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1

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopic factors, and direct radiative capture rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the norms of the overlap function and the radial bound-state wave function are, correspondingly, the spectroscopic factor SlB jB and unity, the single-particle spec- troscopic factor SlB jB (sp) in Eq. ~5! will equal the spectroscopic factor SlB jB... of the radial overlap function is given by Eq. ~3!, and the asymptotic normalization of the radial bound-state wave function is defined as wnBlB jB~r ! ? r.RN blB jB W 2hB ,lB11/2~2kBr ! r . ~6! By the proper choice of SlB jB (sp) , one can make Eq...

Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

SciTech Connect: Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancer of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1973--July 31, 1974 Citation Details...

5

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDoppler ARMdiffusedirect normal

6

Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

Heald, Colette L.

7

Direct detector for terahertz radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

8

Synchrotron radiation damage observations in normal incidence copper mirrors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water-cooled copper mirrors used at near-normal incidence on two beam lines at the NSLS are observed to undergo severe degradation upon exposure to the direct SR beam. These mirrors are used on beam lines designed to utilize radiation in the wavelength regions longer than 100 nm and are coated with a uv reflection-enhancing coating, consisting of one or more bilayers of aluminum with a MgF/sub 2/ overcoat. Beamline performance degrades very rapidly following installation of a new set of mirrors. Analysis of the mirror surfaces by various non-destructive techniques indicates severe degradation of the coating and surface along the central strip where most of the x-ray power is absorbed from the beam. In one case where the mirror had three bilayer coatings, the outer coating layer has disappeared along the central strip. Rutherford backscatter measurements indicate compositional changes between layers and confirm the existence of a carbon deposit on the surface. Thermal modeling suggests that most of the damage is caused by direct photon interaction, since the temperature rise in the energy deposition region is small.

Takacs, P.Z.; Melendez, J.; Colbert, J.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,

Grether, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance -A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 1 Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This is the energy in the solar spectrum falling per unit time on a unit area of a surface oriented normal to the Sun Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering

Schwartz, Stephen E.

11

Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE FOR CSP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES OF METEOSAT SECOND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE FOR CSP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES OF METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION A. Hammer1 Ertragsprognose Solarthermischer Kraftwerke ­ standardization of yield prognosis for solar thermal power plants). As for concentrating solar power (CSP) the frequency distribution of DNI is of special importance, special attention

Heinemann, Detlev

13

Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESL-PA-13-11-02 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000Ė000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Improved Methodology to Measure Normal... Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array Juan-Carlos Baltazar*, Yifu Sun, Jeff Haberl Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A. Abstract...

Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

14

Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the thyroid. The mean dose model can be used as the best model to describe the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism complication.

Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the first investigation of using direct aperture optimization (DAO) for online adaptive radiation therapy (ART). A geometrical model representing the anatomy of a typical prostate case was created. To simulate interfractional deformations, four different anatomical deformations were created by systematically deforming the original anatomy by various amounts (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 cm). We describe a series of techniques where the original treatment plan was adapted in order to correct for the deterioration of dose distribution quality caused by the anatomical deformations. We found that the average time needed to adapt the original plan to arrive at a clinically acceptable plan is roughly half of the time needed for a complete plan regeneration, for all four anatomical deformations. Furthermore, through modification of the DAO algorithm the optimization search space was reduced and the plan adaptation was significantly accelerated. For the first anatomical deformation (0.25 cm), the plan adaptation was six times more efficient than the complete plan regeneration. For the 0.50 and 0.75 cm deformations, the optimization efficiency was increased by a factor of roughly 3 compared to the complete plan regeneration. However, for the anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm, the reduction of the optimization search space during plan adaptation did not result in any efficiency improvement over the original (nonmodified) plan adaptation. The anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm demonstrates the limit of this approach. We propose an innovative approach to online ART in which the plan adaptation and radiation delivery are merged together and performed concurrently--adaptive radiation delivery (ARD). A fundamental advantage of ARD is the fact that radiation delivery can start almost immediately after image acquisition and evaluation. Most of the original plan adaptation is done during the radiation delivery, so the time spent adapting the original plan does not increase the overall time the patient has to spend on the treatment couch. As a consequence, the effective time allotted for plan adaptation is drastically reduced. For the 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 cm anatomical deformations, the treatment time was increased by only 2, 4, and 6 s, respectively, as compared to no plan adaptation. For the anatomical deformation of 1.0 cm the time increase was substantially larger. The anatomical deformation of 1.0 cm represents an extreme case, which is rarely observed for the prostate, and again demonstrates the limit of this approach. ARD shows great potential for an online adaptive method with minimal extension of treatment time.

Mestrovic, Ante; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Nichol, Alan; Clark, Brenda G.; Otto, Karl [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada) and Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Medical Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

1985-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

Struckmeyer, R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric aerosol forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric, the positive trend is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear-sky global solar radiation ratio of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELING, for United States Government purposes. #12;AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC

22

GPU-based ultra-fast direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has great promise to significantly reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through real-time treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. However, the major technical obstacle for clinical realization of online ART, namely the inability to achieve real-time efficiency in treatment re-planning, has yet to be solved. To overcome this challenge, this paper presents our work on the implementation of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm on graphics processing unit (GPU) based on our previous work on CPU. We formulate the DAO problem as a large-scale convex programming problem, and use an exact method called column generation approach to deal with its extremely large dimensionality on GPU. Five 9-field prostate and five 5-field head-and-neck IMRT clinical cases with 5\\times5 mm2 beamlet size and 2.5\\times2.5\\times2.5 mm3 voxel size were used to evaluate our algorithm on GPU. It takes onl...

Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Normal Liver Tissue Density Dose Response in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the temporal dose response of normal liver tissue for patients with liver metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine noncontrast follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 34 patients who received SBRT between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed at a median of 8 months post-SBRT (range, 0.7-36 months). SBRT-induced normal liver tissue density changes in follow-up CT scans were evaluated at 2, 6, 10, 15, and 27 months. The dose distributions from planning CTs were mapped to follow-up CTs to relate the mean Hounsfield unit change ({Delta}HU) to dose received over the range 0-55 Gy in 3-5 fractions. An absolute density change of 7 HU was considered a significant radiographic change in normal liver tissue. Results: Increasing radiation dose was linearly correlated with lower post-SBRT liver tissue density (slope, -0.65 {Delta}HU/5 Gy). The threshold for significant change (-7 {Delta}HU) was observed in the range of 30-35 Gy. This effect did not vary significantly over the time intervals evaluated. Conclusions: SBRT induces a dose-dependent and relatively time-independent hypodense radiation reaction within normal liver tissue that is characterized by a decrease of >7 HU in liver density for doses >30-35 Gy.

Howells, Christopher C.; Stinauer, Michelle A.; Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Miften, Moyed, E-mail: Moyed.Miften@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in large part on the data provided by the Global Energy Balance Archive. Additional data from the United is important for assessing the risks and reliability of power generated from solar energy facilities States National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) in the Liepert study contributes to some variation

Oregon, University of

25

Apparatuses and method for converting electromagnetic radiation to direct current  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An energy conversion device may include a first antenna and a second antenna configured to generate an AC current responsive to incident radiation, at least one stripline, and a rectifier coupled with the at least one stripline along a length of the at least one stripline. An energy conversion device may also include an array of nanoantennas configured to generate an AC current in response to receiving incident radiation. Each nanoantenna of the array includes a pair of resonant elements, and a shared rectifier operably coupled to the pair of resonant elements, the shared rectifier configured to convert the AC current to a DC current. The energy conversion device may further include a bus structure operably coupled with the array of nanoantennas and configured to receive the DC current from the array of nanoantennas and transmit the DC current away from the array of nanoantennas.

Kotter, Dale K; Novack, Steven D

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to connect the energy re- lease process with the acceleration of electrons in solar flares, using a CA modelParticle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles

Anastasiadis, Anastasios

27

Significant aerosol direct radiative effects during a pollution episode in northern China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Significant aerosol direct radiative effects during a pollution episode in northern China J. Liu,1 during a heavy pollution episode that occurred in October 2004 over northern China are explored , resulting in solar heating of the atmosphere on the order of 300 Wmņ2 . Solar radiation reflected

Li, Zhanqing

28

Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during March 2002 Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb Model (CRM) of Community Climate Model 3 and the output of the fifth generation of meso-scale model (MM5 in the global climate system by changing atmospheric radiation balance (Tegen and Fung, 1994; Andreae, 1996; Li

Park, Rokjin

29

Normal shock solutions to the viscous shock layer equations including thermal, chemical, thermodynamic, and radiative nonequilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An existing axisymmetric body viscous shock layer code including chemical, thermal, and thermodynamic nonequilibrium and nonequilibrium radiative gasdynamic coupling is adapted to simulate the one-dimensional flow within a shock tube. A suitable...

Mott, David Ray

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Effects of ionizing radiation on normal and tumor-associated lymphatic vessels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in both the pathophysiology of tumors and in the spread cancer cells to lymph nodes. The effects of radiation on these vessels, however, are largely unknown. Here, we seek to describe ...

Lobo, Jennifer D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Direct and semi-direct radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols in the Western United States: Seasonal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a regional climate model (RCM) in conjunction with the aerosol fields from a GEOS-Chem chemical- transport emissions and the seasonal low-level winds. The RCM-simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative effects vary, respectively, following the seasonal AOD. In Arizona-New Mexico (AZNM), the effect of anthropogenic sulfates

Liou, K. N.

32

Direct Detector for Terahertz Radiation - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac ChargeDirect

33

Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric Aerosol Forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric.S. the strengthening is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear sky global solar radiation of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption and declined light

34

An experimental apparatus for study of direct {\\beta}-radiation conversion for energy harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the development and testing of an experimental apparatus for characterization of a direct charging nuclear battery. The battery consists of a parallel-plates capacitor which is charged in a vacuum by the current of {\\beta}-radiation particles (electrons) emitted from a radioisotope. A 63Ni radioisotope with an activity of 15mCi that produces a 20pA current was selected as the radiation source. The apparatus is unique in its design, having ultra-low leakage current and a few options for charge measurements. Preliminary results of a few tests are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus.

Haim, Y; deBotton, G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Direct and sequential radiative three-body reaction rates at low temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the low-temperature reaction rates for radiative capture processes of three particles. We compare direct and sequential capture mechanisms and rates using realistic phenomenological parametrizations of the corresponding photodissociation cross sections.Energy conservation prohibits sequential capture for energies smaller than that of the intermediate two-body structure. A finite width or a finite temperature allows this capture mechanism. We study generic effects of positions and widths of two- and three-body resonances for very low temperatures. We focus on nuclear reactions relevant for astrophysics, and we illustrate with realistic estimates for the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$-$\\alpha$ and $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$-$n$ radiative capture processes. The direct capture mechanism leads to reaction rates which for temperatures smaller than 0.1 GK can be several orders of magnitude larger than those of the NACRE compilation.

E. Garrido; R. de Diego; D. V. Fedorov; A. S. Jensen

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

36

Field comparisons of direct and component measurements of net radiation under clear skies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of net radiation are basic to all studies of the surface energy budget. In preparation for an energy budget experiment significant differences were found between direct and component measurement of net radiation, which prompted this investigation of their cause. The instruments involved were an all-black single-dome Fritschen-type net pyrradiometer, two Eppley model 8-48 pyranometers, and an Eppley model PIR pyrgeometer. Each had recently been calibrated. The accuracy of the component instruments was considered first. Comparisons of about one hour on each of three nights between the pyrgeometer and five empirical formulas showed that the average departure over all formulas from the pyrgeometer average was {minus}1%. Other comparisons between the pyrgeometer and an infrared thermometer viewing the surface yielded similar results. Alternate shading and unshading of the pyrgeometer looking upward during daytime resulted in a formula that was used to correct the downward longwave radiation under clear skies. The correction is dependent on wind speed, in contrast to a recent paper showing negligible dependence, but is in accord with earlier findings. Based on manufacturer`s specifications, the pyranometer calibrations were considered to be within 2% of the World Radiation Reference. Thus a series of experiments was carried out using what were believed to be reasonably accurate component measurements of net radiation and measurements from the net pyrradiometer.

Duchon, C.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Wilk, G.E. [National Weather Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Regional Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 {+-} 16 cm{sup 3}) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 {+-} 40 cm{sup 3}), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.

Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Stuhr, Kelly; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

The prostaglandin E{sub 1} analog, misoprostol, a normal tissue protector, does not protect four murine tumors in vivo from radiation injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The clinical development of radioprotectors, such as misoprostol, to protect normal tissue during cancer treatment must proceed with the assurance that tumors are not protected similarly or significantly. To provide data on this critical question, radiation-induced growth delay with or without the presence of misoprostol was measured in four murine tumors grown in the flanks of mice: the Lewis lung carcinoma, M-5076 ovarian sarcoma, FSA and NFSA. The effect of misoprostol on the tumor control dose (TCD{sub 50}) of radiation was measured in FSA-bearing mice with or without prior treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Misoprostol did not influence the in vivo growth of any of the four tumors, nor did it protect any of the tumors from radiation-induced growth delay. Likewise, there was no increase in the radiation TCD{sub 50} to treat the FSA in vivo in control or indomethacin-treated tumor-bearing mice. To measure any possible influence of tumor burden on the protective effect of miso-prostol on normal tissue in mice, the protective effect of misoprostol on the survival of intestinal clonogenic cells was measured in M-5076-bearing mice and found to be the same as in non-tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that misoprostol protects normal tissue in mice without protecting at least four experimental murine tumors. The data support the contention that misoprostol can achieve therapeutic gain by protecting normal tissues without protecting tumors. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Hanson, W.R.; Zhen, W.; Geng, L. [Loyola Univ. Chicago and Hines Veterans Administration Medical Centers, Hines, IL (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Passive Lossless Huygens Metasurfaces for Conversion of Arbitrary Source Field to Directive Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a semi-analytical formulation of the interaction between a given source field and a scalar Huygens metasurface (HMS), a recently introduced promising concept for wavefront manipulation based on a sheet of orthogonal electric and magnetic dipoles. Utilizing the equivalent surface impedance representation of these metasurfaces, we establish that an arbitrary source field can be converted into directive radiation via a passive lossless HMS if two physical conditions are met: local power conservation and local impedance equalization. Expressing the fields via their plane-wave spectrum and harnessing the slowly-varying envelope approximation we obtain semi-analytical formulae for the scattered fields, and prescribe the surface reactance required for the metasurface implementation. The resultant design procedure indicates that the local impedance equalization induces a Fresnel-like reflection, while local power conservation forms a radiating virtual aperture which follows the total excitation field magni...

Epstein, Ariel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The dosimetric impact of daily setup error on target volumes and surrounding normal tissue in the treatment of prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of daily setup error and interfraction organ motion on the overall dosimetric radiation treatment plans. Twelve patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments for prostate cancer were evaluated in this institutional review board-approved study. Each patient had fiducial markers placed into the prostate gland before treatment planning computed tomography scan. IMRT plans were generated using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Each patient was treated to a dose of 8100 cGy given in 45 fractions. In this study, we retrospectively created a plan for each treatment day that had a shift available. To calculate the dose, the patient would have received under this plan, we mathematically 'negated' the shift by moving the isocenter in the exact opposite direction of the shift. The individualized daily plans were combined to generate an overall plan sum. The dose distributions from these plans were compared with the treatment plans that were used to treat the patients. Three-hundred ninety daily shifts were negated and their corresponding plans evaluated. The mean isocenter shift based on the location of the fiducial markers was 3.3 {+-} 6.5 mm to the right, 1.6 {+-} 5.1 mm posteriorly, and 1.0 {+-} 5.0 mm along the caudal direction. The mean D95 doses for the prostate gland when setup error was corrected and uncorrected were 8228 and 7844 cGy (p < 0.002), respectively, and for the planning target volume (PTV8100) was 8089 and 7303 cGy (p < 0.001), respectively. The mean V95 values when patient setup was corrected and uncorrected were 99.9% and 87.3%, respectively, for the PTV8100 volume (p < 0.0001). At an individual patient level, the difference in the D95 value for the prostate volume could be >1200 cGy and for the PTV8100 could approach almost 2000 cGy when comparing corrected against uncorrected plans. There was no statistically significant difference in the D35 parameter for the surrounding normal tissue except for the dose received by the penile bulb and the right hip. Our dosimetric evaluation suggests significant underdosing with inaccurate target localization and emphasizes the importance of accurate patient setup and target localization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of intrafraction organ motion, rotation, and deformation on doses delivered to target volumes.

