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1

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

601 601 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142256601 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ethiopia for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country.

2

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from DLR China from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for China for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR DNI GEF GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 8.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 4.4 MiB)

3

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from DLR Sri Lanka from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Sri Lanka for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS solar Sri Lanka SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 155.1 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 295.7 KiB)

4

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for for Bangladesh from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Bangladesh for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR DNI GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 915.2 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 488 KiB)

5

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Kenya for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS Kenya solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 2.5 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 1.3 MiB)

6

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ghana for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI Ghana solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 519.6 KiB)

7

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Nepal for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GIS Nepal solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1.2 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 600.4 KiB)

8

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

El Salvador sites from SUNY El Salvador sites from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

9

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Honduras from SUNY Honduras from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

10

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nicaragua from SUNY Nicaragua from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

11

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guatemala from SUNY Guatemala from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

12

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cuba sites from SUNY Cuba sites from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

13

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

14

Solar: annual and seasonal average direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) for Brazil from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Annual and seasonal mean of Direct Normal Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day based on data from 1995 to 2002 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The cross-calibration process worked with data from 3 ground stations: Caicó (located in the Northeast of Brazil), Florianópolis (located in the South) and Balbina (located in Amazonia). These data have been used for validation and comparison of radiation transfer models operated in SWERA to estimate the incidence of solar radiation on the surface of the country from satellite images obtained from 1995 to 2002

15

DNI GHI | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DNI GHI DNI GHI Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems Source Richard Perez Date Released June 30th, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 07th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DNI GHI hourly data Nicaragua solar SUNY SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1998 - 12/31/2002 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

16

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

22 22 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is

18

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

map at 40km resolution for map at 40km resolution for Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency

19

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

49031 49031 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to

20

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Nepal. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GHI hourly data Nepal NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 1.2 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka sites from DLR Sri Lanka sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Sri Lanka. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar Sri Lanka SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 368.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

22

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China sites from DLR China sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in China. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China DLR DNI GEF GHI solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 953.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

23

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Ghana. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI Ghana GHI hourly data solar SWERA TILT TMY UNEP Data application/zip icon ghanaDLRtimeseries_103.zip (zip, 2.7 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

24

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh sites from DLR Bangladesh sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Bangladesh. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 1.2 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

25

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from DLR Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Ethiopia. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 2.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

26

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Kenya. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GHI hourly data Kenya solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 3.9 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

27

Definition: Global horizontal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Normal Irradiance (DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DIF).1 Related Terms DNI, Solar radiation, Concentrating solar power, Photovoltaics References http:...

28

direct normal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance insolation latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL South America SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Maps (zip, 13.9 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

29

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

30

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

31

DNI | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DNI DNI Dataset Summary Description Developed by NREL and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency, this geographic toolkit that allows users to relate the renewable energy resource (solar and wind) data to other geographic data, such as land use, protected areas, elevation, etc. The GsT was completely redesigned and re-released in November 2010 to provide a more modern, easier-to-use interface with considerably faster analytical querying capabilities. The revised version of the Geospatial Toolkit for Turkey is available using the following link: http://www.nrel.gov/international/downloads/gst_turkey.exe Source GeoModel Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated July 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords DNI GeoModel GHI GIS GsT NREL solar SWERA TILT Turkey

32

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays...

33

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

normal irradiance normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

34

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments SOAR : Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation

35

File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-dni.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bhutan-10kmsolar-dni.pdf bhutan-10kmsolar-dni.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Bhutan - Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation Description Bhutan - Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-CSP, Solar-10km Creation Date 2008-12-08 Extent International Countries Bhutan UN Region Southern Asia File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 15:50, 14 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 15:50, 14 December 2010 1,650 × 1,275 (307 KB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated upload from NREL's "mapsearch" data

36

Direct Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements and Updated Simple Transmittance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of 509 direct solar irradiance spectra, carefully measured over one year, is checked against spectral irradiances computed from five updated transmittance models. The wavelengths under investigation range from 290 to 900 nm, with a 5- or 10-...

A. de La Casinire; A. I. Bokoye; T. Cabot

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

>
Direct Normal Irradiance (kWhm2day)
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

38

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

39

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Asia from NREL East Asia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

40

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from NREL Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

42

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa from NREL Africa from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

43

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

44

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

45

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh stations from NREL Bangladesh stations from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

46

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

47

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South America from NREL South America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

48

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America and the Carribean from NREL Central America and the Carribean from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

49

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America from NREL Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

50

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cuba from NREL Cuba from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

51

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

53

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

54

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

55

Production of High Resolution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Production of High Resolution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba Production of High Resolution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): The main object of the SUNY task for SWERA is to prepare high resolution global irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.Much of our initial effort focused on building up the satellite data tx_metadatatool, and in strengthening and validating the models capable of converting that data into ground surface irradiances. Three research articles, acknowledging all or partial funding from UNEP & SWERA have been published on this subject. (Purpose): SWERA documentation Source SUNY Albany Date Released July 31st, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated August 29th, 2003 (11 years ago)

56

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki Frank Vignola of trends in direct normal irradiance from three sites around Oregon over a period of 25 years. An overall. Changes in clear noon values are also examined. This article analyzes direct normal data unlike other

Oregon, University of

57

Production of high Resoulution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DRAFT REPORT - JULY 2003 DRAFT REPORT - JULY 2003 Production of high Resolution Irradiance Data For Central America and Cuba Prepared by Richard Perez ASRC, the University at Albany (SUNY) For United Nations Environmental Program Solar Energy and Wind Resource Assessment (SWERA) Deliverable for July, 2003 The main objective of the SUNY task for SWERA is to prepare high resolution global irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Much of our initial effort focused on building up the satellite data archive, and in strengthening and validating the models capable of converting that data into ground surface irradiances. Three research articles, acknowledging all or partial funding

58

A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Effects of the El Chichon Volcanic Cloud on Direct and Diffuse Solar Irradiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct normal and diffuse solar irradiances and 500 nm aerosol optical depths measured at the University of Michigan departed far from normal on 26 October 1982, when it is concluded that the main stratospheric cloud from the El Chichon volcanic ...

C. Bruce Baker; William R. Kuhn; Edward Ryznar

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Direct and indirect effects of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to establish a model system to study the direct effect, the bystander effect and the combinational effect of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells, toward the goal of ...

Wang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Intercomparison of Spectroradiometers for Global and Direct Solar Irradiance in the Visible Range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the spectral, global, and direct solar irradiance measurements in the visible range (400700 nm) that were made in the framework of the first Iberian UVvisible (VIS) instruments intercomparison. ...

Jos A. Martnez-Lozano; Maria P. Utrillas; Roberto Pedrs; Fernando Tena; Juan P. Daz; Francisco J. Expsito; Jernimo Lorente; Xavier de Cabo; Victoria Cachorro; Ricardo Vergaz; Virgilio Carreo

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time on a unit area at the earth's surface perpendicular to the direction to the Sun, depends only on atmospheric extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering. Here we report a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma in April 1996, under cloud-free conditions, wherein measured atmospheric composition and aerosol optical thickness are input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained with normal incidence pyrheliometers and absolute cavity radiometers. Uncertainty in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) dominates the uncertainty in DNSI calculation. AOT measured by an independently calibrated sunphotometer and a rotating Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance - A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 2 shadow-band radiometer agree to within the uncerta...

Rangasayi Halthore; Schwartz; S. E.; Michalsky; J. J.; Anderson; G. P.; Gail P. Anderson; Ferrare R. A.; ten Brink H. M; Holben B. N.; Harry M. Ten Brink

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

km for km for Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

64

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

65

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km resolution for 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

66

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

67

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

68

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

69

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Central for Central America from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Central America. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This

70

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

71

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GIS data at 10km resolution for GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This

72

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

73

Direct observation of grain growth from molten silicon formed by micro-thermal-plasma-jet irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase transformation of amorphous-silicon during millisecond annealing using micro-thermal-plasma-jet irradiation was directly observed using a high-speed camera with microsecond time resolution. An oval-shaped molten-silicon region adjacent to the solid phase crystallization region was clearly observed, followed by lateral large grain growth perpendicular to a liquid-solid interface. Furthermore, leading wave crystallization (LWC), which showed intermittent explosive crystallization, was discovered in front of the moving molten region. The growth mechanism of LWC has been investigated on the basis of numerical simulation implementing explosive movement of a thin liquid layer driven by released latent heat diffusion in a lateral direction.

Hayashi, Shohei; Fujita, Yuji; Kamikura, Takahiro; Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Higashi, Seiichiro [Department of Semiconductor Electronics and Integration Science, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

74

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance GIS data at irradiance GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Direct Normal Irradiance (kWh/m^2/day)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Direct Normal Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

75

Direct irradiation of long-lived fission products in an ATW system  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of directly irradiating five long-lived fission products (LLFPs: {sup 79}Se, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, and {sup 135}Cs, each with a half-life greater than 10,000 years), by incorporating them into the target of an Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system is discussed. The important parameters used to judge the feasibility of a direct irradiation system were the target's neutron spallation yield (given in neutrons produced per incident proton), and the removal rate of the LLFP, with the baseline incineration rate set at two light water reactors (LWRs) worth of the LLFP waste per year. A target was constructed which consisted of a LLFP cylindrical ''plug'' inserted into the top (where the proton beam strikes) of a 30 cm radius, 100 cm length lead target. {sup 126}Sn and {sup 79}Se were each found to have high enough removal rates to support two LWR's production of the LLFP per year of ATW operation. For the baseline plug geometry (5 cm radius, 30 cm length) containing {sup 126}Sn, 3.5 LWRs could be supported per year (at 75% beam availability). Furthermore, the addition of a {sup 126}Sn plug had a slightly positive effect on the target's neutron yield. The neutron production was 36.83{+-}.0039 neutrons per proton with a pure lead target having a yield of 36.29{+-}.0038. It was also found that a plug composed of a tin-selenide compound (SnSe) had high enough removal rates to burn two or more reactor years of both LLFPs simultaneously.

Carter, Thomas F.; Henderson, Douglass; Sailor, William C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37919 (United States); Departmemt of Nuclear Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun`s direction on a unit area at the earth`s surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction--whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ({approximately} 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Hanscomb AFB (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Ten Brink, H.M. [Energy Research Inst. (Netherlands)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance  

SciTech Connect

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time at the Earth{close_quote}s surface on a unit area perpendicular to the direction to the Sun, depends only on atmospheric extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction, whether absorption or scattering. Here we report a set of closure experiments performed in north central Oklahoma in April 1996 under cloud-free conditions, wherein measured atmospheric composition and aerosol optical thickness are input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN 3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained with normal incidence pyrheliometers and absolute cavity radiometers. Uncertainty in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) dominates the uncertainty in DNSI calculation. AOT measured by an independently calibrated Sun photometer and a rotating shadow-band radiometer agree to within the uncertainties of each measurement. For 36 independent comparisons the agreement between measured and model-estimated values of DNSI falls within the combined uncertainties in the measurement (0.3{endash}0.7{percent}) and model calculation (1.8{percent}), albeit with a slight average model underestimate ({minus}0.18{plus_minus}0.94){percent}; for a DNSI of 839Wm{sup {minus}2} this corresponds to {minus}1.5{plus_minus}7.9Wm{sup {minus}2}. The agreement is nearly independent of air mass and water-vapor path abundance. These results thus establish the accuracy of the current knowledge of the solar spectrum, its integrated power, and the atmospheric extinction as a function of wavelength as represented in MODTRAN 3. An important consequence is that atmospheric absorption of short-wave energy is accurately parametrized in the model to within the above uncertainties. {copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States)] [Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States)] [Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [Hughes STX Corporation, Lanham, Maryland (United States)] [Hughes STX Corporation, Lanham, Maryland (United States); Holben, B.N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Ten Brink, H.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN, Petten (Netherlands)] [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Computation of Domain-Averaged Shortwave Irradiance by a One-Dimensional Algorithm Incorporating Correlations between Optical Thickness and Direct Incident Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional radiative transfer algorithm that accounts for correlations between the optical thickness and the incident direct solar radiation is developed to compute the domain-averaged shortwave irradiance profile. It divides the direct ...

Seiji Kato

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Simple Solar Spectral Model for Direct and Diffuse Irradiance on Horizontal and Tilted Planes at the Earth's Surface for Cloudless Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a previous work, we described a simple model for calculating direct normal and diffuse horizontal spectral solar irradiance for cloudless sky conditions. In this paper, we present a new simple model (SPCTRAL2) that incorporates improvements to ...

Richard E. Bird; Carol Riordan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

The Ratio of Diffuse to Direct Solar Irradiance (Perpendicular to the Sun's Rays) with Clear SkiesA Conserved Quantity Throughout the Day  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of diffuse irradiance to direct normal is a conserved quantity throughout the day. Though its absolute value depends on the condition of the atmosphere, ground reflection and obstruction of horizon, once this value is established (by a ...

William A. Peterson; Inge Dirmhirn

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Retrieval of Key Aerosol Optical Parameters from Spectral Direct and Diffuse Irradiances Observed by a Radiometer with Nonideal Cosine Response Characteristic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral direct and diffuse irradiances observed by a radiometer with a horizontal surface detector have been frequently used to study aerosol optical parameters, such as aerosol optical thickness (?aer) and single scattering albedo (?). Such ...

Pradeep Khatri; Tamio Takamura; Akihiro Yamazaki; Yutaka Kondo

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Probing nanoantenna-directed photothermal destruction of tumors using noninvasive laser irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasmonic nanomaterials have tremendous potential to improve the tumor specificity of traditional cancer ablation practices, yet little effort has been directed toward quantitatively understanding their photothermal energy ...

von Maltzahn, Geoffrey

83

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Intra-hour Direct NormalChair University of California, San Diego iii TABLE OFRPS, Technical report, California Independent System

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

direct normal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal normal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

86

Short-Range Direct and Diffuse Irradiance Forecasts for Solar Energy Applications Based on Aerosol Chemical Transport and Numerical Weather Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines 23-day solar irradiance forecasts with respect to their application in solar energy industries, such as yield prediction for the integration of the strongly fluctuating solar energy into the electricity grid. During cloud-...

Hanne Breitkreuz; Marion Schroedter-Homscheidt; Thomas Holzer-Popp; Stefan Dech

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Solids irradiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

Morris, Marvin E. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Whitfield, Willis J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Irradiation Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II: Irradiation Studies Sponsored by: TMS Structural Materials Division,...

90

High accuracy diffuse horizontal irradiance measurements without a shadowband  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The standard method for measuring diffuse horizontal irradiance uses a fixed shadowband to block direct solar radiation. This method requires a correction for the excess skylight blocked by the band, and this correction varies with sky conditions. Alternately, diffuse horizontal irradiance may be calculated from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance. This method is in error because of angular (cosine) response of the total horizontal pyranometer to direct beam irradiance. This paper describes an improved calculation of diffuse horizontal irradiance from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance using a predetermination of the angular response of the total horizontal pyranometer. We compare these diffuse horizontal irradiance calculations with measurements made with a shading-disk pyranometer that shields direct irradiance using a tracking disk. Results indicate significant improvement in most cases. Remaining disagreement most likely arises from undetected tracking errors and instrument leveling.

Schlemmer, J.A; Michalsky, J.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Definition: Irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Irradiance Irradiance Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Irradiance The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes a surface. Usually expressed in kilowatts per square meter. Irradiance multiplied by time equals insolation.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Irradiance is the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area incident on a surface. Radiant emittance or radiant exitance is the power per unit area radiated by a surface. The SI units for all of these quantities are watts per square meter (W/m), while the cgs units are ergs per square centimeter per second (erg·cm·s, often used in astronomy). These quantities are sometimes called intensity, but this usage leads to confusion with radiant intensity, which has different units. All of these

92

Irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

1973-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

93

Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

Volegov, Petr L. (Los Alamos, NM); Matlashov, Andrei N. (Los Alamos, NM); Mosher, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Espy, Michelle A. (Los Alamos, NM); Kraus, Jr., Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility. Summary: ... Cf irradiation facility (Photograph by: Neutron Physics Group). Lead Organizational Unit: pml. Staff: ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

Future Directions [Irradiation Performance] - Nuclear Engineering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Achievements Awards Patents Argonne Distinguished Fellows Professional Societies About Nuclear Energy Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology...

96

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incidence Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments USDARAD : US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Radiation Monitoring Data Field Campaign Instruments AOD : Aerosol Optical...

97

Subtropical Climatology of Direct Beam Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climatology of direct beam irradiance has been compiled for Mauna Loa Observatory. A broadband transmittance, calculated from the direct-beam data, has been stratified into clear sky and optically thin and thick cloud regimes; statistics of ...

T. M. Thompson; S. K. Cox

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Testing > Materials Testing > Irradiation Performance Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Irradiated Materials Overview Light Water Reactor Materials Other Current Activities Future Directions Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Irradiation Performance Bookmark and Share The activities of the Irradiation Performance Section (IPS) are aimed at determining and assessing normal-operation and accident behavior of neutron-irradiated material throughout the life cycle of the materials. The conditions of interest are normal in-reactor operation, design-basis accidents, intermediate storage in pools and dry casks, and ultimate

99

A Model for Solar Spectral Irradiance and Radiance at the Bottom and Top of a Cloudless Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple model is presented that, in a cloud-free atmosphere, calculates solar spectral direct and diffuse irradiance and directional radiance at the surface, spectral absorption within the atmosphere and the upward reflected spectral irradiance ...

C. G. Justus; M. V. Paris

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Irradiation test program for FFTF  

SciTech Connect

Four unique deisgn features are described which make the Fast Flux Test Facility eminently suitable for irradiation test programs. These features are a fast flux level of 7 x 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//sec, a 36-inch reference (breeder reactor) core height, test volumes suitable for testing of statistical quantities of materials, and the capability for direct (contact) or indirect (proximity) instrumentation of active core experiments.

Corrigan, D.C.; Last, G.A.

1978-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

102

Estimating Hourly All-Sky Solar Irradiation Components from Meteorological Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to calculate hourly direct beam and diffuse irradiation on a horizontal surface using 3-h standard meteorological data is described. Comparisons of computed and observed irradiations are made with hourly data obtained in Carpentras ...

F. Kermel

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Development and Characterization of a New Solar Ultraviolet-B Irradiance Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of an instrument for measuring solar ultraviolet-B irradiance are presented together with a description of the instrument. The instrument measures direct and scattered broadband ultraviolet irradiance (wavelengths between 280 and ...

B. K. Dichter; A. F. Beaubien; D. J. Beaubien

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

JGI - Directions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Map to JGI Directions from Directions from key local start points, public transit Home > About Us > Map to JGI UC logo DOE logo Contact Us Credits Disclaimer Access...

105

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network

106

Concentrating Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) are a promising alternative to flat-plate photovoltaics in high direct normal irradiance (DNI) environments. The technologys basic operating characteristics offer significant upside compared with other solar technologies: higher system efficiencies of upwards of 30%+; higher capacity factors, generated through two-axis tracking, exceeding 30% in ideal locations; lower cellular degradation from heat compared to flat-plate PV; lower water requirements; and reduced footpri...

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ion Irradiation Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 17, 2011 ... Materials Science Challenges for Nuclear Applications: Ion Irradiation Effects Sponsored by: MS&T Organization Program Organizers: Ram...

108

Irradiation Damage Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...R.L. Klueh, Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Steels, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys,

109

Turbidity Determination from Broadband Irradiance Measurements: A Detailed Multicoefficient Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physically modeled method is presented to obtain accurate turbidity determinations from broadband direct irradiance measurements. The method uses parameterizations of various extinction processes affecting the transfer of shortwave radiation in ...

Christian A. Gueymard

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Radiation Damage Study in Mo by in situ TEM/Ion Irradiation and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The identical material was previously neutron-irradiated at 80C in the HFIR. A direct comparison of defect microstructure was made to correlate damage...

111

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts ... Page 12. Study Shipped Land Carrier Irradiation ? ...

