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1

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel prices topDirect KineticDirect

2

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella Oneidensis OuterDirect Kinetic

3

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel prices topDirect Kinetic

4

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer Membrane |Direct

5

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer MembraneDirect

6

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel prices topDirect

7

Direct Measurement of Competing Quantum Effects on the Kinetic Energy of Heavy Water upon Melting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even at room temperature, quantum mechanics plays a major role in determining the quantitative behaviour of light nuclei, changing significantly the values of physical properties such as the heat capacity. However, other observables appear to be only weakly affected by nuclear quantum effects (NQEs): for instance, the melting temperatures of light and heavy water differ by less than 4 K. Recent theoretical work has attributed this to a competition between intra and inter molecular NQEs, which can be separated by computing the anisotropy of the quantum kinetic energy tensor. The principal values of this tensor change in opposite directions when ice melts, leading to a very small net quantum mechanical effect on the melting point. This paper presents the first direct experimental observation of this phenomenon, achieved by measuring the deuterium momentum distributions n(p) in heavy water and ice using Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS), and resolving their anisotropy. Results from the experiments, supple...

Romanelli, Giovanni; Manolopoulos, David E; Pantalei, Claudia; Senesi, Roberto; Andreani, Carla

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

9

Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Abstract: We report the use of controlled...

10

Atom probe: a direct technique for kinetic measurements. [Fe-24Cr; Fe-32Cr; Fe-28. 5Cr-10. 6Co  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atom probe has been used to study the phase transformations occurring within the low-temperature miscibility gaps in Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Co alloys. The morphology of the two-phase microstructure resulting from phase separation deep within the miscibility gaps was found to be highly interconnected and charactristic of an isotropic spinodal reaction. The characteristic dimensions of the microstructure and the changes in composition were measured as a function of aging. The coarsening of the network structures could be fitted with a power law with time exponents that were significantly less than the classical Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner value of one-third.

Miller, M.K.; Brenner, S.S.; Camus, P.P.; Soffa, W.A.

1984-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

11

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer Membrane

12

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer

13

Time-resolved wavelength modulation spectroscopy measurements of HO2 kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the hydroperoxyl radical HO2 in a laser photolysis and long-path absorption pump-probe kinetics reactor with a near with a 1.5- m diode laser directly modulated at 5 MHz. The measured 2f WMS signal is calibrated by direct ab- sorbance of 1% or less , and the proportionality con- stant is established easily by comparison

14

Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics Adrien Couet a to reduce hydrogen pickup during operation, and the associated cladding degradation. The present study focuses on precisely and accurately measuring hydrogen pickup fraction for a set of alloys to specifically

Motta, Arthur T.

15

Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

16

Metal dependent structure, dynamics, and function in RNA measured by site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-directed spin labeling (SDSL) and EPR spectroscopy, distances in RNA duplexes, TAR RNA, and the hammerhead ribozyme have been measured to investigate RNA structures. Kinetic measurements have been performed in the extended hammerhead ribozyme to correlate...

Kim, Nak-Kyoon

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

17

On Measuring the Terms of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget from an AUV LOUIS GOODMAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Heat flux is obtained by correlating the vertical velocityOn Measuring the Terms of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget from an AUV LOUIS GOODMAN School of the steady-state, homogeneous turbulent kinetic energy budgets are obtained from mea- surements of turbulence

Goodman, Louis

18

Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

K.C. Kwon

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning). The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

White, S.; Maclean, E.; Tomás, R.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Sandia National Laboratories: Direct Measurement of Key Molecule...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modeling & SimulationDirect Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Directional measurements for sources of fission neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although penetrating neutron and gamma-ray emissions arguably provide the most effective signals for locating sources of nuclear radiation, their relatively low fluxes make searching for radioactive materials a tedious process. Even assuming lightly shielded sources and detectors with large areas and high efficiencies, estimated counting times can exceed several minutes for source separations greater than ten meters. Because determining the source position requires measurements at several locations, each with its own background, the search procedure can be lengthy and difficult to automate. Although directional measurements can be helpful, conventional collimation reduces count rates and increases the detector size and weight prohibitively, especially for neutron instruments. We describe an alternative approach for locating radiation sources that is based on the concept of a polarized radiation field. In this model, the presence of a source adds a directional component to the randomly oriented background radiation. The net direction of the local field indicates the source angle, and the magnitude provides an estimate of the distance to the source. The search detector is therefore seen as a device that responds to this polarized radiation field. Our proposed instrument simply substitutes segmented detectors for conventional single-element ones, so it requires little or no collimating material or additional weight. Attenuation across the detector creates differences in the count rates for opposite segments, whose ratios can be used to calculate the orthogonal components of the polarization vector. Although this approach is applicable to different types of radiation and detectors, in this report we demonstrate its use for sources of fission neutrons by using a prototype fast-neutron detector, which also provides background-corrected energy spectra for the incident neutrons.

Byrd, R.C.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

One-dimensional hybrid-direct kinetic simulation of the discharge plasma in a Hall thruster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to model the non-equilibrium plasma within the discharge region of a Hall thruster, the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) must be obtained accurately. A direct kinetic (DK) simulation method that directly solves the plasma Boltzmann equation can achieve better resolution of VDFs in comparison to particle simulations, such as the particle-in-cell (PIC) method that inherently include statistical noise. In this paper, a one-dimensional hybrid-DK simulation, which uses a DK simulation for heavy species and a fluid model for electrons, is developed and compared to a hybrid-PIC simulation. Time-averaged results obtained from the hybrid-DK simulation are in good agreement with hybrid-PIC results and experimental data. It is shown from a comparison of using a kinetic simulation and solving the continuity equation that modeling of the neutral atoms plays an important role for simulations of the Hall thruster discharge plasma. In addition, low and high frequency plasma oscillations are observed. Although the kinetic nature of electrons is not resolved due to the use of a fluid model, the hybrid-DK model provides spatially and temporally well-resolved plasma properties and an improved resolution of VDFs for heavy species with less statistical noise in comparison to the hybrid-PIC method.

Hara, Kentaro; Boyd, Iain D. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kolobov, Vladimir I. [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama 35805 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Inverted List Kinetic Monte Carlo with Rejection ap-plied to Directed Self-Assembly of Epitaxial Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverted List Kinetic Monte Carlo with Rejection ap- plied to Directed Self-Assembly of Epitaxial of subsequently deposited material using a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm that combines the use of inverted lists finding is that the relative performance of the inverted list algorithm improves with increasing system

Schulze, Tim

24

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

25

Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the use of controlled introduction and removal of Zni to test the hypothesis that high-Curie-temperature ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped ZnO (Co2+:ZnO) is mediated by carriers. Using oriented epitaxial Co2+:ZnO films grown by chemical vapor deposition, kinetics measurements were used to correlate the oxidative quenching of ferromagnetism with the diffusion and oxidation of interstitial zinc. These results demonstrate controlled systematic variation of a key parameter involved in the ferromagnetism of Co2+:ZnO, namely interstitial zinc, and in the process unambiguously reveal this ferromagnetism to be dependent upon carriers. The distinction between defect-bound and free carriers in Co2+:ZnO is discussed

Kittilstved, Kevin R.; Schwartz, Dana A.; Tuan, Allan C.; Heald, Steve M.; Chambers, Scott A.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

26

Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar{sup ®} 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 ± 2.1 and 2.42 ± 0.32 GPa, respectively.

Behlow, H.; Saini, D.; Durham, L.; Simpson, J.; Skove, M. J.; Rao, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Oliveira, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Serkiz, S. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Rheology and stability kinetics of bare silicon nanoparticle inks for low-cost direct printing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly dispersed and stable silicon nanoparticles ink is formulated for its application in direct printing or printable electronics. These dispersions are prepared from free-standing silicon nanoparticles which are not capped with any organic ligand, making it suitable for electronic applications. Silicon nanoparticles dispersions are prepared by suspending the nanoparticles in benzonitrile or ethanol by using polypropylene glycol (PPG) as a binder. All the samples show typical shear thinning behavior while the dispersion samples show low viscosities signifying good quality dispersion. Such thinning behavior favors in fabrication of dense films with spin-coating or patterns with drop casting. The dispersion stability is monitored by turbiscan measurements showing good stability for one week. A low-cost direct printing method for dispersion samples is also demonstrated to obtain micro-sized patterns. Low electrical resistivity of resulting patterns, adjustable viscosity and good stability makes these silicon nanoparticles dispersions highly applicable for direct printing process.

More, Priyesh V.; Jeong, Sunho; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Jip [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 Korea and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Sahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

28

Direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations: what it takes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The uncertainty principle being a cornerstone of quantum mechanics, it is surprising that in nearly 90 years there have been no direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations. This lacuna was due to the absence of two essential ingredients: appropriate measures of measurement error (and disturbance), and precise formulations of such relations that are {\\em universally valid}and {\\em directly testable}. We formulate two distinct forms of direct tests, based on different measures of error. We present a prototype protocol for a direct test of measurement uncertainty relations in terms of {\\em value deviation errors} (hitherto considered nonfeasible), highlighting the lack of universality of these relations. This shows that the formulation of universal, directly testable measurement uncertainty relations for {\\em state-dependent} error measures remains an important open problem. Recent experiments that were claimed to constitute invalidations of Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation are shown to conform with the spirit of Heisenberg's principle if interpreted as direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations for error measures that quantify {\\em distances between observables}.

Paul Busch; Neil Stevens

2015-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

29

Study of relaxation kinetics in argon afterglow by the breakdown time delay measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the afterglow kinetics in argon is studied by the breakdown time delay measurements as a function of relaxation time t{sub d}({tau}) ('memory curve'). Measurements were carried out at the pressure of 1.33 mbar in a gas tube with gold-plated copper cathode and approximate and exact numerical models are developed to follow metastable and charged particle decay. It was found that the early afterglow kinetics is governed by the charged particle decay up to hundreds of milliseconds, extending from ambipolar to the free diffusion limit. Quenching processes reduce the effective lifetime of metastable states several orders of magnitude below that relevant for the time scale of the observations if realistic abundances and processes are included in the model. Nitrogen atoms originating from impurities and recombining on the cathode surface can determine the breakdown time delay down to that defined by the level of cosmic rays and natural radioactivity.

Markovic, V.Lj.; Gocic, S.R.; Stamenkovic, S.N.; Petrovic, Z.Lj. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O. BOX 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Institute of Physics, P.O. BOX 68, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Gamma Ray Mirrors for Direct Measurement of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurement of the amount of Pu and U in spent nuclear fuel represents a challenge for the safeguards community. Ideally, the characteristic gamma-ray emission lines from different isotopes provide an observable suitable for this task. However, these lines are generally lost in the fierce flux of radiation emitted by the fuel. The rates are so high that detector dead times limit measurements to only very small solid angles of the fuel. Only through the use of carefully designed view ports and long dwell times are such measurements possible. Recent advances in multilayer grazing-incidence gamma-ray optics provide one possible means of overcoming this difficulty. With a proper optical and coating design, such optics can serve as a notch filter, passing only narrow regions of the overall spectrum to a fully shielded detector that does not view the spent fuel directly. We report on the design of a mirror system and a number of experimental measurements.

Pivovaroff, Dr. Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL] [ORNL; Harrison, Mark J [ORNL] [ORNL; Soufli, Regina [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Direct measurement of yield stress of discrete materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a novel computational method for direct measurement of yield stress of discrete materials. The method is well-suited for the measurement of jamming phase diagram of a wide range of discrete particle systems such as granular materials, foams, and colloids. We further successfully apply the method to evaluate the jamming phase diagram of wet granular material in order to demonstrates the applicability of the model.

S. H. Ebrahimnazhad Rahbari; J. Vollmer; S. Herminghaus; M. Brinkmann

2012-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

32

Direct Compressive Measurements of Individual Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Compressive Measurements of Individual Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Tolou Shokuhfar the syn- thesis of TiO2 nanotube arrays using an aqueous HF based electrolyte.5 The pH of F ion containing electrolytes was con- trolled to form nanotubes up to a few mi- crometers in length. They reported

Endres. William J.

33

New Directions in Measurement for Software Quality Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of statistical data. In total this provides a framework for quality control in software engineering that is freed1 New Directions in Measurement for Software Quality Control Paul Krause, Bernd Freimut and Witold Suryn Abstract--Assessing and controlling software quality is still an immature discipline. One

Suryn, Witold

34

Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

Roldán, É. [ICFO–Institut de Cičncies Fotňniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 3, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); GISC–Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Madrid (Spain); Martínez, I. A.; Rica, R. A., E-mail: rul@ugr.es [ICFO–Institut de Cičncies Fotňniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 3, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Dinis, L. [GISC–Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

35

Low frequency, electrodynamic simulation of kinetic plasmas with the DArwin Direct Implicit Particle-In-Cell (DADIPIC) method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation describes a new algorithm for simulating low frequency, kinetic phenomena in plasmas. DArwin Direct Implicit Particle-in-Cell (DADIPIC), as its name implies, is a combination of the Darwin and direct implicit methods. One of the difficulties in simulating plasmas lies in the enormous disparity between the fundamental scale lengths of a plasma and the scale lengths of the phenomena of interest. The objective is to create models which can ignore the fundamental constraints without eliminating relevant plasma properties. Over the past twenty years several PIC methods have been investigated for overcoming the constraints on explicit electrodynamic PIC. These models eliminate selected high frequency plasma phenomena while retaining kinetic phenomena at low frequency. This dissertation shows that the combination of Darwin and Direct Implicit allows them to operate better than they have been shown to operate in the past. Through the Darwin method the hyperbolic Maxwell`s equations are reformulated into a set of elliptic equations. Propagating light waves do not exist in the formulation so the Courant constraint on the time step is eliminated. The Direct Implicit method is applied only to the electrostatic field with the result that electrostatic plasma oscillations do not have to be resolved for stability. With the elimination of these constraints spatial and temporal discretization can be much larger than that possible with explicit, electrodynamic PIC. The code functions in a two dimensional Cartesian region and has been implemented with all components of the particle velocities, the E-field, and the B-field. Internal structures, conductors or dielectrics, may be placed in the simulation region, can be set at desired potentials, and driven with specified currents.

Gibbons, M.R.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Direct measurements of transport properties are essential for site characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurements of transport parameters on subsurface sediments using, the UFA method provided detailed hydrostratigraphic mapping, and subsurface flux distributions at a mixed-waste disposal site at Hanford. Seven hundred unsaturated conductivity measurements on fifty samples were obtained in only six months total of UFA run time. These data are used to provide realistic information to conceptual models, predictive models and restoration strategies. The UFA instrument consists of an ultracentrifuge with a constant, ultralow flow pump that provides fluid to the sample surface through a rotating seal assembly and microdispersal system. Effluent from the sample is collected in a transparent, volumetrically-calibrated chamber at the bottom of the sample assembly. Using a strobe light, an observer can check the chamber while the sample is being centrifuged. Materials can be run in the UFA as recomposited samples or in situ samples can be subcored directly into the sample UFA chamber.

Wright, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Conca, J.L. [Washington State Univ. Tri-Cities, Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Sciences

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

New imaging tool directly measures liquid surfaces | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNational Libraryornl.govNew imaging tool directly measures

38

Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Sandhya Choubey; Srubabati Goswami; S. T. Petcov

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb{sup -1} is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 {+-} 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 {+-} 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

Vine, Troy; /University Coll. London

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Determination of the kinetic parameters of the CALIBAN metallic core reactor from stochastic neutron measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Dept. of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the Caliban metallic core reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman variance-to-mean methods. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. Fission chambers detectors were put nearby the core and measurements were analyzed with the Rossi-{alpha} technique. A new value of the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was determined, which allows, using the Nelson number method, new evaluations of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the in core neutron lifetime. As an introduction of this paper, some motivations of this work are given in part 1. In part 2, principles of the noise measurements experiments performed at the CEA Valduc Laboratory are reminded. The Caliban reactor is described in part 3. Stochastic neutron measurements analysis techniques used in this study are then presented in part 4. Results of fission chamber experiments are summarized in part 5. Part 6 is devoted to the current work, improvement of the experimental device using He 3 neutron detectors and first results obtained with it. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are given in part 7. (authors)

Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Chapelle, A. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DAM, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Directional correlation measurements for gamma transitions in /sup 127/Te  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The directional correlation of coincident ..gamma.. transitions in /sup 127/Te has been measured following the ..beta../sup -/ decay of /sup 127/Sb (T/sub 1/2/ = 3.9 d) using Ge(Li)-Ge(Li) and Ge(Li)-NaI(T1) gamma spectrometers. Measurements have been carried out for 14 gamma cascades resulting in the determination of multipole mixing ratios delta(E2/M1) for 15 ..gamma.. transitions. The present results permitted a definite spin assignment of (7/2) for the 785 keV level and confirmation of several previous assignments to other levels in /sup 127/Te. The g factor of the 340 keV ((9/2)/sup -/) level has also been measured using the integral perturbed angular correlation method in the hyperfine magnetic field of a Te in Ni matrix. The results of the g factor as well as the mixing ratio for the 252 keV ((9/2)/sup -/..-->..(11/2)/sup -/) transition support the earlier interpretation of this state as an anomalous coupling state.

de Souza, M.O.M.D.; Saxena, R.N.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Direct Measurements of the Lifetime of Heavy Hypernuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lifetime of a Lambda particle embedded in a nucleus (hypernucleus) decreases from that of free Lambda decay due to the opening of the Lambda N to NN weak decay channel. However, it is generally believed that the lifetime of a hypernucleus attains a constant value (saturation) for medium to heavy hypernuclear masses, yet this hypothesis has been difficult to verify. The present paper reports a direct measurement of the lifetime of medium-heavy hypernuclei produced with a photon-beam from Fe, Cu, Ag, and Bi targets. The recoiling hypernuclei were detected by a fission fragment detector using low-pressure multi-wire proportional chambers. The experiment agrees remarkably well with the only previously-measured single-species heavy-hypernucleus lifetime, that of Fe56_Lambda at KEK, and has significantly higher precision. The experiment disagrees with the measured lifetime of an unknown combination of heavy hypernuclei with 180

X. Qiu; L. Tang; A. Margaryan; P. Achenbach; A. Ahmidouch; I. Albayrak; D. Androic; A. Asaturyan; R. Asaturyan; O. Ates; R. Badui; P. Baturin; W. Boeglin; J. Bono; E. Brash; P. Carter; C. Chen; X. Chen; A. Chiba; E. Christy; M. M. Dalton; S. Danagoulian; R. De Leo; D. Doi; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; H. Fenker; Y. Fujii; M. Furic; M. Gabrielyan; L. Gan; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; A. Gasparian; T. Gogami; O. Hashimoto; T. Horn; B. Hu; E. V. Hungerford; M. Jones; H. Kanda; M. Kaneta; M. Kawai; D. Kawama; H. Khanal; M. Kohl; A. Liyanage; W. Luo; K. Maeda; P. Markowitz; T. Maruta; A. Matsumura; V. Maxwell; A. Mkrtchyan; H. Mkrtchyan; S. Nagao; S. N. Nakamura; A. Narayan; C. Neville; G. Niculescu; M. I. Niculescu; A. Nunez; Nuruzzaman; Y. Okayasu; T. Petkovic; J. Pochodzalla; J. Reinhold; V. M. Rodriguez; C. Samanta; B. Sawatzky; T. Seva; A. Shichijo; V. Tadevosyan; N. Taniya; K. Tsukada; M. Veilleux; W. Vulcan; F. R. Wesselmann; S. A. Wood; L. Ya; T. Yamamoto; Z. Ye; K. Yokota; L. Yuan; S. Zhamkochyan; L. Zhu

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

43

Direct gas chromatography for the study of substrate removal kinetics in multi-component aqueous systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

component analyses of the aqueous solutions were performed by gas chromatography. The instrumentation consisted of' an Aero- graph Hy-Fi Model 550 gas chromatograph oven utilizing a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The detector was con- trolled... BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AND BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND Time Total Expected Measured R COD BOD Organics COD COD rrMn nEn mg. /1. nE'r mg. /1. nMn mg. /1. mg. /1. mg. /1. Control Hr 280 604- 225. 6 536 633 +29- 278 543 + 7 1...

Langley, William Douglas

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 C and 97 C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50 C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercritical CO2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption isotherms determined from VTD total adsorption results and those measured gravimetrically at the same temperature, confirming the validity of the vibrating tube measurements. Vibrating tube densimetry was demonstrated as a novel experimental approach capable of providing the average density of pore-confined fluids.

Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Wallacher, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Direct measurements of the ionization profile in krypton helicon plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Helicons are efficient plasma sources, capable of producing plasma densities of 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} with only 100 s W of input rf power. There are often steep density gradients in both the neutral density and plasma density, resulting in a fully ionized core a few cm wide surrounded by a weakly ionized plasma. The ionization profile is usually not well known because the neutral density is typically inferred from indirect spectroscopic measurements or from edge pressure gauge measurements. We have developed a two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) diagnostic capable of directly measuring the neutral density profile. We use TALIF in conjunction with a Langmuir probe to measure the ionization fraction profile as a function of driving frequency, magnetic field, and input power. It is found that when the frequency of the driving wave is greater than a critical frequency, f{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 3f{sub lh}, where f{sub lh} is the lower hybrid frequency at the antenna, the ionization fraction is small (0.1%) and the plasma density low (10{sup 17} m{sup -3}). As the axial magnetic field is increased, or, equivalently, the driving frequency decreased, a transition is observed. The plasma density increases by a factor of 10 or more, the plasma density profile becomes strongly peaked, the neutral density profile becomes strongly hollow, and the ionization fraction in the core approaches 100%. Neutral depletion in the core can be caused by a number of mechanisms. We find that in these experiments the depletion is due primarily to plasma pressure and neutral pumping.

Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Gulbrandsen, N. [Department of Physics and Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations and Molecular Conductance Measurements of the Bacterial Decaheme Cytochrome MtrF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microorganisms overcome the considerable hurdle of respiring extracellular solid substrates by deploying large multiheme cytochrome complexes that form 20 nanometer conduits to traffic electrons through the periplasm and across the cellular outer membrane. Here we report the first kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and single-molecule scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 outer membrane decaheme cytochrome MtrF, which can perform the final electron transfer step from cells to minerals and microbial fuel cell anodes. We find that the calculated electron transport rate through MtrF is consistent with previously reported in vitro measurements of the Shewanella Mtr complex, as well as in vivo respiration rates on electrode surfaces assuming a reasonable (experimentally verified) coverage of cytochromes on the cell surface. The simulations also reveal a rich phase diagram in the overall electron occupation density of the hemes as a function of electron injection and ejection rates. Single molecule tunneling spectroscopy confirms MtrF's ability to mediate electron transport between an STM tip and an underlying Au(111) surface, but at rates higher than expected from previously calculated heme-heme electron transfer rates for solvated molecules.

Byun, H. S.; Pirbadian, S.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shi, Liang; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

47

Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent field and pilot-scale results indicate that divalent mercury emitted from power plants may rapidly transform to elemental mercury within the power plant plumes. Simulations of mercury chemistry in plumes based on measured rates to date have improved regional model fits to Mercury Deposition Network wet deposition data for particular years, while not degrading model verification fits for remaining years of the ensemble. The years with improved fit are those with simulated deposition in grid cells in the State of Pennsylvania that have matching MDN station data significantly less than the model values. This project seeks to establish a full-scale data basis for whether or not significant reduction or oxidation reactions occur to mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants, and what numerical redox rate should apply for extension to other sources and for modeling of power plant mercury plumes locally, regionally, and nationally. Although in-stack mercury (Hg) speciation measurements are essential to the development of control technologies and to provide data for input into atmospheric fate and transport models, the determination of speciation in a cooling coal combustion plume is more relevant for use in estimating Hg fate and effects through the atmosphere. It is mercury transformations that may occur in the plume that determine the eventual rate and patterns of mercury deposited to the earth's surface. A necessary first step in developing a supportable approach to modeling any such transformations is to directly measure the forms and concentrations of mercury from the stack exit downwind to full dispersion in the atmosphere. As a result, a study was sponsored by EPRI and jointly funded by EPRI, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), and the Wisconsin Department of Administration. The study was designed to further our understanding of plume chemistry. The study was carried out at the We Energies Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just west of Kenosha. Aircraft and ground measurements support the occurrence of a reduction in the fraction of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) (with a corresponding increase in elemental mercury) as part of the Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) emitted from the Pleasant Prairie stack. This occurrence is based on comparison of the RGM concentrations in the plume (at standard conditions) compared to the RGM in the stack. There was found to be a 44% drop in the fraction of RGM between the stack exit and the first sampling arc and a 66% reduction from the stack to the 5-mile sampling arc, with no additional drop between the 5- and 10-mile arcs. Smaller-scale experiments in both test chambers and pilot-scale coal combustor exhaust streams have indicated the presence of rapid and relatively complete reduction reactions converting divalent into elemental mercury within power plant plumes prior to full dispersion in the atmosphere. These measurements, however, have been unable to identify whether the reactions occur during plume rise from physical to virtual stack height (during positive thermal buoyancy). The presence, rate, completeness, ubiquity, and dependence on source characteristics of these reactions, however, must be demonstrated in plume environments associated with fully operational power plants. That requirement, to capture either the reactions or the reaction products of chemistry that may be occurring very close to stack exits in highly turbulent environments, constrains the precision and reproducibility with which such full-scale experiments can be carried out. The work described here is one of several initial steps required to test whether, and in what direction, such rapid mercury redox reactions might be occurring in such plumes.

Leonard Levin

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Oxidation kinetics of methylphosphonic acid in supercritical water : experimental measurements and model development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) at well-defined operating conditions and to develop. both microscopic and macroscopic models, ranging from regressed global models to an elementary reaction mechanism, to quantify MPA oxidation kinetics in supercritical ...

Sullivan, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A TECHNIQUE FOR DIRECTLY MEASURING THE GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION OF ANTIHYDROGEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the construction of the Low Energy An­ tiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN has made it possible to trap substantial of antimatter (g) by measuring the deflection of a beam of neutral antihydrogen atoms in the Earth trapping techniques has made it possible to hold and cool particles (charged or neutral) 3

Phillips, Thomas J.

50

Direct Measurements of 22 Mg Resonances and Consequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that depend on the thermonuclear rate of the 22NaĂ°p; Ă?23Mg reaction. We have measured the strengths of low A classical nova is a thermonuclear outburst on the surface of a white-dwarf star that is accreting hydrogen nucleosynthesis because most of the relevant thermonuclear reaction rates are based on experimental information [1

Garcia, Alejandro

51

Simultaneous retrievals of column ozone and aerosol optical properties from direct and diffuse solar irradiance measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of column ozone and aerosol optical properties from direct and diffuse solar irradiance measurements, JSimultaneous retrievals of column ozone and aerosol optical properties from direct and diffuse solar irradiance measurements Christian D. Goering,1 Tristan S. L'Ecuyer,1 Graeme L. Stephens,1 James R

Stephens, Graeme L.

52

Direct measurements of neutron capture on radioactive isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We simulated the response of a 4p calorimetric g-detector array to decays of radioactive isotopes on the s-process path. The GEANT 3.21 simulation package was used. The main table contains estimates on the maximum sample size and required neutron flux based on the latest available neutron capture cross section at 30 keV. The results are intended to be used to estimate the feasibility of neutron capture measurements with 4p arrays using the time of flight technique.

A. Couture; R. Reifarth

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

53

Direct mass measurements beyond the proton drip-line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First on-line mass measurements were performed at the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer. The masses of 18 neutron-deficient isotopes in the terbium-to-thulium region produced in fusion-evaporation reactions were determined with relative uncertainties of about $7\\cdot 10^{-8}$, nine of them for the first time. Four nuclides ($^{144, 145}$Ho and $^{147, 148}$Tm) were found to be proton-unbound. The implication of the results on the location of the proton drip-line is discussed by analyzing the one-proton separation energies.

C. Rauth; D. Ackermann; K. Blaum; M. Block; A. Chaudhuri; S. Eliseev; R. Ferrer; D. Habs; F. Herfurth; F. P. Hessberger; S. Hofmann; H. -J. Kluge; G. Maero; A. Martin; G. Marx; M. Mukherjee; J. B. Neumayr; W. R. Plass; W. Quint; S. Rahaman; D. Rodriguez; C. Scheidenberger; L. Schweikhard; P. G. Thirolf; G. Vorobjev; C. Weber; Z. Di

2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY REACTIONS IN COAL POWER PLANT PLUMES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Program Area of Interest: No.5--Environmental and Water Resources. The project team includes the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) as the contractor and the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Frontier Geosciences as subcontractors. Wisconsin Energies and its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant acted as host for the field-testing portion of the research. The project is aimed at clarifying the role, rates, and end results of chemical transformations that may occur to mercury that has been emitted from elevated stacks of coal-fired electric power plants. Mercury emitted from power plants emerges in either its elemental, divalent, or particulate-bound form. Deposition of the divalent form is more likely to occur closer to the source than that of the other two forms, due to its solubility in water. Thus, if chemical transformations occur in the stack emissions plume, measurements in the stack may mischaracterize the fate of the material. Initial field and pilot plant measurements have shown significant and rapid chemical reduction of divalent to elemental mercury may occur in these plumes. Mercury models currently assume that the chemical form of mercury occurring in stacks is the same as that which enters the free atmosphere, with no alteration occurring in the emissions plume. Recent data indicate otherwise, but need to be evaluated at full operating scale under field conditions. Prestbo and others have demonstrated the likelihood of significant mercury chemical reactions occurring in power plant plumes (Prestbo et al., 1999; MDNR-PPRP, 2000; EERC, 2001). This experiment will thus increase our understanding of mercury atmospheric chemistry, allowing informed decisions regarding source attribution. The experiment was carried out during the period August 22-September 5, 2003. The experimental site was the Pleasant Prairie Power Plant in Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just west of Kenosha. The experiment involved using an aircraft to capture emissions and document chemistry changes in the plume. While using the airplane for sampling, supplemental fast-response sensors for NOx, connected to data loggers, were used to gauge entry and exit times and transect intervals through plume emissions material. The Frontier Geosciences Static Plume Dilution Chamber (SPDC) was employed simultaneously adjacent to the stack to correlate its findings with the aircraft sampling, as well as providing evaluation of the SPDC as a rapid, less costly sampler for mercury chemistry. A complementary stack plume method, the Dynamic Plume Dilution (DPD) was used in the latter portion of the experiment to measure mercury speciation to observe any mercury reduction reaction with respect to both the reaction time (5 to 30 seconds) and dilution ratio. In addition, stack sampling using the ''Ontario Hydro'' wet chemistry method and continuous mercury monitors (CMM) were used to establish the baseline chemistry in the stack. Comparisons among stack, SPDC, DPD and aircraft measurements allow establishment of whether significant chemical changes to mercury occur in the plume, and of the verisimilitude of the SPDC and DPD methods. This progress report summarizes activities during a period of results review from the stack/aircraft subcontractor, data analysis and synthesis, and preparation and presentation of preliminary results to technical and oversight meetings.