Algan, Ozer, E-mail: oalgan@ouhsc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Jamgade, Ambarish; Ali, Imad; Christie, Alana; Thompson, J. Spencer; Thompson, David; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Herman, Terence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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41

Attenuation Tomography of Northern California and the Yellow Sea / Korean Peninsula from Coda-source Normalized and Direct Lg Amplitudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inversions for regional attenuation (1/Q) of Lg are performed in two different regions. The path attenuation component of the Lg spectrum is isolated using the coda-source normalization method, which corrects the Lg spectral amplitude for the source using the stable, coda-derived source spectra. Tomographic images of Northern California agree well with one-dimensional (1-D) Lg Q estimated from five different methods. We note there is some tendency for tomographic smoothing to increase Q relative to targeted 1-D methods. For example in the San Francisco Bay Area, which contains high attenuation relative to the rest of it's region, Q is over-estimated by {approx}30. Coda-source normalized attenuation tomography is also carried out for the Yellow Sea/Korean Peninsula (YSKP) where output parameters (site, source, and path terms) are compared with those from the amplitude tomography method of Phillips et al. (2005) as well as a new method that ties the source term to the MDAC formulation (Walter and Taylor, 2001). The source terms show similar scatter between coda-source corrected and MDAC source perturbation methods, whereas the amplitude method has the greatest correlation with estimated true source magnitude. The coda-source better represents the source spectra compared to the estimated magnitude and could be the cause of the scatter. The similarity in the source terms between the coda-source and MDAC-linked methods shows that the latter method may approximate the effect of the former, and therefore could be useful in regions without coda-derived sources. The site terms from the MDAC-linked method correlate slightly with global Vs30 measurements. While the coda-source and amplitude ratio methods do not correlate with Vs30 measurements, they do correlate with one another, which provides confidence that the two methods are consistent. The path Q{sup -1} values are very similar between the coda-source and amplitude ratio methods except for small differences in the Da-xin-anling Mountains, in the northern YSKP. However there is one large difference between the MDAC-linked method and the others in the region near stations TJN and INCN, which point to site-effect as the cause for the difference.

Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L

2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

42

Directions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directions Where We Are Directions The Bradbury Science Museum is located at 1350 Central Avenue Los Alamos, NM 87544 Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the...

43

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELING radiation, changing cloud properties and altering precipitation. The largest uncertainty in the radiative

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol direct radiative Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transfer Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Science William D. Collins... system. Naturally occurring aerosols reflect some of the incident solar radiation back to space before... the...

45

Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Construction of a normalized directionally cloned cDNA library from adult heart and analysis of 3040 clones by partial sequencing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale sequencing of clones from cDNA libraries derived from specific tissues is a rapid and efficient way of discovering novel genes expressed in those tissues. However, because the heart is continually contracting and relaxing, it strongly expresses muscle contractile genes and/or mitochondrial genes, a bias that reduces the efficiency of this method. To improve the efficiency of identifying novel genes expressed in the heart, we constructed a normalized directionally cloned cDNA library from adult heart and partially sequenced 3040 clones. Comparisons of these sequence data with known, 23.4% were identical or almost identical to human expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 14.2% bore no significant homology to any sequences in the database, and 1.2% represented repetitive sequences. The remaining 4.1% showed some homology with known gene, and Northern blot analysis of several clones in this category revealed that most of them were expressed mainly in the heart and skeletal muscle. After redundancy was excluded, the 3040 clones accounted for 1395 distinctive ESTs, 446 of which exhibited no match to any known sequence. Our results suggest that our normalized library is less redundant than standard libraries and is a useful resource for cataloging genes expressed in the heart. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Tanaka, Toshihiro [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); [Univ. of Tokyo School of Medicine, Hongo (Japan); Ogiwara, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Ikuo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); and others

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD{sub 5} (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD{sub 5}) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended.

Xu ZhiYong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liang Shixiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhu Ji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhao Jiandong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Lu Haijie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Yang Yunli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Chen Long [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Wang Anyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Fu Xiaolong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jiang Guoliang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China) and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: jianggl@21cn.com

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and /sup 60/Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed.

Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line }) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Up-Tack }) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p < .05). The radiation dose correlated with an increase in cingulum {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 and 6 weeks (p < .05). The post-RT changes in verbal recall scores correlated linearly with the late changes in cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} (30 weeks, p < .02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, early cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

Chapman, Christopher H., E-mail: chchap@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nagesh, Vijaya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sundgren, Pia C. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Buchtel, Henry [Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chenevert, Thomas L. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Junck, Larry [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Direct  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac Charge Dynamcs inDirect

51

For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal

Oregon, University of

52

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

array (MPA). The earliest work on an MPA related device for measuring diffuse sky radiation was performed in Finland by M. H2milllien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries including the United States where...

Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Seeing the invisible: Direct visualization of therapeutic radiation beams using air scintillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess whether air scintillation produced during standard radiation treatments can be visualized and used to monitor a beam in a nonperturbing manner. Methods: Air scintillation is caused by the excitation of nitrogen gas by ionizing radiation. This weak emission occurs predominantly in the 300Ė430 nm range. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera, outfitted with an f/0.95 lens, was used to capture air scintillation produced by kilovoltage photon beams and megavoltage electron beams used in radiation therapy. The treatment rooms were prepared to block background light and a short-pass filter was utilized to block light above 440 nm. Results: Air scintillation from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) was visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s) and showed an inverse falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89). Electron beams were also imaged. For a fixed exposure time (100 s), air scintillation was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As energy increased, the divergence of the electron beam decreased and the penumbra improved. By irradiating a transparent phantom, the authors also showed that Cherenkov luminescence did not interfere with the detection of air scintillation. In a final illustration of the capabilities of this new technique, the authors visualized air scintillation produced during a total skin irradiation treatment. Conclusions: Air scintillation can be measured to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and nonperturbing manner. This physical phenomenon could be useful for dosimetry of therapeutic radiation beams or for online detection of gross errors during fractionated treatments.

Fahimian, Benjamin; TŁrkcan, Silvan; Kapp, Daniel S.; Pratx, Guillem, E-mail: pratx@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Ceballos, Andrew [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

55

Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used to drive heterogeneous electrochemical reactions at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used and an efficient means for solar radiation delivery and trapping, poses a major challenge to the commercialization material with superior intrinsic properties, but a synergetic and intimately coupled combination of solar

Li, Mo

56

Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 \\mbox{eV}$ and $8.8 \\mbox{eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2)\\mbox{s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600)\\mbox{s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

Jeet, Justin; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 {eV}$ and $8.8 {eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2){s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600){s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

Justin Jeet; Christian Schneider; Scott T. Sullivan; Wade G. Rellergert; Saed Mirzadeh; A. Cassanho; H. P. Jenssen; Eugene V. Tkalya; Eric R. Hudson

2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

58

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: ē Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. ē Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. ē Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. ē Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. ē Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. ē Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. ē Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARMís Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

TP Ackerman; AD Del Genio; RG Ellingson; RA Ferrare; SA Klein; GM McFarquhar; PJ Lamb; CN Long; J Verlinde

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

S17 near Zero Energy in a Direct Radiative Capture Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S17 near zero energy was calculated without using the effective expansion of the S factor or the asymptotic wave functions. Variations of the nuclear potential parameters scarcely affect the d-wave capture cross section below 0.1 MeV, but the s-wave capture cross section near zero energy is affected strongly by the shape of the nuclear potential in our calculations. This result is contrary to the existing assumption that the value of the S factor near zero energy depends on the asymptotic wave function (or asymptotic normalization coefficient). We showed that although the s-wave contribution is dominant near zero energy, the d-wave contribution is not negligible.

Kyung Hoon Kim

2011-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: ē Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) ē Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) ē Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) ē Upwelling shortwave (reflected) ē Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) ē Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

Stoffel, T

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Observation of early shell-dopant mix in OMEGA direct-drive implosions and comparisons with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved x-ray image data from direct-drive implosions on OMEGA were interpreted with the aid of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Neither clean calculations nor those using a turbulent mix model can explain fully the observed migration of shell-dopant material (titanium) into the core. Shell-dopant migration was observed via time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, and spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray images of capsule implosions and resultant dopant emissions. The titanium emission was centrally peaked in narrowband x-ray images. In post-processed clean simulations, the peak titanium emission forms in a ring in self-emission images as the capsule implodes. Post-processed simulations with mix reproduce trends in time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, as well having centrally peaked Ti emission in synthetic multiple monochromatic imager. However, mix simulations still do not transport Ti to the core as is observed in the experiment. This suggests that phenomena in addition to the turbulent mix must be responsible for the transport of Ti. Simple diffusion estimates are unable to explain the early Ti mix into the core. Mechanisms suggested for further study are capsule surface roughness, illumination non-uniformity, and shock entrainment.

Baumgaertel, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Tregillis, I. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Johns, H.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Asymptotic normalization coefficients (nuclear vertex constants) for $p+^7Be\\to ^8B$ and the direct $^7Be(p,?)^8B$ astrophysical S-factors at solar energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new analysis of the precise experimental astrophysical S-factors for the direct capture $^7Be(p,\\gamma)$ $^8B$ reaction [A.J.Junghans et al.Phys.Rev. C 68 (2003) 065803 and L.T. Baby et al. Phys.Rev. C 67 (2003) 065805] is carried out based on the modified two - body potential approach in which the direct astrophysical S-factor, $ {\\rm S_{17}(E)}$, is expressed in terms of the asymptotic normalization constants for $p+^7Be\\to ^8B$ and two additional conditions are involved to verify the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration. The Woods-Saxon potential form is used for the bound ($p+^7Be$)- state wave function and for the $p^7Be$- scattering wave function. New estimates are obtained for the $^{\\glqq}$indirectly measured\\grqq values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for the $p+^7Be\\to ^8B$ and $S_{17}(E)$ at E$\\le$ 115 keV, including $E$=0. These values of $S_{17}(E)$ and asymptotic normalization constants have been used for getting information about the $^{\\glqq}$indirectly measured\\grqq values of the $s$ wave average scattering length and the $p$ wave effective range parameters for $p^7Be$- scattering.

S. B. Igamov; R. Yarmukhamedov

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Estimating direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation for various cities in Iran by two methods and their comparison with the measured data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two computational methods for calculating hourly, daily, and monthly average values of direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation on horizontal collectors have been presented in this article for location with different latitude, altitude, and atmospheric conditions in Iran. These methods were developed using two different independent sets of measured data from the Iranian Meteorological Organization (IMO) for two cities in Iran (Tehran and Isfahan) during 14 years of measurement for Tehran and 4 years of measurement for Isfahan. Comparison of calculated monthly average global solar radiation, using the two models for Tehran and Isfahan with measured data from the IMO, has indicated a good agreement between them. Then these developed methods were extended to another location (city of Bandar-Abbas), where measured data are not available. But the work of Daneshyar predicts its monthly global radiation. The maximum discrepancy of 7% between the developed models and the work of Daneshyar was observed.

Ashjaee, M.; Roomina, M.R.; Ghafouri-Azar, R. (Univ. of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

RADIATION SENSITIVITY & PROCESSING OF DNA DAMAGE FOLLOWING LOW DOSES OF GAMMA-RAY ALPHA PARTICLES & HZE IRRADIATION OF NORMAL DSB REPAIR DEFICIENT CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) predominates in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) over homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ occurs throughout the cell cycle whereas HR occurs in late S/G2 due to the requirement of a sister chromatid (Rothkamm et al, Mol Cell Biol 23 5706-15 [2003]). To date evidence obtained with DSB repair deficient cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed the major pathway throughout all phases of the cell cycle for processing high dose induced DSBs is NHEJ (Wang et al, Oncogene 20 2212-24 (2001); Pluth et al, Cancer Res. 61 2649-55 [2001]). These findings however were obtained at high doses when on average >> 20-30 DSBs are formed per cell. The contribution of the repair pathways (NHEJ and HR) induced in response to DNA damage during the various phases of the cell cycle may depend upon the dose (the level of initial DSBs) especially since low levels of DSBs are induced at low dose. To date, low dose studies using NHEJ and HR deficient mutants have not been carried out to address this important question with radiations of different quality. The work presented here leads us to suggest that HR plays a relatively minor role in the repair of radiation-induced prompt DSBs. SSBs lead to the induction of DSBs which are associated specifically with S-phase cells consistent with the idea that they are formed at stalled replication forks in which HR plays a major role in repair. That DNA-PKcs is in some way involved in the repair of the precursors to replication-induced DSB remains an open question. Persistent non-DSB oxidative damage also leads to an increase in RAD51 positive DSBs. Both simple and complex non-DSB DNA damage may therefore contribute to indirect DSBs induced by ionising radiation at replication forks.

O'Neil, Peter

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African easterly waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan air layer on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximumtropical cyclone activity, in years 2003Ė07. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, mostAEWsintensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. The authors conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

66

Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Finland by M. HW1'aien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries ineluding the United States where Perez (1986) presented a method for deriving beam radiation from a series of vertically mounted pyranometers...

Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDopplerdownwelling irradiance ARM

68

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDopplerdownwellingdiffuse

69

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection J. Kenneth Shultis Richard E. Faw Department@triad.rr.com Radiation Fields and Sources ................................................ . Radiation Field Variables........................................................... .. Direction and Solid Angle Conventions ......................................... .. Radiation Fluence

Shultis, J. Kenneth

70

Direct Plan Comparison of RapidArc and CyberKnife for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compared the treatment planning performance of RapidArc (RA) vs. CyberKnife (CK) for spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Ten patients with spinal lesions who had been treated with CK were re-planned with RA, which consisted of two complete arcs. Computed tomography (CT) and volumetric dose data of CK, generated using the Multiplan (Accuray) treatment planning system (TPS) and the Ray-Trace algorithm, were imported to Varian Eclipse TPS in Dicom format, and the data were compared with the RA plan using analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) dose calculation. The optimized dose priorities for both CK and RA plans were similar for all patients. The highest priority was to provide enough dose coverage to the planned target volume (PTV) while limiting the maximum dose to the spinal cord. Plan quality was evaluated with respect to PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), high-dose spillage, intermediate-dose spillage (R50% and D2cm), and maximum dose to the spinal cord, which are criteria recommended ...

Choi, Young Eun; Song, Si Yeol; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Cho, Byungchul

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

74

Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

75

ccsd00003444, Jordan Normal and Rational Normal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the characteristic polynomial can be fully factorized (see e.g. Fortuna-Gianni for rational normal forms

76

Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, B.T.

1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

79

DOE Radiation Records Contacts List  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

80

Conformal Universality in Normal Matrix Ensembles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A remarkable property of Hermitian ensembles is their universal behavior, that is, once properly rescaled the eigenvalue statistics does not depend on particularities of the ensemble. Recently, normal matrix ensembles have attracted increasing attention, however, questions on universality for these ensembles still remain under debate. We analyze the universality properties of random normal ensembles. We show that the concept of universality used for Hermitian ensembles cannot be directly extrapolated to normal ensembles. Moreover, we show that the eigenvalue statistics of random normal matrices with radially symmetric potential can be made universal under a conformal transformation.

Alexei M. Veneziani; Tiago Pereira; Domingos H. U. Marchetti

2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Sensitivity Study of the Effects of Mineral Dust Particle Nonsphericity and Thin Cirrus Clouds on MODIS Dust Optical Depth Retrievals and Direct Radiative Forcing Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A special challenge posed by mineral dust aerosols is associated with their predominantly nonspherical particle shapes. In the present study, the scattering and radiative properties for nonspherical mineral dust aerosols at violet-to-blue (0.412, 0...

Feng, Qian

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

83

Directional gamma detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . . Home Page Title Page Page 683 of 711 Go Back Full quadratic form associated with a surface. #12;Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . . Home Page Title Page Page 684 of 711 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit The component g is called the geodesic

Gallier, Jean

85

PCB Radiation Mechanisms: Using Component-Level Measurements to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 PCB Radiation Mechanisms: Using Component-Level Measurements to PCB Radiation Mechanisms: Using Component-Level Measurements to Determine System-Level Radiated EmissionsDetermine System-Level Radiated Radiation Directly from PCB StructuresRadiation Directly from PCB Structures Signal or component voltage

Stuart, Steven J.

86

Directives Tools  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

87

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a ďResearch to Development to ApplicationĒ structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Directed Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directed Energy The Directed Energy Program provides laser systems design, engineering and production for specific applications and missions, experimentally validated...