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

113

JGI - Directions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Directions Address DOE Joint Genome Institute 2800 Mitchell Drive Walnut Creek, CA 94598 From Oakland Airport Follow Airport exit signs onto AIRPORT DR. Turn RIGHT onto HEGENBERGER...

114

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments RAD-AIR : Airborne Radiometers

115

ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network BRS : Broadband Radiometer Station CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

116

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NFOV : Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer

117

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer

118

ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

narrowband upwelling irradiance narrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments OTTER : Twin Otter UAV-EGRETT : UAV-Egrett Value-Added Products LBTM-MINNIS : Minnis Cloud Products Using LBTM Algorithm (Process)

119

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments RSS : Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer

120

irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude Tilt Irradiance NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GIS global irradiance latitude mapping NASA renewable energy solar solar PV SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) (csv, 11.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 5 MiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause changes in the transcriptome of neighboring cells that sustain their survival.

Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Rogolinski, Jacek [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Jaksik, Roman [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Hancock, Ronald [Laval University Cancer Research Centre, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Quebec, QC (Canada); Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna, E-mail: jwolny@io.gliwice.p [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and Validation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): We present a new simple model capable of exploiting geostationary satellite visible images for the production of site/time specific global and direct irradiances The new model features new clear sky global and direct irradiance functions, a new cloud-index-to-irradiance index function, a new global-to-direct-irradiance conversion model. The model can also exploit operationally available snow cover resource data, while deriving local ground specular reflectance characteristics from the stream of incoming satellite data. Validation against 10 US locations representing a wide range of climatic environments indicates that model performance is

123

Direct Laser Synthesis of Functional Coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct laser synthesis of functional coatings employs the irradiation of materials with short intensive laser pulses in a reactive atmosphere. The material is heated and plasma is ignited in the reactive atmosphere. This leads to an intensive interaction of the material with the reactive species and a coating is directly formed on the materials surface. By that functional coatings can be easily produced a fast way on steel, aluminium, and silicon by irradiation in nitrogen, methane, or even hydrogen. The influence of the processing parameters to the properties of the functional coatings will be presented for titanium nitride coating produced on titanium with the free electron laser.

P. Schaaf; Michelle D. Shinn; E. Carpene; J. Kaspar

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

OpenEI - hourly data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:en.openei.orgdatasetstaxonomyterm4980 en Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and diffuse) data for selected stations in Sri Lanka from...

125

Fuel or irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

126

FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Solar Irradiance Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

Solanki, Sami K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana Ghana provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give projet developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected

129

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment for Sri Lanka  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Sri Lanka provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

130

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for Kenya  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya Kenya provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Kenya provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

131

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for Nepal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal Nepal provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Nepal provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

132

CRED | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CRED CRED Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for China provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 08th, 2004 (10 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR documentation GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 6.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

133

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for for Ethiopia provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ethiopia provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected

134

CREIA | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CREIA CREIA Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for China provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 08th, 2004 (10 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR documentation GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 6.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

135

global horizontal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

87 87 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278787 Varnish cache server global horizontal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country)

136

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for China  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China China provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for China provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

137

Doktorandske dny '11 Ustav informatiky AV CR, v. v. i.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copula-Based Estimation of Distribution Algorithms 6 Radim Demut: Different Measures of Reliability in Regression 13 Tom´as Dzetkulic: Incremental Computation of Succinct Abstractions for Hybrid Systems 19 Jana F¨urstov´a: Competing Risks of CML-Related Death and Death from Other Causes 20 Martin Hor´acek: Traditional Measures

Tebbens, Jurjen Duintjer

138

Direct e-beam lithography of PDMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the viability of directly exposing thin films of liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to electron beam (e-beam) irradiation using e-beam lithographic methods for the purpose of creating permanent micro-scale components has been investigated. ... Keywords: Lithography, PDMS, Poly(dimethylsiloxane), e-Beam

J. Bowen; D. Cheneler; A. P. G. Robinson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Irradiation-controlled giant magnetoresistance of PtMn-based spin valve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

He{sup +}-ion irradiation resulted in the direct ordering of PtMn without postannealing. Samples were irradiated with 2 MeV He{sup +} ions and a beam current of 1.08 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} such that the corresponding surface temperature was 190 deg. C. The exchange bias direction was set in situ during irradiation in a field of 900 Oe. A high giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio of 11% was obtained in PtMn-based spin valves after He{sup +} irradiation. The GMR is completely eliminated after it is irradiated with oxygen ions at 42 keV. Combining He{sup +} with oxygen-ion irradiation can provide magnetic patterning for GMR sensors.

Huang, S.-H.; Lai, C.-H.; Chiang, C. C.; Yang, C.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Huang University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Gamma Irradiation | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma irradiation chamber Gamma irradiation chamber. The HFIR Gamma Irradiation Facility is an experimental facility designed to irradiate materials with gamma radiation from spent fuel elements. The facility chamber is stainless steel and is made of 0.065-thick tubing to maximize the internal dimensions of the chamber. This allows for the largest samples possible that can still fit inside the cadmium post of the spent fuel loading station positions. The interior chamber is approximately 3.75 inches inside diameter and accommodates samples up to 25 inches long. There are two configurations for the chamber assembly, with the only difference being the plugs. The uninstrumented configuration has a top plug that is used for installation of the samples, to support the inert gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Magnetic properties of graphite irradiated with MeV ions  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the change in the magnetic properties produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples by irradiation of H, C, and N ions in the mega-electron-volt energy range. The use of specially made sample holders for the magnetic measurements provided high reproducibility allowing us to obtain directly the irradiation effects without any corrections or subtractions. Our results show that three magnetic phenomena are triggered by the defects produced by the irradiation, namely, Curie-type paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and an anomalous paramagnetic state that appears as precursor of the magnetic ordered state. Using SRIM simulations to estimate the amount of vacancies produced by the irradiation, the Curie-type paramagnetic response indicates an effective Bohr magneton number per nominally produced vacancy p=0.27+-0.02mu{sub B}. Direct measurements of the surface sample temperature during irradiation and the decrease in the (as-received) paramagnetic as well as ferromagnetic contributions after irradiation indicate that self-heating is one of the causes for small yield of ferromagnetism. Taking into account the hydrogen distribution in the virgin samples, the obtained results indicate that the induced ferromagnetism appears when the average vacancy distance is {approx}2 nm in the near surface region.

Ramos, M. A.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent-Font, A. [CMAM and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales 'Nicolas Cabrera', Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Esquinazi, P. [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

Damask, A.C.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

HAPO GRAPHITE IRRADIATION CAPSULES  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the broad field of graphite irradiation capsules. The various capsule designs are considered; they include temperature- controlled and temperature-monitored capsules. The components and materials of the capsules are described. Finally, methods are given for carrying out heat trandsfer calculations in capsule design and neutron spectra calculations for correlation of radiation data from different reactors. (D.L.C.)

Helm, J.W.

1963-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

144

BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

145

The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 10, 381160 Braunschweig (Germany)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

146

Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 15, 2012 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II Sponsored by: The Minerals,...

147

Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion species at various energies were used in experiments, and several defect characterization techniques were applied to characterize the damage. Development of dimensional changes of carbon nanotubes in microscopes operated at accelerating voltages of 30 keV revealed that binding energy of carbon atoms in CNs is much lower than in bulk materials. Resistivity measurements during irradiation demonstrated existence of a quasi state of defect creation. Linear relationship between ID/IG ratio and increasing irradiation fluence was revealed by Raman spectroscopy study of irradiated carbon buckypapers. The deviations from linear relationship were observed for the samples irradiated to very high fluence values. Annealing of irradiated samples was able to reduce the value of ID/IG ratio and remove defects. However, annealing could not affect ID/IG ratio and remove defects in amorphized samples. The extracted value of activation energy for irradiated sample was 0.36 0.05 eV. The value of activation energy was in good agreement with theoretical studies.

Aitkaliyeva, Assel

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

EU Metric Directive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... View EU Metric Directive Commission Services Working Document PDF ... of European Union (EU) Meeting on Metric Directives (2005); Packaging ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of May 1962.

1962-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

152

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

153

Strongly anisotropic Dirac quasiparticles in irradiated graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study quasiparticle dynamics in graphene exposed to a linearly-polarized electromagnetic wave of very large intensity. Low-energy transport in such system can be described by an effective time-independent Hamiltonian, characterized by multiple Dirac points in the first Brillouin zone. Around each Dirac point the spectrum is anisotropic: the velocity along the polarization of the radiation significantly exceeds the velocity in the perpendicular direction. Moreover, in some of the points the transverse velocity oscillates as a function of the radiation intensity. We find that the conductance of a graphene p-n junction in the regime of strong irradiation depends on the polarization as $G(\\theta)\\propto|\\sin\\theta|^{3/2}$, where $\\theta$ is the angle between the polarization and the p-n interface, and oscillates as a function of the radiation intensity.

S. V. Syzranov; Ya. I. Rodionov; K. I. Kugel; F. Nori

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

154

Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

Benjamin, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Kenneth B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation Facilities | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Facilities HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation In-Vessel Irradiation Experiment Facilities The HFIR provides a variety of in-core irradiation facilities, allowing for a...

156

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Free Volume Related Fluorescence Properties of Electron Irradiated Chalcone Doped PMMA Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of electron irradiation on free volume related fluorescence properties of chalcone doped Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) composite films have been studied using Positron Annihilation and Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. In this polymer composite, enhancement of fluorescence at lower doses and reduction at higher doses has been observed under electron irradiation. From Positron annihilation studies suggests that at lower doses of irradiation induced crosslinking which affect the free volume properties and inturn hinders the chalcone molecular rotation. At higher doses chain scission process affect matrix relaxation. Under the restricted condition the chromophore molecules likely to emit enhanced fluorescence and its mobility is directly related to the free volume around it.

Ravindrachary, Ismayil V.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Harisha, A. [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri - 574 199 (India); Praveena, S. D. [Department of Physics, K.V.G College of Engineering, Kurunjibhag, Sullia, Karnataka - 574 327 (India)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

IRRADIANCE THRESHOLDS FOR CHORIORETINAL LESIONS  

SciTech Connect

With use of a high-intensity light source to produce chorioretinal lesions in the eyes of rabbits, cats, and guinea pigs, we determined, at different levels of retinal irradiance, the exposure time which produced an ophthalmoscopically visible lesion it was found that at irradiance levels greater than 2 cal. per square centimeter per second a radiant exposure of 1.0 cal. per square centimeter produced a threshold lesion. At irradiance levels 1ess than 0.7 cal. per square centimeter per second lesions could not be produced at any exposure time through 10 seconds. Histological data on the nature of the lesions and course of healing are presented and discussed. (auth)

DeMott, D.W.; Davis, T.P.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Principles Governing Departmental Directives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ELEMENTS FROM: SAMUEL W. BODMA 4 SUBJECT: Principles Governing Departmental Directives The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish,...

160

directed acyclic word graph  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and R. Verin, Direct Construction of Compact Directed Acyclic Word Graphs, 8th Annual Symposium, CPM 97, Aarhus, Denmark, 116-129, 1997. ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Lateral propagation of MeV electrons generated by femtosecond laser irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The propagation of MeV electrons generated by intense (approx =10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) femtosecond laser irradiation, in the lateral direction perpendicular to the incident laser beam, was studied using targets consisting of irradiated metal wires and neighboring spectator wires embedded in electrically conductive (aluminum) or resistive (Teflon) substrates. The K shell spectra in the energy range 40-60 keV from wires of Gd, Dy, Hf, and W were recorded by a transmission crystal spectrometer. The spectra were produced by 1s electron ionization in the irradiated wire and by energetic electron propagation through the substrate material to the spectator wire of a different metal. The electron range and energy were determined from the relative K shell emissions from the irradiated and spectator wires separated by varying substrate lateral distances of up to 1 mm. It was found that electron propagation through Teflon was inhibited, compared to aluminum, implying a relatively weak return current and incomplete space-charge neutralization. The energetic electron propagation in the direction parallel to the electric field of the laser beam was larger than perpendicular to the electric field. Energetic electron production was lower when directly irradiating aluminum or Teflon compared to irradiating the heavy metal wires. These experiments are important for the determination of the energetic electron production mechanism and for understanding lateral electron propagation that can be detrimental to fast-ignition fusion and hard x-ray backlighter radiography.

Seely, J. F. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Szabo, C. I. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite P. et M. Curie-Paris 6 Case 74, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Tabakhoff, E. [Laboratoire pour L'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Hudson, L. T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Direct process for explosives  

SciTech Connect

A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate.

Akst, Irving B. (1032 Duncan St., Pampa, TX 79065); Stinecipher, Mary M. (324 Connie St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Studying defects created by irradiating molybdenum crystals ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by irradiating molybdenum crystals July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint In order to study irradiation damage and inert gas bubble formation and growth behaviors, and to provide results...

164

Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.  

SciTech Connect

We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Mechanical Performance of Materials for Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys

166

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells. Summary: The Dosimetry Group operates a system capable of performing electron ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

167

Foreign Direct Investment  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investment Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 June 2001 ii iii Contents Foreign Affiliates' Role in U.S. Energy Industry Operations ..............................................................................1 Foreign Direct Investment: The International Transactions Accounts ..............................................................8 U.S. Companies' Direct Investment Abroad in Energy ......................................................................................14 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................................19

168

NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Solar Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Last Updated Metadata KMZ Files Lower 48 and Hawaii DNI 10km Resolution 1998 to 2009 (Zip 9.6 MB) 09122012 Direct Normal.xml Direct Normal.kmz Lower 48 and Hawaii GHI 10km...

169

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons in ? sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions. The fraction of photons due to direct

Saskia Mioduszewski; Phenix Collaboration

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Direct Loan Program (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Connecticut Development Authoritys Direct Loan Program provides direct senior and subordinated loans and mezzanine investments to companies creating or maintaining jobs. Up to $20,000 per job...

171

Direct process for explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

172

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing  

SciTech Connect

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles.

Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Tensile Properties of Unidirectional Silicon Carbide Composites  

SciTech Connect

Tensile properties of uni-directionally reinforced Hi-Nicalon EType S SiC fiber, chemically vapor-infiltrated (CVI) SiC-matrix composites, with either pyrolytic carbon (PyC) or multilayered PyC/SiC interphase, were characterized following neutron irradiations to the maximum fluence of 7.7x1025 n/m2 at 380 and 800 C. The stress - strain behavior of the multilayered interphase composites remained unmodified after irradiation. The PyC interphase composite increased in ultimate tensile stress and strain to failure following neutron irradiation, whereas the proportional limit stress exhibited a slight decrease. Potential mechanisms for these changes include accommodation of misfit stress through irradiation creep, reduced interfacial friction, and differential swelling among individual composite constituents.

Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Nozawa, Takashi [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Hinoki, Tatsuya [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation -- the ARM experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shortwave (solar) measurements of surface irradiance for clear sky conditions disagree with a number of different models. Betts used the European Center for Medium-range Forecasts (ECMWF) shortwave model to calculate surface irradiance that were 5-10 percent higher than measurements. Wild used a different formulation of the ECMWF shortwave model, but found that the model overpredicted clear-sky shortwave and average of 3 percent. Ding and Wang used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and found that the GENESIS GCM shortwave model, likewise, overpredicted clear-sky irradiance by about 4 percent. To help resolve the measurement dilemma, reference instruments were deployed in April 1996 at the Southern Great Plains ARM site central facility very near the shortwave measurements. The rest of the paper describes the experiment undertaken to ascertain total horizontal shortwave irradiance at the surface, including a separation of the direct normal and diffuse horizontal components. Results and a discussion of same concludes the paper.

Michalsky, J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Rubes, M. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Stoffel, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wesley, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Splitt, M. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); DeLuisi, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

methodology | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

methodology methodology Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): The main object of the SUNY task for SWERA is to prepare high resolution global irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.Much of our initial effort focused on building up the satellite data tx_metadatatool, and in strengthening and validating the models capable of converting that data into ground surface irradiances. Three research articles, acknowledging all or partial funding from UNEP & SWERA have been published on this subject. Source SUNY Albany Date Released July 31st, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated August 29th, 2003 (11 years ago) Keywords Cuba methodology solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 2.6 MiB)

178

Africa | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa Africa Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released July 31st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Africa direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Images (zip, 19.3 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.4 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

179

A NEW OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Published in Solar Energy - Vol. 73, 5, pp. 307-317, (2002) Published in Solar Energy - Vol. 73, 5, pp. 307-317, (2002) 1 of 23 A NEW OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION Richard Perez * Pierre Ineichen ** Kathy Moore * Marek Kmiecik * Cyril Chain *** Ray George **** Frank Vignola ***** * ASRC - The University at Albany, Albany, NY, USA ** CUEPE - University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland *** Vaulx-en-Velin, France **** NREL, Golden, CO, USA ***** University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA Published in Solar Energy - Vol. 73, 5, pp. 307-317, (2002) 2 of 23 ABSTRACT We present a new simple model capable of exploiting geostationary satellite visible images for the production of site/time specific global and direct irradiances The new model features new clear sky global and direct irradiance functions, a new

180

Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Gamma Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma Irradiation Facility Photo of Gamma Irradiation Facility The Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) provides high-fidelity simulation of nuclear radiation environments for materials and component testing. The low-dose irradiation facility also offers an environment for long-duration testing of materials and electronic components. Such testing may take place over a number of months or even years. Research and other activities The single-structure GIF can house a wide variety of gamma irradiation experiments with various test configurations and at different dose and dose rate levels. Radiation fields at the GIF are produced by high-intensity gamma-ray sources. To induce ionizing radiation effects and damage in test objects, the objects are subjected to high-energy photons from gamma-source

182

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions. The fraction of photons due to direct production in Au+Au collisions is shown as a function of $p_T$ and centrality. This measurement is compared with expectation from pQCD calculations. Other possible sources of direct photons are discussed.

S. Mioduszewski; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

183

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief overview of direct-photon measurements in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. Direct-photon yields for pT > 4 GeV/c and photon-hadron azimuthal correlations were determined with the aid of an electromagnetic calorimeter. By detecting e+e- pairs from the internal conversion of virtual photons direct-photon yields were measured between 1 direct-photon yield in this range.

Klaus Reygers; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

184

Direct energy conversion systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential importance of direct energy conversion to the long-term development of fusion power is discussed with stress on the possibility of alleviating waste heat problems. This is envisioned to be crucial for any central power station in the 21st century. Two approaches to direct conversion, i.e., direct collection and magnetic expansion, are reviewed. While other techniques may be possible, none have received sufficient study to allow evaluation. It is stressed that, due to the intimate connection between the type of fusion fuel, the confinement scheme, direct conversion, and the coupling technique, all four element must be optimized simultaneously for high overall efficiency.

Miley, G.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Characterization of Fast Reactor Irradiated Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the overall effort to understand the role of different material and environmental variables on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in light water reactor (LWR) components, the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR-II) Program has conducted irradiation experiments in the BOR-60 fast reactor near Dimitrovgrad, Russia. This project was a continuation of research on characterization of microstructure and microchemistry of stainless steel heats irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor, do...

2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

Surface Irradiances Consistent with CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not ...

Seiji Kato; Norman G. Loeb; Fred G. Rose; David R. Doelling; David A. Rutan; Thomas E. Caldwell; Lisan Yu; Robert A. Weller

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado Fontenla, Juan LASP University of Colorado Harder, Jerry LASP University of Colorado Category:...

188

Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RAM 3.1.2 Compute clearness index 3.1.2 Compute global horizontal irradiance complete Performed to reduce duplicate steps when an analysis

Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

ABSTRACT: Electron Irradiation Induced Transformation of ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 27, 2007 ... Crystallochemical changes of (Pb5Ca5)(VO4)6F2 apatite under electron irradiation were examined by transmission electron microscopy.