Leonard Levin

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

56

Direct measurements of ion dynamics in collisional magnetic presheaths  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion velocities and temperatures are measured in the presheath of a grounded plate downstream from an argon helicon plasma source using laser-induced fluorescence (P{sub rf}?450?750?W, T{sub e}=2.5?5?eV, T{sub i}=0.1?0.6?eV, n{sub 0}?1×10{sup 12}cm{sup ?3},?p{sub n}=1?6.5?mTorr, ?=0.3?2?cm, ?{sub i}??0.5?cm). The plate is held 16°?60° relative to the 1?kG background axial magnetic field. The velocity profiles are compared to a 1D fluid model similar to those presented by Riemann [Phys. Plasmas 1, 552 (1994)] and Ahedo [Phys. Plasmas 4, 4419 (1997)] for the 1 mTorr dataset and are shown to agree well. The model is sensitive to parameters such as collision and ionization frequencies and simplified models, such one presented by Chodura [Phys. Fluids 25, 1628 (1982)], are shown to be inaccurate. E{sup ?}×B{sup ?} flows as large as 40% of c{sub s} at the sheath edge are inferred. Definitions for the term “magnetic presheath” and implications for ion flow to tokamak divertors and Hall thruster walls are discussed.

Siddiqui, M. Umair [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Jackson, Cory D.; Kim, Justin F.; Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Engineering Physics, The University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Directions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directions Where We Are Directions The Bradbury Science Museum is located at 1350 Central Avenue Los Alamos, NM 87544 Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the...

58

Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

M. P. Heinrich; Z-H. Zhang; Y. Zhang; O. Kiowski; M. Powalla; U. Lemmer; A. Slobodskyy

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

59

Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

Heinrich, M P; Zhang, Y; Kiowski, O; Powalla, M; Lemmer, U; Slobodskyy, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,

Grether, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Fundamental Kinetics Database Utilizing Shock Tube Measurements (Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, and Volume 6)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The data from shock tube experiments generally takes three forms: ignition delay times, species concentration time-histories and reaction rate measurements. Volume 1 focuses on ignition delay time data measured and published by the Shock Tube Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Stanford University. The cut-off date for inclusion into this volume was January 2005. Volume 2 focuses on species concentration time-histories and was cut off December 2005. The two volumes are in PDF format and are accompanied by a zipped file of supporting data. Volume 3 was issued in 2009. Volume 4, Ignition delay times measurements came out in May, 2014, along with Reaction Rates Measurements, Vol 6. Volume 5 is not available at this time.

Davidson, D.F.; Hanson, R.K

62

Direct Measurements of Damping Rates and Stability Limits for Low Frequency MHD Modes and Alfvén Eigenmodes in the JET Tokamak  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Measurements of Damping Rates and Stability Limits for Low Frequency MHD Modes and Alfvén Eigenmodes in the JET Tokamak

63

Direct measurement of the $^{18}F(p,\\alpha)^{15}O$ reaction for application to nova gamma-ray emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct measurement of the $^{18}F(p,\\alpha)^{15}O$ reaction for application to nova gamma-ray emission

De Séréville, N; Leleux, P; Coc, A; Kiener, J; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A; Tatischeff, V; Descouvemont, P; Figuera, P; Hammache, F; Achouri, L; Orr, N; Stefan, I; Casarejos, E; Davinson, T; Robertson, D; Laird, A M; Fox, S P; Mumby-Croft, P; Vaughan, K

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Challenges and Progress Toward a Commercial Kinetic Hydropower System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Challenges and Progress Toward a Commercial Kinetic Hydropower System for its kinetic hydropower devices, and has made precise measurements

Walter, M.Todd

65

A system for the real time, direct measurement of natural gas flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PMI/Badger Meter, Inc. with partial sponsorship from the Gas Research Institute, has designed and developed direct measurement total energy flow metering instrumentation. As industry demands for improved accuracy and speed of measurement have increased so has the complexity of the overall hardware and software systems. Considering traditional system approaches, few companies have the in house capability of maintaining a complete system. This paper addresses efforts to implement a direct, total gas energy flow metering system which is simple to use and cost effective.

Sowell, T. [PMI, Badger Meter, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Direct conversion of rheological compliance measurements into storage and loss moduli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We remove the need for Laplace/inverse-Laplace transformations of experimental data, by presenting a direct and straightforward mathematical procedure for obtaining frequency-dependent storage and loss moduli ($G'(\\omega)$ and $G"(\\omega)$ respectively), from time-dependent experimental measurements. The procedure is applicable to ordinary rheological creep (stress-step) measurements, as well as all microrheological techniques, whether they access a Brownian mean-square displacement, or a forced compliance. Data can be substituted directly into our simple formula, thus eliminating traditional fitting and smoothing procedures that disguise relevant experimental noise.

R M L Evans; Manlio Tassieri; Dietmar Auhl; Thomas A Waigh

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

GUINEVERE experiment: Kinetic analysis of some reactivity measurement methods by deterministic and Monte Carlo codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The GUINEVERE experiment (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) is an experimental program in support of the ADS technology presently carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol (Belgium). In the experiment a modified lay-out of the original thermal VENUS critical facility is coupled to an accelerator, built by the French body CNRS in Grenoble, working in both continuous and pulsed mode and delivering 14 MeV neutrons by bombardment of deuterons on a tritium-target. The modified lay-out of the facility consists of a fast subcritical core made of 30% U-235 enriched metallic Uranium in a lead matrix. Several off-line and on-line reactivity measurement techniques will be investigated during the experimental campaign. This report is focused on the simulation by deterministic (ERANOS French code) and Monte Carlo (MCNPX US code) calculations of three reactivity measurement techniques, Slope ({alpha}-fitting), Area-ratio and Source-jerk, applied to a GUINEVERE subcritical configuration (namely SC1). The inferred reactivity, in dollar units, by the Area-ratio method shows an overall agreement between the two deterministic and Monte Carlo computational approaches, whereas the MCNPX Source-jerk results are affected by large uncertainties and allow only partial conclusions about the comparison. Finally, no particular spatial dependence of the results is observed in the case of the GUINEVERE SC1 subcritical configuration. (authors)

Bianchini, G.; Burgio, N.; Carta, M. [ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy); Peluso, V. [ENEA C.R. BOLOGNA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fabrizio, V.; Ricci, L. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza, C/o ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Direct  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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69

Electron kinetic effects on interferometry, polarimetry and Thomson scattering measurements in burning plasmas (invited)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in ? = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with ?{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sub e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

Mirnov, V. V.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Duff, J.; Parke, E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin - Madison and the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Simultaneous measurement of x-ray absorption spectra and kinetics : a fixed-bed, plug-flow operando reactor.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inexpensive fixed-bed, plug-flow operando reactor is described in which X-ray absorbance and kinetic data can be measured simultaneously. Pt L3 (11.56 keV) XANES and EXAFS data were obtained on a 1.5% Pt/silica catalyst in borosilicate glass reactors of different diameters, 3-6 mm, and thicknesses, 0.3-1.2 mm, some of which are capable of operation at pressures up to about 40 atm. Additionally, polyimide tubular reactors with low absorbance can be used for lower energy edges of the 3d transition metals, or fluorescence detection for low concentration or highly absorbing supports. With the polyimide reactor, however, the pressure is limited to {approx}3.5 atm and the reaction temperature to about 300 C. To validate the reactor, the rate and activation energies for the water-gas shift reaction on 2% Pd, 13.7% Zn on Al2O3 catalyst were within 15% of those obtained in a standard laboratory reactor, which is within laboratory reproducibility. In addition, the Pd K edge (24.35 keV) XANES and EXAFS data on pre-reduced catalyst were identical to that previously determined on a regular cell. The EXAFS data show that the degree of Pd-Zn alloy formation changes with reaction temperature demonstrating the importance of characterizing the catalyst under reaction conditions.

Fingland, B. R.; Ribeiro, F. H.; Miller, J. T.; Purdue Univ.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Direct thrust measurement of a permanent magnet helicon double layer thruster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct thrust measurements of a permanent magnet helicon double layer thruster have been made using a pendulum thrust balance and a high sensitivity laser displacement sensor. At the low pressures used (0.08 Pa) an ion beam is detected downstream of the thruster exit, and a maximum thrust force of about 3 mN is measured for argon with an rf input power of about 700 W. The measured thrust is proportional to the upstream plasma density and is in good agreement with the theoretical thrust based on the maximum upstream electron pressure.

Takahashi, K.; Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.; Alexander, P.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Perren, M.; Laine, R. [ASTRIUM-EADS, 6 rue Laurent Pichat, 75016 Paris (France); Pottinger, S.; Lappas, V.; Harle, T.; Lamprou, D. [Surrey Space Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

72

Exploration of jet energy loss via direct $?$-charged particle azimuthal correlation measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multiplicities of charged particles azimuthally associated with direct photons and $\\pi^{0}$ have been measured for Au+Au, p+p, and d+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV in the STAR experiment. Charged particles with transverse momentum 0.5 $<$ $p_T^{h^{\\pm}}$ $<$ 16 GeV/c for p+p and d+Au, and 3 $<$ $p_T^{h^{\\pm}}$ $<$ 16 GeV/c for Au+Au and pseudorapidity $\\mid\\eta\\mid$ $\\leq$ 1.5 in coincidence with direct photons and $\\pi^{0}$ of high transverse momentum 8 $<$ $p_T^{\\gamma,\\pi^{0}}$ $<$ 16 GeV/c at $\\mid\\eta\\mid$ $\\leq$ 0.9 have been used for this analysis. Within the considered range of kinematics, the observed suppressions of the associated yields per direct $\\gamma$ in central Au+Au relative to p+p and d+Au are similar and constant with direct photon fractional energy $z_{T}$ ($z_{T}=p_{T}^{h^{\\pm}}/p_{T}^{\\gamma}$). The measured suppressions of the associated yields with direct $\\gamma$ are comparable to those with $\\pi^{0}$. The data are compared to theoretical predictions.

A. M. Hamed

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions using crystal direction dependent transport measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Rashba spin-orbit interaction effective field is always in the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas and perpendicular to the carrier wavevector but the direction of the Dresselhaus field depends on the crystal orientation. These two spin-orbit interaction parameters can be determined separately by measuring and analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for various crystal directions. In the InAs quantum well system investigated, the Dresselhaus term is just 5% of the Rashba term. The gate dependence of the oscillation patterns clearly shows that only the Rashba term is modulated by an external electric field.

Ho Park, Youn [Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Hee Han, Suk [Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heon-Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheol Koo, Hyun, E-mail: hckoo@kist.re.kr [Spin Convergence Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

74

Measurements of direct photons in Au+Au collisions with PHENIX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The PHENIX experiment has published direct photon yields and elliptic flow coefficients $v_2$ from Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies. These results have sparked much theoretical discussion. The measured yields and flow parameters are difficult to reconcile in current model calculations of thermal radiation based on hydrodynamic time evolution of the collision volume. Our latest analyses which use high statistics data from the 2007 and 2010 runs allow the determination of direct photon yields with finer granularity in centrality and photon momentum and down to $p_T$ as low as 0.4 GeV/$c$. We will summarize the current status and present new results from PHENIX.

Benjamin Bannier

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

75

Partial discharge measurements on a high voltage direct current mass impregnated paper cable  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partial discharge measurement has been a good tool for the quality assurance of cables under alternating voltage. With the growing interest in High Voltage Direct Current cables it seems therefore logical to extend this technique for use at direct voltage. The paper describes this technique as used on a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper. The different phases of operation (no load, full load, cooling phase, etc.) are characterized by a different discharge behavior. Special attention is given to the dangerous cooling phase. Models have been developed which can explain the discharge patterns that were measured. This paper gives an insight in the electrical behavior of a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper insulation.

Jeroense, M.J.P. [NKF KABEL B.V., Delft (Netherlands); Kreuger, F.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Nuclear matrix elements from direct lifetime or cross-section measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The method of simultaneous lifetime and g factor measurements using a plunger device and the RDDS and TDRIV techniques is introduced. Results on lifetimes and hyperfine-interaction parameters for 2{sup +}{sub 1} states in {sup 104-108}Pd, {sup 96,98,104}Ru, and {sup 92,94}Zr, using a plunger device. Another method to obtain electromagnetic matrix elements is direct cross section measurements using NRF. The method is outlined, and some recent results on {sup 76}Se are shown.

Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Hinton, M.; Ilie, G.; Radeck, D. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guilford, GU27XH (United Kingdom); Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States) and National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States) and Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

77

Measuring of fissile isotopes partial antineutrino spectra in direct experiment at nuclear reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The direct measuring method is considered to get nuclear reactor antineutrino spectrum. We suppose to isolate partial spectra of the fissile isotopes by using the method of antineutrino spectrum extraction from the inverse beta decay positron spectrum applied at Rovno experiment. This admits to increase the accuracy of partial antineutrino spectra forming the total nuclear reactor spectrum. It is important for the analysis of the reactor core fuel composition and could be applied for non-proliferation purposes.

V. V. Sinev

2009-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

78

Direct thrust measurements and modelling of a radio-frequency expanding plasma thruster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown analytically that the thrust from a simple plasma thruster (in the absence of a magnetic field) is given by the maximum upstream electron pressure, even if the plasma diverges downstream. Direct thrust measurements of a thruster are then performed using a pendulum thrust balance and a laser displacement sensor. A maximum thrust of about 2 mN is obtained at 700 W for a thruster length of 17.5 cm and a flow rate of 0.9 mg s{sup -1}, while a larger thrust of 4 mN is obtained at a similar power for a length of 9.5 cm and a flow rate of 1.65 mg s{sup -1}. The measured thrusts are in good agreement with the maximum upstream electron pressure found from measurements of the plasma parameters and in fair agreement with a simple global approach used to model the thruster.

Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Takahashi, K. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

A direct measurement of the electronic structure of Si nanocrystals and its effect on optoelectronic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since reports that silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) can exhibit direct transition emission, the silicon laser field is at a juncture where the importance of this discovery needs to be evaluated. Most theoretical models predicted a monotonic increase in the bandgap and experimental information currently available on the electronic structure at the ? valley of these promising materials is circumstantial as it is obtained from emission measurements where competing non-radiative relaxation and recombination processes only provide an incomplete picture of the electronic structure of Si-NCs. Optical absorption, the most immediate probe of the electronic structure beyond the band-edges, showing the evolution of the ? valley states with nanocrystal size has not been measured. Here, we show such measurements, performed with high dynamic range, allowing us to observe directly the effect of crystal size on the ? valley splitting far above the band-edges. We show that the splitting is 100?s of meV more pronounced than predicted by pseudo potential calculations and Luttinger-Kohn model. We also show that ultrafast red-shifting emission can be observed in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition prepared Si-NCs.

Mustafeez, Waqas; Salleo, Alberto, E-mail: asalleo@stanford.edu [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Majumdar, Arka; Vu?kovi?, Jelena [Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, California 94305 (United States)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

80

Direct measurement of activation time and nucleation rate in capillary-condensed water nanomeniscus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate real-time observation of nucleation of the single water nanomeniscus formed via capillary condensation. We directly measure (i) activation time by time-resolved atomic force microscopy and (ii) nucleation rate by statistical analysis of its exponential distribution, which is the experimental evidence that the activation process is stochastic and follows the Poisson statistics. It implies that formation of the water nanomeniscus is triggered by nucleation, which requires activation for producing a nucleus. We also find the dependence of the nucleation rate on the tip-sample distance and temperature.

Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Stambaugh, Corey; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jhe, Wonho, E-mail: whjhe@snu.ac.kr [Center for Nano-Liquid, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Nano-Liquid, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

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81

Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spin-magnetic moment of the proton $\\mu_p$ is a fundamental property of this particle. So far $\\mu_p$ has only been measured indirectly, analysing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here, we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a magnetic radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin-transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in units of the nuclear magneton $\\mu_p=2.792847350(9)\\mu_N$. This measurement outperforms previous Penning trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty year old indirect measurement, in which significant theoretical bound state corrections were required to obtain $\\mu_p$, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment $\\mu_{\\bar{p}}$ the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons.

A. Mooser; S. Ulmer; K. Blaum; K. Franke; H. Kracke; C. Leiteritz; W. Quint; C. C. Rodegheri; C. Smorra; J. Walz

2014-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

82

Direct measurement of the cosmic acceleration by 21cm absorption systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

So far there is only indirect evidence that the universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The evidence for cosmic acceleration is based on the observation of different objects at different distances, and requires invoking the Copernican cosmological principle, and Einstein's equations of motion. We examine the direct observability using recession velocity drifts (Sandage-Loeb effect) of 21cm hydrogen absorption systems in upcoming radio surveys. This measures the change in velocity of the {\\it same} objects separate by a time interval and is a model-independent measure of acceleration. We forecast that for a CHIME-like survey with a decade time span, we can detect the acceleration of a $\\Lambda$CDM universe with $\\sim 6\\sigma$ confidence. This acceleration test requires modest data analysis and storage changes from the normal processing, and cannot be recovered retroactively.

Yu, Hao-Ran; Pen, Ue-Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C.

KOSKI,JORMAN A.

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

84

Direct Measurement of the Spatial-Spectral Structure of Waveguided Parametric Down-Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a study of the propagation of higher-order spatial modes in a waveguided parametric down-conversion photon pair source. Observing the multimode photon pair spectrum from a periodically poled KTiOPO$_4$ waveguide allowed us to isolate individual spatial modes through their distinctive spectral properties. We have measured directly the spatial distribution of each mode of the photon pairs, confirming the findings of our waveguide model, and demonstrated by coincidence measurements that the total parity of the modes is conserved in the nonlinear interaction. Furthermore, we show that we can combine the advantages of a waveguide source with the potential to generate spatially entangled photon pairs as in bulk crystal down-converters.

Peter J. Mosley; Andreas Christ; Andreas Eckstein; Christine Silberhorn

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

85

Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Field comparisons of direct and component measurements of net radiation under clear skies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of net radiation are basic to all studies of the surface energy budget. In preparation for an energy budget experiment significant differences were found between direct and component measurement of net radiation, which prompted this investigation of their cause. The instruments involved were an all-black single-dome Fritschen-type net pyrradiometer, two Eppley model 8-48 pyranometers, and an Eppley model PIR pyrgeometer. Each had recently been calibrated. The accuracy of the component instruments was considered first. Comparisons of about one hour on each of three nights between the pyrgeometer and five empirical formulas showed that the average departure over all formulas from the pyrgeometer average was {minus}1%. Other comparisons between the pyrgeometer and an infrared thermometer viewing the surface yielded similar results. Alternate shading and unshading of the pyrgeometer looking upward during daytime resulted in a formula that was used to correct the downward longwave radiation under clear skies. The correction is dependent on wind speed, in contrast to a recent paper showing negligible dependence, but is in accord with earlier findings. Based on manufacturer`s specifications, the pyranometer calibrations were considered to be within 2% of the World Radiation Reference. Thus a series of experiments was carried out using what were believed to be reasonably accurate component measurements of net radiation and measurements from the net pyrradiometer.

Duchon, C.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Wilk, G.E. [National Weather Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Qweak: First Direct Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Qweak experiment at Hall C of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton, QWp, through a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e-p scattering at low momentum transfer Q2= 0.025 (GeV/c)2 with incident electron beam energy of 1.155 GeV. The Qweak experiment, along with earlier results of parity violating elastic scattering experiments, is expected to determine the most precise value of QWp which is suppressed in the Standard Model. If this result is further combined with the 133Cs atomic parity violation (APV) measurement, significant constraints on the weak charge of the up quark, down quark, and neutron can be extracted. This data will also be used to determine the weak-mixing angle, sin2 ?W, with a relative uncertainty of < 0.5% that will provide a competitive measurement of the running of sin2 ?W to low Q2. An overview of the experiment and its results using the commissioning dataset, constituting approximately 4% of the data collected in the experiment, are reported here.

Nuruzzaman, NFN [Hampton University, JLAB

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for structural materials induced by deuterium-tritium neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear heat deposition rates in the structural components of a fusion reactor have been measured directly with a microcalorimeter incorporated with an intense deuterium-tritium (D- T) neutron source, the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the framework of the JAERI/U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) collaborative program on fusion neutronics. Heat deposition rates at positions up to 200 mm of depth in a Type 304 stainless steel assembly bombarded with D-T neutrons were measured along with single probe experiments. The measured heating rates were compared with comprehensive calculations in order to verify the adequacy of the currently available database relevant to the nuclear heating. In general, calculations with data of JENDL-3 and ENDL-85 libraries gave good agreement with experiments for all single probe materials, whereas RMCCS, based on ENDF/B-V, suffered from unreasonable overestimation in the heating number. It was demonstrated that the nuclear/thermal coupled calculation is a powerful tool to analyze the time-dependent temperature change due to the heat transfer in the probe materials. The analysis for the Type 304 stainless steel assembly, based on JENDL-3, demonstrated that the calculation, in general, was in good agreement with the measurement up to 200 mm of depth along the central axis of the assembly. 31 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, F.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kumar, A.; Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Microfluidic Technology Platforms for Synthesizing, Labeling and Measuring the Kinetics of Transport and Biochemical Reactions for Developing Molecular Imaging Probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiotracer techniques are used in environmental sciences, geology, biology and medicine. Radiotracers with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provided biological examinations of ~3 million patients 2008. Despite the success of positron labeled tracers in many sciences, there is limited access in an affordable and convenient manner to develop and use new tracers. Integrated microfluidic chips are a new technology well matched to the concentrations of tracers. Our goal is to develop microfluidic chips and new synthesis approaches to enable wide dissemination of diverse types of tracers at low cost, and to produce new generations of radiochemists for which there are many unfilled jobs. The program objectives are to: 1. Develop an integrated microfluidic platform technology for synthesizing and 18F-labeling diverse arrays of different classes of molecules. 2. Incorporate microfluidic chips into small PC controlled devices (“Synthesizer”) with a platform interfaced to PC for electronic and fluid input/out control. 3. Establish a de-centralized model with Synthesizers for discovering and producing molecular imaging probes, only requiring delivery of inexpensive [18F]fluoride ion from commercial PET radiopharmacies vs the centralized approach of cyclotron facilities synthesizing and shipping a few different types of 18F-probes. 4. Develop a position sensitive avalanche photo diode (PSAPD) camera for beta particles embedded in a microfluidic chip for imaging and measuring transport and biochemical reaction rates to valid new 18F-labeled probes in an array of cell cultures. These objectives are met within a research and educational program integrating radio-chemistry, synthetic chemistry, biochemistry, engineering and biology in the Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging. The Radiochemistry Training Program exposes PhD and post doctoral students to molecular imaging in vitro in cells and microorganisms in microfluidic chips and in vivo with PET, from new technologies for radiochemistry (macro to micro levels), biochemistry and biology to imaging principles, tracer kinetics, pharmacokinetics and biochemical assays. New generations of radiochemists will be immersed in the biochemistry and biology for which their labeled probes are being developed for assays of these processes. In this program engineers and radio-chemists integrate the principles of microfluidics and radiolabeling along with proper system design and chemistry rule sets to yield Synthesizers enabling biological and pharmaceutical scientists to develop diverse arrays of probes to pursue their interests. This progression would allow also radiochemists to focus on the further evolution of rapid, high yield synthetic reactions with new enabling technologies, rather than everyday production of radiotracers that should be done by technologists. The invention of integrated circuits in electronics established a platform technology that allowed an evolution of ideas and applications far beyond what could have been imagined at the beginning. Rather than provide a technology for the solution to a single problem, it is hoped that microfluidic radiochemistry will be an enabling platform technology for others to solve many problems. As part of this objective, another program goal is to commercialize the technologies that come from this work so that they can be provided to others who wish to use it.

Phelps, Michael E.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Measurements of Direct CP-Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Bottom Baryons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report final measurements of direct $\\mathit{CP}$--violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using the complete $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV proton-antiproton collisions data set, corresponding to 9.3 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, we measure $\\mathcal{A}(\\Lambda^0_b \\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}) = +0.06 \\pm 0.07\\mathrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.03\\mathrm{(syst)}$ and $\\mathcal{A}(\\Lambda^0_b \\rightarrow pK^{-}) = -0.10 \\pm 0.08\\mathrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.04\\mathrm{(syst)}$, compatible with no asymmetry. In addition we measure the $\\mathit{CP}$--violating asymmetries in $B^0_s \\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow K^{+}\\pi^{-}$ decays to be $\\mathcal{A}(B^0_s \\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) = +0.22 \\pm 0.07\\mathrm{stat)} \\pm 0.02\\mathrm{(syst)}$ and $\\mathcal{A}(B^0 \\rightarrow K^{+}\\pi^{-}) = -0.083\\pm 0.013 \\mathrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.004\\mathrm{(syst)}$, respectively, which are significantly different from zero and consistent with current world averages.

CDF Collaboration; T. Aaltonen; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; A. Annovi; J. Antos; G. Apollinari; J. A. Appel; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; J. Asaadi; W. Ashmanskas; B. Auerbach; A. Aurisano; F. Azfar; W. Badgett; T. Bae; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; P. Barria; P. Bartos; M. Bauce; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; A. Bhatti; K. R. Bland; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brucken; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; P. Butti; A. Buzatu; A. Calamba; S. Camarda; M. Campanelli; F. Canelli; B. Carls; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carrillo; B. Casal; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; V. Cavaliere; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; A. Clark; C. Clarke; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; M. Corbo; M. Cordelli; C. A. Cox; D. J. Cox; M. Cremonesi; D. Cruz; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; N. d'Ascenzo; M. Datta; P. de Barbaro; L. Demortier; L. Marchese; M. Deninno; F. Devoto; M. D'Errico; A. Di Canto; B. Di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; M. D'Onofrio; S. Donati; M. Dorigo; A. Driutti; K. Ebina; R. Edgar; A. Elagin; R. Erbacher; S. Errede; B. Esham; S. Farrington; J. P. Fernández Ramos; R. Field; G. Flanagan; R. Forrest; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; H. Frisch; Y. Funakoshi; C. Galloni; A. F. Garfinkel; P. Garosi; H. Gerberich; E. Gerchtein; S. Giagu; V. Giakoumopoulou; K. Gibson; C. M. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; D. Goldin; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. González López; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; E. Gramellini; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; R. C. Group; J. Guimaraes da Costa; S. R. Hahn; J. Y. Han; F. Happacher; K. Hara; M. Hare; R. F. Harr; T. Harrington-Taber; K. Hatakeyama; C. Hays; J. Heinrich; M. Herndon; A. Hocker; Z. Hong; W. Hopkins; S. Hou; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; M. Hussein; J. Huston; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; A. Ivanov; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; T. R. Junk; M. Kambeitz; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; A. Kasmi; Y. Kato; W. Ketchum; J. Keung; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; Y. J. Kim; N. Kimura; M. Kirby; K. Knoepfel; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. V. Kotwal; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; M. Kruse; T. Kuhr; M. Kurata; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; K. Lannon; G. Latino; H. S. Lee; J. S. Lee; S. Leo; S. Leone; J. D. Lewis; A. Limosani; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; H. Liu; Q. Liu; T. Liu; S. Lockwitz; A. Loginov; A. Lucŕ; D. Lucchesi; J. Lueck; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; J. Lys; R. Lysak; R. Madrak; P. Maestro; S. Malik; G. Manca; A. Manousakis-Katsikakis; F. Margaroli; P. Marino; M. Martínez; K. Matera; M. E. Mattson; A. Mazzacane; P. Mazzanti; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; C. Mesropian; T. Miao; D. Mietlicki; A. Mitra; H. Miyake; S. Moed; N. Moggi; C. S. Moon; R. Moore; M. J. Morello; A. Mukherjee; Th. Muller; P. Murat; M. Mussini; J. Nachtman; Y. Nagai; J. Naganoma; I. Nakano; A. Napier; J. Nett; C. Neu; T. Nigmanov; L. Nodulman; S. Y. Noh; O. Norniella; L. Oakes; S. H. Oh; Y. D. Oh; I. Oksuzian; T. Okusawa; R. Orava; L. Ortolan; C. Pagliarone; E. Palencia; P. Palni; V. Papadimitriou; W. Parker; G. Pauletta; M. Paulini; C. Paus; T. J. Phillips; G. Piacentino; E. Pianori; J. Pilot; K. Pitts; C. Plager; L. Pondrom; S. Poprocki; K. Potamianos; F. Prokoshin; A. Pranko; F. Ptohos; G. Punzi; N. Ranjan; I. Redondo Fernández; P. Renton; M. Rescigno; F. Rimondi; L. Ristori; A. Robson; T. Rodriguez; S. Rolli; M. Ronzani; R. Roser; J. L. Rosner; F. Ruffini; A. Ruiz; J. Russ; V. Rusu; W. K. Sakumoto; Y. Sakurai; L. Santi; K. Sato; V. Saveliev; A. Savoy-Navarro; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; T. Schwarz; L. Scodellaro; F. Scuri; S. Seidel; Y. Seiya; A. Semenov; F. Sforza; S. Z. Shalhout; T. Shears; P. F. Shepard; M. Shimojima; M. Shochet; I. Shreyber-Tecker; A. Simonenko; K. Sliwa; J. R. Smith; F. D. Snider; V. Sorin; H. Song; M. Stancari; R. St. Denis; D. Stentz; J. Strologas; Y. Sudo; A. Sukhanov; I. Suslov; K. Takemasa; Y. Takeuchi; J. Tang; M. Tecchio; P. K. Teng; J. Thom; E. Thomson; V. Thukral; D. Toback; S. Tokar; K. Tollefson; T. Tomura; D. Tonelli; S. Torre; D. Torretta; P. Totaro; M. Trovato; F. Ukegawa; S. Uozumi; F. Vázquez; G. Velev; C. Vellidis; C. Vernieri; M. Vidal; R. Vilar; J. Vizán; M. Vogel; G. Volpi; P. Wagner; R. Wallny; S. M. Wang; D. Waters; W. C. Wester III; D. Whiteson; A. B. Wicklund; S. Wilbur; H. H. Williams; J. S. Wilson; P. Wilson; B. L. Winer; P. Wittich; S. Wolbers; H. Wolfe; T. Wright; X. Wu; Z. Wu; K. Yamamoto; D. Yamato; T. Yang; U. K. Yang; Y. C. Yang; W. -M. Yao; G. P. Yeh; K. Yi; J. Yoh; K. Yorita; T. Yoshida; G. B. Yu

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

91

Measurement of the complete nuclide production and kinetic energies of the system 136Xe + hydrogen at 1 GeV per nucleon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an extensive overview of production cross sections and kinetic energies for the complete set of nuclides formed in the spallation of 136Xe by protons at the incident energy of 1 GeV per nucleon. The measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the FRagment Separator (GSI, Darmstadt). Slightly below the Businaro-Gallone point, 136Xe is the stable nuclide with the largest neutron excess. The kinematic data and cross sections collected in this work for the full nuclide production are a general benchmark for modelling the spallation process in a neutron-rich nuclear system, where fission is characterised by predominantly mass-asymmetric splits.