93

Method for microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

94

Direct 2-Arm Comparison Shows Benefit of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost vs External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with a single schedule of either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost or EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: From 2001-2006, 344 patients received EBRT with HDRB boost for definitive treatment of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. The prescribed EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 23 fractions, with a HDR boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions. This cohort was compared to a contemporaneously treated cohort who received EBRT to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, using a matched pair analysis. Three-dimensional conformal EBRT was used. Matching was performed using a propensity score matching technique. High-risk patients constituted 41% of the matched cohorts. Five-year clinical and biochemical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Initial significant differences in prognostic indicators between the unmatched treatment cohorts were rendered negligible after matching, providing a total of 688 patients. Median biochemical follow-up was 60.5 months. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 79.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.3%-85.0%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 65.4%-76.0%) for the HDRB and EBRT groups, respectively, equating to a hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81, P=.0011). Interaction analyses showed no alteration in HDR efficacy when planned androgen deprivation therapy was administered (P=.95), but a strong trend toward reduced efficacy was shown compared to EBRT in high-risk cases (P=.06). Rates of grade 3 urethral stricture were 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.9%) and 11.8% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) for EBRT and HDRB, respectively (P<.0001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Conclusions: This comparison of 2 individual contemporaneously treated HDRB and EBRT approaches showed improved freedom from biochemical progression with the HDR approach. The benefit was more pronounced in intermediate- risk patients but needs to be weighed against an increased risk of urethral toxicity.

Khor, Richard [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia) [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Chander, Sarat; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Garth, Margaret [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott, E-mail: Scott.Williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

96

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

97

Deconvolution in Random Effects Models via Normal Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation describes a minimum distance method for density estimation when the variable of interest is not directly observed. It is assumed that the underlying target density can be well approximated by a mixture of normals. The method...

Litton, Nathaniel A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

Normal Agricultural Operations and Dove Hunting in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: baiting Doves are migratory birds, and dove hunting is therefore regulated by the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act, which specifically prohibits baiting. Under federal law, baiting is the direct or indirect placing, exposing, depositing, distributing... considers this acceptable to hunt over. A problem arises, however, as to what constitutes a ?normal agricultural operation.? For the purpose of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act ?normal agricultural operation? means a normal agricultural planting...

Redmon, Larry

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Decreased aortic growth and middle aortic syndrome in patients with neuroblastoma after radiation therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2004) Radiation doses in pediatric radiology: influence ofPediatric thoracic aorta: normal measurements determined with CT. Radiology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

102

Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Panjehpour, Masoud (Knoxville, TN); Overholt, Bergein F. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Normal matter storage of antiprotons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

Campbell, L.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL: Radiation Safety Officer (479) 263 iii FOREWORD RADIATION SAFETY is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students who are directly or indirectly involved in the use of radionuclides or radiation-producing machines. The Radiation

Li, Jiali

106

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

107

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le confťrencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrŰle des zones et les prťcautions ŗ prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

108

Directives System  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. FY 1991 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU`s), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Radiator debris removing apparatus and work machine using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiator assembly includes a finned radiator core and a debris removing apparatus having a compressed air inlet and at least one compressed air outlet configured to direct compressed air through the radiator core. A work machine such as a wheel loader includes a radiator and a debris removing apparatus coupled with on-board compressed air and having at least one pressurized gas outlet configured to direct a gas toward the face of the radiator.

Martin, Kevin L. (Washburn, IL); Elliott, Dwight E. (Chillicothe, IL)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

113

RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 402408 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of low- dose risks extrapolated from intermediate doses, where direct effects dominate. 2001 by Radiation produced by ionizing radiation occurs when the radiation acts on DNA, either by directly ionizing the DNA402 RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 402­408 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00 2001 by Radiation Research Society

Brenner, David Jonathan

114

Directives Help  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

115

Directional drilling sub  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A directional drilling ''sub'' provides a shifting end portion which allows the sub to be rotated from a first in-line axially straight orientation with the drill string to a second angled or ''bent'' position which second position is normally associated with conventional bent ''subs'' which are permanently structured in the bent position. The device shifts from the first (In-line) position to the second (Bent) position upon the application of torsional force thereto which torsional force can be applied, for example, by the actuation of a ''turbodrill'' (Normally attached thereto in operation). The device can be manufactured or machined to provide varying angles to the sub in its bent position to satisfy differing directional drilling situations. The axially aligned first position allows easy entry of the drill string, sub , and turbodrill into the well hole, while the second bend position is used to commence directional drilling. The sub will return gradually to its original axially aligned position when the device is withdrawn from the wellhole, as such position is the path of minimum resistance for the withdrawing drill string and torsion is not present to hold the sub in the bent position.

Benoit, L.F.

1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

116

Radiative capture of nucleons at astrophysical energies with single-particle states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative capture of nucleons at energies of astrophysical interest is one of the most important processes for nucleosynthesis. The nucleon capture can occur either by a compound nucleus reaction or by a direct process. The compound reaction cross sections are usually very small, specially for light nuclei. The direct capture proceeds either via the formation of a single-particle resonance, or a non-resonant capture process. In this work we calculate radiative capture cross sections and astrophysical S-factors for nuclei in the mass region Acapture process. Then we produce a detailed list of cases for which the model works well. Useful quantities, such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients, are obtained and compared to published data.

J. T. Huang; C. A. Bertulani; V. Guimaraes

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

117

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Radiative ?(1S) decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ó wW~ ii~ ~ + v~ 1''&WV'' V 0.20 0.45 0.70 ~y ~ EBFA~ 0.95 l.20 FIG. 4. Energy spectrum (normalized to beam energy) for Y~y2(h+h ) event candidates, with continuum data and ex- pected background from Y~m 2(h +h ) overplotted. 40 30ó ~ 20ó LLI IOó hl...PHYSICAL REVIEW 0 VOLUME 41, NUMBER 5 Radiative T(lS) decays 1 MARCH 1990 R. Fulton, M. Hempstead, T. Jensen, D. R. Johnson, H. Kagan, R. Kass, F. Morrow, and J. Whitmore Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 W.-Y. Chen, J. Dominick, R. L. Mc...

Baringer, Philip S.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Superconducting Tunnel Junctions as Direct Detectors for Submillimeter Astronomy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superconducting Tunnel Junctions as Direct Detectors for Submillimeter Astronomy A Dissertation 2008 by John Daniel Teufel. All rights reserved. #12;Abstract Superconducting Tunnel Junctions on the of performance of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) as direct detectors for submillimeter radiation. Over

123

Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

August 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 5 -Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

August 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 5 - Training UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 5-1 Section 5 Radiation Safety Training Contents A. Individuals Directly Using Radioactive Materials..........................................5-1 1. Regulations for Training.................................................................. 5

Wilcock, William

125

Continental-scale net radiation and evapotranspiration estimated using MODIS satellite observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mean direct and diffuse radiation data from the GEWEX/SRBa new generation of radiation budget data that use up to 11Project Surface Radiation Budget (GAPP/SRB) data (http://

Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office 130 DeSoto Street G-7 Parran with sources of ionizing radiation are required to be instructed in the basic principles of radiation protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide

Sibille, Etienne

127

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

128

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute radiation enteritis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: tissues. Other types of radiation do some harm to normal tissues as they enter and exit the tumor area... . Proton radiation has an entering dose but no exit dose of...

130

Integrating fiber optic radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research effort was to determine the feasibility of forming a radiation sensor coupled to an optical fiber capable of measuring gamma photon, x-ray, and beta particle dose rates and integrated dose, and to construct a prototype dosimeter read-out system utilizing the fiber optic sensor. The key component of the prototype dosimeter system is a newly developed radiation sensitive storage phosphor. When this phosphor is excited by energetic radiation, a proportionate population of electron-hole pairs are created which become trapped at specific impurities within the phosphor. Trapped electrons can subsequently be stimulated optically with near-infrared at approximately 1 micrometer wavelength; the electrons can recombine with holes at luminescent centers to produce a luminescence which is directly proportional to the trapped electron population, and thus to the radiation exposure. By attaching the phosphor to the end of an optical fiber, it is possible to transmit both the IR optical stimulation and the characteristic phosphor luminescence through the fiber to and from the read-out instrument, which can be located far (e.g., kilometers) from the radiation field. This document reports on the specific design of the prototype system and its operating characteristics, including its sensitivity to various radiation dose rates and energies, its dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio at various radiation intensities, and other system characteristics. Additionally, the radiation hardness of the phosphor and fiber are evaluated. 17 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs.

Soltani, P.K.; Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Creager, R.E.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Bistructures, Bidomains and Linear Pierre-Louis Curien, LIENS, CNRSEcole Normale Superieure, Paris, France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bistructures, Bidomains and Linear Logic Pierre-Louis Curien, LIENS, CNRS­Ecole Normale Sup hope that the structures isolated here will help in the search for a direct, extensional

Plotkin, Gordon

132

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

133

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Asymptotic normalization coefficients for B-10->Be-9+p  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

started the Asymptotic normalization coefficient A. M. Mukhamedzhanov, H. L. Clark, C. A. Gagliardi, Y.-W Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University V. Burjan, J. Cejpek Institute for Nuclear Physics, Czech Academ F. Carstoi Institute of Atomic...! the 7Be(p ,g)8B radiative capture cross section at ver astrophysics. @S0556-2813~97!02109-2# PACS number~s!: 25.70.Hi, 21.10.Jx, 24.10.Ht, 25.70.B I. INTRODUCTION Despite considerable experimental and theoretical progress in determining...

Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Clark, HL; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Lui, YW; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Xu, HM; Zhou, XG; Burjan, V.; Cejpek, J.; Kroha, V.; Carstoiu, F.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Turing's normal numbers: towards randomness Veronica Becher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presumably in 1938 Alan Turing gave an algorithm that produces real numbers normal to every integer base- putable normal numbers, and this result should be attributed to Alan Turing. His manuscript entitled "A

136

University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

137

Indirect methods of determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients and their application for nuclear astrophysics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic methods of the determination of asymptotic normalization coefficient for A+a?B of astrophysical interest are briefly presented. The results of the application of the specific asymptotic normalization coefficients derived within these methods for the extrapolation of the astrophysical S factors to experimentally inaccessible energy regions (E ? 25 keV) for the some specific radiative capture A(a,?)B reactions of the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are presented.

Yarmukhamedov, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 100214 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

139

SMITH NORMAL FORM AND LAPLACIANS DINO LORENZINI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMITH NORMAL FORM AND LAPLACIANS DINO LORENZINI Abstract. Let M denote the Laplacian matrix of a graph G. Associated with G is a finite group (G), obtained from the Smith normal form of M, and whose /Im(M). This group can be computed in practice using the Smith normal form of M, as follows. Given any

Lorenzini, Dino J.

140

Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot Dainis ZEPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot Dainis ZEPS Abstract We consider combinatorial maps's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Standoff alpha radiation detection via excited state absorption of air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A standoff alpha radiation detection technique based on the physical mechanism of excited state absorption of air molecules was explored and is presented in this paper. Instead of directly detecting the radiation via measuring the intensity of radiation induced air fluorescence, the radiation is detected via the excited state absorption of alpha radiation excited/ionized air molecules. Both theoretical analyses and experimental verifications were conducted. The experimental results confirmed that the radiation could be detected via excited state absorption of radiation excited/ionized air molecules at a 10 m standoff distance, which was consistent with the theoretical analyses.

Yao, Jimmy; Yin, Stuart Shizhuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Brenizer, Jack [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hui, Rongqing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

142

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

145

A comparison of data from SOLMET/ERSATZ and the National Solar Radiation Data Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report compares data from the new National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) with data from the earlier SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. It compares the two data bases, station-by-station, with respect to their long-term average daily values of global horizontal and direct normal solar radiation. We conclude that on an annual basis, NSRDB values for global horizontal radiation are within [plus minus]5% of SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 60% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 30% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 10% of the stations. On an annual basis for direct nominal radiation, the NSRDB values are with [plus minus]5% of the SOLMET/ERSATZ data for only 40% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 45% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 15% of the stations. In general, the NSRDB shows higher values of solar radiation for the eastern United States, particularly the Northeast, and lower values for some of the western states (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming). However, because some of the stations within a state show higher values of solar radiation while others show lower values, this generalization may be misleading when concerned with a particular station. Consequently, the appendices provide tables showing a station-by-station comparison of the NSRDB and SOLMET/ERSATZ data. In addition to comparing annual values, the tables compare the two data bases for the months of August and December. This comparison shows larger differences between the two data bases for December.

Marion, W.; Myers, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A comparison of data from SOLMET/ERSATZ and the National Solar Radiation Data Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report compares data from the new National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) with data from the earlier SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. It compares the two data bases, station-by-station, with respect to their long-term average daily values of global horizontal and direct normal solar radiation. We conclude that on an annual basis, NSRDB values for global horizontal radiation are within {plus_minus}5% of SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 60% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 30% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 10% of the stations. On an annual basis for direct nominal radiation, the NSRDB values are with {plus_minus}5% of the SOLMET/ERSATZ data for only 40% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 45% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 15% of the stations. In general, the NSRDB shows higher values of solar radiation for the eastern United States, particularly the Northeast, and lower values for some of the western states (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming). However, because some of the stations within a state show higher values of solar radiation while others show lower values, this generalization may be misleading when concerned with a particular station. Consequently, the appendices provide tables showing a station-by-station comparison of the NSRDB and SOLMET/ERSATZ data. In addition to comparing annual values, the tables compare the two data bases for the months of August and December. This comparison shows larger differences between the two data bases for December.

Marion, W.; Myers, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Radiation-induced lung injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. (Yale Univ. Medical Center, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

149

Directives Help - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directives Help by Website Administrator All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a...

150

Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

Reich, Frederich R. (Richland, WA); Schwankoff, Albert R. (W. Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

10.1098/rspa.2001.0916 A normal form for nonlinear resonance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The structural instability of embedded eigen- values is typically one sided in such problems, i.e. the way. The normal form shows that the embedded soliton is semi-stable, i.e. it survives under perturbations of one solitons; nonlinear resonance; second-harmonic-generating wave system; radiation-driven semi

Yang, Jianke

152

Lambda hyperonic effect on the normal driplines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A generalized mass formula is used to calculate the neutron and proton drip lines of normal and lambda hypernuclei treating non-strange and strange nuclei on the same footing. Calculations suggest existence of several bound hypernuclei whose normal cores are unbound. Addition of Lambda or, Lambda-Lambda hyperon(s) to a normal nucleus is found to cause shifts of the neutron and proton driplines from their conventional limits.

C. Samanta; P. Roy Chowdhury; D. N. Basu

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

153

AUGUSTOSAGNOTTI ScuolaNormaleSuperiore-Pisa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JoelScherk,unfisicodell'Eco- le Normale Supérieure di Parigi scomparso prematuramente nel- l'80. La stessa Teoria, creata nel 1968

Abbondandolo, Alberto

154

alla Normale 1_la Scuola 9  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

funzione che in Francia viene svolta dalla gemella √?cole Normale Sup√©rieure di Parigi. A questa antica

Abbondandolo, Alberto

155

Coherent radiation diagnostics Bernhard Schmidt -FLA-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)exp(-it)dt - normalized charge density spectral energy density source characteristics (CSR,CTR,CER,CDR,SP..) - integral, 'longitudinal fingerprint' #12;CR ports at FLASH BC2 CSR port feeding "TOSYLAB" Beamline beeing `revised' new optics, vacuum BC2 CDR port -5-10 mm diffraction radiator - cryst. quartz window - two pyro detectors

156

Alpha Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OF RESEARCHThermal SolarAllocatioBasics of Radiation Gamma

157

Galaxies that Shine: radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of disk galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation feedback is typically implemented using subgrid recipes in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies. Very little work has so far been performed using radiation-hydrodynamics (RHD), and there is no consensus on the importance of radiation feedback in galaxy evolution. We present RHD simulations of isolated galaxy disks of different masses with a resolution of 18 pc. Besides accounting for supernova feedback, our simulations are the first galaxy-scale simulations to include RHD treatments of photo-ionisation heating and radiation pressure, from both direct optical/UV radiation and multi-scattered, re-processed infrared (IR) radiation. Photo-heating smooths and thickens the disks and suppresses star formation about as much as the inclusion of ("thermal dump") supernova feedback does. These effects decrease with galaxy mass and are mainly due to the prevention of the formation of dense clouds, as opposed to their destruction. Radiation pressure, whether from direct or IR radiation, has little effect, but ...

Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain; Agertz, Oscar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Extremal unital completely positive normal maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the convex set of unital completely positive normal map on a von-Neumann algebra and find a necessary and sufficient condition for an element in the convex set to be extremal. We also deal with the same problem for the convex subset which admits a faithful normal state.