190

Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Radiation Effects in Ceramic Oxide and Novel LWR Fuels: Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation Sponsored by: The...

191

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of irradiated fuel, cladding and fueled-cladding were conducted in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF), while mechanical properties of defueled cladding and structural...

192

NIST Lunar spectral irradiance and radiance (LUSI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... However, a spectrally resolved model that allows trending at the 0.1 % level ... of the lunar irradiance and radiance at reflected solar wavelengths. ...

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

193

Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ... Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

194

Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

195

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of...

196

Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.

Benedict, R.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Park, K.; Teske, G.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Directions and Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Directions & Maps Directions & Maps Plan Your Visit Visit About the Museum Museum Hours Directions & Maps When to Visit Arrange for a Visit Around Los Alamos Contact Us invisible utility element Directions and Maps Aerial View of Los Alamos Aerial approach to the Los Alamos airport Where we're located Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the Pajarito Plateau in the Jemez Mountains, 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe. The Bradbury Science Museum is located in downtown Los Alamos at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street. If you're driving here and using GPS navigation, our address is 1350 Central Avenue, Los Alamos, NM 87544. How to get here From Albuquerque take I-25 north to Santa Fe (take NM 599 for most direct route), then US 84/285 north to Pojoaque. At Pojoaque take the NM 502 exit

198

direct_deposit_111609  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called The Laboratory, to initiate credit entries and, if necessary, debit entries and adjustments for any credit entries in error to my account listed on this form. If deposit is for:

199

EYE STRAIN AND EYE PROTECTION DURING IRRADIATION THERAPY AND DIAGNOSIS  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity of various components of the eye is surveyed and means for preventing injury to them discussed. Pertinent experiments by the author on rabbits are described. The lens is the most radiation-sensitive part of the eye; two dependent changes take place after irradiation: clouding, and weight alterations of the lens. Cataract starts as a clouding of the posterior commissure, extends into the capsule, and it high doses there may- be clouding of the entire lens. Once clouding of the lens has begun it does not disappear. The threshold dose producing cataracts in young animals is about 200 r. Weight alterations of the lens, due to changes in water content or possibly growth inhibition or destructive changes, appear at doses far below those needed to produce clouding. The threshold dose for clouding of the cornea is about 10 times that for the lens. Doses in excess of 2000 r result in corneal clouding in 70% of the cases, but are reversible. The conjunctiva is also relatively insensitive to irradiation. When the eyes of young animals are irradiated, development of the whole eye is retarded. A 12% reduction in the weight of the eye follows absorption of 1000 rad, and this rises to 40% at 2000 rad. The RBE of different forms of radiation on damage to the lens is tabulated. Effects of radiation on the eye vary directly with the dose absorbed, and inversely with the age of the animal at the time or irradiation, both of which reduce the time of onset and intensity of manifestations. Age determines both the latent period before onset of symptoms, and the time to develop full damage. Radiation injury occurs in four stages that are identified. Any necessary xray examinations of the eye may be undertaken and repeated when required, without fear of complications, as no methods of x-ray diagnosis give a surface dose approaching 200 r, but caution is required in therapeutic irradiation of the head region. The radiation dose at the lens during treatment of tumors of the antra, orbits, nasopharynx and palate, and of the brain show that the threshold dose for irradiation cataract is exceeded by some methods. Also discussed is the extent to which the eyes of a radiologist in a diagnostic department are endangered by radiation exposure. (BBB)

Krokowski, E.

1963-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.4.6 Irradiation-induced defects in multi-walled nanotubes and nanotube bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.5.2 Irradiation-induced links between single-walled carbon nan- otubes in bundles tubes, as the gap in the latter is quite small, around 1 eV. It should be pointed out that applications

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Surface Wind Direction Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Common large shifts of wind direction in the weak-wind nocturnal boundary layer are poorly understood and are not adequately captured by numerical models and statistical parameterizations. The current study examines 15 datasets representing a ...

Larry Mahrt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

2013 FCMN Directions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... $100 (one way). Driving directions: Take I-95S to Exit 4B towards Washington.Merge onto I-495 to Exit 27 towards Silver Spring.Slight right onto ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

204

Direct nuclear pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

Miley, George H. (Champagne, IL); Wells, William E. (Urbana, IL); DeYoung, Russell J. (Hampton, VA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Maps & Directions | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maps & Directions ORNL is located in Roane County, Tennessee, about 7 miles from the center of the city of Oak Ridge and about 25 miles from the McGhee Tyson Airport near...

206

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

207

Conducting Well-Controlled Ion Irradiations To Understand Neutron Irradiation Effects In Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A firm understanding of the effect of radiation on materials is required to develop predictive models of materials behavior in-reactor and provide a foundation for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. Ion irradiation can serve this purpose for nuclear reactor components and is becoming a key element of materials development for advanced nuclear reactors. Ion irradiations can be conducted quickly, at low cost, and with precise control over irradiation temperature, temperature uniformity, dose rate, dose uniformity and total dose. During proton irradiations the 2{sigma}(twice the standard deviation) of the sample temperature is generally below {approx}7 deg. C, the dose rate variation {approx}3%, the dose uncertainty {approx}3%, and there is an excellent temperature and dose uniformity across the irradiated area. In this article, we describe the experimental setup and irradiation procedure used to conduct well-controlled ion irradiations at the University of Michigan.

Naab, F. U.; West, E. A.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S. [Department of Engineering and Radiological Sciences, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

209

Outline Development of Direct PCR Benefits of Direct PCR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1 Direct PCR Amplification of STR Loci: Protocols and Performance ... Benefits of direct PCR Collection media: FTA and 903 paper ...

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

Hodges, Gary

211

RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Development of a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long Term Animal Exposures at Colorado State University Michael Weil Colorado State University Abstract A low dose rate irradiation facility...

213

Helium Behaviour in Ferritic/Martensitic Steels Irradiated in a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eurofer97 and F82H steels were irradiated in spallation conditions of STIP-II, the ... experiment of the irradiation program of Swiss Neutron Spallation Source.

214

Workshop on a National Irradiation Sciences User Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 * SNS * Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Materials Irradiation Home Materials Irradiation & HFIR Agenda Registration Hotel Registration CommitteeContacts Workshop on a National...

215

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...

216

Experimental and Computer Simulation Study of Radionuclide Production in Heavy Materials Irradiated by Intermediate Energy Protons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of measurements and computer simulations are presented for the yields of residual product nuclei in thin targets: U-nat irradiated by 0.1, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 GeV and Tc-99 irradiated by 0.2, 0.8, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.6 GeV protons. The yields were measured at ITEP by direct high-precision gamma spectrometry. About 820 cross sections are presented and used in comparison between measured yields and simulations by the LAHET, INUCL, CEM95, HETC, CASCADE, YIELDX, and ALICE codes.

Yu. E. Titarenko; O. V. Shvedov; V. F. Batyaev; E. I. Karpikhin; V. M. Zhivun; R. D. Mulambetov; A. N. Sosnin; S. G. Mashnik; R. E. Prael; T. A. Gabriel; M. Blann

1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

217

Molecular dynamic studies on anisotropic explosion of laser irradiated Xe cluster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three dimensional molecular dynamic model is used to investigate the dynamics of Xe clusters of various radii irradiated by laser of moderate intensities ({approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 16}W/cm{sup 2}). The FWHM pulse duration of the laser is varied from few laser cycles to hundreds of femtosecond. For cluster of radius 50 A irradiated by a laser of 170 fs pulse duration, it is observed that ion yield is more along the direction of laser polarization than perpendicular to it. This trend reverses (more ions are emitted along the direction perpendicular to laser polarization than parallel to it) when laser pulses of few cycles are used. This reversal of anisotropy is explained on the basis of spatial shielding of ions due to the oscillating inner electron cloud along direction of laser electric field. The nature of anisotropy remains same with variations in laser intensity and cluster size.

Mishra, Gaurav; Gupta, N. K. [Theoretical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumabi-400085 (India)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum ($p_T$) range. The $p$ + $p$ measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high $p_T$ direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring "almost real" virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass $e^+e^-$ pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

G. David; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2008-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

219

AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

David Swank

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

AGR-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document presents the current state of planning for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment will be irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The test will contain six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule will contain a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. The irradiation is planned for about 700 effective full power days (approximately 2.4 calendar years) with a time-averaged, volume-average temperature of approximately 1050 C. Average fuel burnup, for the entire test, will be greater than 17.7 % FIMA, and the fuel will experience fast neutron fluences between 2.4 and 4.5 x 1025 n/m2 (E>0.18 MeV).

John T. Maki

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Direct conversion technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

222

Direct Conversion Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Direct Card. SPECIAL SITUATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will be deducted. Rental cars Your Direct Card can be used to pay your final balance. Some companies may require cash at ATMs and banks No checks. No lines. No hassles. 24/7 Customer Support Get Account Information number or your date of birth (mm/dd). By activating your card, you accept the Terms and Conditions

Reynolds, Albert C.

226

Direct fired heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Directional gamma detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

global horizontal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

horizontal irradiance horizontal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global Horizontal IrradianceNASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance NASA solar

229

Heat pipe thermal control of irradiation capsules  

SciTech Connect

From 1st international heat pipe conference; Stuttgart, F.R. Germany (15 Oct 1973). The use of heat pipes to control the temperature of irradiation capsules containing fast breeder reactor structural materials is discussed. (TFD)

Deverall, J.E.

1974-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

IRRADIATION METHOD OF CONVERTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

1960-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

231

Cloud Optical Thickness Estimation from Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer algorithms are developed to estimate the optical thickness of clouds using an irradiance detector located above, deep within, and beneath a cloud. Both monodirectional and diffuse illumination cases are considered. For each ...

H. C. Yi; N. J. McCormick; R. Sanchez

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Gamma irradiation effects in W films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

233

Swift heavy-ion irradiation-induced shape and structural transformation in cobalt nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape and structural evolution of Co nanoparticles embedded in SiO{sub 2} and subjected to swift heavy-ion irradiation have been investigated over a wide energy and fluence range. Modifications of the nanoparticle size and shape were characterized with transmission electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering. Nanoparticles below a threshold diameter remained spherical in shape and progressively decreased in size under irradiation due to dissolution. Nanoparticles above the threshold diameter transformed into nanorods with their major dimension parallel to the incident ion direction. Modifications of the atomic-scale structure of the Co nanoparticles were identified with x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray absorption near-edge spectra showed that prior to irradiation all Co atoms were in a metallic state, while after irradiation Co atoms were in both oxidized and metallic environments, the former consistent with dissolution. The evolution of the nanoparticle short-range order was determined from extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Structural changes in the Co nanoparticles as a function of ion fluence included an increase in disorder and asymmetric deviation from a Gaussian interatomic distance distribution coupled with a decrease in bondlength. Such changes resulted from the irradiation-induced decrease in nanoparticle size and subsequent dissolution.

Sprouster, D.J.; Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Cookson, D.J.; Ridgway, M.C. (Aust. Synch.); (ANU)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

234

Direct insolation models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several recently published models of the direct component of the broadband insolation are compared for clear sky conditions. The comparison includes seven simple models and one rigorous model that is used as a basis for determining accuracy. Where possible, the comparison is made between the results of each model for each atmospheric constituent (H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, O/sub 2/, aerosol and molecular scattering) separately as well as for the combined effect of all of the constituents. Two optimum simple models of varying degrees of complexity are developed as a result of this comparison. The study indicates: aerosols dominate the attenuation of the direct beam for reasonable atmospheric conditions; molecular scattering is next in importance; water vapor is an important absorber; and carbon dioxide and oxygen are relatively unimportant as attenuators of the broadband solar energy.

Bird, R.; Hulstrom, R.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs From: Assistant Secretary, Jessie Hill Roberson (EM-11) To: Mr. Monte Wilson, Chair, INEEL Citizens Advisory Board This letter is in response to a November 21, 2003 letter regarding direction and guidance for implementing direct DOE relationship and funding for Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Boards. Roberson Letter - December 12, 2003 More Documents & Publications Letter: Progress in Implementing a Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSABs Letter: Mission, Objectives & Scope of the Site Specific Advisory Board Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship

236

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs From: Assistant Secretary, Jessie Hill Roberson (EM-11) To: Mr. Monte Wilson, Chair, INEEL Citizens Advisory Board This letter is in response to a November 21, 2003 letter regarding direction and guidance for implementing direct DOE relationship and funding for Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Boards. Roberson Letter - December 12, 2003 More Documents & Publications Letter: Progress in Implementing a Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSABs Letter: Mission, Objectives & Scope of the Site Specific Advisory Board Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship

237

Improving Thermal Model Prediction Through Statistical Analysis of Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Data from AGR Experiments  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Research and Development program for Next Generation High Temperature Reactors (HTR), a series of irradiation tests, designated as Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR), have been defined to support development and qualification of fuel design, fabrication process, and fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The AGR tests employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule and instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in graphite blocks enabling temperature control. The data representing the crucial test fuel conditions (e.g., temperature, neutron fast fluence, and burnup) while impossible to obtain from direct measurements are calculated by physics and thermal models. The irradiation and post-irradiation examination (PIE) experimental data are used in model calibration effort to reduce the inherent uncertainty of simulation results. This paper is focused on fuel temperature predicted by the ABAQUS codes finite element-based thermal models. The work follows up on a previous study, in which several statistical analysis methods were adapted, implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS), and applied for improving qualification of AGR-1 thermocouple data. The present work exercises the idea that the abnormal trends of measured data observed from statistical analysis may be caused by either measuring instrument deterioration or physical mechanisms in capsules that may have shifted the system thermal response. As an example, the uneven reduction of the control gas gap in Capsule 5 revealed by the capsule metrology measurements in PIE helps justify the reduction in TC readings instead of TC drift. This in turn prompts modification of thermal model to better fit with experimental data, thus help increase confidence, and in other word reduce model uncertainties in thermal simulation results of the AGR-1 test.

Dr. Binh T. Pham; Grant L. Hawkes; Jeffrey J. Einerson

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Method for monitoring irradiated fuel using Cerenkov radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in a water-filled storage pond wherein the intensity of the Cerenkov radiation emitted from the water in the vicinity of the nuclear fuel is measured. This intensity is then compared with the expected intensity for nuclear fuel having a corresponding degree of irradiation exposure and time period after removal from a reactor core. Where the nuclear fuel inventory is located in an assembly having fuel pins or rods with intervening voids, the Cerenkov light intensity measurement is taken at selected bright sports corresponding to the water-filled interstices of the assembly in the water storage, the water-filled interstices acting as Cerenkov light channels so as to reduce cross-talk. On-line digital analysis of an analog video signal is possible, or video tapes may be used for later measurement using a video editor and an electrometer. Direct measurement of the Cerenkov radiation intensity also is possible using spot photometers pointed at the assembly.

Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

239

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures ( 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

240

Our purpose and direction Our purpose and direction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Our purpose and direction #12;Our purpose and direction Contents MINISTERS' FOREWORD 3 organisation 8 Our People 8 Our finances 8 Business sustainability ­ `Greenerways' 9 OUR DIRECTION 10 Our: Financial resources 56 2 #12;Our purpose and direction Ministers' Foreword I am very pleased to be providing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Introduction Direct seeding, also known as direct sowing, is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Direct seeding, also known as direct sowing, is an ancient method of woodland that control of competing vegetation is essential for successful tree establishment using direct sowing. Hand, Willoughby (2002) suggests total overall herbicide inputs may be lower in direct seeded woodland due

242

Our purpose and direction Our purpose and direction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Our purpose and direction #12;Our purpose and direction Contents MINISTERS' FOREWORD 3 8 Our People 8 Our finances 8 Business sustainability ­ `Greenerways' 9 OUR DIRECTION 10 Our Appendix 2: Business measures 55 Appendix 3: Financial resources 56 2 #12;3 Our purpose and direction

243

Breakout Session -- TEC Direction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

III: TEC III: TEC Direction and Priorities Presented to: Transportation External Coordination Working Group Presented by: Alex Thrower Office of Logistics Management February 7, 2008 San Antonio, Texas 2 Topics of Discussion * Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC) charter and membership * Topic group functions * Meeting format 3 TEC Charter and Membership * Mission - TEC was formed in 1992 to improve coordination among the Department of Energy (DOE) and external groups interested in the Department's transportation activities The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) co-chairs TEC with DOE's Environmental Management Program Provides an opportunity for broad based input and information exchange from varied organizations - Members meet semi-annually to participate in

244

Omni-directional railguns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a device for electromagetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

Shahinpoor, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE FOR CSP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES OF METEOSAT SECOND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solarthermische Kraftwerke), which aims for standardization of yield prognosis for solar thermal power plants the research project SESK (Standardisierung der Ertragsprognose für Solarthermische Kraftwerke Ertragsgutachter. Bundesverband Solar-Wirtschaft, usw- Arbeitskreis ,Qualitätssicherung von Ertragsgutachten für PV-Kraftwerke

Heinemann, Detlev

246

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Ruano, Prediction of the solar radiation evolution usingComputation of beam solar radiation at normal incidencein estimating global solar radiation, Solar Energy, vol.

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

SOLAR MONITORING, FORECASTING, AND VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT AT SMUD NEO Virtus Engineering Inc.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

horizontal irradiance (DHI) data. These data are compared with the 1km and 10 km grid satellite DNI on the distribution network. SMUD's grant partners and subcontractors on the project include Hawaiian Electric Company variability relationships as well as satellite based irradiance datasets. The data cleanup methods

Perez, Richard R.

248

Effect of electron beam irradiation and sugar content on kinetics of microbial survival  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The killing effectiveness of electron beam irradiation has not been completely characterized. The type of microorganisms and the composition of food have a direct effect on the efficiency of this technology. The objectives of this study were to select a surrogate suitable for use in electron beam irradiation studies of fruits and to evaluate the effect of sugar content on the kinetics of microbial damage and recovery. A 2.0 MeV Van de Graaff linear accelerator was used to apply irradiation (up to 5.0 kGy), using different configurations, on gelatin-based systems with the addition of sugars. The systems were inoculated with pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria strains (surrogates). Initial studies showed that Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 is a suitable surrogate that represents the damage induced to common fruit pathogens by irradiation. The reduction in bacteria population can be maintained by storing samples at 4?°C. An increase in temperature up to 20?°C was enough for the damaged population to recover in 48 hours. Gelatin-based systems proved to be a simple and inexpensive medium to evaluate the effects of irradiation (up to 5.0 kGy) on selected bacteria. Reduction of the system dimensions and their positioning related to the beam source were key factors in increasing the killing effectiveness of irradiation. The sugar levels (up to 8 %) used to mimic the maturity of cantaloupes had no effect on the radiation D10 values and the recovery of the surrogate population quantified as Generation Times. The resistance of the surrogate to irradiation was validated in an optimum configuration and in cantaloupes. Temperature and sugar content caused significantly higher changes to the physical structure of the gel-based systems than irradiation (1.0 kGy). Plate counts and light microscopy techniques demonstrated that the structure of the gelatin-based systems allow for motility of the bacteria in a 3-D array (length, width and depth). When little information was available about the effectiveness of using a low energy linear accelerator, the inoculation of gelatin-based systems proved to be a reliable method to select a suitable surrogate and to predict the effects of irradiation on bacteria as a function of sugar content.

