Andelfinger, C.; Kollotzek, H.; Lang, R.; Ulrich, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Secondary air injection system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

435

Foreign Direct Investment  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investment Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 June 2001 ii iii Contents Foreign Affiliates' Role in U.S. Energy Industry Operations ..............................................................................1 Foreign Direct Investment: The International Transactions Accounts ..............................................................8 U.S. Companies' Direct Investment Abroad in Energy ......................................................................................14 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................................19

436

Atmospheric Oxygen: Isotopic Composition and Solubility Fractionation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...where the subscripts aq and gas refer to the aqueous phase and the gas phase, respectively. The single-stage...adsorption and desorp-tion of oxygen gas on type SA molecular sieve...material seems to be debris of the Cyprus-sized planetesimal that produced...

P. Kroopnick; H. Craig

1972-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

437

Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and characterized. Molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide reacted with (N,N'-bis(mercaptoethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II), (BME-DACO)2Ni3 +2, to produce a trimetallic, (N,N'-bismercaptoethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II))-nickelate, (BME-DACO)2Ni3 2...

Soma, Takako

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

438

Oxygen Limitation within a Bacterial Aggregate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...standard deviation of the average of cells exposed to 2...and Doring G. 2002. Effects of reduced mucus oxygen...Lewandowski Z. 1994. Effects of biofilm structures...Dietrich LE , Okegbe C, Price-Whelan A, Sakhtah...capability. Energy Fuels 20 :1565-1571. doi...

Aimee K. Wessel; Talha A. Arshad; Mignon Fitzpatrick; Jodi L. Connell; Roger T. Bonnecaze; Jason B. Shear; Marvin Whiteley

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes Quarterly Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Reaction rates in Ion 21 Transport Membranes using Isotope Tracer and Transient Kinetic Techniques CONCLUSIONS 30Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes Quarterly Report January 2003 ­ March 2003 Principal Authors on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane

Eagar, Thomas W.

440

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Injectivity Test Activity Date 1979 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Quantification of the pressure response prior to 600 minutes is not always possible. Short-duration (< 24-hour) injection or pump tests are conducted with the drilling rig equipment, and long-duration (21-day) injection and pump tests are then conducted with the permanent pumping facilities. References Allman, D. W.; Goldman, D.; Niemi, W. L. (1 January 1979) Evaluation of testing and reservoir parameters in geothermal wells at Raft

442

T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability September 30, 2011 - 8:30am Addthis PROBLEM: Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability. PLATFORM: IM Manager versions prior to 8.4.18 are affected. ABSTRACT: Symantec IM Manager is prone to a vulnerability that will let attackers run arbitrary code. referecnce LINKS: Symantec Security Advisory SYM11-012 Symantec Security Updates Bugtraq ID: 49742 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High Discussion: Symantec was notified of Cross-Site Scripting and Code injection/execution issues present in the Symantec IM Manager management console. The management console fails to properly filter/validate external inputs. Successful exploitation of SQL Injection or Remote Code execution might

443

Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (UIC code) is adopted pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-5-11). It is the purpose of this UIC Code to adopt underground injection control (UIC) regulations necessary to qualify the State of Arkansas to retain authorization for its Underground Injection Control Program pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, as amended; 42 USC 300f et seq. In order

444

High temperature (600 to 800/sup 0/C) thermally activated deformation behavior of. cap alpha. -Zircaloy-4-oxygen alloys. [DS  

SciTech Connect

The high temperature thermally activated deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4-oxygen alloys containing oxygen up to 1 wt % has been investigated. Decremental unloading technique (Dip technique) was employed to determine the internal stress (tau/sub ..mu../) and thus the effective stress (tau*). Strain rate change tests were done to determine strain rate sensitivity (m) and activation volume (V*). Activation energy (..delta..G/sup ..mu../) was calculated from the above data. Oxygen was found to produce an increase in y.s. (0.2%), tau* and ..delta..G/sub 0//sup ..mu../ and a decrease in m and V* while tau/sub ..mu../ was not affected significantly. These experimental results support the view that the predominant rate controlling mechanism for deformation in this temperature regime is the thermally activated breaking of attractive junctions for these alloys. Oxygen atoms, pairs or clusters of oxygen atoms, are ruled out as barriers, instead the strengthening is attributed to an increase in the core width of the dislocations due to the presence of oxygen. This in turn results in a more stable attractive junction, which is reflected in the increasing values of ..delta..G/sub 0//sup ..mu../ with the increase in oxygen. Finally it is suggested that the atypical temperature dependence of tau/sub ..mu..//..mu.. and ..delta..G/sup ..mu../ is a direct consequence of dynamic recovery.

Mehrotra, B.N.; Tangri, K.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive due to cost. We then show that a conceivable global use of hydrogen in complete replacement of fossil fuels would imply the permanent removal from our atmosphere of 2.8875x10^7 metric tons O_2/day. Fuel cells are briefly discussed to point out similarly serious environmental problems, again, for large uses. We propose the possibility of resolving these problems by upgrading hydrogen to the new combustible fuel called magnegas^TM, whose chemical structure is composed by the new chemical species of magnecules, whose energy content and other features are beyond the descriptive capaciti...