Anilesh Mohari

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

159

Normalizing the causality between time series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula has been derived to evaluate the information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing three types of fundamental mechanisms that govern the marginal entropy change of the flow recipient. A normalized or relative flow measures its importance relative to other mechanisms. In analyzing realistic series, both absolute and relative information flows need to be taken into account, since the normalizers for a pair of reverse flows belong to two different entropy balances; it is quite normal that two identical flows may differ a lot in relative importance in their respective balances. We have reproduced these results with several autoregressive models. We have also shown applications to a climate change problem and a financial analysis problem. For the former, reconfirmed is the role of the Indian Ocean Dipole as ...

Liang, X San

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Departmental Directives Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order is the primary directive for administering the Department's directives Program. Cancels: DOE O 251.1A

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

162

Ultraviolet radiation as disinfection for fish surgical tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelomic cavity of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When fish are implanted consecutively, as in large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. To determine the efficacy for this application, ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used to disinfect surgical tools exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, causative agents of furunculosis, coldwater disease, bacterial kidney disease, and saprolegniasis (water mold), respectively. Four experiments were conducted to address the question of UV efficacy. In the first experiment, forceps were exposed to the three bacteria at three varying concentrations. After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods Ė 2, 5, or 15 min. UV radiation exposures at all durations were effective at killing all three bacteria on forceps at the highest bacteria concentrations. In the second experiment, stab scalpels, sutures, and needle holders were exposed to A. salmonicida using the same methodology as used in Experiment 1. UV radiation exposure at 5 and 15 min was effective at killing A. salmonicida on stab scalpels and sutures but not needle holders. In the third experiment, S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV radiation was effective at killing the water mold at all three exposure durations. Collectively, this study shows that UV radiation appears to provide a quick alternative disinfection technique to chemical disinfectants (e.g., ethanol) for some surgical tools. However, we do not recommend using this method for tools such as needle holders having overlapping parts or other structures that cannot be exposed directly to UV radiation

Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Geist, David R.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

163

Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine)] [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

Kirk, Alexander P. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Kirk, Wiley P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2. Radiation Safety Committee (RSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4. Radiation Safety Office (RSO

Rubloff, Gary W.

166

The two dimensional Cerenkov radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive the power spectrum of photons generated by charged particle moving in parallel direction to the graphene-like structure with index of refraction n. While the graphene sheet is conductive, some graphene-like structures, for instance graphene with implanted ions, or, also 2D-glasses, are dielectric media, and it means that it enables the experimental realization of the Cerenkov radiation. We calculate it from the viewpoint of the Schwinger theory of sources.

Miroslav Pardy

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

167

Climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk formulae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an open ocean with the same amount of net longwave radiation. Furthermore, the twofold climatic regime's climate system is the net radiation budget at the ocean surface. Due to the scarcity of direct radiationClimatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

SciTech Connect: Direct Modeling of Scintillator Thickness for...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

and a direct way of doing this is using Monte Carlo-based radiation transport codes. Such simulations can be expensive in terms of computational time, and the codes are...

169

Radiation of a neutral polarizable particle moving uniformly through a thermal radiation field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the properties of thermal electromagnetic radiation produced by a neutral polarizable nanoparticle moving with an arbitrary relativistic velocity in a heated vacuum background with a fixed temperature. We show that the particle in its own rest frame acquires the radiation temperature of vacuum, multiplied by a velocity-dependent factor, and then emits thermal photons predominantly in the forward direction. The intensity of radiation proves to be much higher than for the particle at rest. For metal particles with high energy, the ratio of emitted and absorbed radiation power is proportional to the Lorentz-factor squared.

G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - airworthiness directives fokker Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

scattering media Summary: direction and it becomes difficult to solve the radiative transport equation, we replace it with either... the Fokker-Planck or the Leakeas-Larsen...

171

Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

173

Directional excitation of graphene surface plasmons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a scheme to directionally couple light into graphene plasmons by placing a graphene sheet on a magneto-optical substrate. When a magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface, the graphene plasmon dispersion relation becomes asymmetric in the forward and backward directions. It is possible to achieve unidirectional excitation of graphene plasmons with normally incident illumination by applying a grating to the substrate. The directionality can be actively controlled by electrically gating the graphene, or by varying the magnetic bias. This scheme may have applications in graphene-based opto-electronics and sensing.

Liu, Fangli; Chong, Y D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

Myers, D. R.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Silicon-based optical leaky wave antenna with narrow beam radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

achievable in the electric far-field radiation magnitude inelectric far-field along the direction ? max of maximum radiationelectric field along the aperture. 4.3 Far-field radiation

Song, Qi; Campione, Salvatore; Boyraz, Ozdal; Capolino, Filippo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION DAMAGE AND FLUX MONITOR. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS TO THE GENERAL THEORY OF RADIATION DAMAGE Re-direct...

177

Planck's Radiation Law in the Quantized Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physical research looks for clues to quantum properties of the gravitational field. On the basis of the common Schr\\"odinger theory, a simple model of the quantization of a Friedmann universe comprising dust and radiation is investigated. With regard to energy quantization, the result suggests a universal limitation of the energy spacing between neighbouring quantum states by the Planck energy. Applied to black-body radiation, a modified Planck radiation law follows. If this could be verified in the laboratory, it would provide a direct hint at quantum properties of the space-time manifold.

Rainer Collier

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Directives Quarterly Updates  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

179

Another face of DIRECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

authors, see for example, tree-Direct [5]. This paper ..... [4] J.M. Gablonsky, Modifications of the DIRECT Algorithm, Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State. University†...

chiter

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Directional measurements for sources of fission neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although penetrating neutron and gamma-ray emissions arguably provide the most effective signals for locating sources of nuclear radiation, their relatively low fluxes make searching for radioactive materials a tedious process. Even assuming lightly shielded sources and detectors with large areas and high efficiencies, estimated counting times can exceed several minutes for source separations greater than ten meters. Because determining the source position requires measurements at several locations, each with its own background, the search procedure can be lengthy and difficult to automate. Although directional measurements can be helpful, conventional collimation reduces count rates and increases the detector size and weight prohibitively, especially for neutron instruments. We describe an alternative approach for locating radiation sources that is based on the concept of a polarized radiation field. In this model, the presence of a source adds a directional component to the randomly oriented background radiation. The net direction of the local field indicates the source angle, and the magnitude provides an estimate of the distance to the source. The search detector is therefore seen as a device that responds to this polarized radiation field. Our proposed instrument simply substitutes segmented detectors for conventional single-element ones, so it requires little or no collimating material or additional weight. Attenuation across the detector creates differences in the count rates for opposite segments, whose ratios can be used to calculate the orthogonal components of the polarization vector. Although this approach is applicable to different types of radiation and detectors, in this report we demonstrate its use for sources of fission neutrons by using a prototype fast-neutron detector, which also provides background-corrected energy spectra for the incident neutrons.

Byrd, R.C.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

182

Radiation source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

Huang, Norden E.

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY RESEARCH INVESTIGATION DIRECTED TOWARD EXTENDING  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRIC CNMSMethanoliVP-^"^^? COLUMBIA

185

COMPARISON OF METHODOLOGIES TO ESTIMATE DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIATION FROM DAILY VALUES OF GLOBAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The reason is that a dual automatic tracker was installed by the end of 1999, providing better DNI 2-axis tracker. Measurements have been recorded every 5 seconds, but for the purpose of this work Sevilla (Spain). Phone: (+34) 954487233. Fax: (+34) 954 487233. E-mail: saramt@esi.us.es 2 Solar Thermal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Electrical Engineering (Applied Ocean Sciences) byElectrical Engineering (Applied Ocean Sciences) University

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on an Eppley SMT-3 Solar Tracker. The SMT-3 can orient in aPSP mounted on a SMT-3 Solar Tracker. All of the DNI, GHI

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

RADIATION MEASUREMENTS BY BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY DURING THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION INTERCOMPARISON STUDY, MAY-JUNE 2000.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The WHOI buoy radiometer intercomparison took place during May and June, 2000 at the WHOI facility. The WHOI IMET, JAMSTEC Triton, and NOAA TAO buoy systems were operated from a beach site and the Brookhaven National Laboratory set up two Portable Radiation Package systems (P01 and P02) alongside the WHOI instrumentation on the roof of the Clark Building, about 300 m away. The BNL instruments were named ''P01'' and ''P02'' and were identical. Buoy instruments were all leveled to {+-}1{degree} to horizontal. The purpose of the project was to compare the buoy systems with precision measurements so that any differences in data collection or processing would be evaluated. BNL was pleased to participate so the PRP system could be evaluated as a calibration tool. The Portable Radiation Package is an integral component of the BNL Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR) system. It is designed to make accurate downwelling radiation measurements, including the three solar irradiance components (direct normal, diffuse and global) at six narrowband channels, aerosol optical depth measurements, and broadband longwave and shortwave irradiance measurements.

REYNOLDS, R.M.; BARTHOLOMEW, M.J.; MILLER, M.A.; SMITH, S.; EDWARDS, R.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized Monthly Temperature Normals3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 1 A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized a constrained harmonic technique that forces the daily30 temperature normals to be consistent with the monthly, or harmonic even though the annual march of temperatures for some locations can be highly asymmetric. Here, we

190

Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Sandia Park, NM); Powers, Dana A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zhang, Zhenyuan (Durham, NC)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

191

Directives Quarterly Updates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives

192

University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

193

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

194

Solid state laser disk amplifer architecture: the normal-incidence stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Normal incidence stack architecture coupled with the development of diode array pumping enables the power/energy per disk to be increased, a reduction in beam distortions by orders of magnitude, a beam propagation no longer restricted to only one direction of polarization, and the laser becomes so much more amendable to robust packaging.

Dane, C. Brent; Albrecht, Georg F.; Rotter, Mark D.

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

195

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

A. A. Saharian

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

Saharian, A A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Tunable and collimated terahertz radiation generation by femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanism is proposed for the generation of tunable terahertz (THz) radiation under the application of two femtosecond laser pulses and an external magnetic field, where quick tunnel ionization is achieved that leads to higher plasma density evolution and large residual current for the efficient THz radiation generation. With the optimization of magnetic field, phase difference, and amplitudes of lasers' fields, a THz source can be obtained with tunable frequency and power along with a control on the direction of radiation emission.

Malik, Hitendra K.; Malik, Anil K.

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

198

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Abstract. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Transformation of a normal cell to a malignant one  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Transformation of a normal regulators of growth. Biomarkers associated with cancer were examined in human breast epithelial cells transformed by high-LET radiation in the presence of 17√?-estradiol. An established cancer model was used

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

IX. IMPACT OF AEROSOLS FROM THE ERUPTION OF EL CHICHN ON BEAM RADIATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measured on clear days the effects of normal climatic differences are avoided. Solar radiation data taken of following this procedure for the clear day solar noon global radiation is shown in Fig. 21. The data shown27 IX. IMPACT OF AEROSOLS FROM THE ERUPTION OF EL CHICH√?N ON BEAM RADIATION IN THE PACIFIC

Oregon, University of

202

Di usion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equations in a Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

direction. 1 #12; 1 Introduction Radiative transport equations were #12;rst used to describe the propagationDi#11;usion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equations in a Channel Guillaume Bal Department by a di#11;usion equation. However, the thickness of the crust is of the order of the transport mean free

Bal, Guillaume

203

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

204

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

207

Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated energy rates and normalized weather data in determining an energy service company's (ESCO's)...

208

Direct/Indirect Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Direct Loan Program (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Connecticut Development Authorityís Direct Loan Program provides direct senior and subordinated loans and mezzanine investments to companies creating or maintaining jobs. Up to $20,000 per job...

210

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Directives System Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

Direct process for explosives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

213

WI Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

214

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

215

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

216

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous Broadening: Limitations of the Single Bloch Vector Model of inhomoge- neous broadening on radiation damping of free precession signals have been described using 13: 1 7, 2001 KEY WORDS: radiation damping; FID shape; inhomogeneous broadening The phenomenon

Augustine, Mathew P.

217

astroph/9507030 Gravitational Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

astro­ph/9507030 10 Jul 95 Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Ted Pyne of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein­de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

218

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

219

Directives Templates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct:Directives Templates by Website Administrator Directives

220

Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational waves affect the observed direction of light from distant sources. At telescopes, this change in direction appears as periodic variations in the apparent positions of these sources on the sky; that is, as proper motion. A wave of a given phase, traveling in a given direction, produces a characteristic pattern of proper motions over the sky. Comparison of observed proper motions with this pattern serves to test for the presence of gravitational waves. A stochastic background of waves induces apparent proper motions with specific statistical properties, and so, may also be sought. In this paper we consider the effects of a cosmological background of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein-de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation. We also show how to obtain similar expressions for curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes.

Ted Pyne; Carl R. Gwinn; Mark Birkinshaw; T. Marshall Eubanks; Demetrios N. Matsakis

1995-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Normal incidence detection of ultraviolet, visible, and mid-infrared radiation in a single  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

30303, USA 2 NDP Optronics LLC, Mableton, Georgia 30126, USA 3 Institute for Microstructural Sciences

Perera, A. G. Unil

222

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Advances in target normal sheath acceleration theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical model of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) process, able to go beyond the limits of available descriptions, is developed. It allows to achieve a more satisfactory interpretation of TNSA. The theory, also supported by two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, elucidates the role played by the main laser and target parameters. Comparison between model predictions and experimental data related to the target thickness dependence of the maximum ion energy is discussed, showing satisfactory agreement. The model can be used as a simple but effective tool to guide the design of future experiments.

Passoni, M.; Sgattoni, A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, and Sezione di Milano INFN, Milan (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, and Sezione di Milano INFN, Milan (Italy); Perego, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŗ di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŗ di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Batani, D. [Universitť Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France) [Universitť Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, and Sezione di Milano INFN, Milan (Italy)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms Radiation Radiation is energy in transit in the form of high not carry enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly

Vallino, Joseph J.

225

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

226

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly. T. Fasullo (2009), Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett

Fasullo, John

227

Radiation due to Josephson oscillations in layered superconductors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive the power of direct radiation into free space induced by Josephson oscillations in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered superconductors. We consider the superradiation regime for a crystal cut in the form of a thin slice parallel to the c axis. We find that the radiation correction to the current-voltage characteristic in this regime depends only on crystal shape. We show that at a large number of junctions oscillations are synchronized providing high radiation power and efficiency in the terahertz frequency range. We discuss the crystal parameters and bias current optimal for radiation power and crystal cooling.

Bulaevskii, L. N.; Koshelev, A. E.; Materials Science Division; LANL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Dissecting Soft Radiation with Factorization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It includes soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization-violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects, and we use a QCD factorization theorem to predict its dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. We prove that the nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of $R$, and the linear $R$ term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event, but this degeneracy is broken by dependence on the jet $p_T$. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for $gg\\to Hg$ and $gq\\to Zq$, but a negative interference contribution for $q\\bar q\\to Z g$. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

Iain W. Stewart; Frank J. Tackmann; Wouter J. Waalewijn

2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

230

Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

233

Fermion Quasi-normal modes of the Kerr Black-Hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we study the fermion quasi-normal modes of a 4-dimensional rotating black-hole using the WKB(J) (to third and sixth order) and the AIM semi-analytic methods in the massless Dirac fermion sector. These semi-analytic approximations are computed in a pedagogical manner with comparisons made to the numerical values of the quasi-normal mode frequencies presented in the literature. It was found that The WKB(J) method and AIM show good agreement with direct numerical solutions for low values of the overtone number $n$ and angular quantum number l.

W. A. Carlson; A. S. Cornell; B. Jordan

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

234

Directives System Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1, which establishes requirements for the development, coordination, and sunset review of DOE directives.

1995-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

235

Departmental Directives Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors.

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

236

Direct Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Direct Loan Program, is designed to allow businesses to obtain the long term financing needed to encourage growth. The Kentucky Economic Development Finance Authority (KEDFA) may participate...

237

kt Effects in Direct-Photon Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the phenomenology of initial-state parton-kt broadening in direct-photon production and related processes in hadron collisions. After a brief summary of the theoretical basis for a Gaussian-smearing approach, we present a systematic study of recent results on fixed-target and collider direct-photon production, using complementary data on diphoton and pion production to provide empirical guidance on the required amount of kt broadening. This approach provides a consistent description of the observed pattern of deviation of next-to-leading order QCD calculations relative to the direct-photon data, and accounts for the shape and normalization difference between fixed-order perturbative calculations and the data. We also discuss the uncertainties in this phenomenological approach, the implications of these results on the extraction of the gluon distribution of the nucleon, and the comparison of our findings to recent related work.