P. Napolitani; K. -H. Schmidt; L. Tassan-Got; P. Armbruster; T. Enqvist; A. Heinz; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; A. Kelic; R. Pleskac; M. V. Ricciardi; C. Schmitt; O. Yordanov; L. Audouin; M. Bernas; A. Lafriaskh; F. Rejmund; C. Stephan; J. Benlliure; E. Casarejos; M. Fernandez Ordonez; J. Pereira; A. Boudard; B. Fernandez; S. Leray; C. Villagrasa; C. Volant

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

92

Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based technologies are of keen interest due to their high biomass concentrations and ability to utilize renewable resources, such as light and CO2. While photoautotrophic biofilms have long been used for wastewater remediation applications, biofuel production represents a relatively new and under-represented focus area. However, the direct measurement and characterization of fundamental parameters required for physiological analyses are challenging due to biofilm heterogeneity. This study evaluated oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel precursor molecule production using a novel rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) operated at field- and laboratory-scales for wastewater remediation and biofuel production, respectively. Clear differences in oxygenic-photosynthesis, respiration and biofuel-precursor capacities were observed between the two systems and different conditions based on light and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen depletion was not found to have the same effect on lipid accumulation compared to prior planktonic studies. Physiological characterizations of these microalgal biofilms identify potential areas for future process optimization.

Bernstein, Hans C.; Kesaano, Maureen; Moll, Karen; Smith, Terence; Gerlach, Robin; Carlson, Ross; Miller, Charles D.; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith; Gardner, Robert D.; Sims, Ronald C.

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

First Direct Measurement of the 17F(p,gamma)18Ne Cross Section  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of the {sup 17}F(p,{gamma}){sup 18}Ne reaction is of significant importance in astrophysical events like novae and x-ray bursts. The decay of {sup 17}F is thought to help drive the expansion of the nova envelope, and the {sup 17}F(p,{gamma}){sup 18}Ne reaction affects the production of {sup 18}F, a target of gamma-ray astronomy, as well as being an important link in the ({alpha},p) reaction chain during the ignition phase of x-ray bursts. A 3{sup +} state in {sup 18}Ne predicted to dominate the rate was found at 599.8 keV using the {sup 17}F(p,p){sup 17}F reaction [1], but the resonance strength was unknown. For the first time, the {sup 17}F(p,{gamma}){sup 18}Ne reaction has been measured directly with the Daresbury Recoil Separator, using a mixed beam of radioactive {sup 17}F and stable {sup 17}O from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A {gamma} width was found for the 599.8 keV resonance in {sup 18}Ne, and an upper limit on the direct capture S factor was determined at an intermediate energy of 800 keV.

Chipps, Kelly A [ORNL; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Greife, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A Direct Measurement of the IGM Opacity to HI Ionizing Photons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new method to directly measure the opacity from HI Lyman limit (LL) absorption k_LL along quasar sightlines by the intergalactic medium (IGM). The approach analyzes the average (``stacked'') spectrum of an ensemble of quasars at a common redshift to infer the mean free path (MFP) to ionizing radiation. We apply this technique to 1800 quasars at z=3.50-4.34 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), giving the most precise measurements on k_LL at any redshift. From z=3.6 to 4.3, the opacity increases steadily as expected and is well parameterized by MFP = (48.4 +/- 2.1) - (38.0 +/- 5.3)*(z-3.6) h^-1 Mpc (proper distance). The relatively high MFP values indicate that the incidence of systems which dominate k_LL evolves less strongly at z>3 than that of the Lya forest. We infer a mean free path three times higher than some previous estimates, a result which has important implications for the photo-ionization rate derived from the emissivity of star forming galaxies and quasars. Finally, our ana...

Prochaska, J Xavier; O'Meara, John M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Implications of the B-mode Polarization Measurement for Direct Detection of Inflationary Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The prospects for direct measurements of inflationary gravitational waves by next generation interferometric detectors inferred from the possible detection of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background are studied. We compute the spectra of the gravitational wave background and the signal-to-noise ratios by two interferometric detectors (DECIGO and BBO) for large-field inflationary models in which the tensor-to-scalar ratio is greater than the order of 0.01. If the reheating temperature $T_{\\rm RH}$ of chaotic inflation with the quadratic potential is high ($T_{\\rm RH}>7.9\\times10^6$ GeV for upgraded DECIGO and $T_{\\rm RH}> 1.8\\times 10^{6}$ GeV for BBO), it will be possible to reach the sensitivity of the gravitational background in future experiments at $3\\sigma$ confidence level. The direct detection is also possible for natural inflation with the potential $V(\\phi)=\\Lambda^4 [1-\\cos(\\phi/f)]$, provided that $f>4.2 M_{\\rm pl}$ (upgraded DECIGO) and $f>3.6 M_{\\rm pl}$ (BBO) with $T_{\\rm RH}$ higher than $10^8$ GeV. The quartic potential $V(\\phi)=\\lambda \\phi^4/4$ with a non-minimal coupling $\\xi$ between the inflaton field $\\phi$ and the Ricci scalar $R$ gives rise to a detectable level of gravitational waves for $|\\xi|$ smaller than the order of 0.01, irrespective of the reheating temperature.

Sachiko Kuroyanagi; Shinji Tsujikawa; Takeshi Chiba; Naoshi Sugiyama

2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

96

Imaging System to Measure Kinetics of Material Cluster Ejection During Exit-Surface Damage Initiation and Growth in Fused Silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced damage on the surface of optical components typically is manifested by the formation of microscopic craters that can ultimately degrade the optics performance characteristics. It is believed that the damage process is the result of the material exposure to high temperatures and pressures within a volume on the order of several cubic microns located just below the surface. The response of the material following initial localized energy deposition by the laser pulse, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work we introduce a time-resolved microscope system designed to enable a detailed investigation of the sequence of dynamic events involved during surface damage. To best capture individual aspects of the damage timeline, this system is employed in multiple imaging configurations (such as multi-view image acquisition at a single time point and multi-image acquisition at different time points of the same event) and offers sensitivity to phenomena at very early delay times. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated with preliminary results from the study of exit-surface damage in fused silica. The time-resolved images provide information on the material response immediately following laser energy deposition, the processes later involved during crater formation or growth, the material ejecta kinetics, and overall material motion and transformation. Such results offer insight into the mechanisms governing damage initiation and growth in the optical components of ICF class laser systems.

Raman, R N; Negres, R A; Demos, S G

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

97

Measuring photometric and spectral radiometric bi-directional transmission and reflection in a video-goniospectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effective use of complex fenestration systems (CFS) in buildings requires a detailed knowledge of their optical spectral and directional properties. Bidirectional scattering functions (BSDFs), either in transmission ...

Stokes, Eleanor (Eleanor Catherine)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Kinetic measurements on the silicates of the Yucca Mountain potential repository. [Final report], January--September 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal effort has been concentrated on the preparation of clean clinoptilolite, quartz, and boehmite and then reaction of the natural clinoptilolite solid solution to the Naendmember, plus measurements of the endmember solubility to derive an accurate equilibrium constant for the clinoptilolite dissolution reaction, correctly speciated. We are very pleased with the consistency between the best calorimetrically measured and modeled equilibrium constants and those we have determined from 125{degrees}C to 265{degrees}C. These results now provide a basis for relating measurements of reaction rates to departures from equilibrium.

Barnes, H.L.; Wilkin, R.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

99

Kinetic measurements on the silicates of the Yucca Mountain potential repository. Final report for October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report includes a summary and discussion of results obtained under this project on the solubilities in subcritical aqueous solutions of Mont St. Hilaire analcime, Wikieup analcime, and Castle Creek Na-clinoptilolite. Also included here are the methods and results of hydrothermal flow-through experiments designed to measure the rates of Na-clinoptilolite dissolution and precipitation at 125{degree}C. In this report, high-temperature solubility measurements made in our lab are integrated and discussed along with the low-temperature measurements made at Yale University. The final report prepared by the group at Yale University (Lasaga et al.) includes a synthesis of dissolution rate measurements made between 25{degree} and 125{degree}C on the Na-clinoptilolite.

Barnes, H.L.; Wilkin, R.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Ore Deposits Research Section

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb and heat sink grease respectively). The dynamics of thermal effects is also presented. PACS 42.55.Xi (Diode-pumped in a diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG crystal, using a calibrated infrared camera, with a 60-µm spatial resolution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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101

Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct of copepod fecal pellets egested by Temora longicornis were measured using a nanoflagellate (Rhodomonas sp pellet production varied between 0.8 pellets ind21 h21 and 3.8 pellets ind21 h21 and was significantly

Matthews, Adrian

102

Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxides and their evaluation in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid ...

Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

103

Fuels Performance Technologies: Milestone FY06 9.1 -- Using IQT measurements, develop simplified kinetic expressions for ignition of fuels that could be used in HCCI engine models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discusses the development of a new fuel characterization, based on simplified kinetic expression, to quantify ignition quality for low-temperature combustion vehicle applications.

Taylor, J. D.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Direct measurement of thin-film thermoelectric figure of merit Rajeev Singh,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conductivity of the thermoelectric material. Self-consistent finite-element simulations of the three. © 2009 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3094880 Thermoelectric materials are playing application of thermoelectric materials is in direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion. Because

Bowers, John

105

Evanescent wave and video microscopy methods for directly measuring interactions between surface-immobilized biomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and temporal tracking of passively diffusing functionalized colloids continues to be an improving and auspicious approach to measuring weak specific and non-specific biomolecular interactions. Evidence of this is given by the recent increase...

Everett, William Neil

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Direct measurements of ensemble particle and surface interactions on homogeneous and patterned substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in colloidal ensembles levitated above macroscopic surfaces. TIRM and VM are well established optical microscopy techniques for measuring normal and lateral colloidal excursions near macroscopic planar surfaces. The interactions between particle-particle...

Wu, Hung-Jen

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

107

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room  

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108

Reciprocal Relations Between Kinetic Curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study coupled irreversible processes. For linear or linearized kinetics with microreversibility, $\\dot{x}=Kx$, the kinetic operator $K$ is symmetric in the entropic inner product. This form of Onsager's reciprocal relations implies that the shift in time, $\\exp (Kt)$, is also a symmetric operator. This generates reciprocity relations between kinetic curves. For example, for the Master equation, if we start the process from the $i$th pure state and measure the probability $p_j(t)$ of the $j$th state ($j\

Yablonsky, G S; Constales, D; Galvita, V; Marin, G B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

MEASUREMENT OF THE ANISOTROPY OF COSMIC-RAY ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS WITH ICECUBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first observation of an anisotropy in the arrival direction of cosmic rays with energies in the multi-TeV region in the Southern sky using data from the IceCube detector. Between 2007 June and 2008 March, the partially deployed IceCube detector was operated in a configuration with 1320 digital optical sensors distributed over 22 strings at depths between 1450 and 2450 m inside the Antarctic ice. IceCube is a neutrino detector, but the data are dominated by a large background of cosmic-ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the southern sky. The data include 4.3 billion muons produced by downward-going cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere; these events were reconstructed with a median angular resolution of 3{sup 0} and a median energy of {approx}20 TeV. Their arrival direction distribution exhibits an anisotropy in right ascension with a first-harmonic amplitude of (6.4 {+-} 0.2 stat. {+-} 0.8 syst.) x 10{sup -4}.

Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, Y. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Abu-Zayyad, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, WI 54022 (United States); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ahlers, M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Bai, X. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bazo Alba, J. L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Beattie, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beatty, J. J. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bechet, S. [Science Faculty CP230, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Becker, J. K., E-mail: rasha.abbasi@icecube.wisc.ed, E-mail: paolo.desiati@icecube.wisc.ed [Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A comparison of spanwise aerodynamic loads estimated from measured bending moments versus direct pressure measurements on horizontal axis wind turbine blades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two methods can be used to determine aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade. The first is to make direct pressure measurements on the blade surface. This is a difficult process requiring costly pressure instrumentation. The second method uses measured flap bending moments in conjunction with analytical techniques to estimate airloads. This method, called ALEST, was originally developed for use on helicopter rotors and was modified for use on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. Estimating airloads using flap bending moments in much simpler and less costly because measurements can be made with conventional strain gages and equipment. This paper presents results of airload estimates obtained using both methods under a variety of operating conditions. Insights on the limitations and usefulness of the ALEST bending moment technique are also included. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Lightning strikes to tall objects: Currents inferred from far electromagnetic fields versus directly measured currents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-field-to-current conversion factor for lightning strikes to flat ground based on the transmission line model and (b currents on tall towers are used for testing the validity of field-to-current conversion equations [e on current measurement location (e.g., near the top or bottom of the tower) and on whether initial or largest

Florida, University of

112

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

array (MPA). The earliest work on an MPA related device for measuring diffuse sky radiation was performed in Finland by M. H2milllien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries including the United States where...

Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for plasma-facing materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental measurement of nuclear heating rates was carried out in a simulated D-T fusion neutron environment from 1989 through 1992 under the U.S. DOE/JAERI collaborative program at the Fusion Neutronics Source Facility. Small probes of materials were irradiated in close vicinity of a rotating target. A sophisticated microcalorimetric technique was developed for on-line measurements of local nuclear heating in a mixed neutron plus photon field. Measurements with probes of graphite, titanium, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and lead are presented. These measurements have been analyzed using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP and various heating number/kerma factor libraries. The ratio of calculated to experimental (C/E) heating rates shows a large deviation from 1 for all the materials except tungsten. For example, C/E`s for graphite range from 1.14 ({delta} = 10%) to 1.36 (10%) for various kerma factor libraries. Uncertainty estimates on total nuclear heating using a sensitivity approach are presented. Interestingly, C/E data for all libraries and materials can be consolidated to obtain a probability density distribution of C/E`s that very much resembles a Gaussian distribution centered at 1.04. The concept of `quality factor` is defined and elaborated so as to take cognizance of observed uncertainties on prediction of nuclear heating for all the nine materials. 45 refs., 69 figs., 9 tabs.

Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Determination of Optical-Field Ionization Dynamics in Plasmas through the Direct Measurement of the Optical Phase Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detailed dynamics of an atom in a strong laser field is rich in both interesting physics and potential applications. The goal of this project was to develop a technique for characterizing high-field laser-plasma interactions with femtosecond resolution based on the direct measurement of the phase change of an optical pulse. The authors developed the technique of Multi-pulse Interferometric Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (MI-FROG), which recovers (to all orders) the phase difference between pumped and unpumped probe pulses, enabling the determination of sub-pulsewidth time-resolved phase and frequency shifts impressed by a pump pulse on a weak probe pulse. Using MI-FROG, the authors obtained the first quantitative measurements of high-field ionization rates in noble gases and diatomic molecules. They obtained agreement between the measured ionization rates an d those calculated for the noble gases and diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen using a one-dimensional fluid model and rates derived from tunneling theory. However, much higher rates are measured for diatomic oxygen than predicted by tunneling theory calculations.

Taylor, A.J.; Omenetto, G.; Rodriguez, G.; Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Downer, C.

1999-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

115

Comparing Pulsed Doppler LIDAR with SODAR and Direct Measurements for Wind Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a pressing need for good wind-speed measurements at greater and greater heights to assess the availability of the resource in terms of power production and to identify any frequently occurring atmospheric structural characteristics that may create turbulence that impacts the operational reliability and lifetime of wind turbines and their components. In this paper, we summarize the results of a short study that compares the relative accuracies of wind speeds derived from a high-resolution pulsed Doppler LIDAR operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and a midrange Doppler SODAR with wind speeds measured by four levels of tower-based sonic anemometry up to a height of 116 m.

Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Scott, G. N.; Pichugina, Y. L.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Direct Schmidt number measurement of high-gain parametric down conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we estimate the transverse Schmidt number for the bipartite bright squeezed vacuum state by means of second-order intensity correlation function measurement. Assuming that the number of modes is equal in both beams we determine the Schmidt number considering only one of the subsystems. The obtained results demonstrate that this approach is equally efficient over the whole propagation of the state from the near field to the far field regions of its emitter.

I. V. Dyakonov; P. R. Sharapova; T. Sh. Iskhakov; G. Leuchs

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Collectivity in the light radon nuclei measured directly via Coulomb excitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: Shape coexistence in heavy nuclei poses a strong challenge to state-of-the-art nuclear models, where several competing shape minima are found close to the ground state. A classic region for investigating this phenomenon is in the region around $Z=82$ and the neutron mid-shell at $N=104$. Purpose: Evidence for shape coexistence has been inferred from $\\alpha$-decay measurements, laser spectroscopy and in-beam measurements. While the latter allow the pattern of excited states and rotational band structures to be mapped out, a detailed understanding of shape coexistence can only come from measurements of electromagnetic matrix elements. Method: Secondary, radioactive ion beams of $^{202}$Rn and $^{204}$Rn were studied by means of low-energy Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility in CERN. Results: The electric-quadrupole ($E2$) matrix element connecting the ground state and first-excited $2^{+}_{1}$ state was extracted for both $^{202}$Rn and $^{204}$Rn, corresponding to ${B(E2;2^{+}_{1} \\to 2^...

Gaffney, L P; Jenkins, D G; Andreyev, A N; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Deacon, A N; De Witte, H; DiJulio, D; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Geibel, K; Grahn, T; Hadinia, B; Hass, M; Heenen, P -H; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Jakobsson, U; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kröll, Th; Kumar, V; Ivanov, O; Martin-Haugh, S; Mücher, D; Orlandi, R; Pakarinen, J; Petts, A; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Reiter, P; Scheck, M; Seidlitz, M; Singh, K; Smith, J F; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Wadsworth, R; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Zieli?ska, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Real time cosmology - A direct measure of the expansion rate of the Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years cosmology has undergone a revolution, with precise measurements of the microwave background radiation, large galaxy redshift surveys, and the discovery of the recent accelerated expansion of the Universe using observations of distant supernovae. In this light, the SKA enables us to do an ultimate test in cosmology by measuring the expansion rate of the Universe in real time. This can be done by a rather simple experiment of observing the neutral hydrogen (HI) signal of galaxies at two different epochs. The signal will encounter a change in frequency imprinted as the Universe expands over time and thus monitoring the drift in frequencies will provide a real time measure of the cosmic acceleration. Over a period of 12 years one would expected a frequency shift of the order of 0.1 Hz assuming a standard Lambda-CDM cosmology. Based on the sensitivity estimates of the SKA and the number counts of the expected HI galaxies, it is shown that the number counts are sufficiently high to compensate for th...

Klöckner, H -R; Martins, C; Raccanelli, A; Champion, D; Roy, A; Lobanov, A; Wagner, J; Keller, R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Triangular Ring Resonator: Direct measurement of the parity-odd parameters of the photon sector of SME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the the Triangular Ring (TR) resonator. We show that the difference between the clockwise and anti-clockwise resonant frequencies of a vacuum TR resonator is sensitive to the birefringence parity-odd parameters of the photon's sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension (mSME): the Standard Model plus all the perturbative parameters encoding the break the Lorentz symmetry. We report that utilizing the current technology allows for direct measurement of these parameters with a sensitivity of the parity even ones and improves the best current resonator bounds by couple of orders of magnitudes. We note that designing an optical table that rotates perpendicular to the gravitational equipotential surface (geoid) allows for direct measurement of the constancy of the light speed at the vicinity of the earth in all directions in particular perpendicular to the geoid. If this table could achieve the precision of the ordinary tables, then it would improve the GPS bounds on the constancy of the light speed perpendicular to geoid by about eight orders of magnitude.

Qasem Exirifard

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

120

Collectivity in the light radon nuclei measured directly via Coulomb excitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: Shape coexistence in heavy nuclei poses a strong challenge to state-of-the-art nuclear models, where several competing shape minima are found close to the ground state. A classic region for investigating this phenomenon is in the region around $Z=82$ and the neutron mid-shell at $N=104$. Purpose: Evidence for shape coexistence has been inferred from $\\alpha$-decay measurements, laser spectroscopy and in-beam measurements. While the latter allow the pattern of excited states and rotational band structures to be mapped out, a detailed understanding of shape coexistence can only come from measurements of electromagnetic matrix elements. Method: Secondary, radioactive ion beams of $^{202}$Rn and $^{204}$Rn were studied by means of low-energy Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility in CERN. Results: The electric-quadrupole ($E2$) matrix element connecting the ground state and first-excited $2^{+}_{1}$ state was extracted for both $^{202}$Rn and $^{204}$Rn, corresponding to ${B(E2;2^{+}_{1} \\to 2^{+}_{1})=29^{+8}_{-8}}$ W.u. and $43^{+17}_{-12}$ W.u., respectively. Additionally, $E2$ matrix elements connecting the $2^{+}_{1}$ state with the $4^{+}_{1}$ and $2^{+}_{2}$ states were determined in $^{202}$Rn. No excited $0^{+}$ states were observed in the current data set, possibly due to a limited population of second-order processes at the currently-available beam energies. Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of collectivity and the deformation of both nuclei studied is deduced to be weak, as expected from the low-lying level-energy schemes. Comparisons are also made to state-of-the-art beyond-mean-field model calculations and the magnitude of the transitional quadrupole moments are well reproduced.

L. P. Gaffney; A. P. Robinson; D. G. Jenkins; A. N. Andreyev; M. Bender; A. Blazhev; N. Bree; B. Bruyneel; P. A. Butler; T. E. Cocolios; T. Davinson; A. N. Deacon; H. De Witte; D. DiJulio; J. Diriken; A. Ekström; Ch. Fransen; S. J. Freeman; K. Geibel; T. Grahn; B. Hadinia; M. Hass; P. -H. Heenen; H. Hess; M. Huyse; U. Jakobsson; N. Kesteloot; J. Konki; Th. Kröll; V. Kumar; O. Ivanov; S. Martin-Haugh; D. Mücher; R. Orlandi; J. Pakarinen; A. Petts; P. Peura; P. Rahkila; P. Reiter; M. Scheck; M. Seidlitz; K. Singh; J. F. Smith; J. Van de Walle; P. Van Duppen; D. Voulot; R. Wadsworth; N. Warr; F. Wenander; K. Wimmer; K. Wrzosek-Lipska; M. Zieli?ska

2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Search for signatures of magnetically-induced alignment in the arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of an analysis of data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in which we search for groups of directionally-aligned events (or ''multiplets'') which exhibit a correlation between arrival direction and the inverse of the energy. These signatures are expected from sets of events coming from the same source after having been deflected by intervening coherent magnetic fields. The observation of several events from the same source would open the possibility to accurately reconstruct the position of the source and also measure the integral of the component of the magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectory of the cosmic rays. We describe the largest multiplets found and compute the probability that they appeared by chance from an isotropic distribution. We find no statistically significant evidence for the presence of multiplets arising from magnetic deflections in the present data.

Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Towards a direct transition energy measurement of the lowest nuclear excitation in 229Th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isomeric first excited state of the isotope 229Th exhibits the lowest nuclear excitation energy in the whole landscape of known atomic nuclei. For a long time this energy was reported in the literature as 3.5(5) eV, however, a new experiment corrected this energy to 7.6(5) eV, corresponding to a UV transition wavelength of 163(11) nm. The expected isomeric lifetime is $\\tau=$ 3-5 hours, leading to an extremely sharp relative linewidth of Delta E/E ~ 10^-20, 5-6 orders of magnitude smaller than typical atomic relative linewidths. For an adequately chosen electronic state the frequency of the nuclear ground-state transition will be independent from influences of external fields in the framework of the linear Zeeman and quadratic Stark effect, rendering 229mTh a candidate for a reference of an optical clock with very high accuracy. Moreover, in the literature speculations about a potentially enhanced sensitivity of the ground-state transition of $^{229m}$Th for eventual time-dependent variations of fundamental constants (e.g. fine structure constant alpha) can be found. We report on our experimental activities that aim at a direct identification of the UV fluorescence of the ground-state transition energy of 229mTh. A further goal is to improve the accuracy of the ground-state transition energy as a prerequisite for a laser-based optical control of this nuclear excited state, allowing to build a bridge between atomic and nuclear physics and open new perspectives for metrological as well as fundamental studies.

L. v. d. Wense; P. G. Thirolf; D. Kalb; M. Laatiaoui

2012-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

123

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: • Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. • Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. • Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. • Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. • Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. • Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. • Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM’s Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

TP Ackerman; AD Del Genio; RG Ellingson; RA Ferrare; SA Klein; GM McFarquhar; PJ Lamb; CN Long; J Verlinde

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

Direct Kinetics Study of the Temperature Dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and suggested as a tracer of the photochemical age of air masses [2], but the chemical processes lead- ing performed using the turbulent flow technique with high-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the detection of reactants and products. The temperature dependence of the CH2O-producing channel rate constant

Elrod, Matthew J.

125

Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the solid with respect to the liquid, a better calculation of interfacial energy was needed. Herring described this orientation dependence, which related the interfacial undercooling to the principle interfacial curvatures. The present study pertains to the measurement of the anisotropy of interfacial energy by comparison of experimental and theoretical GBG geometries in pure succinonitrile (SCN) and pivalic acid (PVA). A quantity of SCN and PVA was distilled and zone refined using a process that is defined in the experimental procedure portion of this paper. Very thin (100 {micro}m) slide assemblies were created and filled with these organic materials. For each system, several grooves were photographed and their shapes were compared with theoretical predictions. The correlation between experiment and theory was quantified and plotted as a function of the anisotropy for each of the GBG's examined, and a maximum correlation corresponded to the anisotropy of interfacial energy which describes that particular rotation of the GBG. The results from several rotations were statistically analyzed to ensure confidence in the measurement of the anisotropy of interfacial energy and, finally, compared to reported values obtained with other techniques.

Rustwick, Bryce A.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Direct Determination of Equilibrium Potentials for Hydrogen Oxidation/Production by Open Circuit Potential Measurements in Acetonitrile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined include triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, together with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as ?0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium is shown to form homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials are used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. This method requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor an estimate for the SHE potential and thus allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media.

Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization. Tabs, figs, refs.

Shum, S.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Measuring the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump Deployment and The Potential Employment, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of Direct Use Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: To measure the costs and economic; social; and environmental benefits of nationwide geothermal heat pump (GHP) deployment; and To survey selected states as to their potential employment; energy use and savings; and environmental impact for direct use applications.

129

Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance -A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 1 Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This is the energy in the solar spectrum falling per unit time on a unit area of a surface oriented normal to the Sun Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering

Schwartz, Stephen E.

130

Measurements of prompt gamma-rays from fast-neutron induced fission with the LICORNE directional neutron source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the IPN Orsay we have developed a unique, directional, fast neutron source called LICORNE, intended initially to facilitate prompt fission gamma measurements. The ability of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator to produce intense beams of $^7$Li is exploited to produce quasi-monoenergetic neutrons between 0.5 - 4 MeV using the p($^7$Li,$^7$Be)n inverse reaction. The available fluxes of up to 7 × 10$^7$ neutrons/second/steradian for the thickest hydrogen-rich targets are comparable to similar installations, but with two added advantages: (i) The kinematic focusing produces a natural neutron beam collimation which allows placement of gamma detectors adjacent to the irradiated sample unimpeded by source neutrons. (ii) The background of scattered neutrons in the experimental hall is drastically reduced. The dedicated neutron converter was commissioned in June 2013. Some preliminary results from the first experiment using the LICORNE neutron source at the IPN Orsay are presented. Prompt fission gamma rays from fas...

Wilson, J N; Halipre, P; Oberstedt, S; Oberstedt, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Nonequilibrium quantum kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper contains viewgraphs on non-equilibrium quantum kinetics of nuclear reactions at the intermediate and high energy ranges.

Danielewicz, P.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

132

Direct Measurement of the Surface Tension of a Soft Elastic Hydrogel: Exploration of Elasto-Capillary Instability in Adhesion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An adhesively stressed thin film of a soft hydrogel confined between two rigid flat substrates auto-roughens with its dominant wavelength exhibiting pronounced dependence on the film thickness (H). A linear stability analysis confirmed that this long wavelength instability (~7H) is due to an elasto-capillary effect, the implementation of which required direct measurements of the surface tension and the elasticity of the gel. The surface tension of the gel was estimated from the fundamental spherical harmonic of a hemispherical cap of the gel that was excited by an external noise. The shear modulus of the gel was determined from its resonant shear mode in a confined geometry. During the course of this study, it was found that a high density steel ball submerges itself inside the gel by balancing its excess weight with the accumulated strain induced elastic force that allows another estimation of its elastic modulus. The large ratio (1.8 mm) of the surface tension to its elasticity ascertains the role of elasto-capillarity in the adhesion induced pattern formation with such gels. Experimental results are in accord with a linear stability analysis that predicts that the rescaled wavelength is linear with H, which modifies the conventional stress to pull-off a rigid flat object from a very soft film by a multiplicative factor. The analysis also suggests some new results related to the role of the finite dilation of a material in interfacial pattern formation that may have non-trivial consequences in the adhesive delamination of very thin and/or soft elastic films via self-generated cracks.

Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

133

Direct Measurement of the W Production Charge Asymmetry in p(p)over-bar Collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first direct measurement of the W production charge asymmetry as a function of the W boson rapidity yW in p(p)over-bar collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV. We use a sample of W?e? events in data from 1??fb[superscript ...

Paus, Christoph M. E.

134

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

Abreu, P [Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M [IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E J [Fermilab; Albuquerque, I F.M. [Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D [APC, Paris; Allekotte, I [Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J [New York U.; Allison, P [Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J [Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J [Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M [Napoli Seconda U.; INFN, Naples; Nijmegen U., IMAPP

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

137

Estimating direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation for various cities in Iran by two methods and their comparison with the measured data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two computational methods for calculating hourly, daily, and monthly average values of direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation on horizontal collectors have been presented in this article for location with different latitude, altitude, and atmospheric conditions in Iran. These methods were developed using two different independent sets of measured data from the Iranian Meteorological Organization (IMO) for two cities in Iran (Tehran and Isfahan) during 14 years of measurement for Tehran and 4 years of measurement for Isfahan. Comparison of calculated monthly average global solar radiation, using the two models for Tehran and Isfahan with measured data from the IMO, has indicated a good agreement between them. Then these developed methods were extended to another location (city of Bandar-Abbas), where measured data are not available. But the work of Daneshyar predicts its monthly global radiation. The maximum discrepancy of 7% between the developed models and the work of Daneshyar was observed.

Ashjaee, M.; Roomina, M.R.; Ghafouri-Azar, R. (Univ. of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kinetic description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.

Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

139

Direct measurement of strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soils on a real-time basis: 1994 summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traditional methodologies for quantitative characterization of radionuclide-contaminated soils over extended areas are often tedious, costly, and non-representative. A rapid characterization methodology was designed that provides reliable output with spatial resolution on the order of a few meters or less. It incorporates an innovative sensor of square plastic scintillating fibers that has been designed to be placed directly on or above a contaminated soil to detect and quantify high-energy beta particles associated with the decay chains of uranium and/or strontium. Under the direction and auspices of the DOE`s Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a high-energy beta scintillation sensor that was optimized for the detection and quantification of uranium and strontium contamination in surface soils (in the presence of potentially interfering natural and anthropogenic radionuclides), demonstrated and evaluated this detector in various field and laboratory scenarios, and provides this document in completion of the aforementioned requirements.

Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A.; Thompson, R.C.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

Abreu, P [Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M [IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E J [Fermilab; Albuquerque, I F.M. [Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D [APC, Paris; Allekotte, I [Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J [New York U.; Allison, P [Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J [Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J [Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M [Napoli Seconda U.; INFN, Naples; Nijmegen U., IMAPP

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Measurement of direct CP violation parameters in B(±)?J/?K(±) and B(±)?J/??(±) decays with 10.4??fb(?1) of Tevatron data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of direct CP violation parameters in B#1; ! J=cK#1; and B#1; ! J=c#1;#1; decays with 10:4 fb#2;1 of Tevatron data V.M. Abazov,31 B. Abbott,66 B. S. Acharya,25 M. Adams,45 T. Adams,43 J. P. Agnew,40 G.D. Alexeev,31 G. Alkhazov,35 A. Alton..., Seattle, Washington 98195, USA (Received 8 April 2013; published 12 June 2013) We present a measurement of the direct CP-violating charge asymmetry in B#1; mesons decaying to J=cK#1; and J=c#1;#1; where J=c decays to #2;ţ#2;#2;, using the full run II data...

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Chen, G.; Clutter, Justace Randall; Sekaric, Jadranka; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

142

Direct measurement of the W boson decay width in proton-antiproton collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation describes a direct measurement of the W boson total decay width, {Lambda}{sub W}, using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement uses an integrated luminosity of 177.3 pb{sup -1} data, collected during the 2002-2003 run. The width is determined from the shape of the transverse mass distribution, M{sub T}, by fitting the data in the tail region 100 < M{sub T} < 200 GeV. The result if {Lambda}{sub W} = 2.011 {+-} 0.093(stat) {+-} 0.107(syst) GeV.

Zhu, Jun-jie

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li[sub 17]Pb[sub 83]) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

Biney, P.O.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

First measurement of the Head-Tail directional nuclear recoil signature at energies relevant to WIMP dark matter searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present first evidence for the so-called Head-Tail asymmetry signature of neutron-induced nuclear recoil tracks at energies down to 1.5 keV/amu using the 1m^3 DRIFT-IIc dark matter detector. This regime is appropriate for recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMPs) but one where the differential ionization is poorly understood. We show that the distribution of recoil energies and directions induced here by Cf-252 neutrons matches well that expected from massive WIMPs. The results open a powerful new means of searching for a galactic signature from WIMPs.

S. Burgos; E. Daw; J. Forbes; C. Ghag; M. Gold; C. Hagemann; V. A. Kudryavtsev; T. B. Lawson; D. Loomba; P. Majewski; D. Muna; A. StJ. Murphy; G. G. Nicklin; S. M. Paling; A. Petkov; S. J. S. Plank; M. Robinson; N. Sanghi; D. P. Snowden-Ifft; N. J. C. Spooner; J. Turk; E. Tziaferi

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

145

Direct vs. projective: measures of children's perceptions of the parent-child relationship as predictors of future relationship quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and are a potential mechanism for the observed relation between childhood aggression and the parent-child relationship (Lyons-Ruth, Alpern, dk Repacholi, 1993; Renken, Egeland, Marvinney, Mangelsdorf, & Sroufe, 1989). A subgroup of 71% of a sample... was the quality of a newly formed relationship between the child and a mentor and included measures as reported by the mentor and by the child. The mentor-report measures were the Therapeutic Alliance Scales for Children (TAS-M, Shirk & Saiz, 1992) and mentor...

Collie, Claire Futamase

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Measurement of Feynman-x Spectra of Photons and Neutrons in the Very Forward Direction in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of normalised cross sections for the production of photons and neutrons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction in deep-inelastic $ep$ scattering at HERA are presented as a function of the Feynman variable $x_F$ and of the centre-of-mass energy of the virtual photon-proton system $W$. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of $131 \\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$. The measurement is restricted to photons and neutrons in the pseudorapidity range $\\eta>7.9$ and covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex $6scattering models and of models for hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays are compared to the measured cross sections.

H1 Collaboration

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Direct measurement of {sup 12}C+{sup 4}He?{sup 16}O+? total cross section at E{sub cm}=1.2 MeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fusion reaction of {sup 12}C+{sup 4}He?{sup 16}O+? is one of the main reactions in He-burning of stars and important for nucleosynthesis. The fusion cross section at stellar energy of E{sub cm}=0.3 MeV has not been determined precisely yet in spite of efforts for about 40 years. We plan to measure directly the total fusion cross section down to 0.7 MeV at Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory and to estimate the cross section at 0.3MeV by extrapolation. We have already measured the cross sections at 2.4 MeV and 1.5 MeV. The measurement at E{sub cm}=1.2 MeV is in progress.

Yamaguchi, H.; Sagara, K.; Fujita, K.; Kodama, D.; Narikiyo, Y.; Hamamoto, K.; Ban, T.; Tao, N.; Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University (Japan)

2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

148

Measurement of direct CP violation parameters in B±?J/?K± and B±?J/??± decays with 10.4??fb-1 of Tevatron data  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We present a measurement of the direct CP-violating charge asymmetry in B± mesons decaying to J/?K± and J/??± where J/? decays to ?+??, using the full run II data set of 10.4??fb?1 of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. A difference in the yield of B? and B+ mesons in these decays is found by fitting to the difference between their reconstructed invariant mass distributions resulting in asymmetries of AJ/?K=[0.59±0.37]%, which is the most precise measurement to date, and AJ/??=[?4.2±4.5]%. Both measurements are consistent with standard model predictions.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Beattie, M.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hart, B.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Holzbauer, J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lamont, I.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magańa-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Mason, N.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Progress in an oxygen-carrier reaction kinetics experiment for rotary-bed chemical looping combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The design process for an experimental platform measuring reaction kinetics in a chemical looping combustion (CLC) process is documented and justified. To enable an experiment designed to characterize the reaction kinetics ...

Jester-Weinstein, Jack (Jack L.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

In-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement of longitudinal and shear waves in the machine direction with transducers in rotating wheels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the MD and CD, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web. 37 figs.

Hall, M.S.; Jackson, T.G.; Knerr, C.

1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

151

Direct measurement results of the time lag of LOS-velocity oscillations between two heights in solar faculae and sunspots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an investigation of line-of-sight (LOS) velocity oscillations in solar faculae and sunspots. To study the phase relations between chromosphere and photosphere oscillations of the LOS velocity, we measured the time lag of the chromospheric signal relative to the photospheric one for several faculae and sunspots in a set of spectral line pairs. The measured time lags are different for different objects. The mean measured delay between the oscillations in the five-minute band in faculae is 50s for the SiI 10827{\\AA}-HeI 10830{\\AA} pair; for the pair FeI 6569{\\AA}-H-alpha 6563{\\AA} the mean delay is 20s; for the pair FeI 4551{\\AA}-BaII 4554{\\AA} the mean delay is 7s; for the pair SiI 8536{\\AA}-CaII 8542{\\AA} the mean delay is 20s. For the oscillations in the three-minute band in sunspot umbrae the mean delay is 55s for the SiI 10827{\\AA}-HeI 10830{\\AA} pair; for the Fe I 6569{\\AA}-H-alpha 6563{\\AA} pair it was not possible to determine the delay; for the FeI 4551{\\AA}-BaII 4554{\\AA} pair the mean delay...

Kobanov, Nikolai; Kustov, Arseniy; Chupin, Sergey; Chelpanov, Andrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Extinction of the N=20 neutron-shell closure for 32Mg examined by direct mass measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The 'island of inversion' around $^{32}$Mg is one of the most important paradigm for studying the disappearance of the stabilizing 'magic' of a shell closure. We present the first Penning-trap mass measurements of the exotic nuclides $^{29-31}$Na and $^{30-34}$Mg, which allow a precise determination of the empirical shell gap for $^{32}$Mg. The new value of 1.10(3) MeV is the lowest observed shell gap for any nuclide with a canonical magic number.

A. Chaudhuri; C. Andreoiu; T. Brunner; U. Chowdhury; S. Ettenauer; A. T. Gallant; G. Gwinner; A. A. Kwiatkowski; A. Lennarz; D. Lunney; T. D. Macdonald; B. E. Schultz; M. C. Simon; V. V. Simon; J. Dilling

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

153

An experimental verification of the Hall and Eubank method of direct measurement of the interaction of second virial coefficient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- olution past the point at which the seal between the valve stem and seat was broken. The lower volume valve was always closed dur;ng pressure measurement. The iipper chamber of the DPI communicated with the pressure mea urement device (dead weight gage...: 1. Mitb Valves l~ 2, and 3 open, UA and V& were purged with C02. The system was then charged to a specified. pressure. 2. Valve 1 was set at a position 1/8 turn past the point at which the stem and. seat broke their seal. Carefully maintaining a...

Bellomy, Marc Thomas

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

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155

PROBING THE NATURE OF THE HELIOSHEATH WITH THE NEUTRAL ATOM SPECTRA MEASURED BY IBEX IN THE VOYAGER 1 DIRECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are able to show by comparing modeled energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) spectra to those measured by Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) that the models along the Voyager 1 (V1) trajectory that best agree with the low energy IBEX data include extra heating due to ram and magnetic energy in the quasi-stagnation region or a kappa ion distribution (with ? = 2.0) in the outer heliosheath. The model explored is the multi-ion, multi-fluid (MI-MF) which treats the pick-up ions and the thermal ion fluids with separate Maxwellian distributions. These effects are included ad hoc in the modeled ENA since they are not present in the model. These results indicate that the low energy spectra of ENAs as measured by IBEX is sensitive to the physical nature of the heliosheath and to effects not traditionally present in current global models. Therefore, by comparing the low energy ENA spectra to models, we can potentially probe the heliosheath in locations beyond those probed by V1 and Voyager 2 (V2)

Opher, M.; Prested, C. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA (United States); McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)] [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Schwadron, N. A. [Department of Physics and Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Drake, J. F., E-mail: mopher@bu.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

156

Measurement of direct CP violation in b -> scc and b -> dcc quark transitions using B+ -> J/psiK+ and B+ -> J/psi pi+ decays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis describes the measurement of the direct CP violation in the b {yields} sc{bar c} transition using the decay B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup +}, and in the b {yields} dc{bar c} transition using the decay B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}. The decays of B{sup +} mesons are reconstructed in approximately 2.8 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by D0 detector in 2002-2007 during Run II of Fermilab Tevatron collider. Using the unbinned likelihood fit, a signal of 40,222 {+-} 242 of B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup +} and 1,578 {+-} 119 of B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +} events is obtained. The corresponding direct CP violation asymmetries are measured to be A{sub CP}(B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}(1S)K{sup +}) = +0.0077 {+-} 0.0061(stat.) {+-} 0.0027(syst.), and A{sub CP}(B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}(1S){pi}{sup +}) = - 0.089 {+-} 0.081(stat.) {+-} 0.028(syst.). The result on A{sub CP} (B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}(1S)K{sup +}) is consistent with the 2007 world average and is the most precise measurement of this asymmetry, with uncertainty approaching the level of the Standard Model prediction. The result on A{sub CP} (B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}(1S){pi}{sup +}) constitutes the first measurement of this asymmetry at the hadron collider, with uncertainty at the level of the 2007 world average. The measurement presented in this thesis has become possible due to the sophisticated online and offline tracking/vertexing implemented at D0, and the regular reversal of the polarities of the D0 detector magnets.

Holubyev, K.; /Lancaster U.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence and mixing using direct numerical simulation with experimentally-measured initial conditions. I. Comparison to experimental data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1152 x 760 x 1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) using initial conditions, geometry, and physical parameters chosen to approximate those of a transitional, small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment [Mueschke, Andrews and Schilling, J. Fluid Mech. 567, 27 (2006)] is presented. The density and velocity fluctuations measured just off of the splitter plate in this buoyantly unstable water channel experiment were parameterized to provide physically-realistic, anisotropic initial conditions for the DNS. The methodology for parameterizing the measured data and numerically implementing the resulting perturbation spectra in the simulation is discussed in detail. The DNS model of the experiment is then validated by comparing quantities from the simulation to experimental measurements. In particular, large-scale quantities (such as the bubble front penetration hb and the mixing layer growth parameter {alpha}{sub b}), higher-order statistics (such as velocity variances and the molecular mixing parameter {theta}), and vertical velocity and density variance spectra from the DNS are shown to be in favorable agreement with the experimental data. Differences between the quantities obtained from the DNS and from experimental measurements are related to limitations in the dynamic range of scales resolved in the simulation and other idealizations of the simulation model. This work demonstrates that a parameterization of experimentally-measured initial conditions can yield simulation data that quantitatively agrees well with experimentally-measured low- and higher-order statistics in a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer. This study also provides resolution and initial conditions implementation requirements needed to simulate a physical Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment. In Part II [Mueschke and Schilling, Phys. Fluids (2008)], other quantities not measured in the experiment are obtained from the DNS and discussed, such as the integral- and Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers, Reynolds stress anisotropy and two-dimensional density and velocity variance spectra, hypothetical chemical product formation measures, other local and global mixing parameters, and the statistical composition of mixed fluid.

Mueschke, N; Schilling, O

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Measurement of the direct $CP$ asymmetry in $\\bar{B}\\rightarrow X_{s+d}\\gamma$ decays with a lepton tag  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the measurement of the direct $CP$ asymmetry in the radiative $\\bar{B}\\rightarrow X_{s+d}\\gamma$ decay using a data sample of $(772 \\pm 11)\\times 10^6$ $B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^+e^-$ collider. The $CP$ asymmetry is measured as a function of the photon energy threshold. For $E^{\\rm{*}}_{\\gamma} \\geq 2.1~{\\rm{GeV}}$, where $E^{\\rm{*}}_{\\gamma}$ is the photon energy in the center-of-mass frame, we obtain $\\mathcal{A}_{CP}(\\bar{B}\\rightarrow X_{s+d}\\gamma)= (2.2 \\pm 3.9 \\pm 0.9) \\%$, consistent with the Standard Model prediction.

Pesántez, L; Dingfelder, J; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Adamczyk, K; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Bansal, V; Barberio, E; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bra?ko, M; Browder, T E; ?ervenkov, D; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frost, O; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hasenbusch, J; He, X H; Heller, A; Horiguchi, T; Hou, W -S; Huschle, M; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Julius, T; Kang, K H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Lee, I S; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Ng, C; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Oswald, C; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petri?, M; Piilonen, L E; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Rozanska, M; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stari?, M; Steder, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Taniguchi, N; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Usov, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wagner, M N; Wang, B; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Kinetic theory viscosity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how the viscous evolution of Keplerian accretion discs can be understood in terms of simple kinetic theory. Although standard physics texts give a simple derivation of momentum transfer in a linear shear flow using kinetic theory, many authors, as detailed by Hayashi & Matsuda 2001, have had difficulties applying the same considerations to a circular shear flow. We show here how this may be done, and note that the essential ingredients are to take proper account of, first, isotropy locally in the frame of the fluid and, second, the geometry of the mean flow.

C. J. Clarke; J. E. Pringle

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

162

Molecular Beam Kinetics | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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163

Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Polycrystalline Copper Electrodeposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-fidelity kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation method (T. Treeratanaphitak, M. Pritzker, N. M. Abukhdeir, Electrochim. Acta 121 (2014) 407--414) using the semi-empirical multi-body embedded-atom method (EAM) potential has been extended to model polycrystalline metal electrodeposition. The presented KMC-EAM method enables true three-dimensional atomistic simulations of electrodeposition over experimentally relevant timescales. Simulations using KMC-EAM are performed over a range of overpotentials to predict the effect on deposit texture evolution. Results show strong agreement with past experimental results both with respect to deposition rates on various copper surfaces and roughness-time power law behaviour. It is found that roughness scales with time $\\propto t^\\beta$ where $\\beta=0.62 \\pm 0.12$, which is in good agreement with past experimental results. Furthermore, the simulations provide insights into sub-surface deposit morphologies which are not directly accessible from experimental measurements.

Treeratanaphitak, Tanyakarn; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Neptunium Binding Kinetics with Arsenazo(III)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document has been prepared to meet FCR&D level 2 milestone M2FT-14IN0304021, “Report on the results of actinide binding kinetics with aqueous phase complexants” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems FCR&D work package. The report details kinetics experiments that were performed to measure rates of aqueous phase complexation for pentavalent neptunium with the chromotropic dye Arsenazo III (AAIII). The studies performed were designed to determine how pH, ionic strength and AAIII concentration may affect the rate of the reaction. A brief comparison with hexavalent neptunium is also made. It was identified that as pH was increased the rate of reaction also increased, however increasing the ionic strength and concentration of AAIII had the opposite effect. Interestingly, the rate of reaction of Np(VI) with AAIII was found to be slower than that of the Np(V) reaction.

Leigh R. Martin; Aaron T. Johnson; Stephen P. Mezyk

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A comprehensive kinetics model for CO oxidation during char combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important parameter in representing energy feedback to a particle during char combustion concerns the oxidation of CO to CO/sub 2/. If substantial oxidation of CO occurs near a particle, then the greater heat of combustion for the complete oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ (94.1 kcal/mole vs. 26.4 kcal/mole for oxidation to CO) is available for energy feedback mechanisms. ''Energy feedback'' is here defined as any situation in which an individual particle receives a significant fraction of its heat of combustion directly, through the localized oxidation of emitted combustible species, i.e. CO. Conversely, if the oxidation of CO does not occur near a particle, then energy feedback will occur only indirectly, through heating of the bulk gas. The primary reaction product at the particle surface during char combustion is generally considered to be CO, and the location of the subsequent CO oxidation zone plays a very important role in determining the particle temperature. Ayling and Smith performed experimental and modeling work which indicates that CO oxidation is not of major importance under the conditions they investigated, although they noted the need for improved accuracy in measuring char reactivities, as well as for better modeling of the gas phase CO oxidation kinetics. The modeling work presented in this paper attempts to develop an improved understanding of the boundary layer oxidation of CO through the use of a comprehensive set of kinetic expressions.

Haussmann, G.; Kruger, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

Klas, M.; Matej?ik, Š. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynskadolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

Directed Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directed Energy The Directed Energy Program provides laser systems design, engineering and production for specific applications and missions, experimentally validated...

169

Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

170

Ducted kinetic Alfven waves in plasma with steep density gradients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given their high plasma density (n {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), it is theoretically possible to excite Alfven waves in a conventional, moderate length (L {approx} 2 m) helicon plasma source. However, helicon plasmas are decidedly inhomogeneous, having a steep radial density gradient, and typically have a significant background neutral pressure. The inhomogeneity introduces regions of kinetic and inertial Alfven wave propagation. Ion-neutral and electron-neutral collisions alter the Alfven wave dispersion characteristics. Here, we present the measurements of propagating kinetic Alfven waves in helium helicon plasma. The measured wave dispersion is well fit with a kinetic model that includes the effects of ion-neutral damping and that assumes the high density plasma core defines the radial extent of the wave propagation region. The measured wave amplitude versus plasma radius is consistent with the pile up of wave magnetic energy at the boundary between the kinetic and inertial regime regions.

Houshmandyar, Saeid [Solar Observatory Department, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Scime, Earl E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

First Direct Measurement of the ^{17}O(p,?)^{18}F Reaction Cross-Section at Gamow Energies for Classical Novae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Classical novae are important contributors to the abundances of key isotopes, such as the radioactive ^{18}F, whose observation by satellite missions could provide constraints on nucleosynthesis models in novae. The ^{17}O(p,\\gamma)^{18}F reaction plays a critical role in the synthesis of both oxygen and fluorine isotopes but its reaction rate is not well determined because of the lack of experimental data at energies relevant to novae explosions. In this study, the reaction cross section has been measured directly for the first time in a wide energy range Ecm = 200 - 370 keV appropriate to hydrogen burning in classical novae. In addition, the E=183 keV resonance strength, \\omega \\gamma=1.67\\pm0.12 \\mueV, has been measured with the highest precision to date. The uncertainty on the ^{17}O(p,\\gamma)^{18}F reaction rate has been reduced by a factor of 4, thus leading to firmer constraints on accurate models of novae nucleosynthesis.

D. A. Scott; A. Caciolli; A. DiLeva; A. Formicola; M. Aliotta; M. Anders; D. Bemmerer; C. Broggini; M. Campeggio; P. Corvisiero; Z. Elekes; Zs. Fülöp; G. Gervino; A. Guglielmetti; C. Gustavino; Gy. Gyürky; G. Imbriani; M. Junker; M. Laubenstein; R. Menegazzo; M. Marta; E. Napolitani; P. Prati; V. Rigato; V. Roca; E. Somorjai; C. Salvo; O. Straniero; F. Strieder; T. Szücs; F. Terrasi; D. Trezzi

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

172

Chemical kinetics modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

DSRP, direct sulfur production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to demonstrate on a bench-scale the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur (as elemental sulfur) from regeneration off-gases and coal-gas produced in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generating systems. Fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies will also be conducted to enable development of a model to predict DSRP performance in large-scale reactors and to shed light on the mechanism of DSRP reactions. The ultimate goal of the project is to advance the DSRP technology to the point where industry is willing to support its further development.

McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella Oneidensisthe Size Distribution and

175

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanella OneidensistheSynthesisLithium

176

Interphase transfer kinetics of thorium between nitric acid and tributyl phosphate solutions using the single drop and the Lewis cell techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetic rate constants for the interphase transfer of thorium between an aqueous phase and an organic phase of tributyl phosphate-n-paraffin hydrocarbon have been measured using the single drop and the Lewis cell techniques. Results from individual tests performed with the two techniques agree within experimental error. As with uranium, the data are consistent with a model in which the rate-controlling step is the rate of reaction of the components at the phase interface. An organic-soluble complex, represented by Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.2TBP, forms in the organic phase. The composition of this complex is confirmed by equilibrium, as well as by kinetic, data. The kinetic data include results from tests showing the effects of TBP concentration and nitrate concentration on the values of the forward and the reverse kinetic constants. Other tests show the effect of temperature on the kinetic constant in both the forward and the reverse transfer directions, and the activation energies and enthalpy for the extraction reactions were estimated from these data. Unlike uranium, thorium extraction was shown to have a Marangoni effect under certain conditions. 10 figures, 1 table.

Horner, D.E.; Mailen, J.C.; Coggins, J.R. Jr.; Thiel, S.W.; Scott, T.C.; Pih, N.; Yates, R.G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Neutron kinetics in subcritical cores with application to the source modulation method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron kinetics in subcritical cores with application to the source modulation method J. Wright for the measurement of reactivity in subcritical, source-driven cores. Methods of measuring reactivity by a single. Hence, first, the conditions of point kinetic behaviour in subcritical source-driven cores are revis

Pázsit, Imre

178

Femtomole Mixer for Microsecond Kinetic Studies of Protein Folding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtomole Mixer for Microsecond Kinetic Studies of Protein Folding David E. Hertzog,, Xavier a microfluidic mixer for studying protein folding and other reactions with a mixing time of 8 µs and sample) measurements of single-stranded DNA. We also demon- strate the feasibility of measuring fast protein folding

Michalet, Xavier

179

Solution of the space-dependent reactor kinetics equations in three dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general class of two-step alternating-direction semi-implicit methods is proposed for the approximate solution of the semi-discrete form of the space-dependent reactor kinetics equations. An exponential transformation ...

Ferguson, Donald Ross

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

processes. deer09aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Simulation of High...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Spatial mapping of ices in the Oph-F core: A direct measurement of CO depletion and the formation of CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims: Ices in dense star-forming cores contain the bulk of volatile molecules apart from H2 and thus represent a large fraction of dark cloud chemistry budget.To directly constrain the freeze-out profile of CO, the formation route of CO2 and the carrier of the 6.8 micron band, the spatial distribution of the CO/CO2 ice system and the 6.8 micron band carrier are measured in a nearby dense core. Methods: VLT-ISAAC, ISOCAM-CVF and Spitzer-IRS archival mid-infrared (3-20 micron) spectroscopy of young stellar objects is used to construct a map of the abundances of CO and CO2 ices in the Oph-F star-forming core, probing core radii from 2 10^3 to 14 10^3 AU or densities from 5 10^4 to 5 10^5 cm^-3 with a resolution of ~ 3000 AU. Results: The line-of-sight averaged abundances relative to water ice of both CO and CO2 ices increase monotonously with decreasing distance to the core center. The map traces the shape of the CO abundance profile between freeze-out ratios of 5-60% and shows that the CO2 ice abundance increases by a factor of 2 as the CO freezes out. It is suggested that this indicates a formation route of CO2 on a CO ice surface to produce a CO2 component dilute in CO ice, in addition to a fraction of the CO2 formed at lower densities along with the water ice mantle. It is predicted that the CO2 bending mode band profile should reflect a high CO:CO2 number ratio in the densest parts of dark clouds. In contrast to CO and CO2, the abundance of the carrier of the 6.8 micron band remains relatively constant throughout the core. A simple freeze-out model of the CO abundance profile is used to estimate the binding energy of CO on a CO ice surface to 814+/-30 K.

K. M. Pontoppidan

2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

182

Desorption and sublimation kinetics for fluorinated aluminum nitride surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and desorption of halogen and other gaseous species from surfaces is a key fundamental process for both wet chemical and dry plasma etch and clean processes utilized in nanoelectronic fabrication processes. Therefore, to increase the fundamental understanding of these processes with regard to aluminum nitride (AlN) surfaces, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilized to investigate the desorption kinetics of water (H{sub 2}O), fluorine (F{sub 2}), hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and other related species from aluminum nitride thin film surfaces treated with an aqueous solution of buffered hydrogen fluoride (BHF) diluted in methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). Pre-TPD XPS measurements of the CH{sub 3}OH:BHF treated AlN surfaces showed the presence of a variety of Al-F, N-F, Al-O, Al-OH, C-H, and C-O surfaces species in addition to Al-N bonding from the AlN thin film. The primary species observed desorbing from these same surfaces during TPD measurements included H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, HF, F{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH with some evidence for nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) desorption as well. For H{sub 2}O, two desorption peaks with second order kinetics were observed at 195 and 460?°C with activation energies (E{sub d}) of 51?±?3 and 87?±?5?kJ/mol, respectively. Desorption of HF similarly exhibited second order kinetics with a peak temperature of 475?°C and E{sub d} of 110?±?5?kJ/mol. The TPD spectra for F{sub 2} exhibited two peaks at 485 and 585?°C with second order kinetics and E{sub d} of 62?±?3 and 270?±?10?kJ/mol, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with previous E{sub d} measurements for desorption of H{sub 2}O from SiO{sub 2} and AlF{sub x} from AlN surfaces, respectively. The F{sub 2} desorption is therefore attributed to fragmentation of AlF{sub x} species in the mass spectrometer ionizer. H{sub 2} desorption exhibited an additional high temperature peak at 910?°C with E{sub d}?=?370?±?10?kJ/mol that is consistent with both the dehydrogenation of surface AlOH species and H{sub 2} assisted sublimation of AlN. Similarly, N{sub 2} exhibited a similar higher temperature desorption peak with E{sub d}?=?535?±?40?kJ/mol that is consistent with the activation energy for direct sublimation of AlN.

King, Sean W., E-mail: sean.king@intel.com; Davis, Robert F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Kinetics and morphology of erbium silicide formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth kinetics and surface morphology of erbium silicide formation from Er layers on Si(100) substrates are examined using both fast e-beam annealing and furnace annealing. Very smooth erbium silicide layers have been grown using a line-source e beam to heat and react the Er overlayers with the substrate. This contrasts to the severe pitting observed when Er layers are reacted with Si in conventional furnace annealing. The pitting phenomenon can be explained by a thin contaminant layer at the interface between Er and Si. Our results suggest the contamination barrier is not due to oxygen, as usually assumed, but may be related to the presence of carbon. Rapid e-beam heating to reaction temperatures of approx.1200 K permits dispersion of the barrier layer before substantial silicide growth can occur, allowing smooth silicide growth. Heating to shorter times to just disperse the interface barrier allows uniform layer growth by subsequent furnace annealing and has permitted measurement of the kinetics of erbium silicide formation on crystalline Si. The reaction obeys (time)/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/ kinetics but is shown to be not totally diffusion limited by the ability to sustain multiple interface growth from a single Si source. The growth rates are nearly an order of magnitude slower for the Er/Si(100) interface than for the Er/amorphous-Si, but with a similar activation energy near 1.75 eV in both cases.

Knapp, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Wu, C.S.; Lau, S.S.

1985-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Direct atomic flux measurement of electron-beam evaporated yttrium with a diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor at 668 nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a diode-laser-based atomic absorption AA monitor at 668 nm. Atomic number density and velocity were measured through absorption and Doppler shift measurements to provide the atomic flux. The AA previously developed diode-laser-based atomic absorption AA monitors for atomic density measurements

Fejer, Martin M.

186

Kinetic models of opinion formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce and discuss certain kinetic models of (continuous) opinion formation involving both exchange of opinion between individual agents and diffusion of information. We show conditions which ensure that the kinetic model reaches non trivial stationary states in case of lack of diffusion in correspondence of some opinion point. Analytical results are then obtained by considering a suitable asymptotic limit of the model yielding a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of opinion among individuals.

G. Toscani

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

187

Nonlinear effects in kinetic resolutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KTRIC AMPLIFICATION IN THE JACOBSEN HYDROLYTIC KINET RESOLUTION OF RACEMIC EPOXIDES 20 Applicability of Homocompetitive Reaction Kinetics to the Jacobsen HKR Effect of Catalyst EE and Choice of Epoxide on Amplification in the Jacobsen HKR.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effect of Temperature on Amplification and Reaction Rate in the Jacobsen HKR . Effect of Low EE Catalyst Generation on Amplification in the Jacobsen HKR. . . . 21 21 25 26 27 30 31 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER Page V AS...

Johnson, Derrell W.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Directives System  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Direct measurement of product of the electron mobility and mean free drift time of CdZnTe semiconductors using position sensitive single  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Physics. Related Articles A new detector for mass spectrometry: Direct detection of low energy of material trends in nonproportionality of scintillators J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123716 (2011) A digital method Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E503 (2010) Development of a thermal neutron detector based on scintillating

He, Zhong

190

KONG, JIAN. Infrared-Based Temperature Measurement in Ceramics Grinding and Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Filters. (Under the direction of Albert J. Shih)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT KONG, JIAN. Infrared-Based Temperature Measurement in Ceramics Grinding and Diesel Exhaust was used in the applications of temperature measurement in ceramics grinding and diesel exhaust of the temperature distribution on the cavity wall surface in diesel exhaust aftertreatment filters using

Shih, Albert J.