Rodriguez Gonzalez, Oscar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Measurement and modeling of shortwave irradiance components in cloud-free atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Atmosphere scatters and absorbs incident solar radiation modifying its spectral content and decreasing its intensity at the surface. It is very useful to classify the earth-atmospheric solar radiation into several components--direct solar surface irradiance (E{sub direct}), diffuse-sky downward surface irradiance (E{sub diffuse}), total surface irradiance, and upwelling flux at the surface and at the top-of-the atmosphere. E{sub direct} depends only on the extinction properties of the atmosphere without regard to details of extinction, namely scattering or absorption; furthermore it can be accurately measured to high accuracy (0.3%) with the aid of an active cavity radiometer (ACR). E{sub diffuse} has relatively larger uncertainties both in its measurement using shaded pyranometers and in model estimates, owing to the difficulty in accurately characterizing pyranometers and in measuring model inputs such as surface reflectance, aerosol single scattering albedo, and phase function. Radiative transfer model simulations of the above surface radiation components in cloud-free skies using measured atmospheric properties show that while E{sub direct} estimates are closer to measurements, E{sub diffuse} is overestimated by an amount larger than the combined uncertainties in model inputs and measurements, illustrating a fundamental gap in the understanding of the magnitude of atmospheric absorption in cloud-free skies. The excess continuum type absorption required to reduce the E{sub diffuse} model overestimate ({approximately}3--8% absorptance) would significantly impact climate prediction and remote sensing. It is not clear at present what the source for this continuum absorption is. Here issues related to measurements and modeling of the surface irradiance components are discussed.

Halthore, R.N.

1999-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

250

Home: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites

content. | Skip to navigation content. | Skip to navigation Site Map Contact Us Current Documents Archived Documents Entire Site only in current section Advanced Search... U.S. Department of Energy Office of Management Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Sections Home Directives Current Directives Draft Directives Archives Delegations Current Delegations Current Designations Rescinded Organizations' Assignment of Responsibility Development & Review RevCom Writers' Tools DPC Corner References News and Updates Help Personal tools You are here: Office of Management » Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Info Home Directives are the Department of Energy's primary means of establishing policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. Directive

251

SRNL - Directions and Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Map of SRS, with Georgia and South Carolina Map of SRS, with Georgia and South Carolina Directions and Maps The Savannah River National Laboratory is located at the Savannah River Site , a 310 square mile site located in the southeastern coastal area of the United States in the state of South Carolina. It is bordered to the west by the Savannah River and Georgia, and is close to several major cities, including Augusta and Savannah (Ga.), Columbia, Greenville, and Charleston (S.C.). It is in an area residents refer to as the Central Savannah River Area, or CSRA. The Aiken County Technology Laboratory (which houses SRNL's biotechnology laboratories and certain waste treatment technology laboratories) and the Center for Hydrogen Research are located at Aiken County's Savannah River Research Campus, located adjacent to SRS.

252

Conclusions and Policy Directions,  

SciTech Connect

This chapter briefly revisits the constraints and opportunities of mitigation and adaptation, and highlights and the multiple linkages, synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and urban development. The chapter then presents future policy directions, focusing on local, national and international principles and policies for supporting and enhancing urban responses to climate change. In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate - fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse. The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general - a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge - far beyond climate change connections alone. It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Romero-Lankao, Paty [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Gnatz, P [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

latitutde tilt irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitutde tilt irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor GEF GIS latitutde tilt irradiance NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 35.5 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 26.7 KiB) Quality Metrics

254

ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

255

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory May 30, 2013 The Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) was initially designed and constructed to permit the safe handling of increasing levels of radiation in the chemical, physical, and metallurgical examination of nuclear reactor fuel elements and reactor parts. The IFEL was constructed in 1963 and is a two-story brick building with a partial basement. The front or northern-most section is a single-story office area. The two story area to the immediate rear houses the cell complex, the operating areas, and other supporting activities. The office area is isolated from the main part of the building, so the office area can be excluded from the secondary containment zone. The facility has a gross floor area of about 27,000 ft2.

256

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of tuberculosis (TB) and other infectious diseases in health-care buildings has been a recognized hazard for decades. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) of upper room air is used as an engineering control method to prevent the spread of airborne infectious disease. Under full-scale conditions, the efficacy of UVGI for inactivating airborne bacterial spores and active cells was evaluated. A test room fitted with a modern UVGI system was used to conduct bio-aerosol inactivation experiments. UVGI efficacy can be affected by environmental factors such as relative humidity (RH), and air mixing

257

Irradiation effects on borosilicate waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

The effects of alpha decay on five borosilicate glasses containing simulated nuclear high-level waste oxides were studied. Irradiations carried out at room temperature were achieved by incorporating 1 to 8 wt % /sup 244/Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the glasses. Density changes and stored-energy build-up saturated at doses less than 2 x 10/sup 21/ alpha decays/kg. Damage manifested by stored energy was completely annealed at 633/sup 0/K. Positive and negative density changes were observed which never exceeded 1%. Irradiation had very little effect on mechanical strength or on chemical durability as measured by aqueous leach rates. Also, no effects were observed on the microstructure for vitreous waste glasses, although radiation-induced microcracking could be achieved on specimens that had been devitrified prior to irradiation.

Roberts, F.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Heavy-section steel irradiation program. Semiannual progress report, September 1993--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. The RPV is the only component in the primary pressure boundary for which, if it should rupture, the engineering safety systems cannot assure protection from core damage. It is therefore imperative to understand and be able to predict the capabilities and limitations of the integrity inherent in the RPV. In particular, ft is vital to fully understand the degree of irradiation-induced degradation of the RPV`s fracture resistance that occurs during service. The Heavy-Section Steel (HSS) Irradiation Program has been established; its primary goal is to provide a thorough, quantitative assessment of the effects of neutron irradiation on the material behavior, and in particular the fracture toughness properties of typical pressure-vessel steels, as they relate to light-water RPV integrity. The program includes the direct continuation of irradiation studies previously conducted within the HSS Technology Program augmented by enhanced examinations of the accompanying microstructural changes. During this period, the report on the duplex-type crack-arrest specimen tests from Phase 11 of the K{sub la} program was issued, and final preparations for testing the large, irradiated crack-arrest specimens from the Italian Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear Energy and Alternative Energies were completed. Tests on undersize Charpy V-notch (CVN) energy specimens in the irradiated and annealed weld 73W were completed. The results are described in detail in a draft NUREG report. In addition, the ORNL investigation of the embrittlement of the High Flux Isotope RPV indicated that an unusually large ratio of the high-energy gamma-ray flux to fast-neutron flux is most likely responsible for the apparently accelerated embrittlement.

Corwin, W.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Foreign Direct Investment in U  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in 1998 Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in 1998 Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in 1998 in 1998 in 1998 in 1998 November 2000 Energy Information Administration/Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in 1998 Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, under the general direction of W. Calvin Kilgore. The project was directed by Mark E. Rodekohr, Director of the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (202) 586-1441, and Mary E. Northup, the Team Leader for Financial Analysis (202) 586-1383. Specific technical information concerning this

260

Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB From: Designated Federal Officer, Sandra L. Waisley (EM-11) To: SSAB Members (G. Stegner, J. Reising, G. Bowman, T. Taylor, C. Gertz, B. Murphie, S. McCracken, M. Marvin, J. Rampe, A. Doswell, C. Anderson, B. Wethington, S. Brennan, K. Kozeliski, D. Dollins, P. Halsey, Y. Sherman, L. Bratcher, R. Warther, K. Klein, R. Schepens, F. Lockhart, J. Allison, R. Erickson, E. Sellers, K. Carlson, G. Boyd, R. Butler) The memorandum informs of Assistant Secrectary Roberson's direction and guidance for implementing a DOE direct relationship and funding approach for EM's Site-Specific Advisory Board (EMSSAB).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

STUDY OF A CASE OF CHRONIC PROFESSIONAL IRRADIATION. PROVISIONAL DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THIS IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The case of a chemist submitted to professional chronic irradiation, in the absence of a physical check doses received, was studied to estimate the deleterious effects of this irradiation on the patient and his descent. No connection was found between the observed symptoms and this irradiation. The health of the patient did not seem to be affected in any important way. The only objective symptom, a depression of the spermatogenesis, was followed by spectacular recuperation. In the absence of objective symptoms, it is felt that there is no reason to fear genetic consequences neither for the patient nor for his offspring. (auth)

Minet, P.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation-induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

Measuring Dark Matter Distribution in Directional Direct Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct detection of dark matter with directional sensitivity offers not only measurement of both recoil energy and direction of dark matter, but also a way to understand dark matter distribution in the Galaxy. Maxwell distribution is usually supposed as the distribution near the Earth, however, deviation from that, caused by tidal streams in the Galaxy, has been suggested. We explore the possibility of distinguishing the distribution by direct detection using nuclear emulsions.

Keiko I. Nagao

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

264

Directional Response of Ocean Waves to Changing Wind Direction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When analysing wave measurements in turning winds, one usually assumes that the rate of change of mean wave direction is determined by the angle between ?w, the wind direction, and ?o, the mean wave direction; however, it is well known that this ...

Gao Quanduo; Gerbrand Komen

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Response of Wave Directions to Changing Wind Directions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the premise that the net growth of wave energy induced by wind is centered around the wind direction, a relaxation model for the response of the main wave direction to changes in the wind direction for young sea states is derived. The time ...

L. H. Holthuijsen; A. J. Kuik; E. Mosselman

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding). This UFD study examines the behavior and performance of unirradiated cladding and actual irradiated cladding through testing and simulation. Three capsules containing hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-4 cladding material have been placed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of

267

Spatial Variability of Shortwave Irradiance for Snowmelt in Forests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial variation of melt energy can influence snow cover depletion rates and in turn be influenced by the spatial variability of shortwave irradiance to snow. The spatial variability of shortwave irradiance during melt under uniform and ...

John Pomeroy; Chad Ellis; Aled Rowlands; Richard Essery; Janet Hardy; Tim Link; Danny Marks; Jean Emmanuel Sicart

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Sun and Climate Solar Irradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun and Climate #12;Solar Irradiance The Solar Constant f = 1.4 x 106 erg/cm2/s. Over the surface of the Earth, this is 2 x 1024 erg/s, or 2 x 1017 watts (100 million gigawatts). This energy input keeps the Earth warm. If the solar constant were To change, so would the Earth's temperature. Solar

Walter, Frederick M.

269

Effects of hadron irradiation on scintillating fibers  

SciTech Connect

Trackers based on scintillating-fiber technology are being considered by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at SSC and the D[phi] collaboration at Fermilab. An important issue is the effect of the radiation existing in the detector cores on fiber properties. Most studies of radiation damage in scintillators have irradiated small bulk samples rather than fibers, and have used X-rays, [sup 60]Co gammas, or electron beams, often at accelerated rates. The authors have irradiated some 600 fibers in the Fermilab Tevatron C[phi] area, thereby obtaining a hadronic irradiation at realistic rates. Four-meter-long samples of ten Bicron polystyrene-based fiber types, maintained in air, dry nitrogen, argon, and vacuum atmospheres within stainless-steel tubes, were irradiated for seven weeks at various distances from the accelerator beam pipes. Maximum doses, measured by thermoluminescence detectors, were about 80 Krad. Fiber properties, particularly light yield and attenuation length, have been measured over a one-year period. A description of the work together with the results is presented. At the doses achieved, corresponding to a few years of actual fiber-tracking detector operation, little degradation is observed. In addition, recovery after several days' exposure to air has been noted. Properties of unirradiated samples kept in darkness show no changes after one year.

Atac, M. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Buchanan, C.; Chrisman, D.; Cline, D.; Kolonko, J.; Kubic, J.; Park, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Bross, A.D.; Finley, D.; Elias, J.; Foster, G.W.; Kephart, R.; Kephart, R.; Kim, C.; Park, H.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rivetta, C.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wagner, R. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Chung, M.; Goldberg, H.; Jeskik, R.; Margulies, S.; Mendez, H.; Solomon, J.; Vaca, F. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kelley, C. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston, MA (United States)); Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.; Cason, N.; Jacques, J.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.; Kenney, V.; LoSecco, J.; Ruchti, R.; Shephard, W.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Marchant, J.; Mountain, R.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)); Davis, D.; Vandergriff, D. (O

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, October 1961  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

1961-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

271

Recent Changes in Solar Irradiance in Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant decrease in the annual sums of global irradiance reaching the surface in Antarctica, averaging ?0.28 W m?2 yr?1, was derived from an analysis of all complete years of measurement available from 12 pyranometer stations, 10 of which ...

G. Stanhill; S. Cohen

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

1992-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

273

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1964  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and Financial Operation.

1964-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

274

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of November, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

1962-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

NIST SURF Beamline 3: Facility for Irradiance Calibration ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Beamline 3 is home to the Facility for Irradiance Calibration Using ... Source of Uncertainty, Nominal Value, Relative Uncertainty, Sensitivity Coefficient, ...

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

276

Implementation Plan for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains details regarding the planned implementation of the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory at the INL.

Not Listed

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Ion Irradiation of an Ultrafine Grained 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Nuclear Energy: Processes and Policies. Presentation Title, Ion Irradiation of...

278

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine Film and Pellet Dosimeters at Elevated Temperature. ...

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

ABSTRACT: Effects of Electron Irradiation in Nuclear Waste ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 26, 2007 ... This article summarizes recent studies of electron irradiation damage in sodium borosilicate, iron phosphate and aluminophosphate glass...

280

Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

irradiation in a distributed microgrid A Thesis submitted inin a distributed microgrid by James Patrick Harper Master of

Harper, James Patrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

Not Available

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-9  

SciTech Connect

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures (< 200 C) and very high radiation exposure (> 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

283

Experimental plan for irradiation experiment HRB-21  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation experiment HRB-21 is the first in a series of test capsules that are designed to provide a fuel-performance data base to be used for the validation of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) coated-particle fuel performance models under MHTGR normal operating conditions and specific licensing basis events. Capsule HRB-21 will contain an advanced TRISO-P UCO/ThO{sub 2} - coated-particle fuel system with demonstrated low defective-particle fraction ({le}5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}) and a heavy metal-contamination fraction ({le}1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}) that meets MHTGR quality specifications. The coated particles and fuel compacts were fabricated in laboratory-scale facilities using MHTGR reference procedures at General Atomics (GA). Nearly 150,000 fissile and fertile particles will be irradiated in capsule HRB-21 at a mean volumetric fuel temperature of 975{degree}C and will achieve a peak fissile burnup of 26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) while accumulating a fast neutron fluence of about 4.5 {times} 10{sup 25} neutrons/m{sup 2}. This experiment is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The participants are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), GA, and the Tokai Research Establishment. Capsule HRB-21 will contain the US MHTGR fuel specimens, and a companion capsule, HRB-22, will contain the JAERI fuel. The irradiation will take place in the removable beryllium reflector facility of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The performance of the fuel during irradiation will be closely monitored through on-line fission gas release measurements. Detailed postirradiation examination and conduction cooldown simulation testing will be performed on the irradiated fuel compacts from both the HRB-21 and HRB-22 capsules. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Goodin, D. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kania, M. J.; Patton, B. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Measuring Spectral Actinic Flux and Irradiance: Experimental Results from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) campaign to measure spectral global UV irradiance and actinic flux at the ground, beneath an atmosphere well defined by supporting measurements. ...

A. R. Webb; A. F. Bais; M. Blumthaler; G-P. Gobbi; A. Kylling; R. Schmitt; S. Thiel; F. Barnaba; T. Danielsen; W. Junkermann; A. Kazantzidis; P. Kelly; R. Kift; G. L. Liberti; M. Misslbeck; B. Schallhart; J. Schreder; C. Topaloglou

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Presidential Policy Directive / PPD-8 National Preparedness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Homeland Security Presidential Directives, National Security Presidential Directives, and national ... days from the date of this directive, the Secretary ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Final report on graphite irradiation test OG-2  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of dimensional, thermal expansivity, thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and tensile strength measurements on specimens of nuclear graphites irradiated in capsule OG-2. About half the irradiation space was allocated to H-451 near-isotropic petroleum-coke-based graphite or its subsized prototype grade H-429. Most of these specimens had been previously irradiated. Virgin specimens of another near-isotropic graphite, grade TS-1240, were irradiated. Some previously irradiated specimens of needle-coke-based H-327 graphite and pitch-coke-based P$sub 3$JHAN were also included.

Price, R.J.; Beavan, L.A.

1975-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evolution of surface morphology and electronic structure of few layer graphene after low energy Ar{sup +} ion irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on co-existing dual anisotropy ripple formation, sp bonding transformation, and variation in the delocalized {pi} electron system in 1 keV Ar{sup +} ion irradiated few-layer graphene surfaces. Ripples in directions, perpendicular and parallel to the ion beam were found. The irradiation effect and the transition from the sp{sup 2}-bonding to sp{sup 3}-hybridized state were analyzed from the deconvolution of the C (1s) peak and from the shape of the derivative of the Auger transition spectra. The results suggest a plausible mechanism for tailoring of few-layer graphene electronic band structure with interlayer coupling tuned by the ion irradiation.

Al-Harthi, S. H.; Kara'a, A.; Elzain, M. [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al Khod 123 (Oman); Hysen, T. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur, Kerala (India); Al-Hinai, A. T. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al Khod 123 (Oman); Myint, M. T. Z. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong, Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

289

Low-temperature formation of epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC induced by continuous electron beam irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is observed that epitaxial graphene forms on the surface of a 6H-SiC substrate by irradiating electron beam directly on the sample surface in high vacuum at relatively low temperature ({approx}670 Degree-Sign C). The symmetric shape and full width at half maximum of 2D peak in the Raman spectra indicate that the formed epitaxial graphene is turbostratic. The gradual change of the Raman spectra with electron beam irradiation time increasing suggests that randomly distributed small grains of epitaxial graphene form first and grow laterally to cover the entire irradiated area. The sheet resistance of epitaxial graphene film is measured to be {approx}6.7 k{Omega}/sq.

Go, Heungseok; Jeon, Youngeun; Park, Kibog [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, KIER-UNIST Advanced Center for Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jinsung; Yoo, Jung-Woo; Youb Kim, Sung; Kwon, Soon-Yong [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Young-Woon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cheol Lee, Byung; Suk Kang, Hyun [Quantum Optics Laboratory, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Hyeon [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon Gangwondo 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam [Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum-Kyu [Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

290

NREL: Learning - Geothermal Direct Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Use Direct Use Photo of alligators on a farm. Geothermally heated waters allow alligators to thrive on a farm in Colorado, where temperatures can drop below freezing. Geothermal reservoirs of hot water, which are found a few miles or more beneath the Earth's surface, can be used to provide heat directly. This is called the direct use of geothermal energy. Geothermal direct use has a long history, going back to when people began using hot springs for bathing, cooking food, and loosening feathers and skin from game. Today, hot springs are still used as spas. But there are now more sophisticated ways of using this geothermal resource. In modern direct-use systems, a well is drilled into a geothermal reservoir to provide a steady stream of hot water. The water is brought up through

291

Mechanical Cutting of Irradiated Reactor Internal Components  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package irradiated reactor internal components. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods used for similar projects, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. (authors)

Anderson, M.G.; Fennema, J.A. [MOTA Corporation, West Columbia, SC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Behavior of Irradiated B4C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A project sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Industry Research (NFIR) Group was conducted to evaluate the behavior of irradiated B4C absorber material from LWR control components that had been discharged after having reached a relatively high exposure. Vibratory compacted B4C powder from a Vermont Yankee BWR control blade was examined after reaching a maximum local B-10 depletion of 70%. Hot pressed B4C pellets from a Maine Yankee PWR control rod were examined after ...

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance  

SciTech Connect

The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance  

SciTech Connect

The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Carbon-14 in Irradiated Graphite Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the international data on the formation and distribution of 14C in graphite moderators in the context of the treatment and/or disposal of the material upon reactor decommissioning. International organizations from the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, and the United Kingdom collaborated in this program. This report provides an informed and improved understanding of the formation and behavior of 14C in irradiated graphite to determine where agreement or residual differ...