L. Apanasevich; C. Balazs; C. Bromberg; J. Huston; A. Maul; W. K. Tung; S. Kuhlmann; J. Owens; M. Begel; T. Ferbel; G. Ginther; P. Slattery; M. Zielinski

1998-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Resonant normal form and asymptotic normal form behavior in magnetic bottle Hamiltonians  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider normal forms in `magnetic bottle' type Hamiltonians of the form $H=\\frac{1}{2}(\\rho^2_\\rho+\\omega^2_1\\rho^2) +\\frac{1}{2}p^2_z+hot$ (second frequency $\\omega_2$ equal to zero in the lowest order). Our main results are: i) a novel method to construct the normal form in cases of resonance, and ii) a study of the asymptotic behavior of both the non-resonant and the resonant series. We find that, if we truncate the normal form series at order $r$, the series remainder in both constructions decreases with increasing $r$ down to a minimum, and then it increases with $r$. The computed minimum remainder turns to be exponentially small in $\\frac{1}{\\Delta E}$, where $\\Delta E$ is the mirror oscillation energy, while the optimal order scales as an inverse power of $\\Delta E$. We estimate numerically the exponents associated with the optimal order and the remainder's exponential asymptotic behavior. In the resonant case, our novel method allows to compute a `quasi-integral' (i.e. truncated formal integral) valid both for each particular resonance as well as away from all resonances. We applied these results to a specific magnetic bottle Hamiltonian. The non resonant normal form yields theorerical invariant curves on a surface of section which fit well the empirical curves away from resonances. On the other hand the resonant normal form fits very well both the invariant curves inside the islands of a particular resonance as well as the non-resonant invariant curves. Finally, we discuss how normal forms allow to compute a critical threshold for the onset of global chaos in the magnetic bottle.

C. Efthymiopoulos; M. Harsoula; G. Contopoulos

2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

Cerenkov radiation from moving straight strings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study Cerenkov radiation from moving straight strings which glisse with respect to each other in such a way that the projected intersection point moves faster than light. To calculate this effect we develop classical perturbation theory for the system of Nambu-Goto strings interacting with dilaton, two-form and gravity. In the first order one encounters divergent self-action terms which are eliminated by classical renormalization of the string tension. Cerenkov radiation arises in the second order. It is generated by an effective source which contains contributions localized on the strings world-sheets and bulk contributions quadratic in the first order fields. In the ultra-relativistic limit radiation exhibits angular peaking on the Cerenkov cone in the forward direction of the fast string in the rest frame of another. The radiation spectrum then extends up to high frequencies proportional to square of the Lorentz-factor of the relative velocity. Gravitational radiation is absent since the 1+2 space-time transverse to the straight string does not allow for gravitons. A rough estimate of the Cerenkov radiation in the cosmological cosmic strings network is presented.

D. V. Gal'tsov; E. Yu. Melkumova; K. Salehi

2006-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

240

Departmental Directives System  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order establishes the directives system to be used for publishing permanent and temporary directives issued by DOE Headquarters and addressed to Headquarters and/or field elements. Chg 1 dated 3-14-85. Cancels DOE 1321.1A.

1983-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Methods for implementing microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of performing radiation therapy includes delivering a therapeutic dose such as X-ray only to a target (e.g., tumor) with continuous broad beam (or in-effect continuous) using arrays of parallel planes of radiation (microbeams/microplanar beams). Microbeams spare normal tissues, and when interlaced at a tumor, form a broad-beam for tumor ablation. Bidirectional interlaced microbeam radiation therapy (BIMRT) uses two orthogonal arrays with inter-beam spacing equal to beam thickness. Multidirectional interlaced MRT (MIMRT) includes irradiations of arrays from several angles, which interleave at the target. Contrast agents, such as tungsten and gold, are administered to preferentially increase the target dose relative to the dose in normal tissue. Lighter elements, such as iodine and gadolinium, are used as scattering agents in conjunction with non-interleaving geometries of array(s) (e.g., unidirectional or cross-fired (intersecting) to generate a broad beam effect only within the target by preferentially increasing the valley dose within the tumor.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Morris, Gerard M.; Hainfeld, James F.

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled ďNormal and Emergency Operations VisualizationĒ for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

Greitzer, Frank L.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Solar radiation intensity calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

Levine, Randolph Steven

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Experimental and theoretical study of red-shifted solitonic resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers and generation of radiation seeded Raman solitons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The red shifted solitonic resonant radiation is a fascinating phase matching phenomenon that occurs when an optical pulse, launched in the normal dispersion regime of photonic crystal fiber, radiates across the zero dispersion wavelength. The formation of such phase-matched radiation is independent of the generation of any optical soliton and mainly governed by the leading edge of input pump which forms a shock front. The radiation is generated at the anomalous dispersion regime and found to be confined both in time and frequency domain. We experimentally investigate the formation of such radiations in photonic crystal fibers with detailed theoretical analysis. Our theoretical predictions corroborate well with experimental results. Further we extend our study for long length fiber and investigate the interplay between red-shifted solitonic resonant radiation and intrapulse Raman scattering (IPRS). It is observed that series of radiation-seeded Raman solitons are generated in anomalous dispersion regime.

Bose, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Rik; Pal, Mrinmay; Bhadra, Shyamal K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

246

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

247

Rotating bubble membrane radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

248

Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirections

249

Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theArea

250

Directives Help - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theAreaHelp by

251

Directives Quarterly Updates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theAreaHelp

252

Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on

253

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

254

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

255

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

256

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

257

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

258

RADIATIVE COOLING TEST FACILITY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 4 MIL ALUMINIZED POLYVINYL FLUORIDE AND WHITE PAINT SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as temperature, heater power, wind direction, etc. , thatcondensation) RCA 1026 (wind) c:: "7 = (power to heater) w (wind and windscreen condensation (white paint radiator). VARIOUS TEMPERATURES VS POWER

Kruskopf, Mark S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Characterizing the Performance of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer An Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With interest growing in the deployment of solar energy system, the accuracy of irradiance measurements becomes for concentrating solar energy systems. The Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) is used extensively for DNI and periods with clouds were excluded. The NIP is mounted on an automatic tracker that keeps the instrument

Oregon, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Light trapping for emission from a photovoltaic cell under normally incident monochromatic illumination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have theoretically demonstrated a new light-trapping mechanism to reduce emission from a photovoltaic (PV) cell used for a monochromatic light source, which improves limiting conversion efficiency determined by the detailed balance. A multilayered bandpass filter formed on the surface of a PV cell has been found to prevent the light generated inside by radiative recombination from escaping the cell, resulting in a remarkable decrease of the effective solid angle for the emission. We have clarified a guide to design a suitable configuration of the bandpass filter and achieved significant reduction of the emission. The resultant gain in monochromatic conversion efficiency in the radiative limit due to the optimally designed 18-layerd bandpass filters is as high as 6% under normally incident 1064?nm illumination of 10 mW/cm{sup 2?}??1?kW/cm{sup 2}, compared with the efficiency for the perfect anti-reflection treatment to the surface of a conventional solar cell.

Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Iizuka, Hideo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Kajino, Tsutomu [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

263

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

264

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

265

Radiobiology of normal rat lung in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer radiation therapy that utilizes biochemical tumor cell targeting and provides a mixed field of high and low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation with differing ...

Kiger, Jingli Liu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Normalization and missing value imputation for label-free LC...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Normalization and missing value imputation for label-free LC-MS analysis. Normalization and missing value imputation for label-free LC-MS analysis. Abstract: Shotgun proteomic data...

267

Galaxy formation with radiative and chemical feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we introduce GAMESH, a novel pipeline which implements self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback in a computational model of galaxy formation. By combining the cosmological chemical-evolution model GAMETE with the radiative transfer code CRASH, GAMESH can post process realistic outputs of a N-body simulation describing the redshift evolution of the forming galaxy. After introducing the GAMESH implementation and its features, we apply the code to a low-resolution N-body simulation of the Milky Way formation and we investigate the combined effects of self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback. Many physical properties, which can be directly compared with observations in the Galaxy and its surrounding satellites, are predicted by the code along the merger-tree assembly. The resulting redshift evolution of the Local Group star formation rates, reionisation and metal enrichment along with the predicted Metallicity Distribution Function of halo stars are critically compared with observations. We dis...

Graziani, L; Schneider, R; Kawata, D; de Bennassuti, M; Maselli, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Electric Dipole Radiation from Spinning Dust Grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the rotational excitation of small interstellar grains and the resulting electric dipole radiation from spinning dust. Attention is given to excitation and damping of rotation by: collisions with neutrals; collisions with ions; plasma drag; emission of infrared radiation; emission of microwave radiation; photoelectric emission; and formation of H_2 on the grain surface. We introduce dimensionless functions F and G which allow direct comparison of the contributions of different mechanisms to rotational drag and excitation. Emissivities are estimated for dust in different phases of the interstellar medium, including diffuse HI, warm HI, low-density photoionized gas, and cold molecular gas. Spinning dust grains can explain much, and perhaps all, of the 14-50 GHz background component recently observed in CBR studies. It should be possible to detect rotational emission from small grains by ground-based observations of molecular clouds.

B. T. Draine; A. Lazarian

1998-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

269

Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

Mather, James

270

Dust Aerosol Impact on North Africa Climate: A GCM Investigation of Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions Using A-Train Satellite Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa have been investigated using the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The model includes an efficient and physically based radiation parameterization scheme developed specifically for application to clouds and aerosols. Parameterization of the effective ice particle size in association with the aerosol indirect effect based on cloud and aerosol data retrieved from A-Train satellite observations have been employed in the climate model simulations. Offline simulations reveal that the direct solar, IR, and net forcings by dust aerosols generally increase with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD). When the dust semi-direct effect is included with the presence of ice clouds, positive IR radiative forcing is enhanced, since ice clouds trap substantial IR radiation, while the positive solar forcing with dust aerosols alone has been changed to negative values due to the strong reflection of solar radiation by clouds, indicating that cloud forcing could exceed aerosol forcing. With the aerosol indirect effect, the net cloud forcing is generally reduced for ice water path (IWP) larger than 20 g m-2. The magnitude of the reduction increases with IWP. AGCM simulations show that the reduced ice crystal mean effective size due to the aerosol first indirect effect result in less OLR and net solar flux at the top of the atmosphere over the cloudy area of the North Africa region because ice clouds with smaller size trap more IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation. The precipitation in the same area, however, increases due to the aerosol indirect effect on ice clouds, corresponding to the enhanced convection as indicated by reduced OLR. The increased precipitation seems to be associated with enhanced ice water contents in this region. The 200 mb radiative heating rate shows more cooling with the aerosol indirect effect since greater cooling is produced at the cloud top with smaller ice crystal size. The 500 mb omega indicates strong upward motion, which, together with the increased cooling effect, results in the increased ice water contents. Adding the aerosol direct effect into the model simulation reduces the precipitation in the normal rainfall band over North Africa, where precipitation is shifted to the south and the northeast produced by the absorption of sunlight and the subsequent heating of the air column by dust particles. As a result, rainfall is drawn further inland to the northeast. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the climate impact of aerosol indirect effect using a GCM in connection with A-train satellite data. The parameterization for the aerosol first indirect effect developed in this study can be readily incorporated for application to any other GCMs.

Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, Jonathan; Su, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Microwave-induced spin currents in ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal bilayer system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microwave technique is employed to simultaneously examine the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effect processes in a YIG|Pt bilayer system. The experimental results show that for these two processes, the spin current flows in opposite directions. The temporal dynamics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect exhibits that the effect depends on the diffusion of bulk thermal-magnons in the thermal gradient in the ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal system.

Agrawal, Milan, E-mail: magrawal@physik.uni-kl.de [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitšt Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Gottlieb-Daimler-Strasse 47, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Serga, Alexander A.; Lauer, Viktor; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitšt Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Art Directable Tornadoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................... 25 2. Directional Force ........................................................... 26 3. Vortex Force .................................................................. 26 4. Lattice... ................................................................... 7 7 Tornado in its rope stage before disappearing ........................................... 9 8 Fire vortex and Waterspout ........................................................................ 10 9 Landspout and Gustnado...

Dwivedi, Ravindra

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

273

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A direct discharge permit is required if a project involves the discharge of pollutants to state waters. For generation purposes, this involves the withdrawal of surface water for cooling purposes...

274

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses and cancert-A T. w- - SIR- In February 1990, the Soviet. Nikipelov et al. published in g Priroda (Nature)' the radiation doses for each year, averaged over environmental impact on the Gulf waters is rapidly ex- ported to the Arabian Sea and then to the Indian Ocean

Shlyakhter, Ilya

275

Radiative Flux Analysis  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

Long, Chuck [NOAA

276

Radiation-resistant microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

Fliermans, Carl B.

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

New Directions in Direct Dark Matter Searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present the status of direct dark matter detection with specific attention to the experimental results and their phenomenological interpretation in terms of dark matter interactions. In particular I review a new and more general approach to study signals in this field based on non-relativistic operators which parametrize more efficiently the dark matter-nucleus interactions in terms of a very limited number of relevant degrees of freedom. Then I list the major experimental results, pointing out the main uncertainties that affect the theoretical interpretation of the data. Finally, since the underlying theory that describes both the dark matter and the standard model fields is unknown, I address the uncertainties coming from the nature of the interaction. In particular, the phenomenology of a class of models in which the interaction between dark matter particles and target nuclei is of a long-range type is discussed.

Paolo Panci

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fractal Fluctuations and Statistical Normal Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamical systems in nature exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations and the corresponding power spectra follow inverse power law form signifying long-range space-time correlations identified as self-organized criticality. The physics of self-organized criticality is not yet identified. The Gaussian probability distribution used widely for analysis and description of large data sets underestimates the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events such as stock market crashes, earthquakes, heavy rainfall, etc. The assumptions underlying the normal distribution such as fixed mean and standard deviation, independence of data, are not valid for real world fractal data sets exhibiting a scale-free power law distribution with fat tails. A general systems theory for fractals visualizes the emergence of successively larger scale fluctuations to result from the space-time integration of enclosed smaller scale fluctuations. The model predicts a universal inverse power law incorporating the golden mean for fractal fluctuations and for the corresponding power spectra, i.e., the variance spectrum represents the probabilities, a signature of quantum systems. Fractal fluctuations therefore exhibit quantum-like chaos. The model predicted inverse power law is very close to the Gaussian distribution for small-scale fluctuations, but exhibits a fat long tail for large-scale fluctuations. Extensive data sets of Dow Jones index, Human DNA, Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) DNA are analysed to show that the space/time data sets are close to the model predicted power law distribution.

A. M. Selvam

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

280

Smith Normal Form a possible basis for an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Smith Normal Form ­ a possible basis for an SVD ­ like code construction? (Semester Project I) Name.7 The Smith Normal Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3 Detailed treatment of the possibilities to use Smith's Normal Form for coding 14 3.1 Introduction

Henkel, Werner

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan The MITRE Corporation, M/S E025, Bedford, MA 01730 Abstract. Results are shown that compare the Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers and its Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers. Our goals are more general than those results

Rushanan, Joe J.

282

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices; Abstract We study the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma- trices over. One first result is a fast Las Vegas probabilistic algorithm to compute the * *Smith normal form

Storjohann, Arne

283

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices by Arne Storjohann A thesis presented the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma­ trices over principal ideal domains. The main probabilistic algorithm to compute the Smith normal form of a polynomial matrix for those cases where pre

Storjohann, Arne

284

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Experimental demonstration of directive Si3N4 optical leaky wave antenna with semiconductor perturbations at near infrared frequencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directive optical leaky wave antennas (OLWAs) with tunable radiation pattern are promising integrated optical modulation and scanning devices. OLWAs fabricated using CMOS-compatible semiconductor planar waveguide technology have the potential of providing high directivity with electrical tunability for modulation and switching capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate directive radiation from a silicon nitride ($Si_3N_4$) waveguide-based OLWA. The OLWA design comprises 50 crystalline Si perturbations buried inside the waveguide, with a period of 1 {\\mu}m, each with a length of 260 nm and a height of 150 nm, leading to a directive radiation pattern at telecom wavelengths. The measured far-field radiation pattern at the wavelength of 1540 nm is very directive, with the maximum intensity at the angle of 84.4{\\deg} relative to the waveguide axis and a half-power beam width around 6.2{\\deg}, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. The use of semiconductor perturbations facilitates electronic radiat...

Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Coherent Radiation in an Undulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solving the particle-radiation system in a self-consistentto clarify the coherent radiation mechanism. References 1.the Proceedings Coherent Radiation in an Undulator Y,H. Chin

Chin, Y.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Properties of Undulator Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dedicated Synchrotron Radiation Facility," IEEE Trans.1983), "Characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation and of itsHandbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E. -E. Koch.1A. 65-172,

Howells, M.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated Environmental Health and Safety, Stanford University, Stanford California #12; CREDITS This Radiation Safety

Kay, Mark A.