191

Kinetics of in situ combustion. SUPRI TR 91  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation kinetic experiments with various crude oil types show two reaction peaks at about 250{degree}C (482{degree}F) and 400{degree}C (725{degree}F). These experiments lead to the conclusion that the fuel during high temperature oxidation is an oxygenated hydrocarbon. A new oxidation reaction model has been developed which includes two partially-overlapping reactions: namely, low-temperature oxidation followed by high-temperature oxidation. For the fuel oxidation reaction, the new model includes the effects of sand grain size and the atomic hydrogen-carbon (H/C) and oxygen-carbon (O/C) ratios of the fuel. Results based on the new model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Methods have been developed to calculate the atomic H/C and O/C ratios. These methods consider the oxygen in the oxygenated fuel, and enable a direct comparison of the atomic H/C ratios obtained from kinetic and combustion tube experiments. The finding that the fuel in kinetic tube experiments is an oxygenated hydrocarbon indicates that oxidation reactions are different in kinetic and combustion tube experiments. A new experimental technique or method of analysis will be required to obtain kinetic parameters for oxidation reactions encountered in combustion tube experiments and field operations.

Mamora, D.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy of the XeCl Thomas Lenzer,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements for the neutral state we construct a Morse­Morse-switching­van der Waals model potential functionZero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy of the XeCl� anion Thomas Lenzer,a) Ivan Yourshaw, Berkeley, California 94720 Received 9 November 2001; accepted 21 December 2001 Zero electron kinetic energy

Neumark, Daniel M.

193

Directives Help  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

194

A Chemical Kinetic Model of Transcriptional Elongation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A chemical kinetic model of the elongation dynamics of RNA polymerase along a DNA sequence is introduced. The proposed model governs the discrete movement of the RNA polymerase along a DNA template, with no consideration given to elastic effects. The model's novel concept is a ``look-ahead'' feature, in which nucleotides bind reversibly to the DNA prior to being incorporated covalently into the nascent RNA chain. Results are presented for specific DNA sequences that have been used in single-molecule experiments of the random walk of RNA polymerase along DNA. By replicating the data analysis algorithm from the experimental procedure, the model produces velocity histograms, enabling direct comparison with these published results.

Yujiro Richard Yamada; Charles S. Peskin

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

195

Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Superthermal electron distribution measurements from polarized electron cyclotron emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the superthermal electron distribution can be made by observing the polarized electron cyclotron emission. The emission is viewed along a constant magnetic field surface. This simplifies the resonance condition and gives a direct correlation between emission frequency and kinetic energy of the emitting electron. A transformation technique is formulated which determines the anisotropy of the distribution and number density of superthermals at each energy measured. The steady-state distribution during lower hybrid current drive and examples of the superthermal dynamics as the runaway conditions is varied are presented for discharges in the PLT tokamak. 15 refs., 8 figs.

Luce, T.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fisch, N.J.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Turbidity Measurements: 2 calcium/pDNA and 2 phosphate/ PEG-PAA solutions (1 mL) preincubated at 25 C were directly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L) prepared at poly- mer concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 lg mL±1 were incubated for 24 h at 25 C]. The DLS measurements were carried out using a DLS-7000 instrument (Otsuka Electronics Co.). Vertically to 200 lg mL±1 were added as suspension in the medium to the semicon- fluent cellular monolayer

Lin, Zhiqun

200

Direct electrical observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-based two-dimensional electron gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, signatures of plasma waves in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were observed by direct electrical measurement at room temperature. Periodic grating-gate device structures were fabricated and characterized by on-wafer G-band (140–220?GHz) s-parameter measurements as a function of gate bias voltage and device geometry. A physics-based equivalent circuit model was used to assist in interpreting the measured s-parameters. The kinetic inductance extracted from the measurement data matches well with theoretical predictions, consistent with direct observation of plasma wave-related effects in GaN-channel devices at room temperature. This observation of electrically significant room-temperature plasma-wave effects in GaN-channel devices may have implications for future millimeter-wave and THz device concepts and designs.

Zhao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, W.; Zhu, M.; Yue, Y.; Song, B.; Encomendero, J.; Xing, H.; Fay, P., E-mail: pfay@nd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Sensale-Rodriguez, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Aerial Measuring System  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish policy for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Program. This directive does not cancel another directive. Canceled by DOE O 153.1.

1991-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

202

Charge and frequency resolved isochronous mass spectrometry in storage rings: First direct mass measurement of the short-lived neutron-deficient $^{51}$Co nuclide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Revolution frequency measurements of individual ions in storage rings require sophisticated timing detectors. One of common approaches for such detectors is the detection of secondary electrons released from a thin foil due to penetration of the stored ions. A new method based on the analysis of intensities of secondary electrons was developed which enables determination of the charge of each ion simultaneously with the measurement of its revolution frequency. Although the mass-over-charge ratios of $^{51}$Co$^{27+}$ and $^{34}$Ar$^{18+}$ ions are almost identical, and therefore, the ions can not be resolved in a storage ring, by applying the new method the mass excess of the short-lived $^{51}$Co is determined for the first time to be ME($^{51}$Co)=-27342(48) keV. Shell-model calculations in the $fp$-shell nuclei compared to the new data indicate the need to include isospin-nonconserving forces.

P. Shuai; H. S. Xu; X. L. Tu; Y. H. Zhang; B. H. Sun; Yu. A. Litvinov; X. L. Yan; K. Blaum; M. Wang; X. H. Zhou; J. J. He; Y. Sun; K. Kaneko; Y. J. Yuan; J. W. Xia; J. C. Yang; G. Audi; X. C. Chen; G. B. Jia; Z. G. Hu; X. W. Ma; R. S. Mao; B. Mei; Z. Y. Sun; S. T. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; X. Xu; T. Yamaguchi; Y. Yamaguchi; Y. D. Zang; H. W. Zhao; T. C. Zhao; W. Zhang; W. L. Zhan

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

203

Kinetic Modeling and Thermodynamic Closure Approximation of ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 5, 2007 ... Kinetic Modeling and Thermodynamic Closure. Approximation of Liquid Crystal Polymers. Haijun Yu. Program in Applied and Computational ...

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

204

Spectroscopic and Kinetic Investigation of the Catalytic Mechanism of Tyrosine Hydroxylase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the catalytic mechanism of this physiologically important enzyme. Analysis of the TyrH reaction by rapid freeze-quench M?ssbauer spectroscopy allowed the first direct characterization of an Fe(IV) intermediate in a mononuclear non- heme enzyme catalyzing... aromatic hydroxylation. Further rapid kinetic studies established the kinetic competency of this intermediate to be the long-postulated hydroxylating species, Fe(IV)O. Spectroscopic investigations of wild-type (WT) and mutant TyrH complexes using...

Eser, Bekir Engin

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

205

Reduced and Validated Kinetic Mechanisms for Hydrogen-CO-sir Combustion in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rigorous experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigation of various issues relevant to the development of reduced, validated kinetic mechanisms for synthetic gas combustion in gas turbines was carried out - including the construction of new radiation models for combusting flows, improvement of flame speed measurement techniques, measurements and chemical kinetic analysis of H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mixtures, revision of the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} kinetic model to improve flame speed prediction capabilities, and development of a multi-time scale algorithm to improve computational efficiency in reacting flow simulations.

Yiguang Ju; Frederick Dryer

2009-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

14CME Kinetic Energy and Mass Kinetic energy is the energy that a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14CME Kinetic Energy and Mass Kinetic energy is the energy that a body has by virtue of its mass the table by determining the value of the missing entries using the formula for Kinetic Energy. Problem 2: What is the minimum and maximum range for the observed kinetic energies for the 10 CMEs? The largest

207

First Direct Double-Beta Decay Q-value Measurement of 82Se in Support of Understanding the Nature of the Neutrino  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In anticipation of results from current and future double-beta decay studies, we report a measurement resulting in a 82Se double-beta decay Q-value of 2997.9(3) keV, an order of magnitude more precise than the currently accepted value. We also present preliminary results of a calculation of the 82Se neutrinoless double-beta decay nuclear matrix element that corrects in part for the small size of the shell model single-particle space. The results of this work are important for designing next generation double-beta decay experiments and for the theoretical interpretations of their observations.

David L. Lincoln; Jason D. Holt; Georg Bollen; Maxime Brodeur; Scott Bustabad; Jonathan Engel; Samuel J. Novario; Matthew Redshaw; Ryan Ringle; Stefan Schwarz

2012-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

First Direct Double- Decay Q-Value Measurement of 82Se in Support of Understanding the Nature of the Neutrino  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In anticipation of results from current and future double- decay studies, we report a measurement resulting in a 82Se double- decay Q value of 2997.9(3) keV, an order of magnitude more precise than the currently accepted value. We also present preliminary results of a calculation of the 82Se neutrinoless double- decay nuclear matrix element that corrects in part for the small size of the shell model single-particle space. The results of this work are important for designing next generation double- decay experiments and for the theoretical interpretations of their observations.

Lincoln, David L. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing; Holt, Jason D. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt/GSI/UTK/ORNL; Bollen, Georg [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing; Brodeur, Maxime [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bustabad, Scott [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing; Engel, Jonathan [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Novario, Samuel J. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing; Redshaw, Matthew [NSCL, Michigan State Univ.,/Central Michigan Univ.-Mt. Pleasant; Ringle, Ryan [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing; Schwarz, Stefan [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

210

Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces.

Saive, Rebecca, E-mail: rebecca.saive@innovationlab.de; Kowalsky, Wolfgang [InnovationLab GmbH, 69115 Heidelberg (Germany) [InnovationLab GmbH, 69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, TU Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, Christian [InnovationLab GmbH, 69115 Heidelberg (Germany) [InnovationLab GmbH, 69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert [InnovationLab GmbH, 69115 Heidelberg (Germany) [InnovationLab GmbH, 69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, TU Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

211

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction. Technical status progress report, October 1, 1991--March 15, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

Biney, P.O.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Visualizing kinetic pathways of homogeneous nucleation in colloidal crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a system undergoes a transition from a liquid to a solid phase, it passes through multiple intermediate structures before reaching the final state. However, our knowledge on the exact pathways of this process is limited, mainly due to the difficulty of realizing direct observations. Here, we experimentally study the evolution of symmetry and density for various colloidal systems during liquid-to-solid phase transitions, and visualize kinetic pathways with single-particle resolution. We observe the formation of relatively-ordered precursor structures with different symmetries, which then convert into metastable solids. During this conversion, two major cross-symmetry pathways always occur, regardless of the final state and the interaction potential. In addition, we find a broad decoupling of density variation and symmetry development, and discover that nucleation rarely starts from the densest regions. These findings hold for all our samples, suggesting the possibility of finding a unified picture for the complex crystallization kinetics in colloidal systems.

Peng Tan; Ning Xu; Lei Xu

2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

213

Understanding B Cell Kinetics in Humans via Heavy Water Labeling Using Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models and Stochastic Approximation EM algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding B Cell Kinetics in Humans via Heavy Water Labeling Using Nonlinear Mixed Effects, 2010 #12;Abstract Heavy water labeling is an endogenous labeling technique for measuring kinetics synthesized during cell division. Therefore, heavy water labeling is suitable for human studies and has been

Goldman, Steven A.

214

Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

improved gasoline surrogate fuels for HCCI engines * Development of very efficient software to reduce the size of detailed chemical kinetic models for transportation fuels...

215

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& coordinate DOE research efforts (CLEERS Coordination) * Develop detailed technical data required to simulate energy efficient emission controls (LNT & SCR Kinetics, Sulfur &...

216

Kinetic bounding volume hierarchies for deformable objects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present novel algorithms for updating bounding volume hierarchies of objects undergoing arbitrary deformations. Therefore, we introduce two new data structures, the kinetic AABB tree and the kinetic BoxTree. The event-based approach of the kinetic data structures framework enables us to show that our algorithms are optimal in the number of updates. Moreover, we show a lower bound for the total number of BV updates, which is independent of the number of frames. We used our kinetic bounding volume hierarchies for collision detection and performed a comparison with the classical bottomup update method. The results show that our algorithms perform up to ten times faster in practically relevant scenarios.

Gabriel Zachmann; Tu Clausthal

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Fractional Kinetic Equation and Thermonuclear Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper discusses the solution of a simple kinetic equation of the type used for the computation of the change of the chemical composition in stars like the Sun. Starting from the standard form of the kinetic equation it is generalized to a fractional kinetic equation and its solutions in terms of H-functions are obtained. The role of thermonuclear functions, which are also represented in terms of G- and H-functions, in such a fractional kinetic equation is emphasized. Results contained in this paper are related to recent investigations of possible astrophysical solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

218

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data - Pres. 1: Coordination of CLEERS Project; Pres. 2: ORNL Research on LNT Sulfation & Desulfation CLEERS...

219

Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Extraction of kinetic freeze-out properties and effect of resonance decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present STAR results from identified particle spectra measured in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 62.4 GeV Au-Au collisions. Particle production and system dynamics are compared to results at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. We extract kinetic and chemical freeze-out parameters using blast wave model parameterization and statistical model. We discuss the effect of resonance decays on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters.

Levente Molnar

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Direct measurement and analysis of cyclohexadienyl oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxidation of cyclohexadienyl radical (c-C?H?) and similar resonantly stabilized radicals are important in an astonishing array of processes in nature. Cyclohexadienyl radical has been postulated to be significant in a ...

Taylor, James Wagner

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Direct Measurement of the W Boson Width  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ľ ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2peTp#1;T˝1#1; cosđ#3;#5;Ţ#3; p , where #3;#5; is the opening angle between the electron and neutrino in the plane perpendicu- lar to the beam axis, and peT and p#1;T are the transverse momenta of the electron and neutrino, respectively...

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Clutter, Justace Randall; McGivern, Carrie Lynne; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

223

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDoppler ARMdiffuse

224

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDoppler ARMdiffusedirect normal

225

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDopplerdownwelling irradiance ARM Data

226

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDopplerdownwelling irradiance ARM

227

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDopplerdownwellingdiffuse

228

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow computations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow. For the non-equilibrium flow computations, i.e., the nozzle flow and hypersonic rarefied flow over flat plate-kinetic method; Hypersonic and rarefied flows 1. Introduction The development of aerospace technology has

Xu, Kun

229

Testing the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the density. A large part of the total energy, the kinetic contexts. For finite systems these forms integrate to the same global ki- netic energy, but they differTesting the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional Eunji Sim

Burke, Kieron

230

Evaluation of kinetic phosphorescence analysis for the determination of uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past, New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has used a fluorometric method for the determination of sub-microgram quantities of uranium. In its continuing effort to upgrade and improve measurement technology, NBL has evaluated the commercially-available KPA-11 kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (Chemchek, Richland, WA). The Chemchek KPA-11 is a bench-top instrument which performs single-measurement, quench-corrected analyses for trace uranium. It incorporates patented kinetic phosphorimetry techniques to measure and analyze sample phosphorescence as a function of time. With laser excitation and time-corrected photon counting, the KPA-11 has a lower detection limit than conventional fluorometric methods. Operated with a personal computer, the state-of-the-art KPA-11 offers extensive time resolution and phosphorescence lifetime capabilities for additional specificity. Interferences are thereby avoided while obtaining precise measurements. Routine analyses can be easily and effectively accomplished, with the accuracy and precision equivalent to the pulsed-laser fluorometric method presently performed at NBL, without the need for internal standards. Applications of kinetic phosphorimetry at NBL include the measurement of trace level uranium in retention tank, waste samples, and low-level samples. It has also been used to support other experimental activities at NBL by the measuring of nanogram amounts of uranium contamination (in blanks) in isotopic sample preparations, and the determining of elution curves of different ion exchange resins used for uranium purification. In many cases, no pretreatment of samples was necessary except to fume them with nitric acid, and then to redissolve and dilute them to an appropriate concentration with 1 M HNO{sub 3} before measurement. Concentrations were determined on a mass basis ({micro}g U/g of solution), but no density corrections were needed since all the samples (including the samples used for calibration) were in the same density matrix (1 M HNO{sub 3}). A statistical evaluation of the determination of uranium using kinetic phosphorimetry is described in this report, along with a discussion of the method, and an evaluation of the use of plastic versus quartz cuvettes. Measurement with a precision of {+-} 3--4% relative standard deviation (RSD) and an accuracy of better than {+-} 2% relative difference (RD) are obtained in the 0.0006 to 5 {micro}g U/g-solution range. The instrument detection limit is 0.04 ppb (4 x 10{sup {minus}5} {micro}g U/g solution) using quartz cells, and 0.11 ppb (11 x 10{sup {minus}5} {micro}g U/g solution) using disposable methacrylate cuvettes.

Croatto, P.V.; Frank, I.W.; Johnson, K.D.; Mason, P.B.; Smith, M.M.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Kinetic Theory of Dynamical Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is generally believed that the dynamics of simple fluids can be considered to be chaotic, at least to the extent that they can be modeled as classical systems of particles interacting with short range, repulsive forces. Here we give a brief introduction to those parts of chaos theory that are relevant for understanding some features of non-equilibrium processes in fluids. We introduce the notions of Lyapunov exponents, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and related quantities using some simple low-dimensional systems as "toy" models of the more complicated systems encountered in the study of fluids. We then show how familiar methods used in the kinetic theory of gases can be employed for explicit, analytical calculations of the largest Lyapunov exponent and KS entropy for dilute gases composed of hard spheres in d dimensions. We conclude with a brief discussion of interesting, open problems.

R. van Zon; H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman

1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

232

ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1262 ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: LONG-TERM FATE thermodynamic and kinetic data is available with regard to the formation of these mixed metal precipitate phases to six months from the initial addition of aqueous nickel. Additionally, we have determined thermodynamic

Sparks, Donald L.

233

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Directives Help - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directives Help by Website Administrator All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a...

235

Nonequilibrium sensing and its analogy to kinetic proofreading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a paradigmatic model of chemotaxis, we analyze the effect how a nonzero affinity driving receptors out of equilibrium affects sensitivity. This affinity arises whenever changes in receptor activity involve ATP hydrolysis. The sensitivity integrated over a ligand concentration range is shown to be enhanced by the affinity, providing a measure of how much energy consumption improves sensing. With this integrated sensitivity we can establish an intriguing analogy between sensing with nonequilibrium receptors and kinetic proofreading: the increase in integrated sensitivity is equivalent to the decrease of the error in kinetic proofreading. The influence of the occupancy of the receptor on the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reaction rates is shown to be crucial for the relation between integrated sensitivity and affinity. This influence can even lead to a regime where a nonzero affinity decreases the integrated sensitivity, which corresponds to anti-proofreading.

Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

Senglaub, M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

Guo Xiaoming [Physics and Computer Science Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5 (Canada)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermally Activated, Inverted Interfacial Electron Transfer Kinetics: High Driving Force Reactions between Tin Oxide Nanoparticles and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between Tin Oxide Nanoparticles and Electrostatically-Bound Molecular Reactants Dennis A. Gaal and Joseph: The kinetics and mechanism of fast electron transfer (ET) between tin oxide nanoparticles and electrostatically-order studies establish that, at least in the short time regime, electrons are transferred directly from the tin

239

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

240

Kinetics of methanation on nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive steady-state and transient measurements of the disproportionation of carbon monoxide, the hydrogenation of deposited carbon, and methanation of carbon monoxide were performed over 2 and 10% nickel on silica support. The results indicated that the methanation of carbon monoxide involves competitively adsorbed species; that the reaction is nearly zero order in carbon monoxide at 0.1-0.5 atm CO and 1 atm H/sub 2/, but negative at higher CO partial pressures and that it becomes less negative with increasing temperature or increasing hydrogen pressure; and that the reaction order with respect to hydrogen changes from 0.5 to 1.0 with increasing CO pressure and decreasing H/sub 2/ pressure. A reaction mechanism is proposed which consists of the molecular adsorption of CO, the dissociative adsorption of H/sub 2/, dissociation of the surface CO species, and reaction of two adsorbed hydrogen atoms with the oxygen; and a multistep hydrogenation and desorption process for the adsorbed carbon. The dissociation and reaction of adsorbed CO is probably the rate-limiting step. The kinetic behavior is best represented with the assumption of a heterogeneous catalyst surface, containing three types of sites of widely varying activity.

Ho, S.V.; Harriott, P.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Long-term Kinetics of Uranyl Desorption from Sediments Under...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

term Kinetics of Uranyl Desorption from Sediments Under Advective Conditions. Long-term Kinetics of Uranyl Desorption from Sediments Under Advective Conditions. Abstract: Long-term...

242

Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

243

Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments. Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments. Abstract: A...

244

Global Optimization of Chemical Reactors and Kinetic Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model; 3-D; Monolith; Reactor; Optimization Introduction TheAngeles Global Optimization of Chemical Reactors and KineticGlobal Optimization of Chemical Reactors and Kinetic

ALHUSSEINI, ZAYNA ISHAQ

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions . Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and...

246

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2010 DOE...

247

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2009 DOE...

248

Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes 2010 DOE...

249

A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic...

250

Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

251

Nonlinear evolution of the magnetized Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: From fluid to kinetic modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nonlinear evolution of collisionless plasmas is typically a multi-scale process, where the energy is injected at large, fluid scales and dissipated at small, kinetic scales. Accurately modelling the global evolution requires to take into account the main micro-scale physical processes of interest. This is why comparison of different plasma models is today an imperative task aiming at understanding cross-scale processes in plasmas. We report here the first comparative study of the evolution of a magnetized shear flow, through a variety of different plasma models by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall-MHD, two-fluid, hybrid kinetic, and full kinetic codes. Kinetic relaxation effects are discussed to emphasize the need for kinetic equilibriums to study the dynamics of collisionless plasmas in non trivial configurations. Discrepancies between models are studied both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime of the magnetized Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, to highlight the effects of small scale processes on the nonlinear evolution of collisionless plasmas. We illustrate how the evolution of a magnetized shear flow depends on the relative orientation of the fluid vorticity with respect to the magnetic field direction during the linear evolution when kinetic effects are taken into account. Even if we found that small scale processes differ between the different models, we show that the feedback from small, kinetic scales to large, fluid scales is negligible in the nonlinear regime. This study shows that the kinetic modeling validates the use of a fluid approach at large scales, which encourages the development and use of fluid codes to study the nonlinear evolution of magnetized fluid flows, even in the collisionless regime.

Henri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, BP 4229 06304, Nice Cedex 4 (France); Cerri, S. S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); LPP-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, Université Paris VI, Université Paris XI, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Faganello, M. [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, 13397 Marseille (France)] [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, 13397 Marseille (France); Šebek, O. [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague, Czech Republic and Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehová 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague, Czech Republic and Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehová 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Trávní?ek, P. M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Hellinger, P. [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

253

Kinetic theory and numerical simulations of two-species coagulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we study the stochastic process of two-species coagulation. This process consists in the aggregation dynamics taking place in a ring. Particles and clusters of particles are set in this ring and they can move either clockwise or counterclockwise. They have a probability to aggregate forming larger clusters when they collide with another particle or cluster. We study the stochastic process both analytically and numerically. Analytically, we derive a kinetic theory which approximately describes the process dynamics. One of our strongest assumptions in this respect is the so called well-stirred limit, that allows neglecting the appearance of spatial coordinates in the theory, so this becomes effectively reduced to a zeroth dimensional model. We determine the long time behavior of such a model, making emphasis in one special case in which it displays self-similar solutions. In particular these calculations answer the question of how the system gets ordered, with all particles and clusters moving in the same direction, in the long time. We compare our analytical results with direct numerical simulations of the stochastic process and both corroborate its predictions and check its limitations. In particular, we numerically confirm the ordering dynamics predicted by the kinetic theory and explore properties of the realizations of the stochastic process which are not accessible to our theoretical approach.

Carlos Escudero; Fabricio Macia; Raul Toral; Juan J. L. Velazquez

2014-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

Modeling of Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by coupling fuel burnup equations with the kinetics equations. When the equations are solved simultaneously with a nonlinear equation solver, the end result is a code with the unique capability of modeling transients at any time during a fuel cycle.

Matthew Johnson; Scott Lucas; Pavel Tsvetkov

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Kinetic limits of dynamical systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the pioneering work of Maxwell and Boltzmann in the 1860s and 1870s, a major challenge in mathematical physics has been the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations from the fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. Macroscopic transport equations lie at the heart of many important physical theories, including fluid dynamics, condensed matter theory and nuclear physics. The rigorous derivation of macroscopic transport equations is thus not only a conceptual exercise that establishes their consistency with the fundamental laws of physics: the possibility of finding deviations and corrections to classical evolution equations makes this subject both intellectually exciting and relevant in practical applications. The plan of these lectures is to develop a renormalisation technique that will allow us to derive transport equations for the kinetic limits of two classes of simple dynamical systems, the Lorentz gas and kicked Hamiltonians (or linked twist maps). The technique uses the ergodic theory of flows on homogeneous spaces (homogeneous flows for short), and is based on joint work with Andreas Str\\"ombergsson.

Jens Marklof

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

256

Departmental Directives Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order is the primary directive for administering the Department's directives Program. Cancels: DOE O 251.1A

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

257

Kinetic description of mixtures of anisotropic fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple system of coupled kinetic equations for quark and gluon anisotropic systems is solved numerically. The solutions are compared with the predictions of the anisotropic hydrodynamics describing a mixture of anisotropic fluids. We find that the solutions of the kinetic equations can be well reproduced by anisotropic hydrodynamics if the initial distribution are oblate for both quarks and gluons. On the other hand, the solutions of the kinetic equations have a different qualitative behavior from those obtained in anisotropic hydrodynamics if the initial configurations are oblate-prolate or prolate-prolate. This suggests that an extension of the anisotropic hydrodynamics scheme for the mixture of anisotropic fluids is needed, where higher moments of the kinetic equations are used and present simplifications are avoided.

Wojciech Florkowski; Oskar Madetko

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

Mechanistic studies using kinetic isotope effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANISTIC STUDIES USING KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS A Thesis by BRIAN E. SCHULMFIER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requtrements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1999 Major Subject: Chemistry MECHANISTIC STUDIES USING KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS A Thesis by BRIAN E. SCHULMEIER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Schulmeier, Brian E.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

259

Kinetic decoupling of WIMPs: analytic expressions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a general expression for the values of the average kinetic energy and of the temperature of kinetic decoupling of a WIMP, valid for any cosmological model. We show an example of the usage of our solution when the Hubble rate has a power-law dependence on temperature, and we show results for the specific cases of kination cosmology and low- temperature reheating cosmology.

Visinelli, Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A microfluidic device for investigating crystal nucleation kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed an original setup using microfluidic tools allowing one to produce continuously monodisperse microreactors ($\\approx 100$ nL), and to control their temperatures as they flow in the microdevice. With a specific microchannels geometry, we are able to apply large temperature quenches to droplets containing a KNO$_3$ solution (up to 50$^{\\circ}$C in 10 s), and then to follow nucleation kinetics at high supersaturations. By measuring the probability of crystal presence in the droplets as a function of time, we estimate the nucleation rate for different supersaturations, and confront our results to the classical nucleation theory.

Philippe Laval; Jean-Baptiste Salmon; Mathieu Joanicot

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

262

Pulsed laser kinetic studies of liquids under high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure apparatus constructed for measuring the rates of reactions in liquids under pressures ranging from 1 atm to 2000 atm has been used to measure the complexation kinetics of molybdenum hexacarbonyl reacting with 2,2-bipyridine, 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2-2{prime}-bipyridine and 4,4{prime}-diphenyl-2-2{prime} bipyridine in toluene. Pentacarbonyl reaction intermediates are created by a 10 nsec flash of frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser light. Measured activation volumes for chelate ligand ring closure indicate a change in mechanism from associative interchange to dissociative interchange as steric hindrance increases. A similar high pressure kinetics study of molybdenum carbonyl complexation by several substituted phenanthrolines is now well advanced that indicates that with the more rigid phenanthroline ligands steric effects from bulky substituents have less effect on the ring closure mechanism than in the case of the bipyridine ligands. An experimental concentration dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of cresyl violet has been harmonized with previously published contradictory reports. Fluorescence of cresyl violet in various solvents and in micellar systems has also been systematically explored.

Eyring, E.M.

1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

263

Mechanism and kinetics of peptide partitioning into membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partitioning properties of transmembrane (TM) polypeptide segments directly determine membrane protein folding, stability, and function, and their understanding is vital for rational design of membrane active peptides. However, direct determination of water-to-bilayer transfer of TM peptides has proved difficult. Experimentally, sufficiently hydrophobic peptides tend to aggregate, while atomistic computer simulations at physiological temperatures cannot yet reach the long time scales required to capture partitioning. Elevating temperatures to accelerate the dynamics has been avoided, as this was thought to lead to rapid denaturing. However, we show here that model TM peptides (WALP) are exceptionally thermostable. Circular dichroism experiments reveal that the peptides remain inserted into the lipid bilayer and are fully helical, even at 90 C. At these temperatures, sampling is 50 500 times faster, sufficient to directly simulate spontaneous partitioning at atomic resolution. A folded insertion pathway is observed, consistent with three-stage partitioning theory. Elevated temperature simulation ensembles further allow the direct calculation of the insertion kinetics, which is found to be first-order for all systems. Insertion barriers are Hin = 15 kcal/mol for a general hydrophobic peptide and 23 kcal/mol for the tryptophan-flanked WALP peptides. The corresponding insertion times at room temperature range from 8.5 s to 163 ms. High-temperature simulations of experimentally validated thermostable systems suggest a new avenue for systematic exploration of peptide partitioning properties.

Ulmschneider, Martin [University of Oxford; Killian, J Antoinette [University of Utrecht; Doux, Jacques P. F. [University of Utrecht; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ulmschneider, Jakob [University of Heidelberg

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Mineral dissolution kinetics at the pore scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mineral dissolution rates in the field have been reported to be orders of magnitude slower than those measured in the laboratory, an unresolved discrepancy that severely limits our ability to develop scientifically defensible predictive or even interpretive models for many geochemical processes in the earth and environmental sciences. One suggestion links this discrepancy to the role of physical and chemical heterogeneities typically found in subsurface soils and aquifers in producing scale-dependent rates where concentration gradients develop. In this paper, we examine the possibility that scale-dependent mineral dissolution rates can develop even at the single pore and fracture scale, the smallest and most fundamental building block of porous media. To do so, we develop two models to analyze mineral dissolution kinetics at the single pore scale: (1) a Poiseuille Flow model that applies laboratory-measured dissolution kinetics at the pore or fracture wall and couples this to a rigorous treatment of both advective and diffusive transport, and (2) a Well-Mixed Reactor model that assumes complete mixing within the pore, while maintaining the same reactive surface area, average flow rate, and geometry as the Poiseuille Flow model. For a fracture, a 1D Plug Flow Reactor model is considered in addition to quantify the effects of longitudinal versus transverse mixing. The comparison of averaged dissolution rates under various conditions of flow, pore size, and fracture length from the three models is used as a means to quantify the extent to which concentration gradients at the single pore and fracture scale can develop and render rates scale-dependent. Three important minerals that dissolve at widely different rates, calcite, plagioclase, and iron hydroxide, are considered. The modeling indicates that rate discrepancies arise primarily where concentration gradients develop due to comparable rates of reaction and advective transport, and incomplete mixing via molecular diffusion. The magnitude of the reaction rate is important, since it is found that scaling effects (and thus rate discrepancies) are negligible at the single pore and fracture scale for plagioclase and iron hydroxide because of the slow rate at which they dissolve. In the case of calcite, where dissolution rates are rapid, scaling effects can develop at high flow rates from 0.1 cm/s to 1000 cm/s and for fracture lengths less than 1 cm. At more normal flow rates, however, mixing via molecular diffusion is effective in homogenizing the concentration field, thus eliminating any discrepancies between the Poiseuille Flow and the Well-Mixed Reactor model. This suggests that a scale dependence to mineral dissolution rates is unlikely at the single pore or fracture scale under normal geological/hydrologic conditions, implying that the discrepancy between laboratory and field rates must be attributed to other factors.

Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.

2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

265

Kinetics of the [beta]-[delta]phase transition in PBX9501.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial step in the thermal decomposition of HMX is the solid state phase transition from the centrosymmetric beta form to the noncentrosymmetric delta form. The symmetry change makes the phase transition amenable to the application of second harmonic generation (SHG) as a probe of transition kinetics. We have used SHG to study the temperature dependence of the kinetics for unconfined PBX9501 and HMX. Spatially resolved SHG measurements have shown a nucleation and growth mechanism for the solid state phase transition. We have measured the transition rate as a function of temperature in order to obtain the activation energy and entropy of transition, which determine the phase transition kinetics. Additionally, we have observed temperature dependent reversion of the delta phase to beta phase and have fimd that we can control the reversion rate by controlling the cooling.

Smilowitz, L. B. (Laura B.); Henson, B. F. (Bryan F.); Asay, B. W. (Blaine W.); Dickson, P. M. (Peter M.); Robinson, J. M. (Jeanne M.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 1 Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 1 Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Zonca, Liu Chen and Zhiyong Qiu #12;22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 2 Chen and Zhiyong Qiu #12;22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 3 2 Linear

Zonca, Fulvio

267

Heat Transfer Analysis and Assessment of Kinetics Systems for PBX 9501  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of thermal decomposition in high explosive (HE) charges has been an ongoing process since the early 1900s. This work is specifically directed towards the analysis of PBX 9501. In the early 1970s, Dwight Jaeger of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a single-step, two-species kinetics system that was used in the development of one of the first finite element codes for thermal analyses known as EXPLO. Jaeger's research focused on unconfined spherical samples of HE charges to determine if varied heating ramps would cause detonation or deflagration. Tarver and McGuire of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) followed soon after with a three-step, four-species kinetics system that was developed for confined spheres under relatively fast heating conditions. Peter Dickson et al. of LANL then introduced a kinetics system with four steps and five species that included bimolecular products to capture the effects of the endothermic phase change that the HE undergoes. The results of four experiments are examined to study the effectiveness of these kinetics systems. The experiments are: (1) The LLNL scaled thermal explosion (STEX) experiments on confined cylindrical charges with long heating ramps in the range of 90 hours. (2) The LLNL one-dimensional time to explosion (ODTX) experiments on spherical charges that include confined, partially confined, and aged HE experiments. (3) The LANL unconfined one-dimensional experiments for small spheres. (4) The Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division at China Lake experiments on small confined cylinders. The three kinetics systems are applied to each of the four experiments with the use of the finite element analysis (FEA) heat conduction solver COYOTE. The numerical results using the kinetics systems are compared to each other and to the experimental data to determine which kinetics systems are best suited for analyzing conditions such as time to ignition, containment, heating time, and location of ignition.

Jeffrey W. Jorenby

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

A reduced chemical kinetic model for IC engine combustion simulations with primary reference fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of primary reference fuel (PRF) has been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced reaction mechanism for n-heptane oxidation, a new reduced n-heptane mechanism was generated by including an additional five species and their relevant reactions, by updating the reaction rate constants of several reactions pertaining to oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach, a reduced mechanism for iso-octane oxidation was built and combined with the n-heptane mechanism to form a PRF mechanism. The final version of the PRF mechanism consists of 41 species and 130 reactions. Validation of the present PRF mechanism was performed with measurements from shock tube tests, and HCCI and direct injection engine experiments available in the literature. The results show that the present PRF mechanism gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements for multidimensional CFD simulations. (author)

Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D. [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, ERB 1016B, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Alfvenic Turbulence in the Extended Solar Corona: Kinetic Effects and Proton Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the extended solar corona that contains the effects of collisionless dissipation and anisotropic particle heating. Measurements made by UVCS/SOHO have revived interest in the idea that ions are energized by the dissipation of ion cyclotron resonant waves, but such high-frequency (i.e., small wavelength) fluctuations have not been observed. A turbulent cascade is one possible way of generating small-scale fluctuations from a pre-existing population of low-frequency MHD waves. We model this cascade as a combination of advection and diffusion in wavenumber space. The dominant spectral transfer occurs in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field. As expected from earlier models, this leads to a highly anisotropic fluctuation spectrum with a rapidly decaying tail in parallel wavenumber. The wave power that decays to high enough frequencies to become ion cyclotron resonant depends on the relative strengths of advection and diffusion in the cascade. For the most realistic values of these parameters, though, there is insufficient power to heat protons and heavy ions. The dominant oblique fluctuations (with dispersion properties of kinetic Alfven waves) undergo Landau damping, which implies strong parallel electron heating. We discuss the probable nonlinear evolution of the electron velocity distributions into parallel beams and discrete phase-space holes (similar to those seen in the terrestrial magnetosphere) which can possibly heat protons via stochastic interactions.

S. R. Cranmer; A. A. van Ballegooijen

2003-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

270

Position and energy-resolved particle detection using phonon-mediated microwave kinetic inductance detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate position and energy-resolved phonon-mediated detection of particle interactions in a silicon substrate instrumented with an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The relative magnitude and delay of the signal received in each sensor allow the location of the interaction to be determined with < or approx. 1mm resolution at 30 keV. Using this position information, variations in the detector response with position can be removed, and an energy resolution of {sigma}{sub E} = 0.55 keV at 30 keV was measured. Since MKIDs can be fabricated from a single deposited film and are naturally multiplexed in the frequency domain, this technology can be extended to provide highly pixelized athermal phonon sensors for {approx}1 kg scale detector elements. Such high-resolution, massive particle detectors would be applicable to rare-event searches such as the direct detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay, or coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering.

Moore, D. C.; Golwala, S. R.; Cornell, B. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; LeDuc, H. G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Zmuidzinas, J. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

271

7-Gate Kinetic AMPA Model Kinetics to match EPSCs from calyx of Held  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-Gate Kinetic AMPA Model · Kinetics to match EPSCs from calyx of Held · Multiple closed, open and EPSC amplitude Bruce Graham Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, U, including the calyx of Held in the mammalian auditory system. Such depression may be mediated

Graham, Bruce

272

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularisation on the interface is not provided by surface tension, but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalise high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularised solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this 'selection' of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analogue with surface tens...

Gardiner, Bennett P J; Dallaston, Michael C; Moroney, Timothy J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Directives Quarterly Updates  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

275

Another face of DIRECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

authors, see for example, tree-Direct [5]. This paper ..... [4] J.M. Gablonsky, Modifications of the DIRECT Algorithm, Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State. University ...

chiter

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Kinetics of Elementary Processes Relevant to Incipient Soot Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soot formation and abatement processes are some of the most important and challenging problems in hydrocarbon combustion. The key reactions involved in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH�s), the precursors to soot, remain elusive. Small aromatic species such as C5H5, C6H6 and their derivatives are believed to play a pivotal role in incipient soot formation. The goal of this project is to establish a kinetic database for elementary reactions relevant to soot formation in its incipient stages. In the past year, we have completed by CRDS the kinetics for the formation and decomposition of C6H5C2H2O2 in the C6H5C2H2 +O2 reaction and the formation of C10H7O2 in the C10H7 + O2 reaction by directly monitoring C6H5C2H2O2 and C10H7O2 radicals in the visible region; their mechanisms have been elucidated computationally by quantum-chemical calculations. The O + C2H5OH reaction has been studied experimentally and computationally and the OH + HNCN reaction has been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital calculation. In addition, a new pulsed slit molecular beam system has been constructed and tested for spectroscopic studies of aromatic radicals and their derivatives by the cavity ringdown technique (CRDS).

M. C. Lin; M. C. Heaven

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

Observation of a crossover in kinetic aggregation of Palladium colloids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) to investigate the growth of palladium colloids over the surface of thin films of WO3/glass. The film is prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) at different temperatures. A PdCl2 (aq) droplet is injected on the surface and in the presence of steam hydrogen the droplet is dried through a reduction reaction process. Two distinct aggregation regimes of palladium colloids are observed over the substrates. We argue that the change in aggregation dynamics emerges when the measured water drop Contact Angel (CA) for the WO3/glass thin films passes a certain threshold value, namely CA = 46 degrees, where a crossover in kinetic aggregation of palladium colloids occurs. Our results suggest that the mass fractal dimension of palladium aggregates follows a power-law behavior. The fractal dimension (Df) in the fast aggregation regime, where the measured CA values vary from 27 up to 46 degrees, according to different substrate deposition temperatures, is Df = 1.75 (0.02). This value of Df is in excellent agreement with kinetic aggregation of other colloidal systems in fast aggregation regime. Whereas for the slow aggregation regime, with CA = 58 degrees, the fractal dimension changes abruptly to Df=1.92 (0.03). We have also used a modified Box-Counting method to calculate fractal dimension of gray-level images and observe that the crossover at around CA = 46 degrees remains unchanged.

M. Ghafari; M. Ranjbar; S. Rouhani

2014-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

278

CO2 sticking on Pt(111); the role of kinetic energy and internal degrees of freedom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 sticking on Pt(111); the role of kinetic energy and internal, S-412 96, G"oteborg, Sweden Abstract CO2 adsorbed measurements of non-dissociative sticking coefficient, S0, of CO2 on the Pt(111) surfac* *e

Persson, Mats

279

Polymerization kinetics of ADP-and ADP-Pi-actin determined by fluorescence microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymerization kinetics of ADP- and ADP-Pi-actin determined by fluorescence microscopy Ikuko of depolymerizing filaments, we measured the polymerization rate constants of ADP-actin and ADP-Pi-actin. Saturating phosphate reduces the critical concentra- tion for polymerization of Mg-ADP-actin from 1.8 to 0.06 M almost

280

Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c Eydiejo to measure the rates of histidine­heme loop formation and breakage in the denatured state of iso-1-cytochrome single surface histidine variants of iso-1-cytochrome c. A scaling factor (the dependence of kf on log

Roder, Heinrich

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Kinetics of Analyte Capture on Nanoscale Sensors J. E. Solomon* and M. R. Pauly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Kinetics of Analyte Capture on Nanoscale Sensors J. E. Solomon* and M. R. Pauly *Condensed analyte capture efficiency is a crucial measure of the ultimate sensitivity of such devices years, the potential use of nanoscale electromechanical systems has been considered for high

Paul, Mark

282

Melting point measurements for quasicrystalline phases. [Al-Mn; icosahedral and decagonal phases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melting transitions of metastable quasicrystalline phases of Al-Mn have been observed using rapid electron-beam heating of fine-grained icosahedral surface layers. The congruent melting point for icosahedral Al/sub 80/Mn/sub 20/ was directly measured to be 910 +- 20/sup 0/C. Heating to higher temperatures shows another transition which is inferred to correspond to the liquidus of the decagonal phase at 965 +- 20/sup 0/C for 20 at. % Mn. The microstructure and formation kinetics of the decagonal phase are discussed, and its electron diffraction is described.

Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Kinetics of the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic kinetics for the ambient temperature photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of dilute isopropanol (IPA) in humid air over near-ultraviolet (UV) irradiated titanium dioxide have been determined using a continuous microreactor flow system. The IPA disappearance rate exhibits a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) type dependence on IPA concentration. The rate is nearly first order in UV irradiance at low UV flux. The rate is independent of relative humidity R{sub H} at low R{sub H} levels, but is enhanced by water vapor concentration at higher levels. This relatively unique behavior is likely a direct consequence of the adsorption strength of alcohols on titania, which in general is considerably higher than the corresponding adsorption strengths for other classes of organic compounds. In addition to carbon dioxide, acetone is generated as a product of IPA destruction. This acetone is itself photocatalytically oxidized to carbon dioxide and water vapor at longer residence time. 10 refs., 3 figs.

Ameen, M.; Kalaga, M.; Annapragada, R.; Raupp, G.B. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

286

Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.

Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

288

An experimental and kinetic modeling study of combustion of isomers of butanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic model is developed to describe combustion of isomers of butanol - n-butanol (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH), sec-butanol (sec-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH), iso-butanol (iso-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH), and tert-butanol (tert-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH). A hierarchical approach is employed here. This approach was previously found to be useful for developing detailed and semi-detailed mechanism of oxidation of various hydrocarbon fuels. This method starts from lower molecular weight compounds of a family of species and proceeds to higher molecular weight compounds. The pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms of butanol isomers are similar to those for hydrocarbon fuels. Here, the development of the complete set of the primary propagation reactions for butanol isomers proceeds from the extension of the kinetic parameters for similar reactions already studied and recently revised for ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol. A detailed description leading to evaluation of rate constants for initiation reactions, metathesis reactions, decomposition reactions of alkoxy radicals, isomerization reactions, and four-center molecular dehydration reactions are given. Decomposition and oxidation of primary intermediate products are described using a previously developed semi-detailed kinetic model for hydrocarbon fuels. The kinetic mechanism is made up of more than 7000 reactions among 300 species. The model is validated by comparing predictions made using this kinetic model with previous and new experimental data on counterflow non-premixed flames of n-butanol and iso-butanol. The structures of these flames were measured by removing gas samples from the flame and analyzing them using a gas chromatograph. Temperature profiles were measured using coated thermocouples. The flame structures were measured under similar conditions for both fuels to elucidate the similarities and differences in combustion characteristics of the two isomers. The profiles measured include those of butanol, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and a number of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon compounds. The predictions of the kinetic model of flame structures of the two isomers were satisfactory. Validation of the kinetic model was also performed by comparing predictions with experimental data reported in the literature. These data were obtained in batch reactors, flow reactors, jet-stirred reactors, and shock tubes. In these configurations, combustion is not influenced by molecular transport. The agreement between the kinetic model and experimental data was satisfactory. (author)

Grana, Roberto; Frassoldati, Alessio; Faravelli, Tiziano; Ranzi, Eliseo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Niemann, Ulrich; Seiser, Reinhard; Cattolica, Robert; Seshadri, Kalyanasundaram [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Argininosuccinate synthetase: steady state kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

asparate and citrulline was needed to substract any ATPase activity. The rate was observed as a change in absorbance at 340 nm. The protein content was measured at 280 nm assuming an extinction coefficient of 1 AU per mg/mL. The assay mixture... 10 1 I ASP (mM 0 Figure 4. Aspartete versus ATP (citrullinem2. 5 mN) 19 500 450 0. 45mM '&v 350 . 30mM 0. 15m M 200 150 no t 50 1/ ATP (mM ) 10 Figure 5. ATP versus argininosuccinate (citrulline and aspartatem1. 0 mN) 20 340 0. 43...

Seiglie, Jorge Luis

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Studies on the formation of large amplitude kinetic Alfven wave solitons and double layers in plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two fluid model has been employed to study the oblique propagation of solitary kinetic Alfven waves. Formation of solitary waves and double layers is observed. Amplitude, width (in the case of solitons), and thickness (in the case of double layers) of the nonlinear structures are studied in some detail. Wider solitary structures are found to exist for oblique propagation nearer to the magnetic field direction.

Devi, N.; Gogoi, R.; Das, G. C.; Roychoudhury, R. [Department of Mathematics, Cotton College, Guwahati-781001, Assam (India); Mathematical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati-781035, Assam (India); Physics and Applied Mathematical Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Reaction Path Optimization with Holonomic Constraints and Kinetic Energy Potentials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two methods are developed to enhance the stability, efficiency, and robustness of reaction path optimization using a chain of replicas. First, distances between replicas are kept equal during path optimization via holonomic constraints. Finding a reaction path is, thus, transformed into a constrained optimization problem. This approach avoids force projections for finding minimum energy paths (MEPs), and fast-converging schemes such as quasi-Newton methods can be readily applied. Second, we define a new objective function - the total Hamiltonian - for reaction path optimization, by combining the kinetic energy potential of each replica with its potential energy function. Minimizing the total Hamiltonian of a chain determines a minimum Hamiltonian path (MHP). If the distances between replicas are kept equal and a consistent force constant is used, then the kinetic energy potentials of all replicas have the same value. The MHP in this case is the most probable isokinetic path. Our results indicate that low-temperature kinetic energy potentials (<5 K) can be used to prevent the development of kinks during path optimization and can significantly reduce the required steps of minimization by 2-3 times without causing noticeable differences between a MHP and MEP. These methods are applied to three test cases, the C?eq-to-Cax isomerization of an alanine dipeptide, the ?C?- to-ąC? transition of an ?-D-glucopyranose, and the helix-to-sheet transition of a GNNQQNY heptapeptide. By applying the methods developed in this work, convergence of reaction path optimization can be achieved for these complex transitions, involving full atomic details and a large number of replicas (>100). For the case of helix-to-sheet transition, we identify pathways whose energy barriers are consistent with experimental measurements. Further, we develop a method based on the work energy theorem to quantify the accuracy of reaction paths and to determine whether the atoms used to define a path are enough to provide quantitative estimation of energy barriers.

Brokaw, Jason B.; Haas, Kevin R.; Chu, Jhih-wei

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

E-Print Network 3.0 - age-specific kinetic model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- Kinetic StabilizationNSTX Simple model... - Kinetic StabilizationNSTX Kinetic model: collisions decrease stability collision frequency (note... dissipation of mode...

293

Direct estimation of decoherence rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The decoherence rate is a nonlinear channel parameter that describes quantitatively the decay of the off-diagonal elements of a density operator in the decoherence basis. We address the question of how to experimentally access such a nonlinear parameter directly without the need of complete process tomography. In particular, we design a simple experiment working with two copies of the channel, in which the registered mean value of a two-valued measurement directly determines the value of the average decoherence rate. No prior knowledge of the decoherence basis is required.

Vladimír Bužek; Peter Rapcan; Jochen Rau; Mario Ziman

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

Directives Quarterly Updates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives

295

Interpreting the Aggregation Kinetics of Amyloid Peptides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Amyloid fibrils are insoluble mainly -sheet aggregates of proteins or peptides. The multi-step process) and amyloid-protected states, is used to investigate the kinetics of aggregation and the pathways of fibril state. The minimal-size aggregate able to form a fibril is generated by collisions of oligomers

Caflisch, Amedeo

296

Radiation from Kinetic Poynting Flux Acceleration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive analytic formulas for the power output and critical frequency of radiation by electrons accelerated by relativistic kinetic Poynting flux, and validate these results with Particle-In-Cell plasma simulations. We find that the in-situ radiation power output and critical frequency are much below those predicted by the classical synchrotron formulae. We discuss potential astrophysical applications of these results.

Edison Liang; Koichi Noguchi

2007-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

297

CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Class Meetings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEM 6471 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Class Meetings 9:35 ­ 10:55 am, Tuesday and Thursday of October 22-26 Textbooks Molecular Thermodynamics by D.A McQuarrie and J.D. Simon, University Science Books the laws of classical thermodynamics and some of their chemical applications. It also covers basic

Sherrill, David

298

Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of transcriptional pausing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the cotranscriptional RNA secondary structure upstream of the RNA exit channel. The calculations involve no adjustable of recovery of backtracked paused complexes. A crucial ingredient of our model is the incorporation of kinetic secondary structure, an aspect not included explicitly in previous attempts at modeling the transcrip- tion

Chen, Kuang-Yu

299

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS AARON R. DINNER New Chemistry Laboratory for Protein Folding: Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 120. Edited by Richard A. Friesner. Series Editors Experimental and theoretical studies have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein

Dinner, Aaron

300

Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to characterize the cell shape and tip undercooling and the experimental results are compared with the predictions of the model. From the investigation of cell/dendrite transition, a model is proposed, from which the condition for the onset of the transition can be obtained.

Jing Teng

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Condition on the KohnSham kinetic energy and modern parametrization of the ThomasFermi density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; published online 20 January 2009 We study the asymptotic expansion of the neutral-atom energy as the atomic-correlation energy, EXC n , must be approximated. But a direct, orbital-free DFT could be constructed if onlyCondition on the Kohn­Sham kinetic energy and modern parametrization of the Thomas­Fermi density

Burke, Kieron

302

The aging of tungsten filaments and its effect on wire surface kinetics in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

desorption kinetics. In particular, the Si signal exhibits a high temperature activation energy consistent vapor deposition growth have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry. New wires produce Si with previous measurements; the activation energy for the SiH3 signal suggests its formation is catalyzed. Aged

Atwater, Harry

303

Adsorption, Desorption, and Displacement Kinetics of H2O and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Displacement Kinetics of H2O and CO2 on TiO2(110). Adsorption, Desorption, and Displacement Kinetics of H2O and CO2 on TiO2(110). Abstract: The adsorption, desorption, and...

304

Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation into styrene: kinetic modeling and reactor simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detailed kinetic model for coke formation and gasification, which was coupled to the kinetic model for the main reactions. The calculation of the dynamic equilibrium coke content provided a crucial guideline for the selection of the steam to ethylbenzene...

Lee, Won Jae

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

305

Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Correlation and Regression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Topic 4 Correlation and Regression Transformed Variables 1 / 13 #12;Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Outline Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Lineweaver-Burke double reciprocal plot 2 / 13 #12;Worldwide Oil Production

Watkins, Joseph C.

306

The Inverse Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Inverse Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the Annular Core Research Reactor by Benjamin Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the Annular Core Research Reactor by Benjamin Garnas ABSTRACT Kinetics Method and PID Compensation of the Annular Core Research Reactor by Benjamin Garnas B.S. General

307

Direct/Indirect Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Direct Loan Program (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Connecticut Development Authority’s Direct Loan Program provides direct senior and subordinated loans and mezzanine investments to companies creating or maintaining jobs. Up to $20,000 per job...

309

GROUP SPARSE OPTIMIZATION BY ALTERNATING DIRECTION ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apr 19, 2011 ... the measurement vector b contains noise, the basis pursuit denoising (BPDN) ... stopped properly prior to convergence based on the noise level. ..... distributed compressive sensing [20], direction-of-arrival estimation in radar.

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

310

Directives System Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Direct process for explosives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

312

HTP kinetics studies on isolated elementary combustion reactions over wide temperature ranges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions, (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made mainly by using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. While continuing rate coefficient measurements, further aspects of kinetics research are being explored. Thus, starting from the data obtained, a method for predicting the temperature dependence of rate coefficients of oxygen-atom olefin experiment and confirms the underlying mechanistic assumptions. Mechanistic information of another sort, i.e. by product analysis, has recently become accessible with the inauguration of our heated flow tube mass spectrometer facility; early results are reported here. HTP experiments designed to lead to measurements of product channels by resonance fluorescence have started.

Fontijn, A.; Adusei, G.Y.; Hranisavlevic, J.; Bajaj, P.N. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

An experimental and kinetic modelling study of the oxidation of the four isomers of butanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Butanol, an alcohol which can be produced from biomass sources, has received recent interest as an alternative to gasoline for use in spark ignition engines and as a possible blending compound with fossil diesel or biodiesel. Therefore, the autoignition of the four isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol) has been experimentally studied at high temperatures in a shock tube and a kinetic mechanism for description of their high-temperature oxidation has been developed. Ignition delay times for butanol/oxygen/argon mixtures have been measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures and pressures ranging from approximately 1200 to 1800 K and 1 to 4 bar. Electronically excited OH emission and pressure measurements were used to determine ignition delay times. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the oxidation of the butanol isomers and validated by comparison to the shock tube measurements. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis indicate that the consumpti...

Moss, J T; Oehlschlaeger, M A; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valérie; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; 10.1021/jp806464p

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

The Autoignition of iso-Cetane: Shock Tube Experiments and Kinetic Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iso-cetane (2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, C{sub 16}H{sub 34}) is a highly branched alkane reference compound for determining cetane ratings. It is also a candidate branched alkane representative in surrogate mixtures for diesel and jet fuels. Here new experiments and kinetic modeling results are presented for the autoignition of iso-cetane at elevated temperatures and pressures relevant to combustion in internal combustion engines. Ignition delay time measurements were made in reflected shock experiments in a heated shock tube for {Phi} = 0.5 and 1.0 iso-cetane/air mixtures at temperatures ranging from 953 to 1347 K and pressures from 8 to 47 atm. Ignition delay times were measured using electronically excited OH emission, monitored through the shock tube end wall, and piezoelectric pressure transducer measurements, made at side wall locations. A new kinetic mechanism for the description of the oxidation of iso-cetane is presented that is developed based on a previous mechanism for iso-octane. Computed results from the mechanism are found in good agreement with the experimental measurements. To our knowledge, the ignition time measurements and detailed kinetic mechanism for isocetane presented here are the first of their kind.

Oehlschlaeger, M A; Steinberg, J; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

315

Stepping and crowding of molecular motors: statistical kinetics from an exclusion process perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motor enzymes are remarkable molecular machines that use the energy derived from the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate to generate mechanical movement, achieved through different steps that constitute their kinetic cycle. These macromolecules, nowadays investigated with advanced experimental techniques to unveil their molecular mechanisms and the properties of their kinetic cycles, are implicated in many biological processes, ranging from biopolymerisation (e.g. RNA polymerases and ribosomes) to intracellular transport (motor proteins such as kinesins or dyneins). Although the kinetics of individual motors is well studied on both theoretical and experimental grounds, the repercussions of their stepping cycle on the collective dynamics still remains unclear. Advances in this direction will improve our comprehension of transport process in the natural intracellular medium, where processive motor enzymes might operate in crowded conditions. In this work, we therefore extend the current statistical kinetic analysis to study collective transport phenomena of motors in terms of lattice gas models belonging to the exclusion process class. Via numerical simulations, we show how to interpret and use the randomness calculated from single particle trajectories in crowded conditions. Importantly, we also show that time fluctuations and non-Poissonian behavior are intrinsically related to spatial correlations and the emergence of large, but finite, clusters of co-moving motors. The properties unveiled by our analysis have important biological implications on the collective transport characteristics of processive motor enzymes in crowded conditions.

Luca Ciandrini; M. Carmen Romano; A. Parmeggiani

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - approximate kinetic equations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

equation. Reactor kinetics and Summary: equations, prompt jump approximation; subcritical reactor kinetics, circulating fuel reactor dynamics 5... solution to neutron...

317

Directives Templates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct:Directives Templates by Website Administrator Directives

318

Ion mediated crosslink driven mucous swelling kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experimentally guided, multi-phasic, multi-species ionic gel model to compare and make qualitative predictions on the rheology of mucus of healthy individuals (Wild Type) versus those infected with Cystic Fibrosis. The mixture theory consists of the mucus (polymer phase) and water (solvent phase) as well as several different ions: H+, Na+ and Ca++. The model is linearized to study the hydration of spherically symmetric mucus gels and calibrated against the experimental data of mucus diffusivities. Near equilibrium, the linearized form of the equation describing the radial size of the gel, reduces to the well-known expression used in the kinetic theory of swelling hydrogels. Numerical studies reveal that the Donnan potential is the dominating mechanism driving the mucus swelling/deswelling transition. However, the altered swelling kinetics of the Cystic Fibrosis infected mucus is not merely governed by the hydroelectric composition of the swelling media, but also due to the altered movement of el...

Sircar, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Testing a dissipative kinetic k-essence model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we present a study of a purely kinetic k-essence model, characterized basically by a parameter $\\alpha$ in presence of a bulk dissipative term, whose relationship between viscous pressure $\\Pi$ and energy density $\\rho$ of the background follows a polytropic type law $\\Pi \\propto \\rho^{\\lambda+1/2}$, where $\\lambda$, in principle, is a parameter without restrictions. Analytical solutions for the energy density of the k-essence field are found in two specific cases: $\\lambda=1/2$ and $\\lambda=(1-\\alpha)/2\\alpha$, and then we show that these solutions posses the same functional form than the non-viscous counterpart. Finally, both approach are contrasted with observational data from type Ia supernova, and the most recent Hubble parameter measurements, and therefore, the best values for the parameters of the theory are founds.

Cardenas, V H; Villanueva, J R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field is considered. Analytic solutions are obtained for the force, friction coefficient, and diffusion coefficient in the model of a two-level atom without limitations imposed on the intensity of light fields. This effect is observed in the domain of global minima and maxima of the optical potential (i.e., at points where the relative phase of two standing waves is Greek-Phi-Symbol = 0, {pi}/2.

Prudnikov, O. N., E-mail: llf@laser.nsc.ru [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Taichenachev, A. V. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Tumaikin, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Yudin, V. I. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Philips Color Kinetics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocusOskiPhilips Color Kinetics Jump to: navigation, search Name:

322

Kinetic Energy Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (botOpen6Kentwood, Michigan:Killingworth, Connecticut:105.Kinetic

323

Kinetic Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach, Florida:Kenyon MunicipalKinetic Energy LLC

324

Inertial range turbulence in kinetic plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transfer of turbulent energy through an inertial range from the driving scale to dissipative scales in a kinetic plasma followed by the conversion of this energy into heat is a fundamental plasma physics process. A theoretical foundation for the study of this process is constructed, but the details of the kinetic cascade are not well understood. Several important properties are identified: (a) the conservation of a generalized energy by the cascade; (b) the need for collisions to increase entropy and realize irreversible plasma heating; and (c) the key role played by the entropy cascade--a dual cascade of energy to small scales in both physical and velocity space--to convert ultimately the turbulent energy into heat. A strategy for nonlinear numerical simulations of kinetic turbulence is outlined. Initial numerical results are consistent with the operation of the entropy cascade. Inertial range turbulence arises in a broad range of space and astrophysical plasmas and may play an important role in the thermalization of fusion energy in burning plasmas.