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

Effect of gamma irradiation on optical isolators  

SciTech Connect

The effects of gamma radiation on optical isolators have been investigated. This study has included the simultaneous irradiation and measurement of the individual emitters and detectors making up the isolators. In this manner, the net effect of irradiation on the isolators could be attributed to the degradation of either the emitter or detector, or both. As expected, isolators containing photodiodes are more radiation resistant than those containing phototransistors. In the photodiode isolator the LED is responsible for essentially all the gamma-induced isolator degradation. The performance of phototransistor isolators depends strongly on the phototransistor bias, V/sub CE/ , and the LED input current, I/sub LED/. At high I/sub LED/ and low V/sub CE/ where gamma-induced surface effects in the phototransistor are minimized, the degradation of the isolator is due primarily to the LED which is more sensitive than the LED in the photodiode isolator. In contrast, at low I/sub LED/ and high V/sub CE/, gamma-induced surface damage in the phototransistor is the dominant effect and the isolator is quite sensitive to irradiation. (auth)

Soda, K.J.; Barnes, C.E.; Kiehl, R.A.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Irradiation response and stability of nanoporous materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoporous materials consist of a regular organic or inorganic framework supporting a regular, porous structure. Pores are by definition roughly in the nanometre range, that is between 0.2 nm and 100 nm. Nanoporous materials can be subdivided into 3 categories (IUPAC): (1) Microporous materials - 0.2-2 nm; (2) Mesoporous materials - 2-50 nm; and (3) Macroporous materials - 50-1000 nm. np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process. np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa. Stacking Fault Tetrahedra (SFTs) were observed in RT irradiated np-Au foams under the highest and intermediate fluxes, but not under the lowest flux. SFTs were not observed in LNT irradiated np-Au foams under all fluxes. The vacancy diffusivity in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and then collapse to form SFTs. The high ion flux creates more damage per unit time; vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed at high ion fluxes.

Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zepeda-Ruiz, L [Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory; Bringa, E. [CONICET, Universidad de Cuyo, Argentina; Nastasi, Mike [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

298

Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

Pitcher, Eric John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

Gas generation from the irradiation of mortar  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mortar formulation capable of immobilizing chloride salts with high levels of radioactivity is being developed. As part of the developmental effort, radiation effects are being investigated. The radiolytic generation of gas(es) from irradiated mortar formulations was determined for several formulations with variable salt loadings at several test temperatures. The irradiation of a mortar formulation consisting of cement, slag, fly ash, water and 0 to 10 wt % salt led to the generation of hydrogen. The rate of generation was approximately constant, steady state pressures were not attained and final pressures were comparatively high. Higher salt concentrations were correlated with higher hydrogen generation rates for experiments at ambient temperature while lower rates were observed at 120/degree/C. The irradiation of a mortar consisting of cement, fly ash, water and salt led to the radiolytic generation of both oxygen and hydrogen. The addition of 2 wt % FeS or CaS inhibited oxygen generation and changed the hydrogen production rate. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lewis, M.A.; Warren, D.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Quality Assurance: Policy and Directives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Policy and Directives The Office of Quality Assurance is responsible for DOE's quality assurance (QA) policy and requirements, and for providing assistance with QA implementation....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

DOE Directives | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reports Calendar Year Reports Recovery Act Peer Reviews DOE Directives Performance Strategic Plan Testimony Financial Statements Semiannual Reports Work Plan Mission About Us...

302

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H. (Powell, TN), Wereszczak, Andrew A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN); Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

303

Irradiation hardening in F82H irradiated at 573 K in the HFIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-irradiation tensile tests were conducted on alloy F82H and variants of this steels irradiated at 573 K up to 19 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Post-irradiation tensile and hardness tests revealed that the strength of F82H steeply increased below 5 dpa, and the total elongation decreased. The ductility of the variants, which showed more ductility in the unirradiated condition was the same as irradiated F82H, even though the magnitude of irradiation hardening is smaller than F82H. This suggests that the softened parts of the blanket, such as heat affected zones, could show more ductility loss at this temperature. The hardening behavior of F82H with 0.09% additional tantalum (mod3), which demonstrated microstructural stability under high temperature processing, was very similar to that of F82H. Therefore mod3 can be an attractive alternate structural material for a blanket when processed above 1373 K.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Hirose, Takanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Okubo, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [ORNL; Odette, G.R. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Comparison of structural properties of pristine and gamma irradiated single-wall carbon nanotubes: Effects of medium and irradiation dose  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the gamma irradiation effects on single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) structure was conducted. Nanotubes were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation in three media. Irradiation was carried out in air, water and aqueous ammonia. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the changes in the SWCNT structure. TGA measurements showed the highest percentage of introduced groups for the SWCNTs irradiated with 100 kGy. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence for the attachment of hydroxyl, carboxyl and nitrile functional groups to the SWCNT sidewalls. Those groups were confirmed by EA. All irradiated SWCNTs had hydroxyl and carboxyl groups irrelevant to media used for irradiation, but nitrile functional groups were only identified in SWCNTs irradiated in aqueous ammonia. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the degree of disorder in the carbon nanotube structure correlates with the irradiation dose. For the nanotubes irradiated with the dose of 100 kGy, the Raman I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio was three times higher than for the pristine ones. Atomic force microscopy showed a 50% decrease in nanotube length at a radiation dose of 100 kGy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies showed significant changes in the morphology and structure of gamma irradiated SWCNTs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma irradiation causes SWCNT covalent functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type of covalently attached groups to SWCNT surface depends on irradiation medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SWCNT shortening level increases with applied irradiation dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average length of carbon nanotubes decreased by 50% at the highest dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The diameter of SWCNT bundles becomes small as irradiation dose rises.

Kleut, D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, S., E-mail: svetlanajovanovic@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Z.; Kepic, D.; Tosic, D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Romcevic, N. [Insitute of Physics, P.O.B. 68, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Insitute of Physics, P.O.B. 68, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Marinovic-Cincovic, M.; Dramicanin, M. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Holclajtner-Antunovic, I. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, P.O.B. 47, University of Belgrade, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, P.O.B. 47, University of Belgrade, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Pavlovic, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.B. 127, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.B. 127, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Drazic, G. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milosavljevic, M.; Todorovic Markovic, B. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Evaluation of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide and Silicon Carbide Composites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fast neutron irradiation on SiC and SiC composites have been studied. The materials used were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC and SiC/SiC composites reinforced with either Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic{trademark} fibers fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration. Statistically significant numbers of flexural samples were irradiated up to 4.6 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 300, 500 and 800 C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dimensions and weights of the flexural bars were measured before and after the neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were evaluated by four point flexural testing. Volume increase was seen for all bend bars following neutron irradiation. Magnitude of swelling depended on irradiation temperature and material, while it was nearly independent of irradiation fluence over the fluence range studied. Flexural strength of CVD SiC increased following irradiation depending on irradiation temperature. Over the temperature range studied, no significant degradation in mechanical properties was seen for composites fabricated with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, while composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic fibers showed significant degradation. The effects of irradiation on the Weibull failure statistics are also presented suggesting a reduction in the Weibull modulus upon irradiation. The cause of this potential reduction is not known.

Newsome G, Snead L, Hinoki T, Katoh Y, Peters D

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

306

DOE Directives | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Directives DOE Directives DOE Directives Directives are the Department of Energy's primary means to communicate and institutionalize directives and policies and to establish requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. DOE O 413.3A - Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets DOE G 413.3-1 - Managing Design and Construction Using Systems Engineering for Use with DOE O 413.3A DOE G 413.3-2 - Quality Assurance Guide for Project Management DOE G 413.3-3 - Safeguards and Security for Program and Project Management DOE G 413.3-8 - Environmental Management (EM) Cleanup Projects DOE G 413.3-9 - U.S. Department of Energy Project Review Guide for Capital Asset Projects DOE G 413.3-10 - Earned Value Management System (EVMS)

307

Office of Nuclear Safety - Directives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear and Facility Safety Directives Nuclear and Facility Safety Directives The HSS Office of Nuclear Safety is the responsible office for the development, interpretation, and revision of the following Department of Energy (DOE) directives. Go to DOE's Directives Web Page to view these directives. DOE Order (O) 252.1A, Technical Standards Program DOE O 252.1A promotes DOE's use of Voluntary Consensus Standards (VCS) as the primary method for application of technical standards and establishes and manages the DOE Technical Standards Program (TSP) including technical standards development, information, activities, issues, and interactions. HS-30 Contact: Jeff Feit DOE Policy (P) 420.1, Department of Energy Nuclear Safety Policy DOE P 420.1, documents the Department's nuclear safety policy to design, construct, operate, and decommission its nuclear facilities in a manner that ensures adequate protection of workers, the public, and the environment.

308

Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas  

SciTech Connect

Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

309

High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL); McKay, Timothy A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Post-irradiation-examination of irradiated fuel outside the hot cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of their high radioactivity, irradiated fuels are commonly examined in a hot cell. However, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has recently investigated irradiated U-Mo-Al metallic fuel from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) project using a conventional unshielded scanning electron microscope outside a hot cell. This examination was possible because of a two-step sample-preparation approach in which a small volume of fuel was isolated in a hot cell and shielding was introduced during later stages of sample preparation. The resulting sample contained numerous sample-preparation artifacts but allowed analysis of microstructures from selected areas.

Dawn E. Janney; Adam B. Robinson; Thomas P. O'Holleran; R. Paul Lind; Marc Babcock; Laurence C. Brower; Julie Jacobs; Pamela K. Hoggan

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test  

SciTech Connect

The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III

1992-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Directions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

spacer spacer spacer About DOE Organization News Contact Us Search Search Go spacer U.S. Department of Energy header image Science & Technology Energy Sources Energy Efficiency...

313

NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the understanding of fundamental scientific basis for the irradiation-induced self-organization processes. The fundamental physical mechanisms underlying ordered pattern formation, which include defect production and migration, ion sputtering, redeposition, viscous flow and diffusion, are investigated through a combination of modeling and in situ and ex-situ observations [3,9,11]. In addition, these nanostructured materials exhibit considerable improvement of optical properties [9,12,13]. For example, patterned Ge with a hexagonally ordered, honeycomb-like structure of nanoscale holes possesses a high surface area and a considerably blue-shifted energy gap [9], and oxidation of ordered Ga droplets shows noticeable enhancement of optical transmission [12]. This research has addressed nanopattern formation in a variety of materials under ion bombardment and provided a fundamental understanding of the dynamic mechanisms involved. In addition, have also stared to systematically investigate pattern formation under ion irradiation for more systems with varied experimental conditions and computation, including the collaboration with Dr. Veena Tikare of Sandia National Laboratory with a hybrid computation method at the ending this grant. A more detailed relationship between nanostructure formation and experimental conditions will be revealed with our continued efforts.

Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

2008 world direct reduction statistics  

SciTech Connect

This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

NONE

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Comparison of Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffuse Shortwave Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements J. J. Michalsky and J. Schlemmer Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York B. C. Bush, S. Leitner, D. Marsden, and F. P. J. Valero Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York and Delft The Netherlands E. G. Dutton Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado M. P. Haeffelin Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blackburg, Virginia G. Major Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration Budapest, Hungry J. Hickey The Eppley Laboratory, Inc. Newport, Rhode Island

316

DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

1959-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

317

Radicals in {gamma}-irradiated wool  

SciTech Connect

Radicals were identified in wool fiber {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K by EPR: products of reaction of an electron e and H atom with amino acid residues and a polypeptide chain, and their partial yields at 77 K and the reactivity scale of e with respect to the individual fragments of the protein molecule were determined: [RSSR]: [>C=O{sub p.b.}]:[NH{sub 3}{sup +}-R]:[aromatic ring] = 4:3: > 1:1. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Baeva, N.N.; Sadova, S.F.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

IRRADIATION BY X RAYS AND AWUEOUS DIURESIS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of x radiation on the renal functioning in the rat, rabbit. and dog was studied to determine if irradiation can modify significantly the yield of aqueous diuresis. The techniques used in the three cases are described. Results show that x radiation does noi cause constant and significant polyuria in the rat, rabbit, or dog. Whereas the rat is characterized by a variable urinary elimination, the rabbit regularly exhibits oliguria. The dog, in acute experiments, shows a rise in diuresis. (J.S.R.)

Beaumariage, M.L.; Barac, G.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ... and is driven by the stress induced by absorption of ultrafast light in glass.

320

Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor  

A University of Colorado research group led by Fernando Mancilla-David has developed a low cost irradiance sensor using a network modeled on a neural ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ALGAE: RADIOACTIVITY UPTAKE AND IRRADIATION EFFECTS. A Literature Search  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven references are included on the uptake of radioisotopes by algae and the biological effects of external or internal irradiation of algae. (C.H.)

Smith, L.L.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

323

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Bertrand Tseng, Munjal M. Acharya, Neal Patel, Katherine Tran, Mary Lan, Erich Giedzinski, Vipan Kumar and Charles Limoli Department...

324

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation in radiosensitive mice Sumita Raha Northwestern University Abstract We have developed a quantitative real-time...

325

Irradiation and Testing of Fuels and Cladding Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Mechanical Performance of Materials for Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Irradiation and Testing of Fuels and Cladding Materials

326

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation in radiosensitive mice. Sumita Raha, Qiong Wang, Emily Mirkin, M. Beau Wanzer, Tatjana Paunesku and Gayle...

327

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification and Chromatin Organization Hunter W. Richards Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal Our goal is to...

328

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification and Chromatin Organization Hunter W. Richards, Steven D. Ayers, Shutao Cai, Yoshinori Kohwi, Gary Karpen, Sylvain Costes and...

329

Operational Awareness Tour of Building 3525 Irradiated Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Report for the Operational Awareness Tour of Building 3525 Irradiated Fuels Examination Hot Cell Laboratory Dates of Activity : 10212011 Report Preparer: Tim Mengers Activity...

330

A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II. Presentation Title, A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling...

331

Development of Microstructure and Irradiation Hardening of Zircaloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Wrought Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 were neutron irradiated at nominally 300C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron ...

332

Program for Irradiation of Reactor Structural Materials at the ATR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Program for Irradiation of Reactor Structural Materials at the ATR-National Scientific User Facility. Author(s), Heather J. MacLean Chichester, ...

333

Damage Structure Evolution in Ion Irradiated UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Radiation Effects in Oxide Ceramics and Novel LWR Fuels ... To better understand low dose irradiation effects on defect creation in UO2, helium...

334

NIST SURF Long-Term Monitoring of the Ultraviolet Irradiance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... converted into a dedicated primary irradiance source ... SR) is the only standard source available, since ... the range of the blackbody standard sources. ...

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

335

Microstructure Stability in Irradiated Materials - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CASL: The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors: A U.S. ... Strategies for Studying High Dose Irradiation Effects in Reactor Components.

336

Intergranular Cracking of an Irradiated Ti-Stabilized Austenitic ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 1999 ... Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power ... Failure of an irradiated fuel assembly spacer grid sleeve was observed after three...

337

Estimation of Ultraviolet-A Irradiance from Measurements of 368-nm Spectral Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation across the earths surface is needed to model plant productivity and future impacts of ultraviolet-B radiation on plant productivity. We have developed two models to estimate the UV-A irradiance ...

R. H. Grant; J. R. Slusser

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Constructs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. Specific aims apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. The project includes research complementary to NASA/HRP space radiation project.

Michael Cornforth

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

339

Sunlight Direct | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct Direct Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunlight Direct Place San Diego, California Zip 92128 Sector Solar Product Developed a system that tracks and concentrates solar energy for distributed power generation Website http://www.sunlight-direct.com Coordinates 33.0013938°, -117.0735241° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.0013938,"lon":-117.0735241,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

340

Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 3 Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 For Immediate Release Office of the Press Secretary December 17, 2003 December 17, 2003 Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 Subject: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection Purpose (1) This directive establishes a national policy for Federal departments and agencies to identify and prioritize United States critical infrastructure and key resources and to protect them from terrorist attacks. Background (2) Terrorists seek to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit critical infrastructure and key resources across the United States to threaten national security, cause mass casualties, weaken our economy, and damage public morale and confidence. (3) America's open and technologically complex society includes a wide array of critical infrastructure

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Geothermal Direct-Use Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hot water near the surface of the Earth can be used for heat for a variety of commercial and industrial uses. Direct-use applications include heating buildings, growing plants in greenhouses,...

342

OMNI SMARTPUMP: DIRECT CURRENT POWERED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the energy savings of the variable speed DC motor over existing variable speed AC motors that couldOMNI SMARTPUMP: DIRECT CURRENT POWERED DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM Prepared For: California Energy Commission Energy Innovations Small Grant Program Prepared By: Omni Instruments

343

Directional impedance of geared transmissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to develop a design tool for geared actuation systems that experience bidirectional exchange of energy with the environment. Despite the asymmetry of efficiency depending on the direction ...

Wang, Albert Duan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

A Direct Measure of Entrainment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is introduced for directly measuring convective entrainment and detrainment in a cloud-resolving simulation. This technique is used to quantify the errors in the entrainment and detrainment estimates obtained using the standard bulk-...

David M. Romps

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Method for drilling directional wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described of locating a substantially horizontal bed of interest in a formation and maintaining a drill string therein during the drilling operation, said drill string including a measurement-while-drilling (MWD) electromagnetic propagation resistivity sensor, comprising the steps of: drilling a substantially vertical offset well in a formation having at least one selected substantially horizontal bed therein; measuring resistivity in the formation at the offset well to provide a first resistivity log as a function of depth; modeling the substantially horizontal bed to provide a modeled resistivity log indicative of the resistivity taken along the substantially horizontal bed, said modeling being based on said first resistivity log; drilling a directional well in said formation near said offset well, a portion of said directional well being disposed in said substantially horizontal bed; measuring resistivity in said directional well using the MWD electromagnetic propagation resistivity sensor to provide a second log of resistivity taken substantially horizontally; comparing said second log to said modeled log to determine the location of said directional well; and adjusting the directional drilling operation so as to maintain said drill string within said substantially horizontal bed during the drilling of said directional well in response to said comparing step.

Wu, Jianwu; Wisler, M.M.

1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

346

The sun as a variable star: solar and stellar irradiance variations. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this Colloquium was to review the most recent results on the observations, theoretical interpretations, empirical and physical models of the variations observed in solar and stellar irradiances, as well as on Sun-climate connections. The Colloquium was divided into six sessions as defined by the key topics. Included for each session were the 36 invited talks and 110 contributed poster papers. A special session of the Solar Electromagnetic Radiation Study for Solar Cycle 22 (SOLERS22) was held on June 25, 1993, where the five working groups discussed their progress and future plans on measuring the absolute value of solar total and spectral irradiances and studying their temporal variations. Papers on both theoretical models and solar irradiance observations have shown that the solar energy output changes on different time scales: the short-term (from minutes to months) variations are related to surface modulations mainly caused by the evolution of active regions, the solar cycle related long-term variations are directly linked with the evolution of magnetic fields over the activity cycle, while the secular variations over centuries are associated with long-term modulations.

Pap, J.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts  

SciTech Connect

Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of array painting.