289

Soft-commutated direct current motor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

Hsu, J.S.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

290

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Radiation from low-momentum zoom-whirl orbits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study zoom-whirl behaviour of equal mass, non-spinning black hole binaries in full general relativity. The magnitude of the linear momentum of the initial data is fixed to that of a quasi-circular orbit, and its direction is varied. We find a global maximum in radiated energy for a configuration which completes roughly one orbit. The radiated energy in this case exceeds the value of a quasi-circular binary with the same momentum by 15%. The direction parameter only requires minor tuning for the localization of the maximum. There is non-trivial dependence of the energy radiated on eccentricity (several local maxima and minima). Correlations with orbital dynamics shortly before merger are discussed. While being strongly gauge dependent, these findings are intuitive from a physical point of view and support basic ideas about the efficiency of gravitational radiation from a binary system.

Roman Gold; Bernd Bruegmann

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

293

Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

Griffith, Michelle L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hofmeister, William H. (Nashville, TN); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM); Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Smugeresky, John E. (Pleasanton, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing the use of radioactive materials at Ames Laboratory is 10 CFR 835. To implement this...

295

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

296

GENII. Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Suite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GENII was developed to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) into the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. GENII is a coupled system of seven programs and the associated data libraries that comprise the Hanford Dosimetry System (Generation II) to estimate potential radiation doses to individuals or populations from both routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to air or water and residual contamination from spills or decontamination operations. The GENII system includes interactive menu-driven programs to assist the user with scenario generation and data input,internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs. The programs analyze environmental contamination resulting from both far-field and near-field scenarios. A far-field scenario focuses outward from a source, while a near-field scenario focuses in toward a receptor. GENII can calculate annual dose, committed dose, and accumulated dose from acute and chronic releases from ground or elevated sources to air or water and from initial contamination of soil or surfaces and can evaluate exposure pathways including direct exposure via water, soil, air, inhalation pathways, and ingestion pathways. In addition, GENII can perform 10,000 years migration analyses and can be used for retrospective calculations of potential radiation doses resulting from routine emissions and for prospective dose calculations for purposes such as siting facilities, environmental impact statements, and safety analysis reports.

Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA, (United States)

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Soft commutated direct current motor [summary of proposed paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel soft commutated direct current (DC) motor is introduced. The current of the commutated coil is intentionally drained before the brush disconnects the coil. This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. A similar principle can be applied for DC generators.

Hsu, John S.

1998-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

298

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Methods: Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E + IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. Results: The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E + IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E + IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E + IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. Conclusions: The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning technique (E + IMRT) can decrease the normal tissue integral dose compared to a photon-only IMRT plan. Different planning approaches can be enabled by the use of an electron beam directed toward organs at risk distal to the target, which are still spared due the rapid dose fall-off of the electron beam. Examples of such cases are the lateral electron beams in the thoracic region that do not irradiate the heart and contralateral lung, electron beams pointed toward kidneys in the abdominal region, or beams treating brain lesions pointed toward the brainstem or optical apparatus. For brain, electron vertex beams can also be used without irradiating the whole body. Since radiation retreatments become more and more common, minimizing the normal tissue integral dose and the dose delivered to tissues surrounding the target, as enabled by E + IMRT type techniques, should receive more attention.

Rosca, Florin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Directed Relativistic Blast Wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spherically symmetrical ultra-relativistic blast wave is not an attractor of a generic asymmetric explosion. Spherical symmetry is reached only by the time the blast wave slows down to non-relativistic velocities, when the Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann attractor solution sets in. We show however, that a directed relativistic explosion, with the explosion momentum close to the explosion energy, produces a blast wave with a universal intermediate asymptotic -- a selfsimilar directed ultra-relativistic blast wave. This universality might be of interest for the astrophysics of gamma-ray burst afterglows.

Andrei Gruzinov

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Directives Points of Contact  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirectionsDirectives

304

Interferometric direction finding with a metamaterial detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present measurements and analysis demonstrating useful direction finding of sources in the S band (2Ė4?GHz) using a metamaterial detector. An augmented metamaterial absorber that supports magnitude and phase measurement of the incident electric field, within each unit cell, is described. The metamaterial is implemented in a commercial printed circuit board process with off-board back-end electronics. We also discuss on-board back-end implementation strategies. Direction finding performance is analyzed for the fabricated metamaterial detector using simulated data and the standard algorithm, MUtiple SIgnal Classification. The performance of this complete system is characterized by its angular resolution as a function of radiation density at the detector. Sources with power outputs typical of mobile communication devices can be resolved at kilometer distances with sub-degree resolution and high frame rates.

Venkatesh, Suresh; Schurig, David, E-mail: david.schurig@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Shrekenhamer, David; Padilla, Willie [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Xu, Wangren; Sonkusale, Sameer [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING

306

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter I: Radiation Safety Program A. Program

Grishok, Alla

312

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

313

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

314

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch CAPT Daniel M. Harper, M.P.H. A Diverse Environmental Public Health Workforce to Meet the Diverse Environmental Health Challenges on environmental health and to build part nerships in the profession. In pursuit of these goals, we will feature

315

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch CAPT John Sarisky, R.S., M.P.H. Developing Environmental Public Health Leadership Editor's note: NEHA strives to provide up to of these goals, we will feature a column from the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers

316

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch Daneen Farrow Collier, M.S.P.H. Editor's note: NEHA strives to pro vide up-to-date and relevant informa tion on environmental health the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Pre vention (CDC) in every

317

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch Brian Hubbard, M.P.H. Editor the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers for Disease Con trol and Prevention (CDC) in every environmental health programs and professionals to antici pate, identify, and respond to adverse envi ronmental

318

Direct fired heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Notice extends the following directives until 2/16/04: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99-7/1/00.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

320

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 8-12-04. DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, dated 11/1/99. DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99.

2004-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 8-12-05: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Security Systems, dated 11-1-99 and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11-23-99. No cancellations.

2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

322

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

Roybal, Lyle Gene

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

324

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

Derivation of the Blackbody Radiation Spectrum from a Natural Maximum-Entropy Principle Involving Casimir Energies and Zero-Point Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By numerical calculation, the Planck spectrum with zero-point radiation is shown to satisfy a natural maximum-entropy principle whereas alternative choices of spectra do not. Specifically, if we consider a set of conducting-walled boxes, each with a partition placed at a different location in the box, so that across the collection of boxes the partitions are uniformly spaced across the volume, then the Planck spectrum correspond to that spectrum of random radiation (having constant energy kT per normal mode at low frequencies and zero-point energy (1/2)hw per normal mode at high frequencies) which gives maximum uniformity across the collection of boxes for the radiation energy per box. The analysis involves Casimir energies and zero-point radiation which do not usually appear in thermodynamic analyses. For simplicity, the analysis is presented for waves in one space dimension.

Timothy H. Boyer

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

326

Motion-Induced Radiation from a Dynamically Deforming Mirror  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A path integral formulation is developed to study the spectrum of radiation from a perfectly reflecting (conducting) surface. It allows us to study arbitrary deformations in space and time. The spectrum is calculated to second order in the height function. For a harmonic traveling wave on the surface, we find many different regimes in which the radiation is restricted to certain directions. It is shown that high frequency photons are emitted in a beam with relatively low angular dispersion whose direction can be controlled by the mechanical deformations of the plate.

Faez Miri; Ramin Golestanian

1998-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

327

ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE University of California, Berkeley Adaptive radiation- tions and convergence of species groups on different land masses. Since then, adaptive radiation has diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage." There are radiations that are not adaptive

Gillespie, Rosemary

328

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

329

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

330

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

331

Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

332

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site Ė Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) Ė An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) Ė Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

333

asymptotic normalization coefficients: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

334

asymptotic normalization coefficient: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

335

adjacent normal skin: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tangential mechanics SAI mechanoreceptor depth actuator strain energy density James Biggs; Mandayam A. Srinivasan 5 Expression and function of small RNAs in normal and...

336

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used...

337

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrocytes normalizes revascularization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: astrocytes normalizes revascularization Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Brain Research 896 (2001) 8695 www.elsevier.comlocatebres Summary: Astrocytes are an ideal...

338

allowing normal bone: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assays. Correlations of fluoride levels between normal bone near the Nancy Medina; Chester W. Douglass; Gary M. Whitford; Robert N. Hoover; Thomas R. Fears 6 Differential...

339

Data Collection and Normalization for the Development of Cost...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This chapter discusses considerations for data collection and normalization. g4301-1chp19.pdf -- PDF Document, 21 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

340

Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

343

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

344

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

345

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

Phelps, J.E.

1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

Effects of XUV radiation on circumbinary planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several circumbinary planets have recently been discovered. The orbit of a planet around a binary stellar system poses several dynamic constraints. The effects that radiation from the host stars may have on the planet atmospheres must be considered. Because of the configuration of a close binary system, these stars have a high rotation rate, which causes a permanent state of high stellar activity and copious XUV radiation. The accumulated effects are stronger than for exoplanets around single stars, and cause a faster evaporation of their atmospheres. We evaluate the effects that stellar radiation has on the evaporation of exoplanets around binary systems and on the survival of these planets. We considered the XUV spectral range to account for the photons that are easily absorbed by a planet atmosphere that is mainly composed of hydrogen. A more complex atmospheric composition is expected to absorb this radiation more efficiently. We used direct X-ray observations to evaluate the energy in the X-rays range an...

Sanz-Forcada, J; Micela, G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

351

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production. In this paper we give the first theoretical basis for these curve fittings. It is well known that oil field

Stark, Dudley

352

New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains B.I. Henry 1 and T. Szeredi 2;3 Date: 26 September 1995 The canonical and micro­canonical distribution of energy among. If the inter­particle potential is an even function then energy is distributed uniformly among the normal modes

Henry, Bruce Ian

353

SMITH NORMAL FORM OF A MULTIVARIATE MATRIX ASSOCIATED WITH PARTITIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMITH NORMAL FORM OF A MULTIVARIATE MATRIX ASSOCIATED WITH PARTITIONS CHRISTINE BESSENRODT polynomials, and by determining not only the deter- minant but also the Smith normal form of these matrices. A priori the Smith form need not exist but its existence follows from the explicit computation

354

Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal form of integral matrices C of the Smith normal form of integral matrices are described. More specifically, the com­ pound matrix method of the algorithms. AMS Subject Classification: Primary 65F30, Secondary 15A21, 15A36. Key words and phrases: Smith

Seberry, Jennifer

355

Conformal Deformation from Normal to Hermitian Random Matrix Ensembles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the eigenvalues statistics of ensembles of normal random matrices when their order N tends to infinite. In the model the eigenvalues have uniform density within a region determined by a simple analytic polynomial curve. We study the conformal deformations of normal random ensembles to Hermitian random ensembles and give sufficient conditions for the latter to be a Wigner ensemble.

Alexei M. Veneziani; Tiago Pereira; Domingos H. U. Marchetti

2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

Karam, P. A.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

357

DSRP, direct sulfur production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to demonstrate on a bench-scale the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur (as elemental sulfur) from regeneration off-gases and coal-gas produced in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generating systems. Fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies will also be conducted to enable development of a model to predict DSRP performance in large-scale reactors and to shed light on the mechanism of DSRP reactions. The ultimate goal of the project is to advance the DSRP technology to the point where industry is willing to support its further development.

McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 3-18-06: DOE N 205.8, Cyber Security Requirements for Wireless Devices and Information Systems, dated 2-11-04; DOE N 205.9, Certification and Accreditation Process for Information Systems Including National Security Systems, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.10, Cyber Security Requirements for Risk Management, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.11, Security Requirements for Remote Access to DOE and Applicable Contractor Information Technology Systems, dated 2-19-04. DOE N 205.12, Clearing, Sanitizing, and Destroying Information System Storage Media, Memory Devices, and Other Related Hardware, dated 2-19-04.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

359

Directions to Berkeley Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirections & Parking

360

Directions - 88-Inch Cyclotron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on the hillside

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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361

Directions | Jefferson Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theArea Map

362

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

Wireless passive radiation sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

364

Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANLís pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Smith-Purcell Radiation from Rough Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation of a charged particle moving parallel to a inhomogeneous surface is considered. Within a single formalism periodic and random gratings are examined. For the periodically inhomogeneous surface we derive new expressions for the dispersion relation and the spectral-angular intensity. In particular, for a given observation direction two wavelengths are emitted instead of one wavelength of the standard Smith-Purcell effect. For a rough surface we show that the main contribution to the radiation intensity is given by surface polaritons induced on the interface between two media. These polaritons are multiply scattered on the roughness of surface and convert into real photons. The spectral-angular intensity is calculated and its dependence on different parameters is revealed.

Gevorkian, Zh S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Remote direct memory access  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

368

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radiation due to Josephson Oscillations in Layered Superconductors L. N. Bulaevskii1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation due to Josephson Oscillations in Layered Superconductors L. N. Bulaevskii1 and A. E 2007) We derive the power of direct radiation into free space induced by Josephson oscillations to the current-voltage characteristic in this regime depends only on crystal shape. We show that at a large

Alexei, Koshelev

370

Neutron and gamma radiation shielding material, structure, and process of making structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a novel neutron and gamma radiation elding material consisting of 95 to 97 percent by weight SiO.sub.2 and 5 to 3 percent by weight sodium silicate. In addition, the method of using this composition to provide a continuous neutron and gamma radiation shielding structure is disclosed.

Hondorp, Hugh L. (Princeton Junction, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, Eric [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

375

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

376

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

378

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

379

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17 ∑ Monitoring possible radiation exposure while working with radionuclides ∑ Screening for environmental. Water can damage the circuitry and the mica surface of the Geiger tube. ∑ Do not put the Inspector

Haller, Gary L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Proceedings: 2002 Radiation Protection Technology Conference: Baltimore, MD, October 2002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to program pressures resulting from shorter outages, combined with a diminishing group of contract health physics (HP) technicians, HP professionals must continuously upgrade their programs. Demanding emergent work also requires HP technicians in the nuclear industry to use new methods and technologies. The EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference was directed at highlighting a number of key health physics issues and developments.

None

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Propagation Analysis of Electromagnetic Waves: Application to Auroral Kilometric Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 Propagation Analysis of Electromagnetic Waves: Application to Auroral Kilometric Radiation, containing waves which simultaneously propagate in different directions and/or wave modes the concept emission is found to propagate predominantly in the R-X mode with wave energy distributed in relatively

Santolik, Ondrej

385

US Department of Energy standardized radiation safety training  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following working groups were formed under the direction of a radiological training coordinator: managers, supervisors, DOE auditors, ALARA engineers/schedulers/planners, radiological control personnel, radiation-generating device operators, emergency responders, visitors, Pu facilities, U facilities, tritium facilities, accelerator facilities, biomedical researchers. General courses for these groups are available, now or soon, in the form of handbooks.

Trinoskey, P.A.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage damage. A comprehensive discussion of the types of radiation damage known to occur in CCDs is beyond1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science

Sirianni, Marco

387

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

389

Direct Insertion of MODIS Radiances in a Global Aerosol Transport Model CLARK WEAVER,* ARLINDO DA SILVA, MIAN CHIN,# PAUL GINOUX,@ OLEG DUBOVIK,&,@@  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is directly inserted into the Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation Transport model (GOCART), which aerosol radiative forcing in the thermody- namic equation of GCMs, 3) to account for the reduc- tionDirect Insertion of MODIS Radiances in a Global Aerosol Transport Model CLARK WEAVER,* ARLINDO DA

Chin, Mian

390

Conclusions and Policy Directions,  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter briefly revisits the constraints and opportunities of mitigation and adaptation, and highlights and the multiple linkages, synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and urban development. The chapter then presents future policy directions, focusing on local, national and international principles and policies for supporting and enhancing urban responses to climate change. In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate - fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse. The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general - a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge - far beyond climate change connections alone. It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Romero-Lankao, Paty [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Gnatz, P [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A successful candidate in this position will serve as the Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist) senior subject matter expert for health physics/radiation safety at the sites. You will...

392

Acceleration and Classical Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Classical radiation from an accelerated charge is reviewed along with the reciprocal topic of accelerated observers detecting radiation from a static charge. This review commemerates Bahram Mashhoon's 60th birthday.

E. N. Glass

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

393

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data

Oregon, University of

394

A link between solar events and congenital malformations: Is ionizing radiation enough to explain it?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmic rays are known to cause biological effects directly and through ionizing radiation produced by their secondaries. These effects have been detected in airline crews and other specific cases where members of the population are exposed to above average secondary fluxes. Recent work has found a correlation between solar particle events and congenital malformations. In this work we use the results of computational simulations to approximate the ionizing radiation from such events as well as longer term increases in cosmic ray flux. We find that the amounts of ionizing radiation produced by these events are insufficient to produce congenital malformations under the current paradigm regarding muon ionizing radiation. We believe that further work is needed to determine the correct ionizing radiation contribution of cosmogenic muons. We suggest that more extensive measurements of muon radiation effects may show a larger contribution to ionizing radiation dose than currently assumed.

Overholt, A C; Atri, D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Rank and directional entropy Rank and directional entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rank and directional entropy Rank and directional entropy E. Arthur (Robbie) Robinson (Joint work with Ayse Sahin) The George Washington University Talk at KIAS, Seoul, Korea. September 27, 2010 #12;Rank and directional entropy Outline 1 Introduction 2 Finite rank, Z case 3 The formal definition 4 The Z2 case 5

Robinson Jr., E. Arthur (Robbie)

396

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

397

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

398

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia Robert D. Stewart, Ph.D.Robert D. Stewart, Ph

Stewart, Robert D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

Bedford, Joel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford The privilege to use ionizing radiation at Stanford University, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard with radioactive materials or radiation devices are responsible for knowing and adhering to applicable requirements

Kay, Mark A.

404

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia by more than 50 percent. #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia

Jia, Songtao

405

Characteristics of Wind Turbines Under Normal and Fault Conditions: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the characteristics of a variable-speed wind turbine connected to a stiff or weak grid under normal and fault conditions and the role of reactive power compensation.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Parsons, B.; Ellis, A.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Normality of Monte Carlo criticality eigenfunction decomposition coefficients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof is presented, which shows that after a single Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport power method iteration without normalization, the coefficients of an eigenfunction decomposition of the fission source density are normally distributed when using analog or implicit capture MC. Using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, the proof is corroborated by results from a uniform slab reactor problem, and those results also suggest that the coefficients are normally distributed with normalization. The proof and numerical test results support the application of earlier work on the convergence of eigenfunctions under stochastic operators. Knowledge of the Gaussian shape of decomposition coefficients allows researchers to determine an appropriate level of confidence in the distribution of fission sites taken from a MC simulation. This knowledge of the shape of the probability distributions of decomposition coefficients encourages the creation of new predictive convergence diagnostics. (authors)

Toth, B. E.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Griesheimer, D. P. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Coarser connected topologies and non-normality points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate two topics, coarser connected topologies and non-normality points. The motivating question in the first topic is: When does a space have a coarser connected topology with a nice topological property? We will ...

Yengulalp, Lynne Christine

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Computing Simplicial Homology Based on Efficient Smith Normal Form Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in general are sparse. We provide a review of several al- gorithms for the calculation of Smith Normal Form defined by ieA = i j=0 (-1)j eA\\{aj }, where A = {a0

Dumas, Jean-Guillaume

409

Paducah and Portsmouth Off-Specification Enriched and Normal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enriched and Normal UF 6 Inventory 1 3B refers to a 30B cylinder size and 4A refers to a 48A size cylinder. Table 1 PORTS Enriched Inventory Container ID Sample Transfer Gross lbs...

410

Use of Normalized Radial Basis Function in Hydrology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we will present a use of normalized radial basis function in hydrology for prediction of missing river Reka runoff data. The method is based on multidimensional normal distribution, where standard deviation is first optimized and later the whole prediction process is learned on existing data [5]. We can conclude, that the method works very well for middle ranges of data, but not so well for extremes because of its interpolating nature.

Cotar, Anton; Brilly, Mitja [Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

411

Bioenergy Technologies Office New Directions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Directions and New Business Opportunities for BETO Valerie Reed, Acting Director, BETO, U.S. Department of Energy

412

Electrically controlling the polarizing direction of a graphene polarizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically demonstrate a polarizer with an electrically controllable polarizing direction in the far infrared range using two orthogonal periodic arrays of graphene ribbons, which have different widths and are supported on a dielectric film placed on a thick piece of metal. The operation mechanism originates from the polarization-dependent resonant absorption of the two orthogonal graphene ribbons, which can be respectively controlled with different external bias voltages. The operation wavelength can be expanded to terahertz (THz) radiation.

Zhu, Z. H., E-mail: zzhwcx@163.com; Qin, S. Q. [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Guo, C. C.; Liu, K.; Zhang, J. F.; Ye, W. M.; Yuan, X. D. [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

Terahertz radiation mixer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

415

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

417

National Ambient Radiation Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

418

Handheld CZT radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

419

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cofinal types of directed orders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ) directed partial orders #12;Cofinal types (P, ), (Q, ) directed partial orders Tukey reducibility: (P orders Tukey reducibility: (P, ) T (Q, ) if f : P Q X P unbounded = f [X] Q unbounded g : Q P Y Q cofinal = g[Y ] P cofinal #12;Cofinal types (P, ), (Q, ) directed partial orders Tukey reducibility: (P

M√°trai, Tam√°s

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Purely radiative perfect fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study `purely radiative' (div E = div H = 0) and geodesic perfect fluids with non-constant pressure and show that the Bianchi class A perfect fluids can be uniquely characterized --modulo the class of purely electric and (pseudo-)spherically symmetric universes-- as those models for which the magnetic and electric part of the Weyl tensor and the shear are simultaneously diagonalizable. For the case of constant pressure the same conclusion holds provided one also assumes that the fluid is irrotational.

B. Bastiaensen; H. R. Karimian; N. Van den Bergh; L. Wylleman

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

422

Photon Clusters in Thermal Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of Bose-Einstein statistics, it is shown that the blackbody radiation, in addition to single photons, contains photon clusters, or coalescent photons. The probability to find a k-photon cluster versus radiation frequency and temperature is found, as well as the statistics of clusters. Spectra of photon-cluster radiation are calculated as functions of blackbody temperature. The Planck's radiation law is derived based on the existence of photon clusters. The possibility of experimental observation of photon clusters in thermal radiation is discussed.

Aleksey Ilyin

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Response and Normal Tissue Regeneration After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to Liver Metastases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To characterize changes in standardized uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) scans and determine the pace of normal tissue regeneration after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for solid tumor liver metastases. Methods and Materials: We reviewed records of patients with liver metastases treated with SBRT to {>=}40 Gy in 3-5 fractions. Evaluable patients had pretreatment PET and {>=}1 post-treatment PET. Each PET/CT scan was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) for each lesion and the total liver volume were measured on each PET/CT scan. Maximum SUV levels before and after SBRT were recorded. Results: Twenty-seven patients with 35 treated liver lesions were studied. The median follow-up was 15.7 months (range, 1.5-38.4 mo), with 5 PET scans per patient (range, 2-14). Exponential decay curve fitting (r=0.97) showed that SUV{sub max} declined to a plateau of 3.1 for controlled lesions at 5 months after SBRT. The estimated SUV{sub max} decay half-time was 2.0 months. The SUV{sub max} in controlled lesions fluctuated up to 4.2 during follow-up and later declined; this level is close to 2 standard deviations above the mean normal liver SUV{sub max} (4.01). A failure cutoff of SUV{sub max} {>=}6 is twice the calculated plateau SUV{sub max} of controlled lesions. Parenchymal liver volume decreased by 20% at 3-6 months and regenerated to a new baseline level approximately 10% below the pretreatment level at 12 months. Conclusions: Maximum SUV decreases over the first months after SBRT to plateau at 3.1, similar to the median SUV{sub max} of normal livers. Transient moderate increases in SUV{sub max} may be observed after SBRT. We propose a cutoff SUV{sub max} {>=}6, twice the baseline normal liver SUV{sub max}, to score local failure by PET criteria. Post-SBRT values between 4 and 6 would be suspicious for local tumor persistence or recurrence. The volume of normal liver reached nadir 3-6 months after SBRT and regenerated within the next 6 months.

Stinauer, Michelle A., E-mail: Michelle.Stinauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide COURSE...

425

POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a 45į angle. Radiation whose electric field (polarization)radiation field, it can be uniquely characterized by its electric

Lubin, Philip Lubin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

J. Winicour

2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

427

Anisotropic radiation elds: causality and quantum statistics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation transport 5 2.1 Radiation transport equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Closures The transport of radiation through a medium is described by the radiation transport equation for the radiative is used to describe anisotropic radiation. Because the two moment equations do not form a closed set

Honingh, Aline

428

ht. 1. Han Mass 7h&r. Vol. 13, pp. 13494357. Pergamon Pra 1970. PhIed in Great Britain RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN A CONSERVATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

involving radiative transport and wall temperature slip in a finite, absorbing, emitting gray medium, equation of transfer then equation (4) reduces to the simpler form where Z(z,Zl)is the radiation intensity, Zlis the In their work on radiative transport and wall direction cosine (as measured from the positive

Siewert, Charles E.

429

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earthís surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Modeling marrow damage from response data: Morphallaxis from radiation biology to benzene toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consensus principles from radiation biology were used to describe a generic set of nonlinear, first-order differential equations for modeling of toxicity-induced compensatory cell kinetics in terms of sublethal injury, repair, direct killing, killing of cells with unrepaired sublethal injury, and repopulation. This cellular model was linked to a probit model of hematopoietic mortality that describes death from infection and/or hemorrhage between {approximately} 5 and 30 days. Mortality data from 27 experiments with 851 doseresponse groups, in which doses were protracted by rate and/or fractionation, were used to simultaneously estimate all rate constants by maximum-likelihood methods. Data used represented 18,940 test animals distributed according to: (mice, 12,827); (rats, 2,925); (sheep, 1,676); (swine, 829); (dogs, 479); and (burros, 204). Although a long-term, repopulating hematopoietic stem cell is ancestral to all lineages needed to restore normal homeostasis, the dose-response data from the protracted irradiations indicate clearly that the particular lineage that is ``critical`` to hematopoietic recovery does not resemble stem-like cells with regard to radiosensitivity and repopulation rates. Instead, the weakest link in the chain of hematopoiesis was found to have an intrinsic radioresistance equal to or greater than stromal cells and to repopulate at the same rates. Model validation has been achieved by predicting the LD{sub 50} and/or fractional group mortality in 38 protracted-dose experiments (rats and mice) that were not used in the fitting of model coefficients.

Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Hasan, J.S.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Torques on Spheroidal Silicate Grains Exposed to Anisotropic Interstellar Radiation Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative torques, due to the absorption and scattering of starlight, are thought to play a major role in the alignment of grains with the interstellar magnetic field. The absorption of radiation also gives rise to recoil torques, associated with the photoelectric effect and photodesorption. The recoil torques are much more difficult to model and compute than the direct radiative torque. Here, we consider the relatively simple case of a spheroidal grain. Given our best estimates for the photoelectric yield and other relevant grain physical properties, we find that the recoil torques contribute at the 10% level or less compared with the direct radiative torque. We recommend that the recoil torques not be included in models of radiation-driven grain alignment at this time. However, additional experimental characterization of the surface properties and photoelectric yield for sub-micron grains is needed to better quantify the magnitude of these torques.

Joseph C. Weingartner; Margaret E. Jordan

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

432

Analysis of an open crown conical shell segment for edge loadings and a linearly varying normal surface loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRO DUG TI ON THEORY Page III. Derivation of the Differential Eguation Solution of the Equation CONCLUSIONS 3 11 22 LITERATURE CITED REFERENCES 23 25 LIST OF FIGURES Shell Segment Showing Boondary Stress Resultants Shell Segment Showing... defined by equation (19 ) Thickness of the shell A differential operator defined by equation (18) M, M Rending moments per unit length of a shell perpendicular to the s and Q directions, respec- tively N i N Normal forces per unit length of sections...

Hervey, Donald Gable

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

434

Gravity, radiation, and coflow effects on partially premixed flames Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity, radiation, and coflow effects on partially premixed flames Xiao Qina) Department 2004 Our objective is to characterize gravity effects on the structure of laminar methane­air partially.57 that is in accord with a previous compilation of normal gravity data. The radiation Damko¨hler number is inversely

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

435

A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ?40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

Yannam, Govardhana Rao [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Han, Bing [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi (China); Setoyama, Kentaro [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamamoto, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzman-Lepe, Jorge [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Galambos, Csaba [Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Fong, Jason V. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamanouchi, Kosho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro [Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The Radiation Reaction Effects in the BMT Model of Spinning Charge and the Radiation Polarization Phenomenon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of radiation polarization attended with the motion of spinning charge in the magnetic field could be viewed through the classical theory of self-interaction. The quantum expression for the polarization time follows from the semiclassical relation $T_{QED}\\sim \\hbar c^{3}/\\mu_{B}^2\\omega_{c}^3$, and needs quantum explanation neither for the orbit nor for the spin motion. In our approach the polarization emerges as a result of natural selection in the ensenmble of elastically scattered electrons among which the group of particles that bear their spins in the 'right' directions has the smaller probability of radiation. The evidence of non-complete polarization degree is also obtained.

S. L. Lebedev

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

437

Hawking radiation for a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The decomposition in normal modes of a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole leads to a Heun equation with simple coefficients thanks to conformal invariance. By applying the Damour-Ruffini method we can relate the critical exponent of the radial part at the horizon surface to the Hawking radiation of scalar particles.

P. Valtancoli

2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

438

Equipment level fallout radiation-effects approach. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 97 and Executive Order (EO) 12472 call for the ability to maintain National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communication capabilities in times of national disaster, which includes a nuclear attack. The Office of the Manager, National Communications System (OMNCS) sponsors the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Mitigation Program to evaluate and, where possible, mitigate the effects of the nuclear attack. Fallout radiation has been identified as an environment that may effect the performance of the regional and national telecommunication system. This report presents the investigations in the network-level fallout radiation methodology used to determine the effects of this environment. Alternative techniques are presented to improve the methodology.

Not Available

1989-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

Singular eigenfunctions for the three-dimensional radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Case's method obtains solutions to the radiative transport equation as superpositions of elementary solutions when the specific intensity depends on one spatial variable. In this paper, we find elementary solutions when the specific intensity depends on three spatial variables in three-dimensional space. By using the reference frame whose z-axis lies in the direction of the wave vector, the angular part of each elementary solution becomes the singular eigenfunction for the one-dimensional radiative transport equation. Thus Case's method is generalized.

Manabu Machida

2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

440

Radiation Field on Superspace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of multiwormhole configurations within the framework of the Euclidean Polyakov approach to string theory, incorporating a modification to the Hamiltonian which makes it impossible to interpret the Coleman Alpha parameters of the effective interactions as a quantum field on superspace, reducible to an infinite tower of fields on space-time. We obtain a Planckian probability measure for the Alphas that allows $\\frac{1}{2}\\alpha^{2}$ to be interpreted as the energy of the quanta of a radiation field on superspace whose values may still fix the coupling constants.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

1994-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

442

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Radiation.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115,Performance QualityRadiation August

444

Courses on Synchrotron Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases on &gamma;-Al2O3. |ID#:Synchrotron Radiation The following is

445

Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel \\v Cerenkov Radiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel \\v Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the $B$-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8~MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3\\% and 0.001 at 90\\% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed.

S. K. Sahu et al

1996-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

447

Radiation Control Program and Radiation Control Act (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute authorizes the state to implement a regulatory program for sources of radiation, and contains rules for the Department, licensing and registration, and taxation of radioactive materials.

448

FY2008 Report on GADRAS Radiation Transport Methods.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary function of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) is the solution of inverse radiation transport problems, by which the con-figuration of an unknown radiation source is inferred from one or more measured radia-tion signatures. GADRAS was originally developed for the analysis of gamma spec-trometry measurements. During fiscal years 2007 and 2008, GADRAS was augmented to implement the simultaneous analysis of neutron multiplicity measurements. This report describes the radiation transport methods developed to implement this new capability. This work was performed at the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development. It was executed as an element of the Proliferation Detection Program's Simulation, Algorithm, and Modeling element. Acronyms BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory CSD Continuous Slowing-Down DU depleted uranium ENSDF Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files GADRAS Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software HEU highly enriched uranium LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NA-22 Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development NNDC National Nuclear Data Center NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration ODE ordinary differential equation ONEDANT One-dimensional diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PARTISN Parallel time-dependent SN PDP Proliferation Detection Program RADSAT Radiation Scenario Analysis Toolkit RSICC Radiation Safety Information Computational Center SAM Simulation, Algorithms, and Modeling SNL Sandia National Laboratories SNM special nuclear material ToRI Table of Radioactive Isotopes URI uniform resource identifier XML Extensible Markup Language

Mattingly, John K.; Mitchell, Dean James; Harding, Lee; Varley, Eric S.; Hilton, Nathan R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Radiation transport in inhomogeneous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calculations of radiation transport in heated materials are greatly complicated by the presence of regions in which two or more materials are inhomogeneously mixed. This phenomenon is important in many systems, such as astrophysical systems where density clumps can be found in star-forming regions and molecular clouds. Laboratory experiments have been designed to test the modeling of radiation transport through inhomogeneous plasmas. A laser-heated hohlraum is used as a thermal source to drive radiation through polymer foam containing randomly distributed gold particles. Experimental measurements of radiation transport in foams with gold particle sizes ranging from 5-9 {mu}m to submicrometer diameters as well as the homogeneous foam case are presented. The simulation results of the radiation transport are compared to the experiment and show that an inhomogeneous transport model must be applied to explain radiation transport in foams loaded with 5 {mu}m diameter gold particles.