G. G. Howes

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

325

Isothermal kinetics of new Albany oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From the development of technologies for the utilization of eastern U.S. oil shales, fluidized bed pyrolysis technology is emerging as one of the most promising in terms of oil yield, operating cost, and capital investment. Bench-scale testing of eastern shales has reached a level where scale-up represents the next logical step in the evolution of this technology. A major consideration in this development and an essential part of any fluidized bed reactor scale-up effort--isothermal kinetics-- has largely been ignored for eastern US shale with the exception of a recent study conducted by Richardson et al. with a Cleveland shale. The method of Richardson et al. was used previously by Wallman et al. with western shale and has been used most recently by Forgac, also with western shale. This method, adopted for the present study, entails injecting a charge of shale into a fluidized bed and monitoring the hydrocarbon products with a flame ionization detector (FID). Advantages of this procedure are that fluidized bed heat-up effects are simulated exactly and real-time kinetics are obtained due to the on-line FID. Other isothermal methods have suffered from heat-up and cool-down effects making it impossible to observe the kinetics at realistic operating temperatures. A major drawback of the FID approach, however, is that no differentiation between oil and gas is possible.

Carter, S.D.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Direct measurements of large near-band edge nonlinear index change from 1.48 to 1.55 m in InGaAsInAlGaAs multiquantum wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used to measure di- rectly the nonlinear index change in bulk InGaAsP.10 Com- parison of DFWM results measurements of nonlinear refractive index change and nonlinear absorption in In0.530Al0.141Ga0.329As/In0.530Ga . The index-change-over-absorption figure of merit, F, is greater than unity over much of the spectrum

327

Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Casleton, Kent H. (Morgantown, WV)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

Competitive ion kinetics in direct mass spectrometric organic speciation. 1993 Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following joint projects are either in progress, or have been completed. (1) Southern Illinois University, Prof. S. Scheiner--Combined experimental-theoretical study of the thermochemistry of protonation, complexation, and hydration of di- and polyfunctional ethers. (2) Eastern illinois University, Prof. C. Deakyne--Essentially the same framework as above. The focus here was to determine whether C or N lone pair electrons were more effective in forming ionic hydrogen bonds. (3) Virginia Commonwealth University-Prof. S. El-Shall--The author put the wrap on a joint thermochemical (NIST) and beam expansion study (VCU) which probed structures and stabilities of methanol clusters incorporating either CH{sub 3}CN or (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}N. MeCN and TMA were chosen because of their widely differing proton affinities (PA`s) and the fact that they form single H-bonds (i.e., complex intraclusters involving multiple bonding are unlikely). (4) University of Maryland-Baltimore County-Prof. J. Liebman and the Phillips Laboratory Supercomputer Center, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM-A. Fant--One of the most perplexing problems among physical organic chemists has involved the site of protonation of a class of molecules referred to as quinones and, in particular, the symmetric member, para-benzoquinone, C{sub 6}H{sub 4} (=O{sub 2}), designated below as PBQ. Possible protonation sites either the ring or carbonyl function.

Sieck, L.W.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation of Shewanellausing electrochemicalNucleation

330

Directives System Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1, which establishes requirements for the development, coordination, and sunset review of DOE directives.

1995-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

331

Departmental Directives Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors.

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

332

Direct Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Direct Loan Program, is designed to allow businesses to obtain the long term financing needed to encourage growth. The Kentucky Economic Development Finance Authority (KEDFA) may participate...

333

Wellbore inertial directional surveying system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

334

Wellbore inertial directional surveying system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

Andreas, Ronald D. (Albuquerque, NM); Heck, G. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Kohler, Stewart M. (Albuquerque, NM); Watts, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

The Excitation Energy Dependence of the Total Kinetic Energy Release in 235U(n,f)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The total kinetic energy release in the neutron induced fission of $^{235}$U was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E$_{n}$ = 3.2 to 50 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release drops from 167.4 $\\pm$ 0.7 to 162.1 $\\pm$ 0.8 MeV, exhibiting a local dip near the second chance fission threshold. The values and the slope of the TKE vs. E$_{n}$ agree with previous measurements but do disagree (in magnitude) with systematics. The variances of the TKE distributions are larger than expected and apart from structure near the second chance fission threshold, are invariant for the neutron energy range from 11 to 50 MeV. We also report the dependence of the total excitation energy in fission, TXE, on neutron energy.

R. Yanez; L. Yao; J. King; W. Loveland; F. Tovesson; N. Fotiades

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

336

Phi-values in protein folding kinetics have energetic and structural components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phi-values are experimental measures of how the kinetics of protein folding is changed by single-site mutations. Phi-values measure energetic quantities, but are often interpreted in terms of the structures of the transition state ensemble. Here we describe a simple analytical model of the folding kinetics in terms of the formation of protein substructures. The model shows that Phi-values have both structural and energetic components. In addition, it provides a natural and general interpretation of "nonclassical" Phi-values (i.e., less than zero, or greater than one). The model reproduces the Phi-values for 20 single-residue mutations in the alpha-helix of the protein CI2, including several nonclassical Phi-values, in good agreement with experiments.

Claudia Merlo; Ken A. Dill; Thomas R. Weikl

2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

337

Departmental Directives System  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order establishes the directives system to be used for publishing permanent and temporary directives issued by DOE Headquarters and addressed to Headquarters and/or field elements. Chg 1 dated 3-14-85. Cancels DOE 1321.1A.

1983-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Other Types of Chemical Fuels  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Reaction mechanisms have been tested and validated extensively through comparisons between computed results and measured data from laboratory experiments (e.g., shock tubes, laminar flames, rapid compression machines, flow reactors, stirred reactors) and from practical systems (e.g., diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engines). These kinetic models are used to examine a wide range of combustion systems.[Taken from https://www-pls.llnl.gov/?url=science_and_technology-chemistry-combustion

339

Kinetic simulation of heterogeneous catalytic processes: Ethane hydrogenolysis over supported group VIII metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic model for ethane hydrogenolysis over Pt, Pd, Ir, and Co was formulated in terms of essentially two chemical parameters: the strength of bonding between atomic hydrogen and the metal surface and the strength of carbon-metal bonding between hydrocarbon fragments and the surface. These two surface bond strengths were estimated by calorimetric measurements of the heats of H{sub 2} and CO adsorption, combined with bond order conservation calculations. The results of the kinetic simulations suggest that ethane hydrogenolysis over Pt, Pd, Ir and Co takes place through irreversible C-C rupture of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 3} surface species. Hydrogenation of monocarbon CH{sub y} fragments is kinetically insignificant. Dissociative adsorption of hydrogen is an equilibrated process, while dissociative adsorption of ethane is slow and reversible. Finally, the role of kinetic modeling in the formulation, interpretation, and generalization of experimental research in heterogeneous catalysis is discussed.

Goddard, S.A.; Amiridis, M.D.; Rekoske, J.E.; Cardona-Martinez, N.; Dumesic, J.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Studies of combustion kinetics and mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the current research is to gain new quantitative knowledge of the kinetics and mechanisms of polyatomic free radicals which are important in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The special facility designed and built for these (which includes a heatable tubular reactor coupled to a photoionization mass spectrometer) is continually being improved. Where possible, these experimental studies are coupled with theoretical ones, sometimes conducted in collaboration with others, to obtain an improved understanding of the factors determining reactivity. The decomposition of acetyl radicals, isopropyl radicals, and n-propyl radicals have been studied as well as the oxidation of methylpropargyl radicals.

Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Benchmarks for the point kinetics equations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new numerical algorithm is presented for the solution to the point kinetics equations (PKEs), whose accurate solution has been sought for over 60 years. The method couples the simplest of finite difference methods, a backward Euler, with Richardsons extrapolation, also called an acceleration. From this coupling, a series of benchmarks have emerged. These include cases from the literature as well as several new ones. The novelty of this presentation lies in the breadth of reactivity insertions considered, covering both prescribed and feedback reactivities, and the extreme 8- to 9- digit accuracy achievable. The benchmarks presented are to provide guidance to those who wish to develop further numerical improvements. (authors)

Ganapol, B. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (United States); Picca, P. [Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona (United States); Previti, A.; Mostacci, D. [Laboratorio di Montecuccolino Alma Mater Studiorum, Universita di Bologna (Italy)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Kinetic Bounding Volume Hierarchies for Collision Detection of Deformable Objects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present novel algorithms for updating bounding volume hierarchies of objects undergoing arbitrary deformations. Therefore, we introduce two new data structures, the kinetic AABB tree and the kinetic BoxTree. The event-based approach of the kinetic data structures framework enables us to show that our algorithms are optimal in the number of updates. Moreover, we show a lower bound for the total number of BV updates, which is independent of the number of frames. Furthermore, we present a kinetic data structures which uses the kinetic AABB tree for collision detection and show that this structure can be easily extended for continuous collision detection of deformable objects. We performed a comparison of our kinetic approaches with the classical bottom-up update method. The results show that our algorithms perform up to ten times faster in practically relevant scenarios.

Gabriel Zachmann; Rene Weller

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirections

344

Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theArea

345

Directives Help - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theAreaHelp by

346

Directives Quarterly Updates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theAreaHelp

347

Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on

348

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

349

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

350

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

351

3.205 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Materials, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laws of thermodynamics applied to materials and materials processes. Solution theory. Equilibrium diagrams. Overview of fluid transport processes. Kinetics of processes that occur in materials, including diffusion, phase ...

Allen, Samuel M.

352

average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

353

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- The solubility and kinetics...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

The solubility and kinetics of minerals under CO2-EGS geothermal conditions: Comparison of experimental and modeling results Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ |...

354

Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into Mesoporous Silica Friday, February 27, 2015 Figure 1 Figure 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of (A)...

355

A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Range of Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends Bruce G. Bunting and Scott Eaton, Oak Ridge National...

356

Design and operating characteristics of a transient kinetic analysis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

catalysis reactor system employing in situ transmission Abstract: A novel apparatus for gas-phase heterogeneous catalysis kinetics is described. The apparatus enables fast...

357

Ion mediated crosslink driven mucous swelling kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experimentally guided, multi-phasic, multi-species ionic gel model to compare and make qualitative predictions on the rheology of mucus of healthy individuals (Wild Type) versus those infected with Cystic Fibrosis. The mixture theory consists of the mucus (polymer phase) and water (solvent phase) as well as several different ions: H+, Na+ and Ca++. The model is linearized to study the hydration of spherically symmetric mucus gels and calibrated against the experimental data of mucus diffusivities. Near equilibrium, the linearized form of the equation describing the radial size of the gel, reduces to the well-known expression used in the kinetic theory of swelling hydrogels. Numerical studies reveal that the Donnan potential is the dominating mechanism driving the mucus swelling/deswelling transition. However, the altered swelling kinetics of the Cystic Fibrosis infected mucus is not merely governed by the hydroelectric composition of the swelling media, but also due to the altered movement of electrolytes as well as due to the defective properties of the mucin polymer network.

S. Sircar; A. J. Roberts

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

358

An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect of water addition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and can be derived from a num- ber of sources such as coal, biomass gasification or from natural gas expanding flame configuration. The measured laminar flame speeds were compared with simulations using with three existing chemical kinetic models ­ GRI Mech 3.0, H2/CO Davis Mechanism and San Diego mecha- nism

Qiao, Li

359

Art Directable Tornadoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................... 25 2. Directional Force ........................................................... 26 3. Vortex Force .................................................................. 26 4. Lattice... ................................................................... 7 7 Tornado in its rope stage before disappearing ........................................... 9 8 Fire vortex and Waterspout ........................................................................ 10 9 Landspout and Gustnado...

Dwivedi, Ravindra

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

360

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A direct discharge permit is required if a project involves the discharge of pollutants to state waters. For generation purposes, this involves the withdrawal of surface water for cooling purposes...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Kinetic extensions of magnetohydrodynamic models for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K) has been developed to integrate a set of non-Hermitian integro-differential eigenmode equations due to energetic particles for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas in a general flux coordinate system with an arbitrary Jacobian. The NOVA-K code employs the Galerkin method involving Fourier expansions in the generalized poloidal angle theta and generalized toroidal angle /zeta/ directions, and cubic-B spline finite elements in the radial /Psi/ direction. Extensive comparisons with the existing variational ideal MHD codes show that the ideal MHD version of the NOVA-K code converges faster and gives more accurate results. The NOVA-K code is employed to study the effects of energetic particles on MHD-type modes: the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of ''fishbone'' internal kink modes; and the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are also presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n = 1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beta space exists even in the absence of the core ion finite Larmor radius effect. On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to have negligible effects on the stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode, but the circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 60 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

Cheng, C.Z.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - accurate lifetime measurements Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science 45 Measurements of the mean lifetime and kinetic-energy release of metastable CO2 J. P. Bouhnik,* I. Gertner, and B. Rosner Summary: Measurements of the mean lifetime...

363

New Directions in Direct Dark Matter Searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present the status of direct dark matter detection with specific attention to the experimental results and their phenomenological interpretation in terms of dark matter interactions. In particular I review a new and more general approach to study signals in this field based on non-relativistic operators which parametrize more efficiently the dark matter-nucleus interactions in terms of a very limited number of relevant degrees of freedom. Then I list the major experimental results, pointing out the main uncertainties that affect the theoretical interpretation of the data. Finally, since the underlying theory that describes both the dark matter and the standard model fields is unknown, I address the uncertainties coming from the nature of the interaction. In particular, the phenomenology of a class of models in which the interaction between dark matter particles and target nuclei is of a long-range type is discussed.

Paolo Panci

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Localization of linear kinetic Alfvén wave in an inhomogeneous plasma and generation of turbulence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a model for the propagation of Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in inhomogeneous plasma when the inhomogeneity is transverse to the background magnetic field. The semi-analytical technique and numerical simulations have been performed to study the KAW dynamics when plasma inhomogeneity is incorporated in the dynamics. The model equations are solved in order to study the localization of KAW and their magnetic power spectrum which indicates the direct transfer of energy from lower to higher wave numbers. The inhomogeneity scale length plays a very important role in the turbulence generation and its level. The relevance of these investigations to space and laboratory plasmas has also been pointed out.

Sharma, R. P.; Goyal, R., E-mail: ravig.iitd@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi-110016 (India); Scime, Earl E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Dwivedi, N. K. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz (Austria)] [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz (Austria)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 181 (2013) 143151 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the turbulence kinetic energy and fluxes above and beneath a tall open pine forest canopy Dean VickersAgricultural and Forest Meteorology 181 (2013) 143­151 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Agricultural and Forest Meteorology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/agrformet Some aspects

Vickers, Dean

366

Improving Reactivity Against Target Organothiophosphates via Active-Site Directed Mutagenisis of a Bacterial Phosphotriesterase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the initial screen and were targets for steady state kinetic characterization of active site mutants. Site directed mutagenesis of binding sites was conducted and the most reactive point mutants, F132G, F132V and S308G, were used as backgrounds for subsequent...

Githens, Tyler 1986-

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

367

Kinetic and mechanistic studies of free-radical reactions in combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion is driven by energy-releasing chemical reactions. Free radicals that participate in chain reactions carry the combustion process from reactants to products. Research in chemical kinetics enables us to understand the microscopic mechanisms involved in individual chemical reactions as well as to determine the rates at which they proceed. Both types of information are required for an understanding of how flames burn, why engines knock, how to minimize the production of pollutants, and many other important questions in combustion. In this program the authors emphasize accurate measurements over wide temperature ranges of the rates at which ubiquitous free radicals react with stable molecules. The authors investigate a variety of OH, CN, and CH + stable molecule reactions important to fuel conversion, emphasizing application of the extraordinarily precise technique of laser photolysis/continuous-wave laser-induced fluorescence (LP/cwLIF). This precision enables kinetic measurements to serve as mechanistic probes. Since considerable effort is required to study each individual reaction, prudent selection is critical. Two factors encourage selection of a specific reaction: (1) the rates and mechanisms of the subject reaction are required input to a combustion model; and (2) the reaction is a chemical prototype which, upon characterization, will provide fundamental insight into chemical reactivity, facilitate estimation of kinetic parameters for similar reactions, and constrain and test the computational limits of reaction-rate theory. Most studies performed in this project satisfy both conditions.

Tully, F.P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

369

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

MEANKINETIC ENERGY,EDDY ENERGY,AND KINETIC ENERGYEXCHANGEBETWEENFLUCTUATIONSAND MEAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEANKINETIC ENERGY,EDDY ENERGY,AND KINETIC ENERGYEXCHANGEBETWEENFLUCTUATIONSAND MEAN FLOWWITHIN by cornputing three quantities suggested by the theory of turbulence: the nean kinetic energy, the eddy energy, and the energy exchange between the nean and fluctuating portions of the flow field (ca11ed dE/dt). Contours

Luther, Douglas S.

371

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE and TCE Concentrations Seungho Yu for anaerobic reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were developed. The models were compared with results from batch kinetic tests conducted over a wide range of PCE and TCE

Semprini, Lewis

372

Kinetic Modeling of Non-thermal Escape: Planets and Exoplanets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic Modeling of Non-thermal Escape: Planets and Exoplanets Valery I. Shematovich Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences Modeling Atmospheric Escape Workshop - Spring 2012 University are populated by the atoms and molecules with both thermal and suprathermal kinetic energies (Johnson et al

Johnson, Robert E.

373

Drift-/ Kinetic Alfven Eigenmodes in High Performance Tokamak Plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stockholm, Sweden 2) Plasma Science Fusion Centre, MIT, Cambridge MA 02139, USA 3) CRPP-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne to the kinetic Alfv´en wave. This stimulated the development of models such as continuum damping, complex-kinetic description for the bulk plasma. Such a model is required to calculate the power transfer between global fluid

Jaun, André

374

Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1 David Eppstein 2 Leonidas J. Guibas 3 Monika R. Henzinger 4 Abstract We consider the parametric minimum spanning tree problem- pute the sequence of minimum spanning trees generated as varies. We also consider the kinetic minimum

Eppstein, David

375

Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy, divergent energy, ALADIN, limited-area modelling 1. Introduction Horizontal divergenceRotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN By V. BLAZ ICA1 *, N. Z AGAR1 received 7 June 2012; in final form 7 March 2013) ABSTRACT Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale

Zagar, Nedjeljka

376

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel Olivier Herbineta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate Olivier Herbineta , William of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

An action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At first, we state some results in arXiv: 0707.2639, and then, using a positive kinetic energy coordinate condition given by arXiv: 0707.2639, we present an action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity. Based on this action, the corresponding theory of canonical quantization is discussed.

T. Mei

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

378

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

A Kinetic Theory Approach to Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a kinetic theory approach to quantum gravity -- by which we mean a theory of the microscopic structure of spacetime, not a theory obtained by quantizing general relativity. A figurative conception of this program is like building a ladder with two knotted poles: quantum matter field on the right and spacetime on the left. Each rung connecting the corresponding knots represent a distinct level of structure. The lowest rung is hydrodynamics and general relativity; the next rung is semiclassical gravity, with the expectation value of quantum fields acting as source in the semiclassical Einstein equation. We recall how ideas from the statistical mechanics of interacting quantum fields helped us identify the existence of noise in the matter field and its effect on metric fluctuations, leading to the establishment of the third rung: stochastic gravity, described by the Einstein-Langevin equation. Our pathway from stochastic to quantum gravity is via the correlation hierarchy of noise and induced metric fluctuations. Three essential tasks beckon: 1) Deduce the correlations of metric fluctuations from correlation noise in the matter field; 2) Reconstituting quantum coherence -- this is the reverse of decoherence -- from these correlation functions 3) Use the Boltzmann-Langevin equations to identify distinct collective variables depicting recognizable metastable structures in the kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes of quantum matter fields and how they demand of their corresponding spacetime counterparts. This will give us a hierarchy of generalized stochastic equations -- call them the Boltzmann-Einstein hierarchy of quantum gravity -- for each level of spacetime structure, from the macroscopic (general relativity) through the mesoscopic (stochastic gravity) to the microscopic (quantum gravity).

B. L. Hu

2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

380

Direct evidence of plastic events and dynamic heterogeneities in soft-glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using fluid-kinetic simulations of confined and concentrated emulsion droplets, we investigate the nature of space non-homogeneity in soft-glassy dynamics and provide quantitative measurements of the statistical features of plastic events in the proximity of the yield-stress threshold. Above the yield stress, our results show the existence of a finite stress correlation scale, which can be mapped directly onto the {\\it cooperativity scale}, recently introduced in the literature to capture non-local effects in the soft-glassy dynamics. In this regime, the emergence of a separate boundary (wall) rheology with higher fluidity than the bulk, is highlighted in terms of near-wall spontaneous segregation of plastic events. Near the yield stress, where the cooperative scale cannot be estimated with sufficient accuracy, the system shows a clear increase of the stress correlation scale, whereas plastic events exhibit intermittent clustering in time, with no preferential spatial location. A quantitative measurement of the space-time correlation associated with the motion of the interface of the droplets is key to spot the long-range amorphous order at the yield stress threshold.

R. Benzi; M. Sbragaglia; P. Perlekar; M. Bernaschi; S. Succi; F. Toschi

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Thermodynamics of accuracy in kinetic proofreading: Dissipation and efficiency trade-offs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high accuracy exhibited by biological information transcription processes is due to kinetic proofreading, i.e., by a mechanism which reduces the error rate of the information-handling process by driving it out of equilibrium. We provide a consistent thermodynamic description of enzyme-assisted assembly processes involving competing substrates, in a Master Equation framework. We introduce and evaluate a measure of the efficiency based on rigorous non-equilibrium inequalities. The performance of several proofreading models are thus analyzed and the related time, dissipation and efficiency vs. error trade-offs exhibited for different discrimination regimes. We finally introduce and analyze in the same framework a simple model which takes into account correlations between consecutive enzyme-assisted assembly steps. This work highlights the relevance of the distinction between energetic and kinetic discrimination regimes in enzyme-substrate interactions.

Rao, Riccardo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Thermodynamics of accuracy in kinetic proofreading: Dissipation and efficiency trade-offs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high accuracy exhibited by biological information transcription processes is due to kinetic proofreading, i.e., by a mechanism which reduces the error rate of the information-handling process by driving it out of equilibrium. We provide a consistent thermodynamic description of enzyme-assisted assembly processes involving competing substrates, in a Master Equation framework. We introduce and evaluate a measure of the efficiency based on rigorous non-equilibrium inequalities. The performance of several proofreading models are thus analyzed and the related time, dissipation and efficiency vs. error trade-offs exhibited for different discrimination regimes. We finally introduce and analyze in the same framework a simple model which takes into account correlations between consecutive enzyme-assisted assembly steps. This work highlights the relevance of the distinction between energetic and kinetic discrimination regimes in enzyme-substrate interactions.

Riccardo Rao; Luca Peliti

2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

383

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

384

Influence of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability on the kinetic energy spectrum.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fluctuating kinetic energy spectrum in the region near the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity field is measured at a high spatial resolution in the light gas to observe the effects of turbulence production and dissipation. It is found that the RMI acts as a source of turbulence production near the unstable interface, where energy is transferred from the scales of the perturbation to smaller scales until dissipation. The interface also has an effect on the kinetic energy spectrum farther away by means of the distorted reflected shock wave. The energy spectrum far from the interface initially has a higher energy content than that of similar experiments with a flat interface. These differences are quick to disappear as dissipation dominates the flow far from the interface.

Weber, Christopher R. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Negative kinetic energy term of general relativity and its removing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We first present a new Lagrangian of general relativity, which can be divided into kinetic energy term and potential energy term. Taking advantage of vierbein formalism, we reduce the kinetic energy term to a sum of five positive terms and one negative term. Some gauge conditions removing the negative kinetic energy term are discussed. Finally, we present a Lagrangian that only include positive kinetic energy terms. To remove the negative kinetic energy term leads to a new field equation of general relativity in which there are at least five equations of constraint and at most five dynamical equations, this characteristic is different from the normal Einstein field equation in which there are four equations of constraint and six dynamical equations.

T. Mei

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Directed Relativistic Blast Wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spherically symmetrical ultra-relativistic blast wave is not an attractor of a generic asymmetric explosion. Spherical symmetry is reached only by the time the blast wave slows down to non-relativistic velocities, when the Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann attractor solution sets in. We show however, that a directed relativistic explosion, with the explosion momentum close to the explosion energy, produces a blast wave with a universal intermediate asymptotic -- a selfsimilar directed ultra-relativistic blast wave. This universality might be of interest for the astrophysics of gamma-ray burst afterglows.

Andrei Gruzinov

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

387

Directives Points of Contact  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirectionsDirectives

388

A new method for solving of vector problems for kinetic equations with Maxwell boundary conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work the classical problem of the kinetic theory of gases (the Smoluchowsky' problem about temperature jump in rarefied gas) is considered. The rarefied gas fills half-space over a flat firm surface. logarithmic gradient of temperature is set far from surface. The kinetic equation with modelling integral of collisions in the form of BGK-model (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) is used. The general mirror-diffuse boundary conditions of molecules reflexions of gas from a wall on border of half-space (Maxwell conditions) are considered. Expanding distribution function on two orthogonal directions in space of velocities, the Smoluchowsky' problem to the solution of the homogeneous vector one-dimensional and one-velocity kinetic equation with a matrix kernel is reduced. Then generalization of source-method is used and boundary conditions include in non-homogeneous vector kinetic equation. The solution in the form of Fourier integral is searched. The problem is reduced to the solution of vector Fredholm integral equation of the second sort with matrix kernel. The solution of Fredholm equation in the form of Neumann's polynoms with vector coefficients is searched. The system vector algebraic interengaged equations turns out. The solution of this system is under construction in the form of Neumann's polynoms. Comparison with well-known Barichello - Siewert' high-exact results is made. Zero and the first approach of jumps of temperature and numerical density are received. It is shown, that transition from the zero to the first approach raises 10 times accuracy in calculation coefficients of temperature and concentration jump.

A. V. Latyshev

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

A KINETIC MODEL OF SOLAR WIND GENERATION BY OBLIQUE ION-CYCLOTRON WAVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fast solar wind is generated by extended perpendicular ion heating in coronal holes, but the kinetic mechanism responsible for this heating has not been determined. One long-standing possibility is the resonant-cyclotron dissipation of ion-cyclotron waves, replenished from a turbulent cascade of interacting counter-propagating Alfven waves. We present results of a kinetic model for proton heating by the quasilinear resonant-cyclotron wave-particle interaction in a coronal hole. The resonant wave spectrum is taken as a power law in wavenumber, uniformly distributed in propagation direction between 0 deg. and 60 deg. with respect to the large-scale radial magnetic field. We obtain the steady-state solution of the kinetic guiding-center equation for the proton distribution in an expanding coronal hole, including the effects of large-scale forces of gravity, charge-separation electric field, Alfven wave ponderomotive force, and mirror force, along with the small-scale scattering from the wave dissipation. We find that plausible wave intensities can yield reasonable flow speeds and temperatures in the heliocentric radial range between 2 and 6 solar radii. We address the claim in earlier work that dissipation of parallel-propagating ion-cyclotron waves cannot provide enough acceleration and show that claim to be incorrect. We find that the combined action of the large-scale forces and the resonant-cyclotron scattering produces proton distribution functions with a characteristic structure: compressed in the sunward half of velocity space with a high-density shell separate from the origin, and relatively expanded in the anti-sunward half of velocity space. We suggest that qualitatively similar proton distributions would result from the kinetic evolution of any sufficiently effective perpendicular heating mechanism operating in an expanding coronal hole.

Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

A chemical kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation from the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a model of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. The modeling incorporates kinetic methods to simulate chemical reactions and 1-dimensional conductive heat flow models to simulate thermal histories of the Mississippian-Devonian Bakken Formation source rock. We developed thermal histories of the source rock for 53 wells in the basin using stratigraphic and heat flow data obtained by the University of North Dakota. Chemical kinetics for hydrocarbon generation, determined from Pyromat pyrolysis, were, then used with the diennal histories to calculate the present day value of the Rock-Eval T{sub max} for each well. The calculated Rock-Eval T{sub max} values agreed with measured values within amounts attributable to uncertainties in the chemical kinetics and the heat flow. These optimized thermal histories were then used with a more detailed chemical kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, modified from a model developed for the Cretaceous La Luna shale, to simulate pore pressure development and detailed aspects of the hydrocarbon chemistry. When compared to values estimated from sonic logs, the pore pressure calculation underestimates the role of hydrocarbon generation and overestimates the role of compaction disequilibrium, but it matches well the general areal extent of pore pressures of 0.7 times lithostatic and higher. The simulated chemistry agrees very well with measured values of HI, PI, H/C atomic ratio of the kerogen, and Rock-Eval S1. The model is not as successful in simulating the amount of extracted bitumen and its saturate content, suggesting that detailed hydrous pyrolysis experiments will probably be needed to further refine the chemical model.

Sweeney, J.J.; Braun, R.L.; Burnham, A.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gosnold, W.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Current measurement apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

392

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch CAPT Daniel M. Harper, M.P.H. A Diverse Environmental Public Health Workforce to Meet the Diverse Environmental Health Challenges on environmental health and to build part nerships in the profession. In pursuit of these goals, we will feature

393

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch CAPT John Sarisky, R.S., M.P.H. Developing Environmental Public Health Leadership Editor's note: NEHA strives to provide up to of these goals, we will feature a column from the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers

394

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch Daneen Farrow Collier, M.S.P.H. Editor's note: NEHA strives to pro vide up-to-date and relevant informa tion on environmental health the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Pre vention (CDC) in every

395

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch Brian Hubbard, M.P.H. Editor the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers for Disease Con trol and Prevention (CDC) in every environmental health programs and professionals to antici pate, identify, and respond to adverse envi ronmental

396

Direct fired heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Directional gamma detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Notice extends the following directives until 2/16/04: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99-7/1/00.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

399

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 8-12-04. DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, dated 11/1/99. DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99.

2004-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

400

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 8-12-05: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Security Systems, dated 11-1-99 and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11-23-99. No cancellations.

2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by solvo-thermal method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystals of copper indium disulphide (CuInS{sub 2}) were synthesized by a solvo-thermal method. The structure, morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior of samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. Non-isothermal measurements at different heating rates were carried out and the crystallization kinetics of samples were analyzed using the most reliable non-isothermal kinetic methods. The kinetic parameters such as glass transition temperature, thermal stability, activation energy, Avrami exponent etc. were evaluated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals have scientific and technological importance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples have been prepared by solvo-thermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesized samples exhibit excellent morphology and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of solar cell devices.

Majeed Khan, M.A., E-mail: majeed_phys@yahoo.co.in [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, Sushil [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055 (India); Alsalhi, M.S. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamed, Maqusood [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alhoshan, Mansour [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alrokayan, Salman A. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamad, Tansir [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Directional correlation of [gamma] transitions in [sup 72]Ge following the decay of [sup 72]Ga  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Directional correlations of coincident gamma transitions in [sup 72]Ge have been measured following the [beta][sup [minus

Landulfo, E.; Saxena, R.N.; Zamboni, C.B.; Lapolli, A.L. (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear de Brasil, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated search kinetics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dependence of the elongation kinetics. Marked acceleration... to the slowing of protein folding kinetics by other denaturants (28) and the acceleration of folding by TFE (26......