Cornforth, Michael N [The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

348

Evolution of the nanostructure OF VVER-1000 RPV materials under neutron irradiation and post irradiation annealing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high nickel VVER-1000 (15Kh2NMFAA) base metal (1.34 wt% Ni, 0.47% Mn, 0.29% Si and 0.05% Cu), and a high nickel (12Kh2N2MAA) weld metal (1.77 wt% Ni, 0.74% Mn, 0.26% Si and 0.07% Cu) have been characterized by atom probe tomography to determine the changes in the microstructure during neutron irradiation to high fluences. The base metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 14.9 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -2} (E > 0.5 MeV), and the weld metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 11.5 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -2} (E > 0.5 MeV). High number densities of 2-nm-diameter Ni-, Si- and Mn-enriched nanoclusters were found in the neutron irradiated base and weld metals. No significant copper enrichment was associated with these nanoclusters and no copper-enriched precipitates were observed. The number densities of these nanoclusters correlate with the shifts in the {Delta}T{sub 41 J} ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. These nanoclusters were present after a post irradiOffice of Science (US)C, but had dissolved into the matrix after 24 h at 450 C. Phosphorus, nickel, silicon and to a lesser extent manganese were found to be segregated to the dislocations.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Chernobaeva, A. A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Shtrombakh, Ya. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Erak, D. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Zabusov, Oleg O. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Russell, Kaye F [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory, Station 18, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bolliger, Raffaele [Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory, Station 9, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hafnium radioisotope recovery from irradiated tantalum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hafnium is recovered from irradiated tantalum by: (a) contacting the irradiated tantalum with at least one acid to obtain a solution of dissolved tantalum; (b) combining an aqueous solution of a calcium compound with the solution of dissolved tantalum to obtain a third combined solution; (c) precipitating hafnium, lanthanide, and insoluble calcium complexes from the third combined solution to obtain a first precipitate; (d) contacting the first precipitate of hafnium, lanthanide and calcium complexes with at least one fluoride ion complexing agent to form a fourth solution; (e) selectively adsorbing lanthanides and calcium from the fourth solution by cationic exchange; (f) separating fluoride ion complexing agent product from hafnium in the fourth solution by adding an aqueous solution of ferric chloride to obtain a second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron; (g) dissolving the second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron in acid to obtain an acid solution of hafnium and iron; (h) selectively adsorbing the iron from the acid solution of hafnium and iron by anionic exchange; (i) drying the ion exchanged hafnium solution to obtain hafnium isotopes. Additionally, if needed to remove residue remaining after the product is dried, dissolution in acid followed by cation exchange, then anion exchange, is performed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status  

SciTech Connect

The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

Kristine Barrett

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Fission Converter-Based Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new type of epithermal neutron irradiation facility for use in neutron capture therapy has been designed, constructed, and put into operation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR). A fission converter, using plate-type fuel and driven by the MITR, is used as the source of neutrons. After partial moderation and filtration of the fission neutrons, a high-intensity forward directed beam is available with epithermal neutron flux [approximately equal to]10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2}.s, 1 eV {<=} E {<=} 10 keV, at the entrance to the medical irradiation room, and epithermal neutron flux = 3 to 5 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}.s at the end of the patient collimator. This is currently the highest-intensity epithermal neutron beam. Furthermore, the system is designed and licensed to operate at three times higher power and flux should this be desired. Beam contamination from unwanted fast neutrons and gamma rays in the aluminum, polytetrafluoroethylene, cadmium and lead-filtered beam is negligible with a specific fast neutron and gamma dose, D{sub {gamma}}{sub ,fn}/{phi}{sub epi} [less than or approximately equal] 2 x 10{sup -13} Gy cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi}. With a currently approved neutron capture compound, boronophenylalanine, the therapeutically advantageous depth of penetration is >9 cm for a unilateral beam placement. Single fraction irradiations to tolerance can be completed in 5 to 10 min. An irradiation control system based on beam monitors and redundant, high-reliability programmable logic controllers is used to control the three beam shutters and to ensure that the prescribed neutron fluence is accurately delivered to the patient. A patient collimator with variable beam sizes facilitates patient irradiations in any desired orientation. A shielded medical room with a large window provides direct viewing of the patient, as well as remote viewing by television. Rapid access through a shielded and automatically operated door is provided. The D{sub 2}O cooling system for the fuel has been conservatively designed with excess capacity and is fully instrumented to ensure detection and control of off-normal conditions. A wide range of possible abnormal events or accident scenarios has been analyzed to show that even in the worst cases, there should be no fission product release through fuel damage. This facility has been licensed to operate by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and initial operation commenced in June 2000.

Harling, O.K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Riley, K.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Newton, T.H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Wilson, B.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Hu, L-W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Fonteneau, E.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Menadier, P.T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Ali, S.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Sutharshan, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Kohse, G.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Ostrovsky, Y. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Stahle, P.W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Binns, P.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Kiger, W.S. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Busse, P.M. [Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Israel)

2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Annealing effects in hydrogenated silicon nitride films during high energy ion beam irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The annealing effects during energy recoil detection (ERD) analysis on the structure of hydrogenated silicon nitride film have been investigated by using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Hydrogenated silicon nitride films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with various substrate temperatures. A 2.5 MeV {sup 4}He{sup ++} ion beam was irradiated onto the film in a vacuum chamber at room temperature. The ERD signal was measured after various ion doses in order to determine the loss of hydrogen counts induced by the ion beam. The IR absorption spectrum was obtained in order to follow the film structural change which occurred due to the ion beam. The films deposited at 200 and 300 C show a significant decrease in the ERD count with increasing ion beam dose, while the film deposited at 400 C, shows no significant changes. The IR absorption peak position for Si-N stretching (830 cm{sup {minus}1}) shifted to smaller wave numbers after ion beam irradiation, while the Si-H stretching (2,160 cm{sup {minus}1}) shifted to the opposite direction. The peak position for N-H (3,360 cm{sup {minus}1}) shows no noticeable changes. Normalized peak area for the Si-N stretching increased after ion beam irradiation. The Si-H peak area decreased slightly. The N-H peak area decreased significantly. A recombination mechanism of the N and H radicals with excess Si radical coming from Si-Si bonds in Si-rich silicon nitride films has been suggested to explain the IR absorption spectral changes which have occurred due to ion beam irradiation.

Lee, J.W. [ETRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]|[KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H.; Yoo, H.J. [ETRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jhon, M.S.; Ryoo, R. [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction o f the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce an image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A stochastic model for cell survival after irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the theory of cell survival after irradiation. It is based on the assumption that the cell is composed of two regions with different sensitivities and takes into account phenomena with general repair-time distribution different ... Keywords: Irradiation, mean life time, repair-time distribution

G. K. Agrafiotis

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUSLY SEPARATING IRRADIATION PRODUCTS OF THORIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for separating uranium-233 and protactinium from thorium-232 containing compositions which comprises irradiating finely divided particles of said thorium with a neutron flux to form uranium-233 and protactinium, heating the neutron-irradiated composition in a fluorine and hydrogen atmosphere to form volatile fluorides of uranium and protactinium and thereafter separating said volatile fluorides from the thorium.

Hatch, L.P.; Miles, F.T.; Sheehan, T.V.; Wiswall, R.H.; Heus, R.J.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23 Sabri Mekaoui Abstract The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is a measure of the radiative output from the Sun. Its value and its long solar cycles. Cycle 22 lasted from late 1986 until 1996 while cycle 23 is currently ending

Glineur, François

358

Relationships between Measured and Satellite-Estimated Solar Irradiance in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of satellite-estimated surface solar irradiance and the relationship between irradiance at pairs of locations and distance between the pairs were examined. Daily measured and satellite-estimated irradiances were available for a 23 ...

William A. Dugas; Mark L. Heuer

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials July 20, 2011 - 3:58pm Addthis Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects the mechanical properties of copper. By using a specialized in situ mechanical testing device in a transmission electron microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, the team could examine — with nanoscale resolution — the localized nature of this deformation. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects

360

Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today's nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials July 20, 2011 - 3:58pm Addthis Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects the mechanical properties of copper. By using a specialized in situ mechanical testing device in a transmission electron microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, the team could examine — with nanoscale resolution — the localized nature of this deformation. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects

362

On Directed Information and Gambling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of gambling in horse races with causal side information and show that Massey's directed information characterizes the increment in the maximum achievable capital growth rate due to the availability of side information. This result gives a natural interpretation of directed information $I(Y^n \\to X^n)$ as the amount of information that $Y^n$ \\emph{causally} provides about $X^n$. Extensions to stock market portfolio strategies and data compression with causal side information are also discussed.

Permuter, Haim H; Weissman, Tsachy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Directions for improved fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts.

Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Recovery of niobium from irradiated targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of niobium from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected form the group consisting of molybdenum, biobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the cationic resin; adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 5.0 to about 6.0; contacting the pH adjusting second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material for a time to selectively separate niobium from the solution and recovering the niobium from the dextran-based material.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hamilton, Virginia T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Controlled doping of graphene using ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The electronic properties of graphene are tunable via doping, making it attractive in low dimensional organic electronics. Common methods of doping graphene, however, adversely affect charge mobility and degrade device performance. We demonstrate a facile shadow mask technique of defining electrodes on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thereby eliminating the use of detrimental chemicals needed in the corresponding lithographic process. Further, we report on the controlled, effective, and reversible doping of graphene via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with minimal impact on charge mobility. The change in charge concentration saturates at {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and the quantum yield is {approx}10{sup -5} e/photon upon initial UV exposure. This simple and controlled strategy opens the possibility of doping wafer-size CVD graphene for diverse applications.

Luo Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Pinto, Nicholas J.; Davila, Yarely [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao, 00792 (Puerto Rico); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6396 (United States)

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

366

Damage and repair of irradiated mammalian brain  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that focal charged particle irradiation of the rabbit brain can create well-defined lesions which are observable by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques. These are similar, in terms of location and characteristic NMR and PET features, to those that occur in the brain of about 10% of clinical research human subjects, who have been treated for intracranial vascular malformations with stereotactic radiosurgery. These lesions have been described radiologically as vasogenic edema of the deep white matter,'' and the injury is of variable intensity and temporal duration, can recede or progress to serious neurologic sequelae, and persist for a considerable period of time, frequently 18 mon to 3 yr. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Frankel, K.; Lo, E.; Phillips, M.; Fabrikant, J.; Brennan, K.; Valk, P.; Poljak, A.; Delapaz, R.; Woodruff, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Medical Center; Brookside Hospital, San Pablo, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Post-Irradiation Examination of AREVA M5 Guide Tubes and Fuel Rods Irradiated in North Anna 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the hot cell examination of guide tubes and fuel rods fabricated with the advanced M5 alloy and irradiated in North Anna Units 1 and 2 to exposures beyond current fuel licensing limits. Collecting the relevant data required detailed poolside and hot cell examinations, which entailed outage coordination and shipment of irradiated fuel and components to multiple facilities.

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Asymmetric directly driven capsule implosions: Modeling and experiments-A requirement for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

Direct-drive experiments at the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 35 (1999)] have been performed to prototype eventual campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses and C. R. Wuest, Fusion Sci. Technol. 43, 420 (2003)] to investigate the mixing of target materials. Spherical-implosion targets with equatorial defects have been irradiated with polar direct drive, a requirement for direct-drive experiments at NIF. The physics question addressed by these results is whether simulations can match data on 0th-order hydrodynamics and implosion symmetry, the most basic implosion features, with and without the defect. The successful testing of hydrodynamic simulations leads to better designs for experiments and guides accurate planning for polar-direct-drive-ignition studies on the NIF platform.

Cobble, J. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Krashenninikova, N. S.; Obrey, K. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Magelssen, G. R.; Wysocki, F. J.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop E527, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Effects of Interfaces on the Ultrafast Irradiation of Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Effects of Interfaces on the Ultrafast Irradiation of Thin Films ... Abstract Scope, The ultrafast laser irradiation of bulk materials is a...

371

A high-resolution, cloud-assimilating numerical weather prediction model for solar irradiance forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ofnumericalweatherpredictionsolarirradianceforecastsofnumericalweatherpredictionforintra?daysolarnumericalweatherpredictionmodelforsolarirradiance

Mathiesen, Patrick; Collier, Craig; Kleissl, Jan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High Dose ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High ... 250, and the irradiation temperature in a servo-hydraulic testing machine.

373

Directional Validation of Wave Predictions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology for quantitative, directional validation of a long-term wave model hindcast is described and applied. Buoy observations are used as ground truth and the method does not require the application of a parametric model or data-adaptive ...

W. Erick Rogers; David W. C. Wang

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

File:SWERA-151.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 1.22 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, Description Solar: monthly average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Cuba UN Region Caribbean External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=151 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment

375

File:SWERA-246.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 249 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Bangladesh. Description Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2005-04-12 Extent International Countries Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=246 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment

376

File:SWERA-276.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 237 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Annual Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Southern Mexico Description Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL Sources University at Albany, SUNY Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2005-09-06 Extent International Countries Mexico UN Region Central America External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=276 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

377

Property:Wave Direction | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direction Direction Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Wave Direction Property Type String Pages using the property "Wave Direction" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alden Small Flume + Uni-Directional + Alden Wave Basin + Both + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + Both + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + Uni-Directional + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + Uni-Directional + Chase Tow Tank + Uni-Directional + Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility + Uni-Directional + Coastal Inlet Model Facility + Uni-Directional + Coastal Structures Modeling Complex + Both + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + Uni-Directional + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + Uni-Directional + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + Uni-Directional + H Haynes Wave Basin + Both +

378

A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prototype cellular irradiator utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission electron source has been developed for microscopic image-guided cellular region irradiation. The CNT cellular irradiation system has shown great potential to be a high temporal and spatial resolution research tool to enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the intricate cellular and intercellular microprocesses occurring following radiation deposition, which is essential to improving radiotherapy cancer treatment outcomes. In this paper, initial results of the system development are reported. The relationship between field emission current, the dose rate, and the dose distribution has been investigated. A beam size of 23 {mu}m has been achieved with variable dose rates of 1-100 Gy/s, and the system dosimetry has been measured using a radiochromic film. Cell irradiation has been demonstrated by the visualization of H2AX phosphorylation at DNA double-strand break sites following irradiation in a rat fibroblast cell monolayer. The prototype single beam cellular irradiator is a preliminary step to a multipixel cell irradiator that is under development.

Bordelon, David E. [Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang Jian; Graboski, Sarah; Cox, Adrienne; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhou, Otto Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

380

Safety and Security Directives Reform  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Beginning with his confirmation hearings in January 2009, Energy Secretary Steven Chu challenged the Department of Energy to take a fresh look at how we conduct business. This challenge provided the opportunity for DOE to put in place the most effective and efficient strategies to accomplish the Department's missions safely and securely. In response to the Secretary's challenge and building on the results of Deputy Secretary Poneman's Safety and Security Reform studies, the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) broadened its directives review activities during 2009. By November 2009 HSS had initiated a disciplined review of all health, safety, and security directives, which included a systematic review of the Department's safety and security regulatory model.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

wind direction | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

direction direction Dataset Summary Description Freedom Field is a not-for-profit organization formed to facilitate development and commercialization of renewable energy solutions. The organization has installed a variety of renewable energy generating technologies at their facility (located at Rock River Water Reclamation in Rockford, IL), with the intention of serving as a demonstration facility. The facility monitors data (at 5-minute intervals) from a weather station, 12.4 kW of PV panels (56 220-watt panels), a 10kW wind turbine (HAWT), a 1.2 kW wind turbine (VAWT), an absorption cooling system, and biogas burners. Source Freedom Field Date Released July 19th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords biogas monitoring data PV radiance solar temperature

382

Issues and Future Research Directions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RFID technology is currently considered as a key enabler of supply chain transformation. However, very little has been written about the deployment and use of RFID in the dairy industry. Drawing on an extensive literature review and a case example, this exploratory study seeks to present current applications and issues related to RFIDs adoption in the dairy industry and discuss future research directions.

S. F. Wamba; Alison Wicks; Samuel Fosso Wamba, Ph.D.; Alison Wicks Ph. D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Effect of crossed beams irradiation on parametric instabilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modification of the growth of scattering processes in the case of multiple beam irradiation compared to single beam irradiation has been investigated in a preformed plasma using Thomson scattrering of a short wavelength probe beam, and spectral and temporal analysis of reflected and transmitted light. First observations of the reduction of the amplitude of ion acoustic waves associated with stimulated Brillouin scattering, amplification of the amplitude of electron plasma waves associated with stimulated Raman scattering, and transfer of energy between crqssing beams with same frequency in a flowing plasma under crossed beam irradiation are reported.

Labaune, C., Ecole Polytechnique, France

1998-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

384

Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The COMET assembly at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was used to irradiate twelve foils in September 2011. The intention of this irradiation was to measure 'peak yield' fission product activities, activation products, and so-called 'endpoint R values' for different foil materials in a non-thermal neutron spectrum. After irradiation, several of the foils were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiochemical analysis. The results from the non-destructive and radiochemical analyses of six of these foils are presented.

Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schake, Ann R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Attrep, Moses Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ion irradiation tolerance of graphene as studied by atomistic simulations  

SciTech Connect

As impermeable to gas molecules and at the same time transparent to high-energy ions, graphene has been suggested as a window material for separating a high-vacuum ion beam system from targets kept at ambient conditions. However, accumulation of irradiation-induced damage in the graphene membrane may give rise to its mechanical failure. Using atomistic simulations, we demonstrate that irradiated graphene even with a high vacancy concentration does not show signs of such instability, indicating a considerable robustness of graphene windows. We further show that upper and lower estimates for the irradiation damage in graphene can be set using a simple model.

Ahlgren, E. H.; Lehtinen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kotakoski, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1190 Wien (Austria); Krasheninnikov, A. V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 1100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

386

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop July 30, 2003 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Carbon Anode Electrochemistry Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells Coal Preprocessing Prior to Introduction Into the Fuel Cell Potential Market Applications for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells Discussion of Key R&D Needs Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

387

Wellbore inertial directional surveying system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

388

Wellbore inertial directional surveying system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

Andreas, Ronald D. (Albuquerque, NM); Heck, G. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Kohler, Stewart M. (Albuquerque, NM); Watts, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Pyrolytic carbon free-radical evolution and irradiation damage of polyimide under low-energy proton irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Ionization and displacement effects are basic phenomena in damage processes of materials under space-particle irradiation. In this paper, the damage behaviors were investigated on the polyimide under proton irradiation using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra analysis and optical absorbance valuation. The results indicate that the proton irradiation induces the formation of pyrolytic carbon free-radical with a g value of 2.0025, and the population of free radicals increases with the irradiation fluence. The most important finding is that the irradiation-induced free-radical population increases linearly with the displacement damage dose, as does the optical degradation, whereas the ionization effect alone, during the irradiation, cannot induce the formation of pyrolytic carbon free radical. Furthermore, during the post storage, after irradiation, the free-radical population decreases following a sum of an exponential and a linear mode with the storage time. It is interesting that, during the post storage, the recovery of the degraded optical absorbance of the polyimide follows a similar mode to that of free radicals, and the characteristic time constant changes with the wavelength of the optical spectra.

Sun Chengyue; Wu Yiyong; Xiao Jingdong; Li Ruifeng; Yang Dezhuang; He Shiyu [National Key Lab in Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf, 491 lbf, or 589 lbf. Loads were consistently within 5% of the specified values throughout the experiment. Stack displacement increased consistently throughout the experiment with total displacement ranging from 1 to 1.5 inches. No anomalous values were identified. During reactor outages, a set of pneumatic rams are used to raise the stacks of graphite creep specimens to ensure the specimens have not become stuck within the test train. This stack raising was performed after all cycles when the capsule was in the reactor. All stacks were raised successfully after each cycle. The load and displacement data are Qualified

Laurence C. Hull

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Spectra and Diagnostics for the Direct Detection of Wide-Separation Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate as a function of orbital distance, mass, and age the theoretical spectra and orbit-averaged planet/star flux ratios for representative wide-separation extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) in the optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared. Stellar irradiation of the planet's atmosphere and the effects of water and ammonia clouds are incorporated and handled in a consistent fashion. We include predictions for 12 specific known EGPs. In the process, we derive physical diagnostics that can inform the direct EGP detection and remote sensing programs now being planned or proposed. Furthermore, we calculate the effects of irradiation on the spectra of a representative companion brown dwarf as a function of orbital distance.

Adam Burrows; David Sudarsky; Ivan Hubeny

2004-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

392

Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Author Directional Surveying Specialists Published Publisher Not Provided, 2012 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Citation Directional Surveying Specialists. Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists [Internet]. 2012. [cited 2013/10/08]. Available from: http://www.digitalsurveying.co.za/services/geophysical-borehole-surveying/overview/optical-televiewer/ Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Digital_Surveying_Directional_Surveying_Specialists&oldid=690244"

393

Geothermal Direct Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct Use Direct Use Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF [edit] Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Direct Use Links Related documents and websites EERE's Direct Use Report National Institute of Building Science's Whole Building Design Guide Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Dictionary.png Geothermal Direct Use: Low- to moderate-temperature water from geothermal reservoirs can be used to provide heat directly to buildings, or other applications that require

394

Biogas Direct LCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Biogas Direct LCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Biogas Direct LCC Place Spring Green,...