Keiter, Paul; Gunderson, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Foster, John; Rosen, Paula; Comley, Andrew; Taylor, Mark [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Perry, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick 'adiabatic' regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

Jacquet, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et Cosmochimie de Museum (LMCM), CNRS and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

452

Idaho National Laboratory Driving Directions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Area Attractions and Events Area Geography Area History Area Links Driving Directions Idaho Falls Attractions and Events INL History INL Today Research Park Sagebrush Steppe...

453

Policy Procedure Administrative Directive Title: _____________________________________  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policy ­ Procedure ­ Administrative Directive Title: _____________________________________ Policy-President _____________ See also: Related Policies, Procedures and Agreements: Relevant Legislation and Regulations: ____________________________________________________________________________ Background and Purpose: ____________________________________________________________________________ Policy

Northern British Columbia, University of

454

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Radiation Safety Work Control Form  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

456

Electromagnetic radiation by gravitating bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitating bodies in motion, regardless of their constitution, always produce electromagnetic radiation in the form of photon pairs. This phenomenon is an analog of the radiation caused by the motion of dielectric (or magnetic) bodies. It is a member of a wide class of phenomena named dynamical Casimir effects, and it may be viewed as the squeezing of the electromagnetic vacuum. Production of photon pairs is a purely quantum-mechanical effect. Unfortunately, as we show, the emitted radiation is extremely weak as compared to radiation produced by other mechanisms.

Iwo Bialynicki-Birula; Zofia Bialynicka-Birula

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

457

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat...

458

Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

459

Quality Services: Radiation (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations establish standards for protection against ionizing radiation resulting from the disposal and discharge of radioactive material to the environment. The regulations apply to any...

460

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE Functions The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety; formulate campus radiation safety policies in compliance the Risk Manager) monitor the performance of the Radiation Safety Officer as it relates to implementation

Sze, Lawrence

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal? Tuesday, November 19, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p, Kristen Averyt, director of the Western Water Assessment, a NOAA program based at CIRES, will discuss the connections between climate science and decision- making across the West , in particular, the water

Zhang, Junshan

462

Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter OLM Digital, Inc. Pascal Barla INRIA Bordeaux University Ken-ichi Anjyo OLM Digital, Inc. Figure 1: Rigid Morphing with large rotations works well and is a very practical way e-mail: baxter@olm.co.jp e-mail: pascal.barla@labri.fr e

Boyer, Edmond

463

Auditory Responses in Normal-Hearing, Noise-Exposed Ears  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

....................................................................................... 29 Influence of ABR Recording Electrode ......................................................................................... 31 ABR Wave V Amplitude... membrane electrode (Ferguson and Ferraro, 1989; Schwartz et al., 1994; Hall, 2007b; Gaddam and Ferraro, 2008). Variability is commonly seen in ABR response amplitude, even in normal-hearing ears (Schwartz et al., 1994). In light of the recent animal data...

Stamper, Greta

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF NORMAL AND SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRON LIQUIDS: EXPLICIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF NORMAL AND SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRON LIQUIDS: EXPLICIT FUNCTIONALS VIA√?th University Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia Abstract The basic idea of density functional theory is to map potential which is a functional of the density. The central task of density functional theory is to #12;nd

Gross, E.K.U.

465

Liquidliquid separation in solutions of normal and sickle cell hemoglobin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid­liquid separation in solutions of normal and sickle cell hemoglobin Oleg Galkin*, Kai Chen, Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center, Bronx, NY 10461 Edited by John M. Prausnitz, University of California the nucleation of HbS polymers, whose formation is the primary pathogenic event for sickle cell anemia. In view

Vekilov, Peter

466

Oddelek za ziko Normal modes in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

weather prediction. In section 3 I concentrate on the normal modes of a very simple model, shallow water #12;Numerical weather prediction is an initial condition problem. That means we need ini- tial-gravity waves just play their role, but in numerical models of the atmosphere, they can cause huge problems. 1

¬?umer, Slobodan

467

CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

637. CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES, Imperial College. Department and Heine [1] in the light of the new knowledge of the Fermi surface revealed by experi- ments alloys is reviewed in the light of modern work on the nature of the Fermi surfaces in the noble metals

Boyer, Edmond

468

Some Properties of Realcompact Subspaces and Coarser Normal Spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

William Fleissner. In 1997 Buzjakova proved that for a pseudocompact space X, there exists an ordinal such that the product of X and that ordinal condenses onto a normal space if and only if X condenses onto a compact space. In the third chapter, we extend...

Niknejad, Jila

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

469

PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance Huai-Xiang Hao*, Caleb M. Cardon*, Wojtek, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Edited by Steven L. McKnight, University in a cell-autonomous manner to maintain cellular energy homeostasis and is a potential therapeutic target

Rutter, Jared

470

Rates of Convergence of Extremes from Skew Normal Samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a standard skew-normal distribution with shape parameter R (written as X SN()) if its probability density); population structure of Schima superba in Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve (Liu et al., 2011); rain); modeling of seasonal rainfall in Africa (Siebert and Ward, 2011); modeling of HIV viral loads

Sidorov, Nikita

471

NAVARRO VERTICES AND NORMAL SUBGROUPS IN GROUPS OF ODD ORDER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAVARRO VERTICES AND NORMAL SUBGROUPS IN GROUPS OF ODD ORDER JAMES P. COSSEY Abstract. Let p be a prime and suppose G is a finite solvable group and is an ordinary irreducible character of G. Navarro character of Q, which is unique up to conjugacy. This pair is called the Navarro vertex

Cossey, James P.

472

Long range heliostat target using array of normal incidence pyranometers to evaluate a beam of solar radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various technologies described herein pertain to evaluating a beam reflected by a heliostat. A portable target that has an array of sensors mounted thereupon is configured to capture the beam reflected by the heliostat. The sensors in the array output measured values indicative of a characteristic of the beam reflected by the heliostat. Moreover, a computing device can generate and output data corresponding to the beam reflected by the heliostat based on the measured values indicative of the characteristic of the beam received from the sensors in the array.

Ghanbari, Cheryl M; Ho, Clifford K; Kolb, Gregory J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

473

Imaginary-time method for radiative capture reaction rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new computational method for astrophysical reaction rate of radiative capture process. In the method, an evolution of a wave function is calculated along the imaginary-time axis which is identified as the inverse temperature. It enables direct evaluation of reaction rate as a function of temperature without solving any scattering problem. The method is tested for two-body radiative capture reaction, ${^{16}{\\rm O}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^{20}{\\rm Ne}}$, showing that it gives identical results to that calculated by the ordinary procedure. The new method will be suited for calculation of triple-alpha radiative capture rate for which an explicit construction of the scattering solution is difficult.

Kazuhiro Yabana; Yasuro Funaki

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

Anisotropy of radiation emitted from planar wire arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The planar wire array (PWA) is a promising load for new multi-source inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums [B. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The hohlraum radiation symmetry is an important issue for ICF. It was found that extreme ultraviolet and sub-keV photon emission from PWAs may have considerable anisotropy in the load azimuthal plane. This experimental result is obtained on the UNR 1Ė1.7 MA Zebra generator. The time-dependent anisotropy effect is detected. This feature is studied in 2D numerical simulations and can be explained by initial anisotropy of implosion of those non-cylindrical loads radiating essentially as surface sources in sub-keV quanta and also by radiation absorption in cold magnetized plasma tails forming in the direction of magnetic compression.

Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratorie de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratorie de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rudakov, L. I. [Icarus Research, Inc., P. O. Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States)] [Icarus Research, Inc., P. O. Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States); Velikovich, A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

476

Appendix F. Radiation Annual Site Environmental Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis

Pennycook, Steve

477

Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY J. Kenneth Shultis and Richard E. Faw* Abstract Physics Society INTRODUCTION THIS IS a review of the technology of shielding against the effects to the review. The first treats the evolution of radiation-shielding technology from the beginning of the 20th

Shultis, J. Kenneth

478

Radiation damping, noncommutativity and duality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, our main objective is to construct a N=2 supersymmetric extension of the nonrelativistic $(2+1)$-dimensional model describing the radiation damping on the noncommutative plane with scalar (electric) and vector (magnetic) interactions by the N=2 superfield technique. We also introduce a dual equivalent action to the radiation damping one using the Noether procedure.

E. M. C. Abreu; A. C. R. Mendes; C. Neves; W. Oliveira

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Hawking radiation and Quasinormal modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spectrum of Hawking radiation by quantum fields in the curved spacetime is continuous, so the explanation of Hawking radiation using quasinormal modes can be suspected to be impossible. We find that quasinormal modes do not explain the relation between the state observed in a region far away from a black hole and the short distance behavior of the state on the horizon.

SangChul Yoon

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

480

4, 699707, 2007 Radiation importance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and inactive convection. 1 Introduction Given that for much of the world ocean, the radiation termsOSD 4, 699­707, 2007 Radiation importance D. Nof and L. Yu Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussion EGU Ocean Sci. Discuss., 4, 699­707, 2007 www.ocean-sci-discuss.net/4/699/2007/ © Author(s) 2007

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct normal radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

RADIATION AND CLOUD MONITORING STATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

how they affect the energy balance between incoming solar radiation and heat re-radiated from Earth, and moisture content; area cloud coverage; solar and terrestrial radia- tion; and standard meteorological region and the North Slope of Alaska. ARCS sites are a component of the Department of Energy

Reeves, Geoffrey D.

482

Radiation Induced Instability Patrick Hagerty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Induced Instability Patrick Hagerty #3; Department of Mathematics University of Michigan of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 abloch@math.lsa.umich.edu Michael I. Weinstein z Fundamental Mathematics a central rigid body which can radiate energy through exible components such as solar panels and antennae

Bloch, Anthony

483

Direct/Indirect Costs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs. g4301-1chp7.pdf -- PDF Document, 41 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: ID: DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 7...

484

Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4 radioligand [11  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was to estimate the human radiation absorbed dose of the radioligand based on its biodistribution in both monkeysWhole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4 in the anteroposterior direction. Results: Effective dose was 4.8 Gy/MBq based on 2D planar images. The effective dose

Shen, Jun

485

Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬? Madison under Dr. Turner√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?s direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

486

Parameterization and analysis of 3-D radiative transfer in clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of major accomplishments from the project. The project examines the impact of radiative interactions between neighboring atmospheric columns, for example clouds scattering extra sunlight toward nearby clear areas. While most current cloud models don√ʬ?¬?t consider these interactions and instead treat sunlight in each atmospheric column separately, the resulting uncertainties have remained unknown. This project has provided the first estimates on the way average solar heating is affected by interactions between nearby columns. These estimates have been obtained by combining several years of cloud observations at three DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites (in Alaska, Oklahoma, and Papua New Guinea) with simulations of solar radiation around the observed clouds. The importance of radiative interactions between atmospheric columns was evaluated by contrasting simulations that included the interactions with those that did not. This study provides lower-bound estimates for radiative interactions: It cannot consider interactions in cross-wind direction, because it uses two-dimensional vertical cross-sections through clouds that were observed by instruments looking straight up as clouds drifted aloft. Data from new DOE scanning radars will allow future radiative studies to consider the full three-dimensional nature of radiative processes. The results reveal that two-dimensional radiative interactions increase overall day-and-night average solar heating by about 0.3, 1.2, and 4.1 Watts per meter square at the three sites, respectively. This increase grows further if one considers that most large-domain cloud simulations have resolutions that cannot specify small-scale cloud variability. For example, the increases in solar heating mentioned above roughly double for a fairly typical model resolution of 1 km. The study also examined the factors that shape radiative interactions between atmospheric columns and found that local effects were often much larger than the overall values mentioned above, and were especially large for high sun and near convective clouds such as cumulus. The study also found that statistical methods such as neural networks appear promising for enabling cloud models to consider radiative interactions between nearby atmospheric columns. Finally, through collaboration with German scientists, the project found that new methods (especially one called √ʬ?¬?stepwise kriging√ʬ?¬Ě) show great promise in filling gaps between cloud radar scans. If applied to data from the new DOE scanning cloud radars, these methods can yield large, continuous three-dimensional cloud structures for future radiative simulations.

Varnai, Tamas

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

487

Transition Radiation in QCD matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions a finite size QCD medium is created. In this paper we compute radiative energy loss to zeroth order in opacity by taking into account finite size effects. Transition radiation occurs on the boundary between the finite size medium and the vacuum, and we show that it lowers the difference between medium and vacuum zeroth order radiative energy loss relative to the infinite size medium case. Further, in all previous computations of light parton radiation to zeroth order in opacity, there was a divergence caused by the fact that the energy loss is infinite in the vacuum and finite in the QCD medium. We show that this infinite discontinuity is naturally regulated by including the transition radiation.

Magdalena Djordjevic

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

488

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Directions - HPMC Occupational Health Services  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of ShewanellausingDirect-WriteDirectedDirections

490

A filter for compensation of the angular dependence of LiF: Mg,Ti(TLD-100) for beta radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Since the intmduction of thermoluminescent (TL) techniques in radiation dosimetry, the phosphor lithium fluorid has ieceived considerable attention. Because of its approximate tissue equivalence and useful dosimetric properties, namely, high... thermoluminescent dosimeter. For personnel dosimetry puxposes the angular and energy dependence are important factors to be considered to assess the dose under normal wearing conditions. The normal pxocedute for calibrating a TL dosimeter is by using...

Akabani Hneide, Gamal

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Inferring black hole charge from backscattered electromagnetic radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the scattering cross section of Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes for the case of an incident electromagnetic wave. We describe how scattering is affected by both the conversion of electromagnetic to gravitational radiation, and the parity-dependence of phase shifts induced by the black hole charge. The latter effect creates a helicity-reversed scattering amplitude that is non-zero in the backward direction. We show that from the character of the electromagnetic wave scattered in the backward direction it is possible, in principle, to infer if a static black hole is charged.

LuŪs C. B. Crispino; Sam R. Dolan; Atsushi Higuchi; Ednilton S. de Oliveira

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

492

Use of diamond-turned mirrors for synchrotron radiation (SR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diamond turning technique has great interest for users of synchrotron radiation because of its ability to produce surfaces of arbitrary shape. It also has the advantage of being well adapted to producing metal optics. These are of interest because they lend themselves to water cooling and hence represent one approach to the problem of high synchrotron radiation power loadings on optical surfaces. The optical figure produced by diamond turning is generally adequate for synchrotron radiation applications. The main difficulty centers around the question of smoothness. Diamond turned surfaces must receive a final polish after machining before they are sufficiently smooth for use with ultra-violet or x-ray radiation. The manufacturing stages can be carried out by various groups in the optics industry and the National Synchrotron Light Source has procured a considerable number of mirrors and is having them polished for use on the vuv storage ring. At the time of writing one mirror has been completed and evaluated and we give the results for this and discuss the indications for the future. The important measurement of the r.m.s. height of the surface roughness has given a value of 3 +- 0.9A using total integrated scatter of visible light at normal incidence.

Howells, M.R.; Takacs, P.Z.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. However, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transverse beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measurements from the profile monitor to measurements from the flying wire profile systems are presented as are a number of examples of the application of the profile and abort gap intensity measurements to the modelling of Tevatron beam dynamics.

Thurman-Keup, R; Cheung, H W.K.; Hahn, A; Hurh, P; Lorman, E; Lundberg, C; Meyer, T; Miller, D; Pordes, S; Valishev, A

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

495

Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

497

Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at a median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.

Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pan, Charlie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amarnath, Sudha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

SciTech Connect: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

499

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolutely normal bone Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

females (N 49). The data set consisted of bone biopsies from normal and vertebral fracture subjects... microradiographic studies of normal and oste- oporotic ... Source: Ecole...

500

Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Abstract: Microarray analysis indicated...