404

A radially resolved kinetic model for nonlocal electron ripple diffusion losses in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relatively simple radially resolved kinetic model is applied to the ripple diffusion problem for electrons in tokamaks. The distribution function f(r,v) is defined on a two-dimensional grid, where r is the radial coordinate and v is the velocity coordinate. Particle transport in the radial direction is from ripple and banana diffusion and transport in the velocity direction is described by the Fokker-Planck equation. Particles and energy are replaced by source functions that are adjusted to maintain a constant central density and temperature. The relaxed profiles of f(r,v) show that the electron distribution function at the wall contains suprathermal electrons that have diffused from the interior that enhance ripple transport. The transport at the periphery is therefore nonlocal. The energy replacement times from the computational model are near to the experimental replacement times for tokamak discharges in the compilation by Pfeiffer and Waltz [Nucl. Fusion 19, 51 (1979)].

Robertson, Scott [Department of Physics and Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Community detection in directed acyclic graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some temporal networks, most notably citation networks, are naturally represented as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). To detect communities in DAGs, we propose a modularity for DAGs by defining an appropriate null model (i.e., randomized network) respecting the order of nodes. We implement a spectral method to approximately maximize the proposed modularity measure and test the method on citation networks and other DAGs. We find that the attained values of the modularity for DAGs are similar for partitions that we obtain by maximizing the proposed modularity (designed for DAGs), the modularity for undirected networks and that for general directed networks. In other words, if we neglect the order imposed on nodes (and the direction of links) in a given DAG and maximize the conventional modularity measure, the obtained partition is close to the optimal one in the sense of the modularity for DAGs.

Speidel, Leo; Masuda, Naoki

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

ROLES OF THE KINETIC AND DYNAMIC MECHANISMS IN THE L{sub p} -E{sub p} RELATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The L{sub p} -E{sub p} relation is a well-known relation in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Its implication remains unclear. We propose to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relation by considering the corresponding kinetic and dynamic mechanisms separately. In this way, one can tell how much the kinetic or dynamic mechanism contributes to the index of the relationship. Our analysis gives rise to several conclusions. (1) The index of the kinetic effect in the L{sub p} -E{sub p} relation can simply be derived from the theory of special relativity, which is generally larger than 2, depending on the situation concerned. (2) The index of the dynamic effect in the relation can be deduced from observation once a model of jets is adopted. According to current GRB data, we find that the dynamic effect alone tends to give rise to an anti-correlation between L{sub p} and E{sub p} ; in terms of statistics, the dynamic effect is obviously smaller than the kinetic effect; in the situation of jets with moving discrete radio clouds that move directly toward the observer, the index of the dynamic effect is currently constrained within (- 1.6, -1), while in other situations of jets, the constraints are different; both internal and external shocks can account for the current data.

Qin, Yi-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Fu, E-mail: ypqin@gzhu.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

407

Kinetics of the reactions of hydrogen fluoride with calcium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper studies the kinetics of interaction of gaseous hydrogen fluoride with calcium oxide at temperatures 300-700 degrees. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory adsorption apparatus modified and adapted for work with corrosive hydrogen fluoride. Calcium oxide samples in granulated form and deposited on gamma-alumina were used in the experiments. Kinetic curves representing variations of the degree of conversion of the solid samples with time are shown. The influence of retardation dure to diffusion was observed in the experiments. The influence of diffusion control on the reaction rate was also observed in a study of the reaction kinetics on supported layers of calcium oxide.

Kossaya, A.M.; Belyakov, B.P.; Kuchma, Z.V.; Sandrozd, M.K.; Vasil'eva, V.G.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Evidence of critical balance in kinetic Alfven wave turbulence simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical simulation of kinetic plasma turbulence is performed to assess the applicability of critical balance to kinetic, dissipation scale turbulence. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain to obviate complications inherent in performing a local analysis of turbulence. A theoretical model of dissipation scale critical balance is constructed and compared to simulation results, and excellent agreement is found. This result constitutes the first evidence of critical balance in a kinetic turbulence simulation and provides evidence of an anisotropic turbulence cascade extending into the dissipation range. We also perform an Eulerian frequency analysis of the simulation data and compare it to the results of a previous study of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations.

TenBarge, J. M.; Howes, G. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

410

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

411

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

412

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

413

Direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

414

Laboratory Directed Research & Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................43 Measuring Dark Energy and Dark Matter Using Gravitational Lensing ............................................................11 Development of an Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Facility for Condensed Matter Physics Challenges Electrochemical Fuel Generation from Water and Carbon Dioxide..............................................19

Ohta, Shigemi

415

Directional drilling sub  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A directional drilling ''sub'' provides a shifting end portion which allows the sub to be rotated from a first in-line axially straight orientation with the drill string to a second angled or ''bent'' position which second position is normally associated with conventional bent ''subs'' which are permanently structured in the bent position. The device shifts from the first (In-line) position to the second (Bent) position upon the application of torsional force thereto which torsional force can be applied, for example, by the actuation of a ''turbodrill'' (Normally attached thereto in operation). The device can be manufactured or machined to provide varying angles to the sub in its bent position to satisfy differing directional drilling situations. The axially aligned first position allows easy entry of the drill string, sub , and turbodrill into the well hole, while the second bend position is used to commence directional drilling. The sub will return gradually to its original axially aligned position when the device is withdrawn from the wellhole, as such position is the path of minimum resistance for the withdrawing drill string and torsion is not present to hold the sub in the bent position.

Benoit, L.F.

1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

416

Simulating galactic outflows with kinetic supernova feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feedback from star formation is thought to play a key role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, but its implementation in cosmological simulations is currently hampered by a lack of numerical resolution. We present and test a sub-grid recipe to model feedback from massive stars in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. The energy is distributed in kinetic form among the gas particles surrounding recently formed stars. The impact of the feedback is studied using a suite of high-resolution simulations of isolated disc galaxies embedded in dark halos with total mass 10^{10} and 10^{12} Msol/h. We focus in particular on the effect of pressure forces on wind particles within the disc, which we turn off temporarily in some of our runs to mimic a recipe that has been widely used in the literature. We find that this popular recipe gives dramatically different results because (ram) pressure forces on expanding superbubbles determine both the structure of the disc and the development of large-scale outflows. Pressure forces exerted by expanding superbubbles puff up the disc, giving the dwarf galaxy an irregular morphology and creating a galactic fountain in the massive galaxy. Hydrodynamic drag within the disc results in a strong increase of the effective mass loading of the wind for the dwarf galaxy, but quenches much of the outflow in the case of the high-mass galaxy.

Claudio Dalla Vecchia; Joop Schaye

2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

417

Direct and Inverse Cascades in the Wind-Driven Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We offer a new form for the S(nl) term in the Hasselmann kinetic equation for squared wave amplitudes of wind-driven gravity wave. This form of S(nl) makes possible to rewrite in differential form the conservation laws for energy, momentum, and wave action, and introduce their fluxes by a natural way. We show that the stationary kinetic equation has a family of exact Kolmogorov-type solutions governed by the fluxes of motion constants: wave action, energy, and momentum. The simple "local" model for S(nl) term that is equivalent to the "diffusion approximation" is studied in details. In this case, Kolmogorov spectra are found in the explicit form. We show that a general solution of the stationary kinetic equation behind the spectral peak is described by the Kolmogorov-type solution with frequency-dependent fluxes. The domains of "inverse cascade" and "direct cascade" can be separated by natural way. The spectrum in the universal domain is close to $\\omega^{-4}$.

Zakharov, Vladimir E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

Lasche, George P. (Arlington, VA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

Lasche, G.P.

1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

420

Effects of radiation on NO kinetics in turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe a coupled radiation and NO kinetics calculation of turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flame properties. Transport equations for mass, momentum, mixture fraction, enthalpy (sensible + chemical) including gas band radiation, and NO mass fraction are solved. NO kinetics is described by a one step thermal production mechanism. The local temperature is obtained by solving the enthalpy equation taking radiation loss from H{sub 2}O into consideration. Radiation/turbulence and chemical kinetics/turbulence interactions are treated using a clipped Gaussian probability density function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, and a delta PDF for the enthalpy. The source terms in the enthalpy and mass fraction of NO equations are treated using assumed PDF integration over the mixture fraction space. The results of the simulation are compared with existing measurements of the Emission Indices of NO (EINO) in turbulent H{sub 2}/air diffusion flames. The major conclusion of the paper is that coupled turbulence/radiation interactions should be taken into account while computing the EINO.

Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Laurendeau, N.M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

BE.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics, Fall 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of ...

Wittrup, K. Dane

423

Phase IV Simulant Testing of Monosodium Titanate Adsorption Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team identified the adsorption kinetics of actinides and strontium onto monosodium titanate (MST) as a technical risk in several of the processing alternatives selected for additional evaluation in Phase III of their effort.

Hobbs, D.T.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

424

Nonphotochemical hole burning and dispersive kinetics in amorphous solids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Results of an extensive study, covering burn intensities in the nW to {dollar}?{dollar}W/cm{dollar}2{dollar} range, of dispersive hole growth kinetics are reported for Oxazine 720 in… (more)

Kenney, Michael Joseph

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Data A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor and Engine Experimental Data Presents experimental study of a Cu-zeolite SCR in both reactor and engine test cell,...

426

atom kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

.self-consistent Thomas Fermi TF atom discussed w Kais, Sabre 3 Towards an exact orbital-free single-particle kinetic energy density for the inhomogeneous electron liquid in the...

427

Kinetic energy error in the NIMROD spheromak simulations Carl Sovinec  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic energy error in the NIMROD spheromak simulations Carl Sovinec 10/25/00 Dmitri Ryutov at the ends (as in the spheromak simulations), it may lead to compression in a boundary layer.] The maximum

Sovinec, Carl

428

Mechanistic kinetic modeling of the hydrocracking of complex feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two separate mechanistic kinetic models have been developed for the hydrocracking of complex feedstocks. The first model is targeted for the hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil. The second one addresses specifically the hydrocracking of long...

Kumar, Hans

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

RIS-M-2216 CHEMICAL KINETICS IN THE GAS PHASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KINETICS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, GASES, HYDROGEN SULFIDES, PULSED IRRADIATION, RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOLYSIS is subjected to high energy radiation (e.g. a- particles, Y-radiation or fast electrons), the primary products

430

Topobo : a 3-D constructive assembly system with kinetic memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce Topobo, a 3-D constructive assembly system em- bedded with kinetic memory, the ability to record and playback physical motion. Unique among modeling systems is Topobo's coincident physical input and output ...

Raffle, Hayes Solos, 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Topobo : a gestural design tool with kinetic memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The modeling of kinetic systems, both in physical materials and virtual simulations, provides a methodology to better understand and explore the forces and dynamics of our physical environment. The need to experiment, ...

Parkes, Amanda Jane

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Fully kinetic modeling of a divergent cusped-field thruster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fully kinetic, particle-in-cell plasma simulation tool has been incrementally developed by members of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Space Propulsion Laboratory. Adapting this model to simulate the performance ...

Gildea, Stephen Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Kinetic studies of isoprene reactions with hydroxyl and chlorine radicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic studies of the isoprene oxidation reactions initiated by the hydroxyl radical OH and the chlorine atom Cl have been investigated using a fast-flow reactor in conjunction with chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and using laser...

Suh, Inseon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

434

astrophysical systems kinetic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Thermonuclear Kinetics in Astrophysics CERN Preprints Summary: Over the billions of years since...

435

Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

es093daniel2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical...

436

Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model PtRhBa NOx Traps for Design and Optimization Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model PtRhBa NOx...

437

Kinetic modeling and automated optimization in microreactor systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optimization, kinetic investigation, or scale-up of a reaction often requires significant time and materials. Silicon microreactor systems have been shown advantageous for studying chemical reactions due to their small ...

Moore, Jason Stuart

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Nonlinear Adaptive Control for Bioreactors with Unknown Kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, unknown kinetics, wastewater treatment. 1 Introduction Biological processes have become widely used on a real life wastewater treatment plant. Key words: Nonlinear adaptive control, continuous bioprocesses a pollutant (wastewater treatment...). There- fore, bioreactors require advanced regulation procedures

Bernard, Olivier

439

A unified theory on electro-kinetic extraction of contaminants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of contaminants from fine-grained soils. Here, the experimental and the theoretical studies conducted to date are reviewed briefly 2. 3. 1. Experimental Studies The technique of electro-kinetic extraction of salts from alkaline soils was investigated by Puri...A VNIFIED THEORY ON ELECTRO-KINETIC EXTRACTION OF CONTAMINANTS A Thesis by SUBBARAJU DATLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Datla, Subbaraju

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Kinetics of Mercury(II) Adsorption and Desorption on Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Mercury(II) Adsorption and Desorption on Soil Y U J U N Y I N , H E R B E R T E . A L L of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Plant and Soil Sciences kinetics of Hg(II) on four soils at pH 6 were investigated to discern the mechanisms controlling

Sparks, Donald L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct kinetic measurements" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A consistent statistical description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma is proposed based on the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. For the case of partial dynamics, the nonequilibrium statistical operator and the generalized transport equations for a consistent description of kinetics of dust particles and hydrodynamics of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are obtained. In the approximation of weakly nonequilibrium process, a spectrum of collective excitations of dusty plasma is investigated in the hydrodynamic limit.

Markiv, B. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine)] [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Tokarchuk, M. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine) [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); National University “Lviv Polytechnic,” 12 Bandera St., 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

HCCI in a CFR engine: experiments and detailed kinetic modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single cylinder engine experiments and chemical kinetic modeling have been performed to study the effect of variations in fuel, equivalence ratio, and intake charge temperature on the start of combustion and the heat release rate. Neat propane and a fuel blend of 15% dimethyl-ether in methane have been studied. The results demonstrate the role of these parameters on the start of combustion, efficiency, imep, and emissions. Single zone kinetic modeling results show the trends consistent with the experimental results.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Smith, R; Torres, J; Girard, J; Dibble, R

1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

443

OBJECT KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to report the development of the flexible object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulation code KSOME (kinetic simulation of microstructure evolution) which can be used to simulate microstructure evolution of complex systems under irradiation. In this report we briefly describe the capabilities of KSOME and present preliminary results for short term annealing of single cascades in tungsten at various primary-knock-on atom (PKA) energies and temperatures.

Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

444

Theory of semicollisional kinetic Alfven modes in sheared magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectra of the semicollisional kinetic Alfven modes in a sheared slab geometry are investigated, including the effects of finite ion Larmor radius and diamagnetic drift frequencies. The eigenfrequencies of the damped modes are derived analytically via asymptotic analyses. In particular, as one reduces the resistivity, we find that, due to finite ion Larmor radius effects, the damped mode frequencies asymptotically approach finite real values corresponding to the end points of the kinetic Alfven continuum.

Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 3-18-06: DOE N 205.8, Cyber Security Requirements for Wireless Devices and Information Systems, dated 2-11-04; DOE N 205.9, Certification and Accreditation Process for Information Systems Including National Security Systems, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.10, Cyber Security Requirements for Risk Management, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.11, Security Requirements for Remote Access to DOE and Applicable Contractor Information Technology Systems, dated 2-19-04. DOE N 205.12, Clearing, Sanitizing, and Destroying Information System Storage Media, Memory Devices, and Other Related Hardware, dated 2-19-04.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

446

Directions to Berkeley Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirections & Parking

447

Directions - 88-Inch Cyclotron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on the hillside

448

Directions | Jefferson Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theArea Map

449

Modularity of Directed Networks: Cycle Decomposition Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of decomposing networks into modules (or clusters) has gained much attention in recent years, as it can account for a coarse-grained description of complex systems, often revealing functional subunits of these systems. A variety of module detection algorithms have been proposed, mostly oriented towards finding hard partitionings of undirected networks. Despite the increasing number of fuzzy clustering methods for directed networks, many of these approaches tend to neglect important directional information. In this paper, we present a novel random walk based approach for finding fuzzy partitions of directed, weighted networks, where edge directions play a crucial role in defining how well nodes in a module are interconnected. We will show that cycle decomposition of a random walk process connects the notion of network modules and information transport in a network, leading to a new, symmetric measure of node communication. walk process, for which we will prove that although being time-reversible it inherits all necessary information about directions and modular structure of the original network. Finally, we will use this measure to introduce a communication graph, for which we will show that although being undirected it inherits all necessary information about modular structures from the original network.

Natasa Djurdjevac Conrad; Ralf Banisch; Christof Schütte

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

451

FOR THE RECORD Direct measurement of islet amyloid polypeptide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be induced to form amyloid fibrils, but do not have clinical consequences. This suggests that fibril different in that it does not form fibrils and is distinguish- able on the basis of mass. Applied to IAPP al., 1999!. The main component of the plaques is a fibrillar form of islet amyloid polypeptide ~IAPP

Miranker, Andrew

452

Direct measurement of the W boson decay width  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Greenwood,45 S. Grinstein,1 L. Groer,52 S. Gru¨nendahl,36 A. Gupta,17 S. N. Gurzhiev,26 G. Gutierrez,36 P. Gutierrez,57 N. J. Hadley,46 H. Haggerty,36 S. Hagopian,35 V. Hagopian,35 R. E. Hall,32 S. Hansen,36 J. M. Hauptman,42 C. Hays,52 C. Hebert,43 D. Hedin...,17 H. E. Montgomery,36 R. W. Moore,50 M. Mostafa,1 H. da Motta,2 Y. Mutaf,54 E. Nagy,10 F. Nang,29 M. Narain,47 V. S. Narasimham,17 N. A. Naumann,21 H. A. Neal,49 J. P. Negret,5 A. Nomerotski,36 T. Nunnemann,36 D. O’Neil,50 V. Oguri,3 B. Olivier,12 N...

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Coppage, Don; Hebert, C.

2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

453

Direct measurement of thin-film thermoelectric figure of merit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joule effect- induced and the Peltier effect-induced Seebeckmetal lead due to the Peltier and Joule effects. IndependentJoule heating, and Peltier heating/cooling, respectively. 10

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Introduction to direct neutrino mass measurements and KATRIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The properties of neutrinos and especially their rest mass play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. On the other hand experiments such as MARE, KATRIN and the recently proposed Project 8 will investigate the spectral shape of beta-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Here, because of neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. It combines an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source with an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. It will investigate the neutrino rest mass with 0.2 eV/c (90% C.L.) sensitivity and allow beta spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint at 18.6 keV with unprecedented precision.

Thomas Thümmler; for the KATRIN Collaboration

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

455

Direct Aerosol Forcing: Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Measurements of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac Charge DynamcsAerosol

456

Sandia National Laboratories: Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive SolarEducation Programs:CRFProvide InsightSystemsNuclear Energy and Fuel

457

Sandia National Laboratories: direct measurement of combustion intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NRELdeep-water multiple-megawatt VAWTenergynumericalsystemsdirect

458

Direct Measurement of Adsorbed Gas Redistribution in Metal-Organic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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459

POLARIZATION AND COMPRESSIBILITY OF OBLIQUE KINETIC ALFVEN WAVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that a complete description of the solar wind requires a kinetic description and that, particularly at sub-proton scales, kinetic effects cannot be ignored. It is nevertheless usually assumed that at scales significantly larger than the proton gyroscale r{sub L} , magnetohydrodynamics or its extensions, such as Hall-MHD and two-fluid models with isotropic pressures, provide a satisfactory description of the solar wind. Here we calculate the polarization and magnetic compressibility of oblique kinetic Alfven waves and show that, compared with linear kinetic theory, the isotropic two-fluid description is very compressible, with the largest discrepancy occurring at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. In contrast, introducing anisotropic pressure fluctuations with the usual double-adiabatic (or CGL) equations of state yields compressibility values which are unrealistically low. We also show that both of these classes of fluid models incorrectly describe the electric field polarization. To incorporate linear kinetic effects, we use two versions of the Landau fluid model that include linear Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections. We show that Landau damping is crucial for correct modeling of magnetic compressibility, and that the anisotropy of pressure fluctuations should not be introduced without taking into account the Landau damping through appropriate heat flux equations. We also show that FLR corrections to all the retained fluid moments appear to be necessary to yield the correct polarization. We conclude that kinetic effects cannot be ignored even for kr{sub L} << 1.

Hunana, P.; Goldstein, M. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D. [Laboratoire J. L. Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)] [Laboratoire J. L. Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Zank, G. P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)] [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Peptide concentration alters intermediate species in amyloid ? fibrillation kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? A?(1–40) aggregation in vitro has been monitored at different concentrations. ? A?(1–40) fibrillation does not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms. ? We demonstrate non-linear features in the kinetics of A?(1–40) fibril formation. ? At high A?(1–40) concentrations secondary processes dictate fibrillation speed. ? Intermediate species may play significant roles on final amyloid fibril development. -- Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains to be fully understood. Investigations into the species present in the different kinetic phases can assist our comprehension of amyloid diseases and further our understanding of the mechanism behind amyloid ? (A?) (1–40) peptide aggregation. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in combination to monitor A?(1–40) aggregation in vitro at both normal and higher than standard concentrations. The observed fibrillation behaviour deviates, in several respects, from standard concepts of the nucleation–polymerisation models and shows such features as concentration-dependent non-linear effects in the assembly mechanism. A?(1–40) fibrillation kinetics do not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms and, specifically at high concentrations, intermediate structures become populated and secondary processes may further modify the fibrillation mechanism.

Garvey, M., E-mail: megan.garvey@molbiotech.rwth-aachen.de [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Morgado, I., E-mail: immorgado@ualg.pt [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

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461

KINETIC ANALYSIS OF HIGH-NITROGEN ENERGETIC MATERIALS USING MULTIVARIATE NONLINEAR REGRESSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New high-nitrogen energetic materials were synthesized by Hiskey and Naud. J. Opfermann reported a new tool for finding the probable model of the complex reactions using multivariate non-linear regression analysis of DSC and TGA data from several measurements run at different heating rates. This study is to take the kinetic parameters from the different steps and discover which reaction step is responsible for the runaway reaction by comparing predicted results from the Frank-Kamenetsckii equation with the critical temperature found experimentally using the modified Henkin test.

Campbell, M. S. (Mary Stinecipher); Rabie, R. L. (Ronald L.); Diaz-Acosta, I. (Irina); Pulay, P. (Peter)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A Position Sensitive X-ray Spectrophotometer using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The surface impedance of a superconductor changes when energy is absorbed and Cooper pairs are broken to produce single electron (quasiparticle) excitations. This change may be sensitively measured using a thin-film resonant circuit called a microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID). The practical application of MKIDs for photon detection requires a method of efficiently coupling the photon energy to the MKID. We present results on position sensitive X-ray detectors made by using two aluminum MKIDs on either side of a tantalum photon absorber strip. Diffusion constants, recombination times, and energy resolution are reported. MKIDs can easily be scaled into large arrays.

Benjamin A. Mazin; Megan E. Eckart; Bruce Bumble; Sunil Golwala; Peter K. Day; Jonas Zmuidzinas; Fiona A. Harrison

2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

464

Remote direct memory access  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

465

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash kinetics mechanism Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Some of these ash particles may contribute to surface sealing if rainfall kinetic energy is sufficient... ......

466

Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

construction and dynamics physics education with children; Kinetic Sketchup, a system for motion construction

Ishii, Hiroshi

467

Polymerization and Bundling Kinetics of FtsZ Filaments Ganhui Lan,* Alex Dajkovic,y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymerization and Bundling Kinetics of FtsZ Filaments Ganhui Lan,* Alex Dajkovic,y Denis Wirtz a kinetic model that describes the polymerization and bundling mechanism of FtsZ filaments. The model polymerization kinetics data of another researcher, and explains the cooperativity observed in FtsZ kinetics

Sun, Sean

468

The effect of spin-orbit splitting on the association kinetics of barrierless halogen atom-hydrocarbon radical reactions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the geometry dependence of spin-orbit splitting on transition state theory (TST) predictions for radical-radical recombination rate coefficients is examined. The effects are illustrated with direct ab initio variable-reaction-coordinate (VRC)-TST calculations for the reactions of two types of hydrocarbon radicals (R = CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}) with three halogen atoms (X = F, Cl, and Br). These halogen atoms exhibit a range of spin-orbit interaction strengths, while their interactions with the two hydrocarbon radicals exhibit a range of attractiveness. The transition state dividing surfaces for these barrierless reactions occur over a range of R-X fragment separations ({approx}3-7 {angstrom}) where the magnitude of the spin-orbit splitting is strongly geometry dependent. Perturbative models for incorporating the energetic effect of spin-orbit splitting into barrierless kinetics are presented and tested. Simply neglecting the variation in the spin-orbit splitting is demonstrated to contribute an error of less than 15% to the predicted rate coefficients for all but the CH{sub 2}CHCH{sub 2} + Br reaction, where its neglect increases the rate by up to a factor of 2. For the CH{sub 2}CHCH{sub 2} + Br reaction, the effect of spin-orbit splitting is not perturbative and instead qualitatively changes the long-range interaction potential and association dynamics. The present theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental measurements and previous theoretical work. For the CH{sub 3} + F association reaction, the errors associated with limitations in the basis set and in the active space are studied, and a detailed comparison is made between VRC-TST and rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator variational TST.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (SNL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Phase-field Model for Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics and Thermodynamic and Kinetic Models of Irradiated Fe-Cr Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microstructure evolution kinetics in irradiated materials has strongly spatial correlation. For example, void and second phases prefer to nucleate and grow at pre-existing defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and cracks. Inhomogeneous microstructure evolution results in inhomogeneity of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Therefore, the simulation capability for predicting three dimensional (3-D) microstructure evolution kinetics and its subsequent impact on material properties and performance is crucial for scientific design of advanced nuclear materials and optimal operation conditions in order to reduce uncertainty in operational and safety margins. Very recently the meso-scale phase-field (PF) method has been used to predict gas bubble evolution, void swelling, void lattice formation and void migration in irradiated materials,. Although most results of phase-field simulations are qualitative due to the lake of accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties of defects, possible missing of important kinetic properties and processes, and the capability of current codes and computers for large time and length scale modeling, the simulations demonstrate that PF method is a promising simulation tool for predicting 3-D heterogeneous microstructure and property evolution, and providing microstructure evolution kinetics for higher scale level simulations of microstructure and property evolution such as mean field methods. This report consists of two parts. In part I, we will present a new phase-field model for predicting interstitial loop growth kinetics in irradiated materials. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) generation, diffusion and recombination, sink strength, long-range elastic interaction, inhomogeneous and anisotropic mobility on microstructure evolution kinetics is taken into account in the model. The model is used to study the effect of elastic interaction on interstitial loop growth kinetics, the interstitial flux, and sink strength of interstitial loop for interstitials. In part II, we present a generic phase field model and discuss the thermodynamic and kinetic properties in phase-field models including the reaction kinetics of radiation defects and local free energy of irradiated materials. In particular, a two-sublattice thermodynamic model is suggested to describe the local free energy of alloys with irradiated defects. Fe-Cr alloy is taken as an example to explain the required thermodynamic and kinetic properties for quantitative phase-field modeling. Finally the great challenges in phase-field modeling will be discussed.

Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

Conclusions and Policy Directions,  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter briefly revisits the constraints and opportunities of mitigation and adaptation, and highlights and the multiple linkages, synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and urban development. The chapter then presents future policy directions, focusing on local, national and international principles and policies for supporting and enhancing urban responses to climate change. In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate - fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse. The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general - a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge - far beyond climate change connections alone. It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Romero-Lankao, Paty [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Gnatz, P [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Thermochemical Kinetics for Multireference Systems: Addition Reactions of Ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of ozone to ethyne and ethene provide extreme examples of multireference singlet-state chemistry, and they are examined here to test the applicability of several approaches to thermochemical kinetics of systems with large static correlation. Four different multireference diagnostics are applied to measure the multireference characters of the reactants, products, and transition states; all diagnostics indicate significant multireference character in the reactant portion of the potential energy surfaces. We make a more complete estimation of the effect of quadruple excitations than was previously available, and we use this with CCSDT/CBS estimation of Wheeler et al. (Wheeler, S. E.; Ess, D. H.; Houk, K. N. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 1798.) to make new best estimates of the van der Waals association energy, the barrier height, and the reaction energy to form the cycloadduct for both reactions. Comparing with these best estimates, we present comprehensive mean unsigned errors for a variety of coupled cluster, multilevel, and density functional methods. Several computational aspects of multireference reactions are considered: (i) the applicability of multilevel theory, (ii) the convergence of coupled cluster theory for reaction barrier heights, (iii) the applicability of completely renormalized coupled cluster methods to multireference systems, (iv) the treatment by density functional theory, (v) the multireference perturbation theory for multireference reactions, and (vi) the relative accuracy of scaling-type multilevel methods as compared with additive ones. It is found that scaling-type multilevel methods do not perform better than the additive-type multilevel methods. Among the 48 tested density functionals, only M05 reproduces the best estimates within their uncertainty. Multireference perturbation theory based on the complete-active-space reference wave functions constructed using a small number of reaction-specific active orbitals gives accurate forward barrier heights; however, it significantly underestimates reaction energies.

Zhao, Yan; Tishchenko, Oksana; Gour, Jeffrey R.; Li, Wei; Lutz, Jesse; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.

2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

472

Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of hydroxyethylamine ?-secretase-1 inhibitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of 10 hydroxyethylamine BACE-1 inhibitors. •Equilibrium binding of inhibitors was enthalpy driven for BACE-1. •Negative entropy of binding was observed towards BACE-1, but not Cathepsin-D. •Structural analysis demonstrates ligand binding induces a major conformational change. •Structural analysis and SPR analysis corroborate induced fit and negative entropy of binding. -- Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of people. ?-Secretase-1 (BACE-1), an enzyme involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form A?, is a well validated target for AD. Herein, the authors characterize 10 randomly selected hydroxyethylamine (HEA) BACE-1 inhibitors in terms of their association and dissociation rate constants and thermodynamics of binding using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Rate constants of association (k{sub a}) measured at 25 °C ranged from a low of 2.42 × 10{sup 4} M{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} to the highest value of 8.3 × 10{sup 5} M{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}. Rate constants of dissociation (k{sub d}) ranged from 1.09 × 10{sup ?4} s{sup ?1} (corresponding to a residence time of close to three hours), to the fastest of 0.028 s{sup ?1}. Three compounds were selected for further thermodynamic analysis where it was shown that equilibrium binding was enthalpy driven while unfavorable entropy of binding was observed. Structural analysis revealed that upon ligand binding, the BACE-1flap folds down over the bound ligand causing an induced fit. The maximal difference between alpha carbon positions in the open and closed conformations of the flap was over 5 Ĺ. Thus the negative entropy of binding determined using SPR analysis was consistent with an induced fit observed by structural analysis.

Mondal, Kalyani; Regnstrom, Karin; Morishige, Winse; Barbour, Robin; Probst, Gary; Xu, Ying-Zi; Artis, Dean R.; Yao, Nanhua; Beroza, Paul; Bova, Michael P., E-mail: mpbova2001@yahoo.com

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fue