Santilli, R M

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

Pal, Uday B

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

447

BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL IN PIPES THROUGH STRONG INJECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

normal-injection model. y Coal gasification gas mixture ,ZUSAMMENFASSUNG) In coal gasification, oxidation andthan that in the coal gasification mixture. Outside the

Yeung, William Chor Chun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Idaho Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Program Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho Underground Injection Control Program Webpage Author Idaho Department of...

449

Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Variable Spray Angle Variable Spray Pattern * Variable Injection Pressure (VIP) Liquid penetration of non-evaporating sprays vapor penetration of evaporating sprays: 14 P...

450

Health care access, utilization and barriers among injection drug users.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Background: To curb the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases several studies indicate the need for improved access to medical care for injection… (more)

Oche, Ishaka

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Hawaii Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Program Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii Underground Injection Control Program Webpage Author State of Hawaii...

452

Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Injectivity Test At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Benoit, Et...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Benoit, Et Al., 2000) Exploration Activity Details...

454

Type B Accident Investigation Board Report Grout Injection Operator...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

TYPE B ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION BOARD REPORT GROUT INJECTION OPERATOR INJURY AT THE COLD TEST PIT SOUTH, IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, OCTOBER 15, 2001...

455

Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin, Et Al., 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Long Valley...

456

Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Resistivity measurements...

457

Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity...

458

EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water...

459

Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target...

460

Reaction injection molding of silicon nitride ceramics having crystallized grain boundary phases  

SciTech Connect

A reaction injection molding process is described for preparing a sintered, silicon nitride-containing ceramic article comprising; (1) injecting into a heated mold a fluid, nondilatant mixture comprising (a) at least 40% by volume of a powder mixture of (i) from about 20 wt.% to about 98 wt.% silicon nitride, (ii) from about 0.5 wt.% to about 20 wt.% of a silicate glass-forming sintering aid, and (iii) from about 0.001 wt.% to about 80 wt.% of a high metal content transition metal silicide or a transition metal or metal compound that forms a high metal content silicide with silicon nitride under the conditions defined in steps (2) or (3), and (b) a curable silicon nitride precursor binder that is a liquid below its curing temperature, to cure the binder and produce a hardened molded article, (2) heating the hardened mol suitable atmosphere to a temperature sufficient to convert the cured binder to a silicon nitride-containing ceramic, and (3) sintering the article by (i) heating at a temperature of 1,300 to 1,800 C until a silicate glass forms, and (ii) further heating at a temperature of 1,300 to 1,800 C under a vacuum until oxygen is removed from the silicate glass and the glass crystallizes.

Lukacs, A. III; Matsumoto, R.L.K.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct oxygen injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Effect of fuel injection velocity on MILD combustion of syngas in axially-staged combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The role of fuel injection velocity on MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion of coal-derived syngas was examined in an axially staged combustor, where the secondary air was mixed with the flue gases from the gas generation zone to produce hot and diluted oxidant prior to its mixing with the secondary fuel. The global flame signatures, OH? radicals distribution, and exhaust emissions were obtained through experimental measurements, while the mixing behavior between the secondary fuel and oxidant was numerically studied. Higher secondary fuel injection velocity within 199–299 m/s facilitated the earlier entrainment of oxidizer into the secondary fuel and increased the flame lift-off height, resulting in a lower flame temperature, a more distributed reaction zone and reduced \\{NOx\\} emissions, but higher pressure loss and CO formation. The MILD regime yields lower \\{NOx\\} emissions compared to the traditional diffusion combustion mode, and the N2O-intermediate mechanism dominates the NO production in the syngas MILD flame with adiabatic flame temperature lower than 1565 K according to the prediction of the chemical reactor network model.

Ming-ming Huang; Wei-wei Shao; Yan Xiong; Yan Liu; Zhe-dian Zhang; Fu-lin Lei; Yun-han Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Demands on Heavy Duty Engine Management Systems Multicylinder Diesel Engine Design for HCCI Operation Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies...

463

Direct/Indirect Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

464

Prospects of Al2O3 and MgAl2O4-Supported CuO Oxygen Carriers in Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) processes are attractive solutions for efficient combustion with direct separation of carbon dioxide. In this work, the feasibility of CuO supported on Al2O3 and MgAl...

Mehdi Arjmand; Abdul-Majeed Azad; Henrik Leion; Anders Lyngfelt; Tobias Mattisson

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

465

The Economics of Oxygen Enriched Air Production Via Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen enriched air combustion is a recognized approach to energy conservation. Conventional methods of producing oxygen enriched air: Pressure Swing Adsorption and Cryogenics, are energy-intensive and expensive. In this paper the economics of using...

Gollan, A.; Kleper, M. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

467

Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Abstract: In...

468

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on Reduced TiO2 (110). Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on Reduced TiO2 (110). Abstract: Tracking...

470

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and Reaction with CO on Pd Nanoparticles on MgO(100) and on Pd(111). Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen...

471

Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Abstract: Scanning tunneling...