395

Direct Detector for Terahertz Radiation - Energy ...  

Patent 7,420,225: Direct detector for terahertz radiation A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor ...

396

Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Framework for Directives  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Explains the new ERM framework for developing, revising, and reviewing directives. This memo directs the Office of Management to institutionalize ERM into the ...

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

397

Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hamilton, Virginia T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium,vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Hamilton, V.T.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Post-irradiation Examination and Fission Product Inventory Analysis of AGR-1 Irradiation Capsules  

SciTech Connect

The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments designed to test TRISO fuel under High Temperature Gas Reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post-irradiation examination (PIE) at INLs Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). The inventory and distribution of fission products, especially Ag-110m, was assessed and analyzed for all the components of the AGR-1 capsules. This data should help inform the study of fission product migration in coated particle fuel. Gamma spectrometry was used to measure the activity of various different fission products in the different components of the AGR-1 test train. Each capsule contained: 12 fuel compacts, a graphite holder that kept the fuel compacts in place, graphite spacers that were above and below the graphite holders and fuel compacts, gas lines through which a helium neon gas mixture flowed in and out of each capsule, and the stainless steel shell that contained the experiment. Gamma spectrometry results and the experimental techniques used to capture these results will be presented for all the capsule components. The components were assayed to determine the total activity of different fission products present in or on them. These totals are compared to the total expected activity of a particular fission product in the capsule based on predictions from physics simulation. Based on this metric, a significant fraction of the Ag-110m was detected outside the fuel compacts, but the amount varied highly between the 6 capsules. Very small fractions of Cs-137 (<2E-5), Cs-134 (<1e-5), and Eu-154 (<4e-4) were detected outside of the fuel compacts. Additionally, the distribution of select fission products in some of the components including the fuel compacts and the graphite holders were measured and will be discussed.

J M Harp; P D Demkowicz; S A Ploger

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

SANS Study of Highly Irradiated RPV Steels - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, SANS Study of Highly Irradiated RPV Steels ... In this study, the evolution of Cu-, Ni-, and Mg-enriched precipitates is ... Phase-field Modeling of Grain Growth in Sintered Uranium Dioxide under High Temperature Gradients.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy proposed action to conduct a lead test assembly program to confirm the viability of using a commercial light water reactor to produce tritium. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 22, 1997 EA-1210: Finding of No Significant Impact Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington July 22, 1997 EA-1210: Final Environmental Assessment

402

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller 1 , Seema Varma 1 , William Chrisler 2 , Xihai Wang 2 and Marianne Sowa 2 1 Washington State University Tri-Cities, Richland, WA 2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electron- beam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDerm TM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variable-

403

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller Washington State University Tri-Cities Abstract Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electronbeam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDermTM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variableenergy electron microbeam at PNNL (Sowa et al. 2005) was used as a model of device characteristics and

404

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Charles Limoli University of California, Irvine Abstract In the CNS, irradiation of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells has been shown to cause a persistent oxidative stress that impacts radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. The nature, magnitude and duration of reactive species dictates whether these radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to a variety of in vitro and in vivo endpoints of viability and function. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-10 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days post-exposure. These changes can be attenuated when the dose is protracted over several weeks using a 57Co flood source having a surface dose rate of

405

Irradiation qualification testing of SNAP-10A components  

SciTech Connect

Selected SNAP 10A components were irradiated to about 10{sup14} nvt and 5{times} 10{sup 7} r at an average temperature of 136{degrees}F in a nominal vacuum of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} torr. The components were operated periodically and the electrical characteristics recorded. Pre-irradiationand post-irradiation tests were conducted. Catastropic degradation occurred only in the low-level neutron detection system and about 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} nvt and in the high-level neutron power supply at about 6{times} 10{sup 12} nvt. Marginal degradation occurred in the fusistors and in the silicone rubber insert material in connectors. The relays, low-voltage trip devices, expansion compensator position demodulator, resistance thermometer sensor and bridge, and the gamma detection system opearted within their respective specifications during and after irradiation. The insulation resistance of all components was adeqauate during and after irradiation.

Chesavage, A.J.

1964-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

Method for mounting laser fusion targets for irradiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for preparing laser fusion targets of the ball-and-disk type are disclosed. Such targets are suitable for irradiation with one or two laser beams to produce the requisite uniform compression of the fuel material.

Fries, R. Jay (Los Alamos, NM); Farnum, Eugene H. (Los Alamos, NM); McCall, Gene H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

407

Chromosome- and Chromatid-type Aberrations after Irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chromosome- and Chromatid-type Aberrations after Irradiation of Various HRR or NHEJ Deficient Mutant Chinese Hamster Cells and Their Wild-type Counterparts in G0G1 or LateSG2...

408

The Observed Hemispheric Symmetry in Reflected Shortwave Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the concentration of landmasses and atmospheric aerosols on the Northern Hemisphere suggests that the Northern Hemisphere is brighter than the Southern Hemisphere, satellite measurements of top-of-atmosphere irradiances found that both ...

Aiko Voigt; Bjorn Stevens; Jrgen Bader; Thorsten Mauritsen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Alternative Parameterizations of Downward Irradiance and Their Dynamical Significance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of solar flux divergence on upper ocean dynamics and energetics under both low and high wind speeds was determined using four different parameterizations of downward irradiance. The first (case I) involved only one attenuation length, ...

J. J. Simpson; T. D. Dickey

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

FY 2013 Summary Report: Post-Irradiation Examination of Zircaloy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

In the future, baseline data generated from these activities will be used to benchmark hot-cell testing of actual high-burnup UNF cladding. FY13SumRprtPostIrradiationExaminatZir...

411

Low dose irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of tissue aging Lingling Ding 1,2 , Xuan Zheng 1,3 , Wendy W. Kuhne 4 , David E. Hinton 5 , Jeffrey R. Lee 6 , and...

412

Influence of Urban Aerosol on Spectral Solar Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From a dataset of spectral distribution of global and disuse solar irradiances measured in Barcelona during the last three years, the influence of turbidity caused by urban aerosol on spectral composition of solar radiation and transmissivity of ...

J. Lorente; A. Reda; X. De Cabo

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Carbon Characterization Laboratory Readiness to Receive Irradiated Graphite Samples  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research conducted in this laboratory will support the Advanced Graphite Creep experimentsa major series of material irradiation experiments within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, silicon-carbide composite, and ceramic materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials. Major infrastructural modifications were undertaken to support this new radiological facility at Idaho National Laboratory. Facility modifications are complete, equipment has been installed, radiological controls and operating procedures have been established and work management documents have been created to place the CCL in readiness to receive irradiated graphite samples.

Karen A. Moore

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal irradiance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b>
Global Horizontal Irradiance
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

415

Optimal Measurement of Surface Shortwave Irradiance Using Current Instrumentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although most measurements of total downwelling shortwave irradiance are made with pyranometers, the World Climate Research Programs Baseline Surface Radiation Network has recommended the use of the summation of shortwave components in which the ...

J. Michalsky; E. Dutton; M. Rubes; D. Nelson; T. Stoffel; M. Wesley; M. Splitt; J. DeLuisi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The irradiation facilities for testing SSC components and detector systems are described. Very high intensity proton, neutron, and pion fluxes are available with beam kinetic energies of up to 800 MeV. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Sandberg, V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

High Dose Heavy Ion Irradiation of Austenitic Stainless Steels ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ab Initio Study of Radiation-Induced Amorphization Mechanisms in SiC and ZrC ... of Zircaloy during Low Dose Neutron Irradiation at Nominally 375-440C.

418

Program for alloy development for irradiation performance in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of fission reactors as irradiation test facilities for structural materials for a fusion environment is discussed. A comparison is made of displacement damage and helium production in fast fission and fusion reactors for stainless steel. (MOW)

Stiegler, J.O.; Reuther, T.C.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Estimation of Ultraviolet-B Irradiance under Variable Cloud Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to estimate the irradiance of ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280320 nm) radiation are needed to assess biological effects of changes in atmospheric composition. Measurements of the spatial distribution of sky cloud cover, temporal variability of ...

Richard H. Grant; Gordon M. Heisler

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Global Direct Cost of Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Country-specific direct cost of corrosion for the year 2004...Basque region 1988 Pesetas, 75 100.00 0.75 1.9977 1.5 Czechoslovakia 1998 Koruna, 31.816 (f) 29.8600 1.0655 1.1006 1.17 Netherlands 1969 Guilders, 0.51441 3.6340 0.1416 8.2103 1.16 Sweden 1967 Kroner, 1 5.0000 0.2000 3.0284 0.61 Finland 1965 Markka, 0.175 (g) 3.2110 0.0545 2.0995 0.11 Global...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct irradiance dni" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Engineering directed excitonic energy transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide an intuitive platform for engineering exciton transfer dynamics. We show that careful consideration of the spectral density, which describes the system-bath interaction, leads to opportunities to engineer the transfer of an exciton. Since excitons in nanostructures are proposed for use in quantum information processing and artificial photosynthetic designs, our approach paves the way for engineering a wide range of desired exciton dynamics. We carefully describe the validity of the model and use experimentally relevant material parameters to show counter-intuitive examples of a directed exciton transfer in a linear chain of quantum dots.

Perdomo, Alejandro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Direct application of geothermal energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

Reistad, G.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Direct measure of quantum correlation  

SciTech Connect

The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.

Yu, Chang-shui [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Zhao, Haiqing [School of Science, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Shortwave, Clear-sky Diffuse Irradiance in the 350 to 1050 nm Range: Comparison of Models with RSS Measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site in September/October 2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave, Clear-Sky Diffuse Irradiance in the Shortwave, Clear-Sky Diffuse Irradiance in the 350 to 1050 nm Range: Comparison of Models with RSS Measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site in September/October 2001 J. J. Michalsky, P. W. Kiedron, Q.-L. Min, and L. C. Harrison Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York J. J. Michalsky Surface Radiation Research Branch Air Resources Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado Abstract A rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) operating in the spectral range between 350 to 1050 nm obtained measurements of direct and diffuse components of spectral irradiance during the first diffuse irradiance IOP in the autumn of 2001. Independent measurements of the primary inputs to spectral

425

Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor steady-state irradiation testing program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The requirements for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor irradiation program are specified, and an irradiation program plan which satisfies these requirements is presented. The irradiation program plan consists of three parts and includes a schedule and a preliminary cost estimate: (1) a steady-state irradiation program, (2) irradiations in support of the design basis transient test program, and (3) irradiations in support of the GRIST-2 safety test program. Data from the liquid metal fast breeder reactor program are considered, and available irradiation facilities are examined.

Acharya, R.T.; Campana, R.J.; Langer, S.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Micro-bulge testing applied to neutron irradiated materials  

SciTech Connect

Micro-bulge testing was conducted on several Fe--Ni--Cr alloys irradiated as 0.3 mm thick disks to 10 dpa at 603 and 773 K in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Miniature tensile tests were performed on specimens of the same alloys irradiated concurrently. Good correlation between the tensile yield strength and the bulge yield load was observed in unirradiated specimens, however, the correlation was not simple for irradiated specimens. Good correlation was also observed between the ultimate tensile strength and the maximum bulge load. While irradiation produced a significant reduction in total elongation in the tensile test, irradiation caused only a small decrease in the deflection corresponding to the maximum bulge load compared to that observed on thinner disks used in earlier experiments. The results suggest that the thinner disk is better suited for ductility evaluations than the thicker disk. The area bounded by the load-deflection traces of the bulge tests shows a systematic variation with both alloy composition and irradiation condition which is not observed in the tensile data. It is anticipated that this parameter may prove useful in the evaluation of material toughness.

Okada, A. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Delayed neutrons from the neutron irradiation of ?U  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments was performed with the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) to verify ?U delayed neutron emission rates. A custom device was created to accurately measure a sample's pneumatic flight time and the Nuclear Science Center's (NSC's) pneumatic transfer system (PTS) was redesigned to reduce a sample's pneumatic flight time from over 1,600 milliseconds to less than 450 milliseconds. Four saturation irradiations were performed at reactor powers of 100 and 200 kW for 300 seconds and one burst irradiation was performed using a $1.61 pulse producing 19.11 MW-s of energy. Experimental results agreed extremely well with those of Keepin. By comparing the first ten seconds of collected data, the first saturation irradiation deviated ~1.869% with a dead time of 2 microseconds, while the burst irradiation deviated ~0.303% with a dead time of 5 microseconds. Saturation irradiations one, three and four were normalized to the initial count rate of saturation irradiation two to determine the system reproducibility, and deviated ~0.449%, ~0.343% and ~0.389%, respectively.

Heinrich, Aaron David

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

429

USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200C and 800C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Radial lean direct injection burner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

431

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

ARM - Field Campaign - Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsIndirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) govCampaignsIndirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) Campaign Links ISDAC Website Related Campaigns Parameterization of Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds During ISDAC 2010.10.01, Korolev, AAF ISDAC - Second Year Supplemental Surface Spectral Irradiance Measurements 2009.04.07, Lubin, NSA ISDAC - NASA ARCTAS Coordination with ARM 2008.04.01, Ferrare, NSA ISDAC / RISCAM - Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) 2008.04.01, Collins, NSA ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer 2008.03.31, Lubin, NSA Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Website : http://acrf-campaign.arm.gov/isdac/

433

The direct measurement of ablation pressure driven by 351-nm laser radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instantaneous scaling of ablation pressure to laser intensity is directly inferred for ramp compression of diamond targets irradiated by 351-nm light. Continuously increasing pressure profiles from 100 to 970 GPa are produced by direct-drive laser ablation at intensities up to 7 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. The free-surface velocity on the rear of the target is used to directly infer the instantaneous ablation-pressure profile at the front of the target. The laser intensity on target is determined by laser power measurements and fully characterized laser spots. The ablation pressure is found to depend on the laser intensity as P(GPa)=42({+-}3)[I(TW/cm{sup 2})]{sup 0.71({+-}0.01)}.

Fratanduono, D. E. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J. H.; Smith, R. F.; Hicks, D. G.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Barrios, M. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Boulder Area Directions and Transportation Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boulder Area Directions and Transportation Information. NIST Boulder Visitor Check-In & Parking. Transportation. ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

435

Application of small specimens to fracture mechanics characterization of irradiated pressure vessel steels  

SciTech Connect

In this study, precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens were used to characterize the fracture toughness of unirradiated and irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region by means of three-point static bending. Fracture toughness at cleavage instability was calculated in terms of elastic-plastic K{sub Jc} values. A statistical size correction based upon weakest-link theory was performed. The concept of a master curve was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties. Initially, size-corrected PCVN data from A 533 grade B steel, designated HSST Plate O2, were used to position the master curve and a 5% tolerance bound for K{sub Jc} data. By converting PCVN data to IT compact specimen equivalent K{sub Jc} data, the same master curve and 5% tolerance bound curve were plotted against the Electric Power Research Institute valid linear-elastic K{sub Jc} database and the ASME lower bound K{sub Ic} curve. Comparison shows that the master curve positioned by testing several PCVN specimens describes very well the massive fracture toughness database of large specimens. These results give strong support to the validity of K{sub Jc} with respect to K{sub Ic} in general and to the applicability of PCVN specimens to measure fracture toughness of reactor vessel steels in particular. Finally, irradiated PCVN specimens of other materials were tested, and the results are compared to compact specimen data. The current results show that PCVNs demonstrate very good capacity for fracture toughness characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. It provides an opportunity for direct measurement of fracture toughness of irradiated materials by means of precracking and testing Charpy specimens from surveillance capsules. However, size limits based on constraint theory restrict the operational test temperature range for K{sub Jc} data from PCVN specimens. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Sokolov, M.A.; Wallin, K.; McCabe, D.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Clinical Results of Image-Guided Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, cardiac dose reduction, and the influence of the setup error on the delivered dose for fluoroscopy-guided deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) irradiation using a cone-beam CT for irradiation of left-sided breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients treated according to the DIBH protocol were evaluated regarding dose to the ipsilateral breast (or thoracic wall), heart, (left ventricle [LV]and left anterior descending artery [LAD]), and lung. The DIBH treatment plan was compared to the free-breathing (FB) treatment planning and to the dose data in which setup error was taken into account (i.e., actual delivered dose). Results: The largest setup variability was observed in the direction perpendicular to the RT field ({mu} = -0.8 mm, {Sigma} = 2.9 mm, {sigma} = 2.0 mm). The mean (D{sub mean}) and maximum (D{sub max}) doses of the DIBH treatment plan was significantly lower compared with the FB treatment plan for the heart (34% and 25%, p < 0.001), LV (71% and 28%, p < 0.001), and LAD (52% and 39.8%, p < 0.001). For some patients, large differences were observed between the heart D{sub max} according to the DIBH treatment plan and the actual delivered dose (up to 71%), although D{sub max} was always smaller than the planned FB dose (mean group reduction = 29%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The image-guided DIBH treatment protocol is a feasible irradiation method with small setup variability that significantly reduces the dose to the heart, LV, and LAD.

Borst, Gerben R.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Hollander, Suzanne den; Betgen, Anja; Remeijer, Peter; Giersbergen, Aline van; Russell, Nicola S.; Elkhuizen, Paula H.M.; Bartelink, Harry [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van, E-mail: C.v.vliet@nki.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Slag remelt purification of irradiated vanadium alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes theoretical and scoping experimental efforts to investigate the decontamination potential of a slag remelting process for decontaminating irradiated vanadium alloys. Theoretical calculations, using a commercial thermochemical computer code HSC Chemistry, determined the potential slag compositions and slag-vanadium alloy ratios. The experiment determined the removal characteristics of four surrogate transmutation isotopes (Ca, Y - to simulate Sc, Mn, and Ar) from a V-5Ti-5Cr alloy with calcium fluoride slag. An electroslag remelt furnace was used in the experiment to melt and react the constituents. The process achieved about a 90 percent removal of calcium and over 99 percent removal of yttrium. Analyses indicate that about 40 percent of the manganese may have been removed. Argon analyses indicates that 99.3% of the argon was released from the vanadium alloy in the first melt increasing to 99.7% during the second melt. Powder metallurgy techniques were used to incorporate surrogate transmutation products in the vanadium. A powder mixture was prepared with the following composition: 90 wt % vanadium, 4.7 wt % titanium, 4.7 wt % chromium, 0.35 wt % manganese, 0.35 wt % CaO, and 0.35 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This mixture was packed into 2.54 cm diameter stainless steel tubes. Argon was introduced into the powder mixture by evacuating and backfilling the stainless steel containers to a pressure of 20 kPa (0.2 atm). The tubes were hot isostatically pressed at 207 MPa (2000 atm) and 1473 K to consolidate the metal. An electroslag remelt furnace (crucible dimensions: 5.1 cm diameter by 15.2 cm length) was used to process the vanadium electrodes. Chemical analyses were performed on samples extracted from the slags and ingots. Ingot analyses results are shown below. Values are shown in percent removal of the four targeted elements of the initial compositions.

Carmack, W.J.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Gorman, P.K.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

440

Directly-irradiated Two-zone Solar Thermochemical Reactor for H2O/CO2 Splitting  

other fossil fuels, as well as the emission of greenhouse gases. Current solar thermochemical approaches are greatly restricted by the efficiency of the reactor, which is less than one percent. This solar thermochemical reactor has the potential ...

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441

Formatting paragraph numbering for directives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE G 440.1-8 12-27-06 IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE for use with 10 CFR PART 851 WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM [This Guide describes suggested nonmandatory approaches for meeting requirements. Guides are not requirements documents and are not construed as requirements in any audit or appraisal for compliance with the parent Policy, Order, Notice, or Manual.] U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY: www.directives.doe.gov Office of Health, Safety and Security DOE G 440.1-8 i (and ii) 12-27-06 FOREWORD This Department of Energy (DOE) Guide is available for use by all DOE components and their contractors. Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, and deletions) and pertinent data that may

442

Direct synthesis of magnesium borohydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for directly preparing an alkaline earth metal borohydride, i.e. Mg(BH.sub.4).sub.2, from the alkaline earth metal boride MgB.sub.2 by hydrogenating the MgB.sub.2 at an elevated temperature and pressure. The boride may also be doped with small amounts of a metal chloride catalyst such as TiCl.sub.3 and/or NiCl.sub.2. The process provides for charging MgB.sub.2 with high pressure hydrogen above at least 70 MPa while simultaneously heating the material to about 350.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides a reversible hydride compound having a hydrogen capacity of at least 11 wt %.