472

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Abstract: In this paper, ab initio...

473

Directives System Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

474

Temperature histories in geothermal wells: survey of rock thermomechanical properties and drilling, production, and injection case studies  

SciTech Connect

Thermal and mechanical properties for geothermal formations are tabulated for a range of temperatures and stress conditions. Data was obtained from the technical literature and direct contacts with industry. Thermal properties include heat capacity, conductivity, and diffusivity. Undisturbed geothermal profiles are also presented. Mechanical properties include Youngs modulus and Poisson ratio. GEOTEMP thermal simulations of drilling, production and injection are reported for two geothermal regions, the hot dry rock area near Los Alamos and the East Mesa field in the Imperial Valley. Actual drilling, production, and injection histories are simulated. Results are documented in the form of printed GEOTEMP output and plots of temperatures versus depth, radius, and time. Discussion and interpretation of the results are presented for drilling and well completion design to determine: wellbore temperatures during drilling as a function of depth; bit temperatures over the drilling history; cement temperatures from setting to the end of drilling; and casing and formation temperatures during drilling, production, and injection.

Goodman, M.A.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

Marshall, B.W.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

478

Impulsive and Varying Injection in GRB Afterglows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The standard model of Gamma-Ray Bursts afterglows is based on synchrotron radiation from a blast wave produced when the relativistic ejecta encounters the surrounding medium. We reanalyze the refreshed shock scenario, in which slower material catches up with the decelerating ejecta and reenergizes it. This energization can be done either continuously or in discrete episodes. We show that such scenario has two important implications. First there is an additional component coming from the reverse shock that goes into the energizing ejecta. This persists for as long as the re-energization itself, which could extend for up to days or longer. We find that during this time the overall spectral peak is found at the characteristic frequency of the reverse shock. Second, if the injection is continuous, the dynamics will be different from that in constant energy evolution, and will cause a slower decline of the observed fluxes. A simple test of the continuously refreshed scenario is that it predicts a spectral maximum ...

Sari, R; Sari, Re'em; Meszaros, Peter

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Impulsive and Varying Injection in GRB Afterglows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The standard model of Gamma-Ray Bursts afterglows is based on synchrotron radiation from a blast wave produced when the relativistic ejecta encounters the surrounding medium. We reanalyze the refreshed shock scenario, in which slower material catches up with the decelerating ejecta and reenergizes it. This energization can be done either continuously or in discrete episodes. We show that such scenario has two important implications. First there is an additional component coming from the reverse shock that goes into the energizing ejecta. This persists for as long as the re-energization itself, which could extend for up to days or longer. We find that during this time the overall spectral peak is found at the characteristic frequency of the reverse shock. Second, if the injection is continuous, the dynamics will be different from that in constant energy evolution, and will cause a slower decline of the observed fluxes. A simple test of the continuously refreshed scenario is that it predicts a spectral maximum in the far IR or mm range after a few days.

Re'em Sari; Peter Meszaros

2000-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

480

Photosynthesis and the dynamics of oxygen consumption in a ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

photosynthesis minus oxygen consumption), and gross photosynthesis at high ... The depth distribution of gross photosynthesis, as obtained by the cycling ...

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

482

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

483

Effective Parameters in Axial Injection Suspension Plasma Spray Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective Parameters in Axial Injection Suspension Plasma Spray Process of Alumina-structured coatings with metastable phases using significantly smaller particles as compared to conventional thermal, an alumina/ 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia was deposited by axial injection SPS process. The effects

Medraj, Mamoun

484

On a mathematical model for hot carrier injection in semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On a mathematical model for hot carrier injection in semiconductors Naoufel Ben Abdallah (1) Pierre of a semiconductor device heavily depends on the injection mechanism of carriers into the active regions through by the relation V bi = U th log N + N \\Gamma ; where U th = kBT=q is the thermal voltage and N + ; N \\Gamma

Schmeiser, Christian

485

Rotordynamic evaluation of a tangential-injection hybrid bearing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Cre = 0.001 . Data are presented for 550C water at three speeds out to 25000 rpm and three pressures out to 7.0 MPa. Compared to a radial-injection hybrid bearing, experiments show injection against rotation enhances stability, yielding reductions...

Laurant, Franck Jean

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hørding Pedersen Björn Kjellström Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprøjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study ......................................................................................12 Stationary engines for decentralised CHP or industrial CHP

487

Low-Volume Power Supply for Vehicular Fuel Injection Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include reduced fuel consumption, pollution and noise levels. The fuel injectors adjust the engine actuated fuel injection systems have resulted in major advances in internal combustion engines [1]. Those for the engine injection system The fuel is supplied using fast motion injector needles. The motion

Prodiæ, Aleksandar

488

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

Boyer, Edmond

489

Parallel Finite Element Simulation of Tracer Injection in Oil Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parallel Finite Element Simulation of Tracer Injection in Oil Reservoirs Alvaro L.G.A. Coutinho In this work, parallel finite element techniques for the simulation of tracer injection in oil reservoirs. Supercomputers have made it possible to consider global reservoir effects which can not be represented using

Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.

490

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Ev