Ronnebro, Ewa Carin Ellinor (Kennewick, WA); Severa, Godwin (Honolulu, HI); Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

443

Method for directional hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Development of sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources for intravascular irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intravascular brachytherapy is a novel therapy for preventing the restenosis of coronary artery by use of low-dose irradiation. JAERI and Kyoto University have been developing sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources by the cooperative research project entitled as 'The research on safety and effectiveness of the intravascular brachytherapy for preventing restenosis of the coronary artery disease' since 1998. The radiation source was introduced into the stenosis through a catheter (a guide-tube to insert directly into vascular) to irradiate the diseased part. Ten sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir seed sources (phi 0.4 mm x 2.5 mm) were positioned between nylon spacers (phi 0.3 mm x 1.0 mm) in a flexible covering tube and the tube was plugged with a core-wire; the tube was shrunk to fix the inside materials and the size is 0.46 mm in diameter and 3 m in length. The physically optimal design was determined to insert the radiation source easily into vascular and to get the dose uniformity in the diseased part. The production me...

Kogure, H; Iwamoto, S; Iwata, K; Kawauchi, Y; Nagata, Y; Sorita, T; Suzuki, K

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS (REVISION 1)  

SciTech Connect

Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Revision 1 adds a comparison with results of a study of tritium exposed EPDM. The amount of gas produced by the gamma irradiation was found to be equivalent to about 280 days exposure to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere. The glass transition temperature of the tritium exposed EPDM rose about 10 ?C. over 280 days, while no glass transition temperature change was observed for gamma irradiated EPDM. This means that gamma irradiation in deuterium cannot be used as a surrogate for tritium exposure.

Clark, E.

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

446

Three-Dimensional Volumetric Analysis of Irradiated Lung With Adjuvant Breast Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the dose-volume histogram data of irradiated lung in adjuvant breast radiotherapy (ABR) using a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT)-guided planning technique; and to investigate the relationship between lung dose-volume data and traditionally used two-dimensional (2D) parameters, as well as their correlation with the incidence of steroid-requiring radiation pneumonitis (SRRP). Methods and Materials: Patients beginning ABR between January 2005 and February 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included were women aged >=18 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-III invasive carcinoma, who received radiotherapy using a 3D-CT technique to the breast or chest wall (two-field radiotherapy [2FRT]) with or without supraclavicular irradiation (three-field radiotherapy [3FRT]), to 50 Gy in 25 fractions. A 10-Gy tumor-bed boost was allowed. Lung dose-volume histogram parameters (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40}), 2D parameters (central lung depth [CLD], maximum lung depth [MLD], and lung length [LL]), and incidence of SRRP were reported. Results: A total of 89 patients met the inclusion criteria: 51 had 2FRT, and 38 had 3FRT. With 2FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40} and CLD, MLD, LL were 20%, 14%, 11%, and 8% and 2.0 cm, 2.1 cm, and 14.6 cm, respectively, with strong correlation between CLD and ipsilateral V{sub 10-V40} (R{sup 2} = 0.73-0.83, p < 0.0005). With 3FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40} were 30%, 22%, 17%, and 11%, but its correlation with 2D parameters was poor. With a median follow-up of 14.5 months, 1 case of SRRP was identified. Conclusions: With only 1 case of SRRP observed, our study is limited in its ability to provide definitive guidance, but it does provide a starting point for acceptable lung irradiation during ABR. Further prospective studies are warranted.

Teh, Amy Yuen Meei, E-mail: amy.teh@petermac.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Park, Eileen J.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Shen Liang [Biostatistics Unit, Yang Loo Ling School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Chung, Hans T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Direct expanded snacks from sorghum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Food type white sorghum (ATx631xRTx436) grown in College Station, 2001 was used to produce direct expanded snacks. Corn meal was used as reference. Sorghum grains were analyzed for their density, hardness, weight, and size. Sorghum was decorticated to remove 0 (whole) and 20% of its initial weight. Both whole (WS) and decorticated sorghums (DS) were milled and sifted into coarse and fine meals. Meals were analyzed for chemical composition and physical properties. All meals were extruded with a single screw cooking-extruder (Wenger X-20) using optimum extrusion conditions for coarse corn meal. The extrudates were analyzed for physical and sensory properties. Particle size distributions of coarse meals from WS and DS were adjusted to equal the particle size of corn meal. Decortication reduced fat, protein and fiber contents and lighten the color of the sorghum grains. Fine meals had higher pasting viscosities than coarse meals. Extrudates from coarse DS meal had the highest expansion ratio among sorghum extrudates. The environmental scanning electron microscope showed that extrudates from fine DS meal had thick cell walls probably due to the starch being overcooked and the extrudate structure collapsing after expansion. Extrudates from both DS meals were white with a bland taste. Particle size was important to produce good snacks but the composition, especially fat content, had more effect than the particle size. Extrudates from both WS meals had low expansion due to the higher fat and fiber and reduced starch contents. Fat and fiber act as lubricants during extrusion. Extrudates from WS were very hard and off-white with a mild after-taste. The extrusion conditions for WS and DS milled products would require adjustments to produce expanded snacks with properties similar to those of coarse corn meal. Sorghum can be used as raw material alone for direct expanded snacks. Extrudates from DS meals had excellent characteristics that were similar to extrudates from corn and other commercial extruded snacks. The mild flavor and light color suggests that sorghum can compete with rice in extruded snacks. The WS extrudates can be used to produce whole grain high fiber snacks.

Maranphal, Nitit

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

THE BEHAVIOUR OF VASCILAR REACTIONS IN ACUTE IRRADIATION DISEASE  

SciTech Connect

Acute experiments were made with cats, and chronic experiments with dogs. The a cute experiments numbered 377 and concerned 65 rats of either sex and different weights in urethan anesthesia. Another 22 cats were used for 65 control experiments. The cats received a total dose of 1500 r from a therapeutic x-ray unit. The conditions were: distance, 60 cm; O.5 mm copper filter; 160 kv; 20 ma; 29 r/min. The cats were examined on the third day after irradiation, when the irradiation disease picture was developed. Vascular reflexes from the interoceptors of the carotid sinus were investigated after Heymans's method, reflexes from the interoceptors of spleen and intestinal loop vessels after Czernigowski's method, and reflexes from interoceptors of hind-leg vessels after the author's method. Adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcho-line, potassium chloride, and lactic acid were used to stimulate interoceptors. To stimulate the proximal section of the sciatic nerve and peripheral part of the splanchnic nerve, electric current was used --3 to 6 volts, 20 ma, 20 sec. Furthermore, arterial blood pressure was measured in irradiated cats after intravenous administration of adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcholine, or histamine. Experiments were also made with cats poisoned with phentolamine, atropine, or pendiomid. The experimental material was analyzed statistically. Chronic experiments numbered 165 and concerned 6 dogs. Before irradiation, the dogs were opperated upon after the author's method to enable blood pressure to be measured by intravascular technique, and subsequently standards of arterial blood pressure reaction to adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine were determin+d. In the experiments, the dogs received a total dose of 800 r from a therapeutic x ray unit. Conditions were: distance, 80 cm; O.5 mm Cu filter; l60 Kv; 20 ma; 21 r/min. Alrterial blood pressure reaction to the above neurohormones was investigated in the irradiated dogs daily. Experiments with dogs poisoned with phentolamine or pendiomid were also carried out. The experiments referred to showed ionizing radiation to reduce considerably reflexes from vascular chemoreceptors to neurohormones, potassium chloride, and lactic acid. In irradiated cats, pressor reflexes from carotid sinus mechanoreceptors were diminished, and so were pressor reflexes to electric stimulation of the sciatic and splanchnic nerves. Neurohormones, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, caused in cats and dogs lower-than-standard effects. Depressor effects of serotonin were in irradiated and noniirradiated cats equal in strength. In dogs, on the other hand, pressor effects of serotonin diminished in strength with the progress of irradiation disease. Pressure fall evoked by aby acetylcholine and histamine was the same in irradiated and nonirradiated cats and dogs, but of considerably longer duration in irradiated animals. Phentolamine diminished pressor effects of adrenaline in irradiated cats and dogs, and also weakened in dogs the pressor effects of serotonin. Atropine and phentolamine increased in irradiated cats and dogs pressor effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and pressor effects of serotonin in dogs. It was concluded that in acute irradiation disease the adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system, first of all sensory and vasomotor terminals, is injured. Also, preserved vasomotor reflexes, even though weakened, enable in this disease an influence to be exerted on the functional efficiency of the circulatory system. (auth)

Ryzewski, J.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Memorandum, Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Principles Governing Departmental Directives - Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10, 2007 Memorandum, Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10, 2007 September 10, 2007 The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, and procedures for Departmental Elements and, in some instances, our contractors. The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, and procedures for Departmental Elements and, in some instances, our contractors. Directives help ensure that the Department operates in a safe, secure, efficient, and cost-effective manner. They promote operational consistency throughout the DOE complex, foster sound management, and

450

Measuring Solar Spectral and Angle-ofIncidence Effects on Photovoltaic Modules and Solar Irradiance Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, two time-of-day dependent factors have complicated the characterization of photovoltaic module and array performance; namely, changes in the solar spectrum over the day and optical effects in the module that vary with the solar angle-of-incidence. This paper describes straightforward methods for directly measuring the effects of these two factors. Measured results for commercial modules, as well as for typical solar irradiance sensors (pyranometers) are provided. The empirical relationships obtained from the measurements can be used to improve the methods used for system design, verification of performance after installation, and diagnostic monitoring of performance during operation. INTRODUCTION It is common knowledge to people familiar with photovoltaic technology that the electrical current generated by photovoltaic devices is influenced by the spectral distribution (spectrum) of sunlight. It is also commonly understood that the spectral distribution of sunlight vari...

David L. King; Jay A. Kratochvil; William E. Boyson

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Technical specification: Mixed-oxide pellets for the light-water reactor irradiation demonstration test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical specification is a Level 2 Document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. It is patterned after the pellet specification that was prepared by Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited, for use by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fabrication of the test fuel for the Parallex Project, adjusted as necessary to reflect the differences between the Canadian uranium-deuterium reactor and light-water reactor fuels. This specification and the associated engineering drawing are to be utilized only for preparation of test fuel as outlined in the accompanying Request for Quotation and for additional testing as directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory or the Department of Energy.

Cowell, B.S.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lack of long and reliable time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) measurements makes an accurate quantification of solar contributions to recent climate change difficult. Whereas earlier SSI observations and models provided a qualitatively consistent picture of the SSI variability, recent measurements by the SORCE satellite suggest a significantly stronger variability in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range and changes in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands in anti-phase with the solar cycle. A number of recent chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations have shown that this might have significant implications on the Earth's atmosphere. Motivated by these results, we summarize here our current knowledge of SSI variability and its impact on Earth's climate. We present a detailed overview of existing SSI measurements and provide thorough comparison of models available to date. SSI changes influence the Earth's atmosphere, both directly, through changes in shortwave (SW) heating and therefore, temp...

Ermolli, I; de Wit, T Dudok; Krivova, N A; Tourpali, K; Weber, M; Unruh, Y C; Gray, L; Langematz, U; Pilewskie, P; Rozanov, E; Schmutz, W; Shapiro, A; Solanki, S K; Woods, T N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

454

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

455

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

456

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

457

Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

458

Low backlash direct drive actuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakland, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Characterization of leakage current in thin gate oxide subjected to 10 KeV X-ray irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Two components of the low-field current have been identified in thin oxides, following 10 KeV X-ray irradiation. The first component, observed in the direct tunneling region, can be removed by a 100 C anneal, and is also greatly suppressed if the irradiation is done in vacuum or in a nitrogen ambient, or if the oxide is preannealed before irradiation. The origin of this current is speculated to be related to adsorbed water molecules on the gate surface. The second component is observed to begin in the pre-Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FNT) region and extends into the FNT region, only in oxides less than {approximately}8 nm thick, and persists even after several days of anneal at 300 C. This current exhibits a power law dependence on radiation dose. The origin of this second component is believed to be due to the trap-assisted tunneling via neutral electron traps, similar to the leakage current observed in the oxide after high-voltage stress.

Ling, C.H.; Ang, C.H.; Ang, D.S.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Comparison of Calculated and Measured Neutron Fluence in Fuel/Cladding Irradiation Experiments in HFIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently-designed thermal neutron irradiation facility has been used for a first series of irradiations of PWR fuel pellets in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since June 2010, irradiations of PWR fuel pellets made of UN or UO{sub 2}, clad in SiC, have been ongoing in the outer small VXF sites in the beryllium reflector region of the HFIR, as seen in Fig. 1. HFIR is a versatile, 85 MW isotope production and test reactor with the capability and facilities for performing a wide variety of irradiation experiments. HFIR is a beryllium-reflected, light-water-cooled and -moderated, flux-trap type reactor that uses highly enriched (in {sup 235}U) uranium (HEU) as the fuel. The reactor core consists of a series of concentric annular regions, each about 2 ft (0.61 m) high. A 5-in. (12.70-cm)-diam hole, referred to as the flux trap, forms the center of the core. The fuel region is composed of two concentric fuel elements made up of many involute-shaped fuel plates: an inner element that contains 171 fuel plates, and an outer element that contains 369 fuel plates. The fuel plates are curved in the shape of an involute, which provides constant coolant channel width between plates. The fuel (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermet) is nonuniformly distributed along the arc of the involute to minimize the radial peak-to-average power density ratio. A burnable poison (B{sub 4}C) is included in the inner fuel element primarily to reduce the negative reactivity requirements of the reactor control plates. A typical HEU core loading in HFIR is 9.4 kg of {sup 235}U and 2.8 g of {sup 10}B. The thermal neutron flux in the flux trap region can exceed 2.5 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s while the fast flux in this region exceeds 1 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s. The inner and outer fuel elements are in turn surrounded by a concentric ring of beryllium reflector approximately 1 ft (0.30 m) thick. The beryllium reflector consists of three regions: the removable reflector, the semi-permanent reflector, and the permanent reflector. It is surrounded by a water reflector of effectively infinite thickness. In the axial direction, the reactor is reflected by water above and below the reactor. The irradiation facilities, one for UN and the other for UO{sub 2} pellets, utilize a thin cylindrical hafnium shield approximately 4 cm in diameter surrounding the facility basket to reduce the thermal neutron flux sufficiently such that the linear power rating in the irradiated fuel pins will be similar to PWR operating conditions. The facilities each contain nine fuel pins, each comprising 10 fuel pellets, arranged as if three fuel rods.

Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Definition: Geothermal Direct Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Direct Use Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Geothermal Direct Use Low- to moderate-temperature water from geothermal reservoirs can be used to provide heat directly to buildings, or other applications that require heat. Generally, the water in the geothermal reservoirs withdrawn for direct use is between 68° F to 302° F. In addition to residential, commercial and industrial buildings, homes, pools and spas, greenhouses, fish farms, and even mining operations utilize direct use of geothermal resources for heat[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal energy for heating applications. Humans have taken advantage of geothermal heat this way since the Paleolithic era. Approximately seventy countries made direct

462

West Virginia Direct Loan Program (West Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The West Virginia Direct Loan Program, provides up to 45 percent in financing fixed assets through low-interest, direct loans to businesses expanding or locating in West Virginia. Proceeds from the...

463

Direct Measurements of the Luzon Undercurrent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Luzon Undercurrent (LUC) was discovered about 20 years ago by geostrophic calculation from conductivitytemperaturedepth (CTD) data. But it was not directly measured until 2010. From November 2010 to July 2011, the LUC was first directly ...

Dunxin Hu; Shijian Hu; Lixin Wu; Lei Li; Linlin Zhang; Xinyuan Diao; Zhaohui Chen; Yuanlong Li; Fan Wang; Dongliang Yuan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Living Direct: Order (2011-CE-1904)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Living Direct, Inc. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Living Direct had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers, refrigerator-freezers and freezers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

465

When Are Eddy Tracer Fluxes Directed Downgradient?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms controlling the direction of eddy tracer fluxes are examined using eddy-resolving isopycnic experiments for a cyclic zonal channel. Eddy fluxes are directed downgradient on average when either (i) there is a Lagrangian increase in ...

Chris Wilson; Richard G. Williams

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Directional intercept factor of truncated CPCs  

SciTech Connect

The fraction of power reaching the collector of a truncated cylindrical compound parabolic concentrator, out of the total power arriving at its entry aperture in a given direction, is calculated without ray tracing for all directions.

Minano, J.C.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance Rutledge, Charles NASA Langley Research Center Schuster, Greg NASA Langley Research Center Category: Instruments Recent effort towards the development of a diffuse horizontal solar irradiance standard group [Michalsky et.al. 2005] using well calibrated pyranometers suggested that inter-instrument differences in cosine response characteristics may be problematic. They showed a calibration method using overcast skies (an approximately uniform radiance distribution) produced superior diffuse radiometer performance when compared to a calibration method using clear skies (which have a radiance distribution systematically varying from horizon to the near vicinity of the sun). The proposed instrument offers a significantly different basic design compared to

468

Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility (IMET) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility May 30, 2013 The Irradiated Material Examination and Testing (IMET) Facility was designed and built as a hot cell facility. It is a two-story block and brick structure with a two-story high bay that houses six heavily shielded cells and an array of sixty shielded storage wells. It includes the Specimen Prep Lab (SPL) with its associated laboratory hood and glove boxes, an Operating Area, where the control and monitoring instruments supporting the in-cell test equipment are staged, a utility corridor, a hot equipment storage area, a tank vault room, office space, a trucking area with access to the high bay, and an outside steel building for storage. The tests and examinations are conducted in six examination "hot" cells

469

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Bertrand Tseng University of California Abstract Radiation-induced oxidative stress can impact the physiologic function of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells by activating redox-sensitive signaling cascades that can alter radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. Many of these signaling pathways depend on the nature, magnitude and duration of the specific reactive species involved, features that dictate in large part whether radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to the organism. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-20 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days to weeks. These redox changes can

470

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Progeny of Irradiated Mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Characteristic of Malignancy Mary H. Barcellos-Hoff, R.L. Henshall-Powell, M.J. Bissell, and B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division We have proposed that the ability of radiation to induce altered microenvironments affects the frequency and features of neoplastic progression. Thus, we have sought to characterize the irradiated microenvironment and determine how these events contribute to mammary carcinogenesis. By using imaging bioinformatics to analyze mouse and human models of breast cancer we have now examined cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) critical for tissue-specific organization and function. We found that 1) radiation-induced microenvironments can contribute to neoplastic potential

471

Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karim, Julia Abdul [Reactor Physics Section, Nuclear Power Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

472

Effects of laser irradiation on the morphology of Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pulsed laser irradiation on the morphology of the Cu(110) surface were investigated by means of reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) and spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The laser light induces surface defects (adatoms and islands) as well as subsurface dislocation lines. The high surface mobility leads to efficient annealing of the surface defects even at room temperature, whereas the subsurface dislocation lines persist up to temperatures T>800 K. SPA-LEED profiles of the (00) diffraction spot from the laser irradiated surface suggest an anisotropic distribution of the subsurface line defects related to the geometry of the fcc easy glide system, which is corroborated by STM measurements. Comparative experiments using conventional Ar ion bombardment point out the distinctiveness of the morphological changes induced by laser irradiation.

Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Stehrer, T.; Heitz, J.; Georgiev, N.; Martinotti, D.; Ernst, H.-J. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); CEA Saclay, DSM/Drecam/SPCSI, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation