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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption and Expenditures  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Fuel Economy, Consumption, and Expenditures 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption, and Expenditures Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption, and Expenditures This chapter analyzes trends in fuel economy, fuel consumption, and fuel expenditures, using data unique to the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey, as well as selected data from other sources. Analysis topics include the following: Following the oil supply and price disruptions caused by the Arab oil embargo of 1973-1974, motor gasoline price increases, the introduction of corporate average fuel economy standards, and environmental quality initiatives helped to spur major changes in vehicle technology. But have the many advances in vehicle technology resulted in measurable gains in the fuel economy of the residential vehicle fleet?

2

Table 5.17. U.S. Number of Households by Vehicle Fuel Expenditures...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

5.17. U.S. Number of Households by Vehicle Fuel Expenditures, 1994 (Continued) (Million Households) 1993 Household and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All...

3

Analysis of influence of fuel price on individual activity-travel time expenditure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fluctuation in fuel prices may lead to adaptations in people?s activity-travel behavior. Compared to other triggers of behavioral change, the impact of fuel prices has received only scant attention in the literature, especially with respect to short-run change in activity-travel behavior. To gain insight into this issue, travel diaries of a representative sample of individuals in the Netherlands who use the car for daily travel were analyzed. Seemingly unrelated regression analysis was used to examine the effects of fuel price on people?s travel time expenditures for different kinds of activities, differentiating between weekdays and weekends. The results indicate that fuel price is negatively correlated with travel time expenditures by car, and that this relationship differs between weekdays and weekends. When faced with increasing fuel prices, people seem to prefer reducing travel time expenditure by car for compulsory trips more than for leisure trips.

Dujuan Yang; Harry Timmermans

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

State energy price and expenditure report 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Workshop July 30, 2003 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Carbon Anode Electrochemistry Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells Coal Preprocessing Prior to Introduction Into the Fuel Cell Potential Market Applications for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells Discussion of Key R&D Needs Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

6

State energy price and expenditure report, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

NONE

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

8

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer

9

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1992 Consumption and Expenditures 1992 Consumption & Expenditures Overview Full Report Tables National estimates of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district heat...

10

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells ... After optimization for minimum activation polarization, the authors then produced impedance spectra to assess cell performance and achieved a peak power density of around 18 and 53 mW cm2 at 700 and 800 C, respectively. ... solid oxide fuel cell system under 600 just by optimizing the anode microstructure and operating conditions. ...

Adam C. Rady; Sarbjit Giddey; Sukhvinder P. S. Badwal; Bradley P. Ladewig; Sankar Bhattacharya

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel...

12

Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal ofeconomies of the direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicle withoutMaximizing Direct-Hydrogen Pem Fuel Cell Vehicle Efficiency-

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

State energy price and expenditure report 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

FUEL CELLS DIRECT ALCOHOL FUEL CELLS | Direct Ethylene Glycol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, in which the oxidation of ethylene glycol and the reduction of oxygen take place at the anode and the cathode, respectively, are promising candidates as electric power sources of portable devices such as the cellular phone and the laptop computer. The advantages of ethylene glycol are high activity, high energy density, low volatility, and high boiling point compared with other organic fuels such as methanol and ethanol. In this article, the construction of direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, the electrooxidation of ethylene glycol in acid and alkaline solutions, cathode catalysts, and operating conditions such as temperature, pH of the electrolytes, and the concentration of ethylene glycol are described.

Z. Ogumi; K. Miyazaki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Future Directions in Engines and Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conference Future Direction in Engines and Fuels Mobility industry Challenges - CARB GHG Scenario CARB Board hearing Dec. 2009 GHG 1 GHG 2 GHG 0 September 28, 2010 0 40 80...

16

Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel...

17

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Presentation...

18

Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and...

19

Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

20

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

22

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Household Expenditures Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Household Expenditures Module Household Expenditures Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Household Expenditures Module Figure 5. United States Census Divisions. Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. The Household Expenditures Module (HEM) constructs household energy expenditure profiles using historical survey data on household income, population and demographic characteristics, and consumption and expenditures for fuels for various end-uses. These data are combined with NEMS forecasts of household disposable income, fuel consumption, and fuel expenditures by end-use and household type. The HEM disaggregation algorithm uses these combined results to forecast household fuel consumption and expenditures by income quintile and Census Division (see

23

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold

24

New Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Fuels New Directions in Engines and Fuels Mobility based predominately on petroleum faces severe and imminent constraints as petroleum production and deliverability are...

25

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or otherwise restricted information Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Chris Roger and David Mountz October 1, 2009 2009 Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff...

26

Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1] D.J. Friedman etc. , PEM Fuel Cell System Optimization,Pressure Operation of PEM Fuel Cell Systems, SAE 2001, 2001-Maximizing Direct-Hydrogen Pem Fuel Cell Vehicle Efficiency-

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel UGA, ORNL research team engineers microbes for the direct conversion of biomass to fuel July 11, 2014 New research from the University of...

28

Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the simple load following strategy (non-hybridizeda Direct-Hydrogen, Load-Following Fuel Cell Vehicle, SAE

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

Turgut Gur

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

31

Spontaneous hydrogen evolution in direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts chemical energy of liquid methanol into electrical energy. Because of its (more)

Ye, Qiang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operating conditions. Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell System Modelconditions for a direct hydrogen fuel cell system Table 1simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal of

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike active direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that require liquid pumps and gas compressors to supply reactants, the design of passive DMFCs eliminates these ancillary (more)

Chan, Yeuk Him

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Household Expenditures  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Key Assumptions Key Assumptions The historical input data used to develop the HEM version for the AEO2000 consists of recent household survey responses, aggregated to the desired level of detail. Two surveys performed by the Energy Information Administration are included in the AEO2000 HEM database, and together these input data are used to develop a set of baseline household consumption profiles for the direct fuel expenditure analysis. These surveys are the 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and the 1991 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). HEM uses the consumption forecast by NEMS for the residential and transportation sectors as inputs to the disaggregation algorithm that results in the direct fuel expenditure analysis. Household end-use and personal transportation service consumption are obtained by HEM from the NEMS Residential and Transportation Demand Modules. Household disposable income is adjusted with forecasts of total disposable income from the NEMS Macroeconomic Activity Module.

37

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells ... The addition of Ru substantially improves the CO tolerance of the catalyst, and there has been a great deal of research on the optimization of the alloy composition and structure. ...

Aidong Lan; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

38

UNDERSTANDING DIRECT BOROHYDRIDE - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) generate electrical power by oxidizing aqueous BH4- at the anode and reducing an oxidizer, like aqueous H2O2 for an all-liquid (more)

Stroman, Richard O'Neil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a Direct-Hydrogen, Load-Following Fuel Cell Vehicle, SAEversus a Direct-Hydrogen Load-Following Fuel Cell Vehicle,vehicle model of a load-following direct hydrogen fuel cell

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fuel.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0: Residual Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Prices Expenditures Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Commercial Industrial Transportation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fuel.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

F8: Distillate Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Residential Commercial...

42

Direct methanol fuel cell and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

43

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation (DMFCC) Place Altadena, California Zip 91001 Product DMFCC is focused on providing intellectual property protection and disposable fuel cartridge for the direct methanol fuel cell industry. Coordinates 34.185405°, -118.131529° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.185405,"lon":-118.131529,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

44

Financial Statistics: Expenditure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While public attention is usually focussed on one category of expenditure viz Rate Fund expenditure-both revenue and capital (see section 3.3)-it is ... financial statistics to realise that the term expenditure...

J. M. Gillespie

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Gamma Ray Mirrors for Direct Measurement of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurement of the amount of Pu and U in spent nuclear fuel represents a challenge for the safeguards community. Ideally, the characteristic gamma-ray emission lines from different isotopes provide an observable suitable for this task. However, these lines are generally lost in the fierce flux of radiation emitted by the fuel. The rates are so high that detector dead times limit measurements to only very small solid angles of the fuel. Only through the use of carefully designed view ports and long dwell times are such measurements possible. Recent advances in multilayer grazing-incidence gamma-ray optics provide one possible means of overcoming this difficulty. With a proper optical and coating design, such optics can serve as a notch filter, passing only narrow regions of the overall spectrum to a fully shielded detector that does not view the spent fuel directly. We report on the design of a mirror system and a number of experimental measurements.

Pivovaroff, Dr. Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL] [ORNL; Harrison, Mark J [ORNL] [ORNL; Soufli, Regina [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Capital and revenue expenditures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T and Charaoteristios of Various Expenditures ~ ~ 7 III. Bases for Expenditure Classifioationi ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ ' ~ IV ~ Methods of kooountiag for Capital and Revenue Expenditure( ~ ~ I CkPITLL ERE RKVRRUm bXPLM)ITURkiS ISTRORUGTIOR kn ?ttonpt will be made... whish represent part of the nooessary cost of usine the asset during the current period, shouLd be oharged abainst the revenue of the period? heveaue expenditures are expensosg capital expenditures are noti fhe toras aooounting period' and "fiscal...

Owens, Jack Bailey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

07 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems...

50

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the...

51

Molten Metal Anodes for Direct Carbon-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aim of this thesis was to enable the direct utilization of solid carbonaceous fuels like coal and biomass, in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). (more)

Jayakumar, Abhimanyu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

53

Towards Human Energy Expenditure Estimation Using Smart Phone Inertial Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reliably estimate energy expenditure (EE). Direct calorimetry [5] measures the heat produced by human bodyTowards Human Energy Expenditure Estimation Using Smart Phone Inertial Sensors Bozidara Cvetkovi´c1 human energy expenditure during sport and normal daily ac- tivities. The paper presents technical

Lu?trek, Mitja

54

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Household Expenditures  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Completed Copy in PDF Format Completed Copy in PDF Format Related Links Annual Energy Outlook2001 Supplemental Data to the AEO2001 NEMS Conference To Forecasting Home Page EIA Homepage Household Expenditures Module Key Assumptions The historical input data used to develop the HEM version for the AEO2001 consists of recent household survey responses, aggregated to the desired level of detail. Two surveys performed by the Energy Information Administration are included in the AEO2001 HEM database, and together these input data are used to develop a set of baseline household consumption profiles for the direct fuel expenditure analysis. These surveys are the 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and the 1991 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). HEM uses the consumption forecast by NEMS for the residential and

55

Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

56

Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems.

59

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt...

60

NETL: News Release - Full Scale Direct FuelCell? Completes One Year of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

March 31, 2000 March 31, 2000 Full Scale Direct FuelCellTM Completes One Year of Operation Confirms Performance and Durability of New Energy Generating Technology A commercial design of an advanced fuel cell - the building block of a family of environmentally super-clean, fuel-flexible power plants - has passed several milestones in a joint public-private development effort. FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell The Direct FuelCell is a versatile, combustion-less power source being developed in the Department of Energy's fuel cell research program. It can use natural gas, methanol, ethanol, bio-gas or other hydrogen-rich fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has completed one year of commercial design validation and endurance testing of a 250 kilowatt-class Direct FuelCellTM

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect experimental cylinder pressure for different gasoline-ethanol blends and various speeds and loads on a 2.0 L

Stefanopoulou, Anna

62

SHAPE SELECTIVE NANOCATALYSTS FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While gold and platinum have long been recognized for their beauty and value, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on the nano-level to use these elements for creative solutions to our nation's energy and security needs. Multiinterdisciplinary teams consisting of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, computational scientists, and engineers are exploring unchartered territories with shape-selective nanocatalysts for the development of novel, cost effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions to meet global energy needs. This nanotechnology is vital, particularly as it relates to fuel cells.SRNL researchers have taken process, chemical, and materials discoveries and translated them for technological solution and deployment. The group has developed state-of-the art shape-selective core-shell-alloy-type gold-platinum nanostructures with outstanding catalytic capabilities that address many of the shortcomings of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The newly developed nanostructures not only busted the performance of the platinum catalyst, but also reduced the material cost and overall weight of the fuel cell.

Murph, S.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

63

Performance and Emissions of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel Fuel Containing Dissolved Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, People's Republic of China ... soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solns., one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liq. ... (16)?Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals; McGraw-Hill:? New York, 1988. ...

Junqiang Zhang; Deming Jiang; Zuohua Huang; Xibin Wang; Qi Wei

2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a Hydrogen Delivery Workshop in Washington, DC, May 7-8, 2003. Attendees included researchers, government officials, and industry members. A key element of the overall hydrogen energy infrastructure is the delivery system that moves the hydrogen from its point of production to an end-use device. The DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will initiate, in fiscal year 2004, a research program targeted specifically at addressing hydrogen transportation and delivery. This special workshop was held to outline the future technology and research needs for developing cost-effective, reliable, and safe hydrogen delivery systems. The proceedings of the Hydrogen Delivery Workshop, which include the presentations and the recommendations of the four breakout groups, are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader.

65

A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this type of fuel cell become a lead- ing candidate to replace batteries in portable applications includA sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu October 2012 Received in revised form 4 December 2012 Accepted 3 January 2013 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct

Zhao, Tianshou

66

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells in the mass transport of various species and electrochemical reactions in DMFCs compared with hydrogen- fueled of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC was observed to undergo an overshoot before it stabilized during

Zhao, Tianshou

67

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

68

Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kW) Vehicle Mass (kg) Electric Motor (kW) Fuel Cell StackkW) Vehicle Mass (kg) Electric Motor (kW) Fuel Cell Stack

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Partners Budget Colorado School of Mines (CSM) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) BASF Fuel Cells (BASF) MTI MicroFuel Cells (MTI) Timeline 2009 - 2011 2009 (Aug) 2011 2010...

70

Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Efforts intensify to convert methane to fuels directly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until now the assumption has been that synthesis gas - mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen - would be the principal source for many of the chemicals and fuels to be made via C/sub 1/ chemistry. Efforts to make cheap synthesis gas continue. But the pressure to circumvent the stranglehold that OPEC has on petroleum has caused other avenues to be explored. The current oversupply of natural gas offers an interim solution to the problem of nonpetroleum alternate source materials for C/sub 1/ chemicals production. The paper discusses the constraints and advantages of four processes: conventional steam reforming, steam reforming with oxygen secondary, partial oxidation, and catalytic partial oxidation. The end product in all cases is methanol. Direct use of methanol as a fuel has encountered numerous difficulties. conversion of methanol is, thus, of more immediate interest in C/sub 1/ chemistry. The Mobil MTG process and its second-generation modifications, both producing high-grade gasoline, are discussed. Also, the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and the Sasol coal liquefaction processes are summarized.

Haggin, J.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 October 1, 2009

73

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 October 1, 2009

74

Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a country's external military threat; lgdp is the log ofMilitary Expenditure, Threats, and Growth * September 2003expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other

Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

Tao, Thomas

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

76

Table 7.9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

77

Public Expenditure on Education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of Commons on December 17, Mr. Geoffrey Lloyd, Minister of Education, said that expenditure by the Ministry and local education authorities, excluding ... by the Ministry and local education authorities, excluding capital ...

1959-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

78

Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

79

Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

NONE

1995-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

80

New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- srpported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

Adzic, Radoslav

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

FY2002 Progress Report for Fuels for Advanced Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuels for Advanced Compression Fuels for Advanced Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Approved by Stephen Goguen November 2002 Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines FY 2002 Progress Report iii CONTENTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii INDEX OF PRIMARY CONTACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. FUEL/LUBRICANT EFFECTS TESTING ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . 13 A. Oil Consumption Contribution to CIDI PM Emissions during Transient Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

82

US Spent (Used) Fuel Status, Management and Likely Directions- 12522  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As of 2010, the US has accumulated 65,200 MTU (42,300 MTU of PWR's; 23,000 MTU of BWR's) of spent (irradiated or used) fuel from 104 operating commercial nuclear power plants situated at 65 sites in 31 States and from previously shutdown commercial nuclear power plants. Further, the Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for an additional 2458 MTU of DOE-owned defense and non defense spent fuel from naval nuclear power reactors, various non-commercial test reactors and reactor demonstrations. The US has no centralized large spent fuel storage facility for either commercial spent fuel or DOE-owned spent fuel. The 65,200 MTU of US spent fuel is being safely stored by US utilities at numerous reactor sites in (wet) pools or (dry) metal or concrete casks. As of November 2010, the US had 63 'independent spent fuel storage installations' (or ISFSI's) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission located at 57 sites in 33 states. Over 1400 casks loaded with spent fuel for dry storage are at these licensed ISFSI's; 47 sites are located at commercial reactor sites and 10 are located 'away' from a reactor (AFR's) site. DOE's small fraction of a 2458 MTU spent fuel inventory, which is not commercial spent fuel, is with the exception of 2 MTU, being stored at 4 sites in 4 States. The decades old US policy of a 'once through' fuel cycle with no recycle of spent fuel was set into a state of 'mass confusion or disruption' when the new US President Obama's administration started in early 2010 stopping the only US geologic disposal repository at the Yucca Mountain site in the State of Nevada from being developed and licensed. The practical result is that US nuclear power plant operators will have to continue to be responsible for managing and storing their own spent fuel for an indefinite period of time at many different sites in order to continue to generate electricity because there is no current US government plan, schedule or policy for taking possession of accumulated spent fuel from the utilities. There are technical solutions for continuing the safe storage of spent fuel for 100 years or more and these solutions will be implemented by the US utilities that need to keep their nuclear power plants operating while the unknown political events are played out to establish future US policy decisions that can remain in place long enough regarding accumulated spent fuel inventories to implement any new US spent fuel centralized storage or disposition policy by the US government. (author)

Jardine, Leslie J. [L. J. Jardine Services, Consultant, Dublin CA, 94568 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

84

Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

- A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers...

85

"Table A28. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" " and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" " "," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors"

86

Facts and issues of direct disposal of spent fuel; Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews those facts and issues that affect the direct disposal of spent reactor fuels. It is intended as a resource document for those impacted by the current Department of Energy (DOE) guidance that calls for the cessation of fuel reprocessing. It is not intended as a study of the specific impacts (schedules and costs) to the Savannah River Site (SRS) alone. Commercial fuels, other low enriched fuels, highly enriched defense-production, research, and naval reactor fuels are included in this survey, except as prevented by rules on classification.

Parks, P.B.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Economic Analysis on Direct Use of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel in CANDU Reactors - I: DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary conceptual design of a Direct Use of spent Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel In Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel fabrication plant was studied, which annually converts spent PWR fuel of 400 tonnes heavy element (HE) into CANDU fuel. The capital and operating costs were estimated from the viewpoint of conceptual design. Assuming that the annual discount rate is 5% during the construction (5 yr) and operation period (40 yr) and contingency is 25% of the capital cost, the levelized unit cost (LUC) of DUPIC fuel fabrication was estimated to be 616 $/kg HE, which is mostly governed by annual operation and maintenance costs that correspond to 63% of LUC. Among the operation and maintenance cost components being considered, the waste disposal cost has the dominant effect on LUC ({approx}49%). From sensitivity analyses of production capacity, discount rate, and contingency, it was found that the production capacity of the plant is the major parameter that affects the LUC.

Choi, Hangbok; Ko, Won Il; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

New Directions in Fuels Technology | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

All fuels have their pros and cons that become evident at large scale, and while biofuels are a critical part of the energy future, they are not the only solution...

89

Mass transport phenomena in direct methanol fuel cells T.S. Zhao*, C. Xu, R. Chen, W.W. Yang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mass transport phenomena in direct methanol fuel cells T.S. Zhao*, C. Xu, R. Chen, W.W. Yang January 2009 Available online 20 February 2009 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct methanol fuel cell Mass efficient energy production has long been sought to solve energy and environmental problems. Fuel cells

Zhao, Tianshou

90

Operating and Capital Expenditures Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, you will learn how to plan, create, and use the Operating Expenditure (OPEX) model and the Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) model. These models are used ... to forecast, respectively, general operatin...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Economy slows Arco's capital expenditures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economy slows Arco's capital expenditures ... Arco Chemical's new president and chief executive officer, Alan R. Hirsig, told shareholders the company plans to stretch out its capital expenditure program and as a result, expects sharply lower capital spending in 1992. ...

MARC REISCH

1991-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

Corporate Expenditure on Environmental Protection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the determinants of firms current environmental expenditure and firms capital investment in equipment for pollution control in ... The main determinants for the two types of expenditure are similar: ...

Stefanie A. Haller; Liam Murphy

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

BODY COMPOSITION -ENERGY EXPENDITURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BODY COMPOSITION - ENERGY EXPENDITURE Validation of dual, X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for body for BW, BMC and FC were significantly correlated with scale BW (r== 0.999), chemical calcium (r=0.992) and chemical fat (r= 0.971).Regression analy- sis showed that BW was accurately mea- sured, but FC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Activities: Progress and Future Directions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Activities: U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Activities: Progress and Future Directions Total Energy USA Houston, Texas Dr. Sunita Satyapal 11/27/2012 Director, Office of Fuel Cell Technologies Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Overview Fuel Cells - An Emerging Global Industry United States 46% Germany 7% Korea 7% Canada 3% Taiwan 1% Great Britain 1% France 1% Other 3% Japan 31% Fuel Cell Patents Geographic Distribution 2002-2011 Top 10 companies: GM, Honda, Samsung, Toyota, UTC Power, Nissan, Ballard, Plug Power, Panasonic, Delphi Technologies Clean Energy Patent Growth Index Source: Clean Energy Patent Growth Index Clean Energy Patent Growth Index [1] shows that fuel cell patents lead in the clean energy field with over 950 fuel cell patents issued in 2011.

95

Performance of a direct ethylene glycol fuel cell with an anion-exchange membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an anion-exchange membrane with non-platinum electrocatalysts at both the anode and cathode on the development and performance test of an alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cell. The fuel cell consists with the existing electrocatalysts at low temperatures; as a result, the main product of ethanol oxidation reaction

Zhao, Tianshou

96

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

10 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive...

97

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Application: 2009 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009 Update This report is the third annual update of a...

98

Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxides and their evaluation in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid ...

Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

99

Burning of Hydrocarbon Fuels Directly in a Water-Based Heat Carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A principal possibility of burning hydrocarbon fuels directly in a water-based heat carrier is demonstrated. The first experimental results are presented by an example of burning acetylene in water with initia...

V. S. Teslenko; V. I. Manzhalei; R. N. Medvedev

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Effects on Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Effects on Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions ... The test fuels indicate variable hydrocarbon composition and physical and chemical properties, and they were prepared under a European Union research program aiming to identify future fuel formulations for use in modern DI diesel engines. ... 1,2,4-9,13,14,16,17,24-26 In general, there is an interrelation between the molecular structure (paraffins, olefins, napthenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons), the chemical properties (cetane number, ignition point, etc.), and the physical properties (density, viscosity, surface tension, etc.) of the diesel fuel. ...

Theodoros C. Zannis; Dimitrios T. Hountalas; Roussos G. Papagiannakis

2007-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

Implementation of direct LSC method for diesel samples on the fuel market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The European Union develops common EU policy and strategy on biofuels and sustainable bio-economy through several documents. The encouragement of biofuel?s consumption is therefore the obligation of each EU member state. The situation in Slovenian fuel market is presented and compared with other EU countries in the frame of prescribed values from EU directives. Diesel is the most common fuel for transportation needs in Slovenia. The study was therefore performed on diesel. The sampling net was determined in accordance with the fuel consumption statistics of the country. 75 Sampling points were located on different types of roads. The quantity of bio-component in diesel samples was determined by direct LSC method through measurement of C-14 content. The measured values were in the range from 0 up to nearly 6 mass percentage of bio-component in fuel. The method has proved to be appropriate, suitable and effective for studies on the real fuel market.

Romana Kritof; Marko Hirsch; Jasmina Koar Logar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

104

Direct methanol fuel cells for transportation applications. Quarterly technical report, June 1996--September 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research and development effort is to advance the performance and viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology for light-duty transportation applications. For fuel cells to be an attractive alternative to conventional automotive power plants, the fuel cell stack combined with the fuel processor and ancillary systems must be competitive in terms of both performance and costs. A major advantage for the direct methanol fuel cell is that a fuel processor is not required. A direct methanol fuel cell has the potential of satisfying the demanding requirements for transportation applications, such as rapid start-up and rapid refueling. The preliminary goals of this effort are: (1) 310 W/l, (2) 445 W/kg, and (3) potential manufacturing costs of $48/kW. In the twelve month period for phase 1, the following critical areas will be investigated: (1) an improved proton-exchange membrane that is more impermeable to methanol, (2) improved cathode catalysts, and (3) advanced anode catalysts. In addition, these components will be combined to form membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA`s) and evaluated in subscale tests. Finally a conceptual design and program plan will be developed for the construction of a 5 kW direct methanol stack in phase II of the program.

Fuller, T.F.; Kunz, H.R.; Moore, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

4 4 FY 2007 Federal Buildings Energy Prices and Expenditures, by Fuel Type ($2010) Fuel Type Electricity (1) Natural Gas Fuel Oil Coal Purchased Steam LPG/Propane Other Average Total Note(s): Source(s): 17.05 6028.63 Prices and expenditures are for Goal-Subject buildings. 1) $0.0776/kWh. 2) Energy used in Goal-Subject buildings in FY 2007 accounted for 33.8% of the total Federal energy bill. DOE/FEMP, Annual Report to Congress on FEMP FY 2007, Jan. 2010, Table A-4, p. 93 for prices and expenditures, and Table A-9, p. 97 for total energy expenditures; EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price deflators. 24.30 318.35 17.06 43.87 16.19 36.64 9.37 1138.21 15.25 419.30 3.62 62.87 Average Fuel Prices Total Expenditures ($/million BTU) ($ million) (2) 23.68

106

Journal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 509516 Direct NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Fuel cell; Hydrogen peroxide; Regenerative fuel cell; Sodium) /hydrogen per- oxide (H2O2) fuel cell (FC) is under development jointly by the University of IllinoisJournal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 509­516 Direct NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells George H. Mileya,e,, Nie

Carroll, David L.

107

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 Phone: (303) 275-3704 Email: todd.ramsden@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Peter Devlin Phone: (202) 586-4905 Email: Peter.Devlin@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: Oorja Protonics, Inc., Fremont, CA Project Start Date: June 1, 2010 Project End Date: March 31, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Operate and maintain fuel-cell-powered material * handling equipment (MHE) using direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. Compile operational data of DMFCs and validate their * performance under real-world operating conditions. Provide an independent technology assessment that * focuses on DMFC system performance, operation, and

108

Final Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Project Report Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL Nuclear Engineering Education Research Program (grant # DE-FG07-99ID13767) Rodney C. Ewing (co-PI) Lumin Wang (co-PI) October 30,2002 For the Period of 07/01/1999 to 06/30/2002 Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1 1. Background Excess actinides result from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons (239Pu) and the reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (mainly 241Am, Cm and 237Np). In Europe, Canada and Japan studies have determined much improved efficiencies for burn- up of actinides using inert-matrix fuels. This innovative approach also considers the properties of the inert-matrix fuel as a nuclear waste form for direct disposal after one-

109

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings ... Because of their fuel economy and high reliability, compression-ignition (CI) engines known as diesel engines have been penetrating a number of markets around the world. ...

Mustafa Canakci; Cenk Sayin; Metin Gumus

2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

110

Performance of a direct diesel engine using aviation fuels blended with biodiesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, jet fuel (JF) and railroad fuel (D2) with SME blends (5%, 20%, 50%) were used in a four-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct (DI) diesel engine. The engine was operated under full load and tested at various speeds to determine the engine's performance and exhaust emission characteristics. The experimental results show that as the SME ratio of the fuels increases, the break specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust temperature increase; the SME and its blends show a slight drop in engine performance. In this experiment, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke opacity values were measured for each fuel. The results of the emission tests revealed that the oxygen content of SME provided a significant reduction in CO and smoke opacity emissions. However, when the test engine was fuelled by SME and its blends, NOx emissions increased.

Burak Gökalp; Hakan Serhad Soyhan; Halil ?brahim Sarac

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS OXIDIZERS ON THE OVERALL PERFORMACE OF A DIRECT FLAME SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The power output of a direct-flame solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was studied using hydrogen (H2) as the fuel for the flame and various oxidizers, (more)

Donadio, Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Primate energy expenditure and life history Herman Pontzera,b,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primate energy expenditure and life history Herman Pontzera,b,1 , David A. Raichlenc , Adam D life histories reflect low total energy expenditure (TEE) (kilocalo- ries per day) relative to other), or allocation within the energy budget could change over evolutionary time to fuel changes in life history

Pontzer, Herman

113

Energy Expenditure Estimation DEMO Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of accelerometry. An average smart phone contains an inertial sensor and today we hardly leave our home without itEnergy Expenditure Estimation DEMO Application Bozidara Cvetkovi´c1,2 , Simon Kozina1,2 , Bostjan://www.mps.si Abstract. The paper presents two prototypes for the estimation of hu- man energy expenditure during normal

Lu?trek, Mitja

114

Energy Expenditures | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expenditures Expenditures Dataset Summary Description The State Energy Data System (SEDS) is compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA); it is a comprehensive database of energy statistics by state (and includes totals for the entire US). SEDS includes estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures broken down by energy source and sector. Annual estimates are available from 1960 - 2009 for production and consumption estimates and from 1970 - 2009 for price and expenditure estimates. Source EIA Date Released June 30th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords EIA Energy Consumption Energy Expenditures energy prices energy production SEDS State energy data States US Data text/csv icon Complete SEDS dataset as csv (may be too big for Excel) (csv, 40.6 MiB)

115

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey A. Kalinoski One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared for: Contract No. GS-10F-0099J to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gas and pollutants than

116

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992 - Executive  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

& Expenditures > Executive Summary & Expenditures > Executive Summary 1992 Consumption & Expenditures Executive Summary Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992 presents statistics about the amount of energy consumed in commercial buildings and the corresponding expenditures for that energy. These data are based on the 1992 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national energy survey of buildings in the commercial sector, conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy. Figure ES1. Energy Consumption is Commercial Buidings by Energy Source, 1992 Energy Consumption: In 1992, the 4.8 million commercial buildings in the United States consumed 5.5 quadrillion Btu of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district heat. Of those 5.5 quadrillion Btu, consumption of site electricity accounted for 2.6 quadrillion Btu, or 48.0 percent, and consumption of natural gas accounted for 2.2 quadrillion Btu, or 39.6 percent. Fuel oil consumption made up 0.3 quadrillion Btu, or 4.0 percent of the total, while consumption of district heat made up 0.4 quadrillion Btu, or 7.9 percent of energy consumption in that sector. When the energy losses that occur at the electricity generating plants are included, the overall energy consumed by commercial buildings increases to about 10.8 quadrillion Btu (Figure ES1).

117

THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concen- tration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estima- tion of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust

Stefanopoulou, Anna

119

"Table A37. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," 7. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Census Division, and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" " "," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors"

120

"Table A36. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," 6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,,,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," "," ","Residual","Distillate ","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors" ,,"Total United States"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High efficiency direct fuel cell hybrid power cycle for near term application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct carbonate fuel cells being developed by Energy Research Corporation can generate power at an efficiency approaching 60% LHV. This unique fuel cell technology can consume natural gas and other hydrocarbon based fuels directly without requiring an external reformer, thus providing a simpler and inherently efficient power generation system. A 2 MW power plant demonstration of this technology has been initiated at an installation in the city of Santa Clara in California. A 2.85 MW commercial configuration shown in Figure 1 is presently being developed. The complete plant includes the carbonate fuel cell modules, an inverter, transformer and switchgear, a heat recovery unit and supporting instrument air and water treatment systems. The emission levels for this 2.85 MW plant are projected to be orders of magnitude below existing or proposed standards. The 30 year levelized cost of electricity, without inflation, is projected to be approximately 5{cents}/kW-h assuming capital cost for the carbonate fuel cell system of $1000/kW.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Fuel Cell Systems Consultant, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance.

Adam C. Rady; Sarbjit Giddey; Aniruddha Kulkarni; Sukhvinder P.S. Badwal; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

More on Capital Expenditure Anticipations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We turn now to analysis of investment realizations functions, beginning with the one-year ahead, or short run capital expenditure anticipations,based upon McGraw-Hill data over...a fortiori..., for all firms of a...

R. Eisner

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (???© pilot ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.6 and ???© overall ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ???© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ???© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ???© overall (at constant ???© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

126

Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

On the effect of gas diffusion layers hydrophobicity on direct methanol fuel cell performance and degradation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Degradation and mass transport phenomena management are two of the main issues hindering direct methanol fuel cell commercialization. Water and methanol crossover through the membrane, regulated by both anode and cathode gas diffusion layers hydrophobic properties, is widely studied in the literature, while the effect of mass transport phenomena evolution on the direct methanol fuel cell degradation has not been investigated yet. This work aims to present a combined experimental and modeling analysis on the effect of the gas diffusion layers hydrophobicity on DMFC degradation, through the comparison of performance characterization and degradation tests of two different fuel cells. In one of them, the lower diffusion layer hydrophobicity and the absence of anode microporous layer determines the onset of cathode flooding, negatively affecting performance and degradation. However, the cathode surface area loss is similar between the two fuel cells, meaning that flooding does not involve modifications in cathode permanent degradation mechanisms, but it mainly determines the amplification of the cathode surface area loss effects.

F. Bresciani; C. Rabissi; M. Zago; R. Marchesi; A. Casalegno

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

129

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon anode fuels in molton salt media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are conducting research into the direct electrochemical conversion of reactive carbons into electricity--with experimental evidence of total efficiencies exceeding 80% of the heat of combustion of carbon. Together with technologies for extraction of reactive carbons from broad based fossil fuels, direct carbon conversion addresses the objectives of DOE's ''21st Century Fuel Cell'' with exceptionally high efficiency (>70% based on standard heat of reaction, {Delta}H{sub std}), as well as broader objectives of managing CO{sub 2} emissions. We are exploring the reactivity of a wide range of carbons derived from diverse sources, including pyrolyzed hydrocarbons, petroleum cokes, purified coals and biochars, and relating their electrochemical reactivity to nano/microstructural characteristics.

Cherepy, N; Krueger, R; Cooper, J F

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

130

Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

NONE

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

131

From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass Stories of Discovery & Innovation From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass Enlarge Photo Image by Eric Steen, JBEI Once E. coli have secreted oil, they sequester themselves from the droplets as shown by this optical image, thereby facilitating oil recovery. Currently, biochemical processing of cellulosic biomass requires costly enzymes for sugar liberation. By giving the E. coli the capacity to ferment both cellulose and hemicellulose without the 03.28.11 From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass A microbe that can produce an advanced biofuel directly from biomass was developed by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint BioEnergy

132

The Role of Capital Expenditures in Signalling Firm Value  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Corporate Capital Expenditure Announcements," PurdueTHE ROLE OF CAPITAL EXPENDITURES IN SIGNALLING FIRM VALUEAngeles THE ROLE OF CAPITAL EXPENDITURES IN SIGNALLING FIRM

Titman, Brett

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is compatible with much of the existing fuel infrastructure.

Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Progress in Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C. May 14-17, 2001 for the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C. May 14-17, 2001 US DoE-NETL Progress in Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO 2 Peter G. Brewer (brpe@mbari.org; 831-626-6618) Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute 7700 Sandholdt Road Moss Landing CA 95039 Introduction. My laboratory has now been engaged in carrying out small scale controlled field experiments on the ocean sequestration of fossil fuel CO 2 for about five years, and the field has changed enormously in that time. We have gone from theoretical assessments to experimental results, and from cartoon sketches of imagined outcomes to high-resolution video images of experiments on the ocean floor shared around the world. It seems appropriate therefore to give a brief review, albeit one very much from a

135

Experimental investigation of methanol crossover evolution during direct methanol fuel cell degradation tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methanol crossover and severe degradation are two of the most critical issues hindering the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. The experimental investigations found in the literature show that degradation has both permanent and temporary contributions; the latter can be recovered thanks to a suitable operation interruption. This work reports the experimental characterization of methanol crossover and water content in cathode exhaust during different degradation tests performed in continuous and cycling operation modes. Such investigation evidences a reduction of methanol crossover during the DMFC degradation tests that can be partially restored. Methanol crossover reduction presents both temporary and permanent contributions: the latter could be related to membrane degradation. Moreover the effect of both methanol crossover and electric power reduction on fuel cell efficiency are discussed.

A. Casalegno; F. Bresciani; M. Zago; R. Marchesi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009 Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Directed Technologies (DTI), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE).

137

Multiple Injection and Boosting Benefits for Improved Fuel Consumption on a Spray Guided Direct Injection Gasoline Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of turbocharging and direct injection offers a significant potential for SI engines to improve fuel consumption, specific power output, raw emissions and ... shows the latest results of the T-SGDI...

Jason King; Oliver Bcker

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effect of stratified water injection on exhaust gases and fuel consumption of a direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct injection Diesel engine with its specific fuel consumption of about 200 g/kWh is one of the most efficient thermal engines. However in case of relatively low CH...x...concentration in the exhaust gas t...

Rainer Pauls; Christof Simon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Forecasting Capital Expenditure with Plan Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The short-term forecasting of capital expenditure presents one of the most difficult problems ... reason is that year-to-year fluctuations in capital expenditure are extremely wide. Some simple methods which...

W. Gerstenberger

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Essays on pharmaceuticals and health care expenditures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

health care expenditures. This dissertation also explores the relations between FDA Therapeutic Drug Classification and total health care expenditures. It offers a better methodology by incorporating both the quality and the age of the drugs to capture...

Karaca, Zeynal

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

CBECS 1992 - Consumption & Expenditures, Detailed Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Detailed Tables Detailed Tables Detailed Tables Figure on Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings by Energy Source, 1992 Divider Line The 49 tables present detailed energy consumption and expenditure data for buildings in the commercial sector. This section provides assistance in reading the tables by explaining some of the headings for the data categories. It will also explain the use of row and column factors to compute both the confidence levels of the estimates given in the tables and the statistical significance of differences between the data in two or more categories. The section concludes with a "Quick-Reference Guide" to the statistics in the different tables. Categories of Data in the Tables After Table 3.1, which is a summary table, the tables are grouped into the major fuel tables (Tables 3.2 through 3.13) and the specific fuel tables (Tables 3.14 through 3.29 for electricity, Tables 3.30 through 3.40 for natural gas, Tables 3.41 through 3.45 for fuel oil, and Tables 3.46 through 3.47 for district heat). Table 3.48 presents energy management and DSM data as reported by the building respondent. Table 3.49 presents data on participation in electric utility-sponsored DSM programs as reported by both the building respondent and the electricity supplier.

143

Capital Expenditure Policy Final V1.0 Approved 110613 -1 -Capital Expenditure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capital Expenditure Policy Final V1.0 Approved 110613 - 1 - Capital Expenditure Policy Version and Risk Committee Audit and Risk Committee: 11 June 2013 (Draft v.11) #12;Capital Expenditure Policy Final on intranet To be referenced during Capital Expenditure training As approved by Audit & Risk Committee 11

Chittka, Lars

144

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake Flexible Blending Process  PVDF can be compatibilized with a number of polyelectrolytes  Process has been scaled to a pilot line Property Control * Morphology: 10-100s nm domains * Composition can be tailored to minimize methanol permeation, while optimizing

145

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

propane Go propane Go Propane_li_by_state Propane Incentives and Laws, by State Propane_li_by_state View Map Graph Propane-stations Propane Fueling Station Locations by State Propane-stations View Map Graph 10561_expenditures_by_sector_20130906 Per Capita Energy Expenditures by Sector 10561_expenditures_by_sector_20130906 Trend of transportation and residential energy expenditures from 1970-2010 Last update September 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-yezn9l Alternative Fuel Vehicles in Use Generated_thumb20130810-31804-yezn9l Trend of the number of AFVs in use by fuel type from 1992-2010 Last update May 2012 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1gs1r9t Estimated Consumption of Alternative Fuels by AFVs Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1gs1r9t

146

Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

Steven Markovich

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

SEDS CSV File Documentation: Price and Expenditure  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prices and Expenditures Prices and Expenditures The State Energy Data System (SEDS) comma-separated value (CSV) files contain the price and expenditure estimates shown in the tables located on the SEDS website. There are three files that contain estimates for all states and years. Prices contains the price estimates for all states and Expenditures contains the expenditure estimates for all states. The third file, Adjusted Consumption for Expenditure Calculations contains adjusted consumption estimates used in calculating expenditures (see Appendix E below). Zip files are also available for the large data files. In addition, there is a CSV file for each state, named with the two-letter U.S. Postal Code listed in Appendix A, as well as a file for the United States.

148

Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Control for PEM Fuel Cell Stack System, Proceedings ofmodel for an automotive PEM fuel cell system with imbedded 1Friedman and R.M. Moore, PEM Fuel Cell System Optimization,

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

OpenEI - Energy Expenditures  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

State Energy Data State Energy Data System (SEDS) Complete Dataset through 2009 http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/883 The State Energy Data System (SEDS) is compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA); it is a comprehensive database of energy statistics by state (and includes totals for the entire US). SEDS includes estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures broken down by energy source and sector. Annual estimates are available from 1960 - 2009 for production and consumption estimates and from 1970 - 2009 for price and expenditure estimates.

License
Type of

150

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Download the presentation slides from Arkema at the July 17, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webina, Fuel Cells for Portable Power.

151

A Two Dimensional Model of a Direct Propane Fuel Cell with an Interdigitated Flow Field .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Increasing environmental concerns as well as diminishing fossil fuel reserves call for a new generation of energy conversion technologies. Fuel cells, which convert the chemical (more)

Khakdaman, Hamidreza

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Optical-Engine Study of a Low-Temperature Combustion Strategy Employing a Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle and Early, Direct Injection of Diesel Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Insight into mechanisms causing observed sharp emissions increase with diesel fuel injection is gained through experiments in an optical engine employing a similar low-temperature combustion strategy of early, direct injection of diesel fuel.

153

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines.

Hershberger, J.; Ozturk, O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Woodford, J. B.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

2002-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

154

Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Davey, John (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Sharon C. (Vancouver, CA)

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

155

SHAPE SELECTIVE NANO-CATALYSTS: TOWARD DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of bimetallic core-shell-alloy type Au-Pt nanomaterials with various morphologies, aspect ratios and compositions, were produced in a heterogenous epitaxial fashion. Gold nanoparticles with well-controlled particle size and shape, e.g. spheres, rods and cubes, were used as 'seeds' for platinum growth in the presence of a mild reducing agent, ascorbic acid and a cationic surfactant cethyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The reactions take place in air and water, and are quick, economical and amenable for scaling up. The synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized by electron microscopy techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Nafion membranes were embedded with the Au-Pt nanomaterials and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their potential in direct methanol fuel cells applications.

Murph, S.

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

156

Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on the Emissions of a Direct-Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Canola Oil Methyl Ester?Diesel Fuel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(3, 4) A lot of researchers have reported that using biodiesel as a fuel in diesel engines causes a diminution in harmful exhaust emissions as well as equivalent engine performance with diesel fuel. ... Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke d. and NOx to evaluate and compute the behavior of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. ... Ma, Z.; Huang, Z. H.; Li, C.; Wang, X. B.; Miao, H.Effects of fuel injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel?propane blends Energy Fuels 2007, 21 ( 3) 1504 1510 ...

Cenk Sayin; Metin Gumus; Mustafa Canakci

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

157

"Table A24. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," 4. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,,,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," "," ","Residual","Distillate ","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groupsc and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:","0.6 ",0.6,1.3,1.3,0.7,1.2,1.2,1.5,1.1

158

Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Mono-uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US National Energy Policy of 2001 advocated the development of advanced fuel and fuel cycle technologies that are cleaner, more efficient, less waste-intensive, and more proliferation resistant. The need for advanced fuel development is emphasized in on-going DOE-supported programs, e.g., Global Nuclear Energy Initiative (GNEI), Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and GEN-IV Technology Development. The Directorates of Energy & Environment (E&E) and Chemistry & Material Sciences (C&MS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are interested in advanced fuel research and manufacturing using its multi-disciplinary capability and facilities to support a design concept of a small, secure, transportable, and autonomous reactor (SSTAR). The E&E and C&MS Directorates co-sponsored this Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) Project on Mono-Uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications. In fact, three out of the six GEN-IV reactor concepts consider using the nitride-based fuel, as shown in Table 1. SSTAR is a liquid-metal cooled, fast reactor. It uses nitride fuel in a sealed reactor vessel that could be shipped to the user and returned to the supplier having never been opened in its long operating lifetime. This sealed reactor concept envisions no fuel refueling nor on-site storage of spent fuel, and as a result, can greatly enhance proliferation resistance. However, the requirement for a sealed, long-life core imposes great challenges to research and development of the nitride fuel and its cladding. Cladding is an important interface between the fuel and coolant and a barrier to prevent fission gas release during normal and accidental conditions. In fabricating the nitride fuel rods and assemblies, the cladding material should be selected based on its the coolant-side corrosion properties, the chemical/physical interaction with the nitride fuel, as well as their thermal and neutronic properties. The US NASA space reactor, the SP-100 was designed to use mono-uranium nitride fuel. Although the SP-100 reactor was not commissioned, tens of thousand of nitride fuel pellets were manufactured and lots of them, cladded in Nb-1-Zr had been irradiated in fast test reactors (FFTF and EBR-II) with good irradiation results. The Russian Naval submarines also use nitride fuel with stainless steel cladding (HT-9) in Pb-Bi coolant. Although the operating experience of the Russian submarine is not readily available, such combination of fuel, cladding and coolant has been proposed for a commercial-size liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (BREST-300). Uranium mono-nitride fuel is studied in this LDRD Project due to its favorable properties such as its high actinide density and high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of mono-nitride is 10 times higher than that of oxide (23 W/m-K for UN vs. 2.3 W/m-K for UO{sub 2} at 1000 K) and its melting temperature is much higher than that of metal fuel (2630 C for UN vs. 1132 C for U metal). It also has relatively high actinide density, (13.51 gU/cm{sup 3} in UN vs. 9.66 gU/cm{sup 3} in UO{sub 2}) which is essential for a compact reactor core design. The objective of this LDRD Project is to: (1) Establish a manufacturing capability for uranium-based ceramic nuclear fuel, (2) Develop a computational capability to analyze nuclear fuel performance, (3) Develop a modified UN-based fuel that can support a compact long-life reactor core, and (4) Collaborate with the Nuclear Engineering Department of UC Berkeley on nitride fuel reprocessing and disposal in a geologic repository.

Choi, J; Ebbinghaus, B; Meiers, T; Ahn, J

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

State energy price and expenditure report 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES Foundation FOUNDATION EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES are used primarily by Accounting Services for Foundation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES ­ Foundation 2-J page 1 FOUNDATION EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES are used primarily by Accounting Services for Foundation transactions. 3080 Foundation Service Fee: Allocation of administrative costs to Foundation beneficiary departmental accounts. 3120 LSU Magazine Costs - Foundation

Harms, Kyle E.

162

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

State energy price and expenditure report 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mixing Correlations for Smoke and Fuel Consumption of Direct Injection Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mixing of fuel with air in a diesel engine strongly dictates the specific fuel consumption and exhaust smoke. Many experimental studies reported the optimum swirl for a given diesel engine at a given operatin...

P. A. Lakshminarayanan; Yogesh V. Aghav

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Direction and Management of Water Movement in Solid-State Alkaline Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thus, optimization is required to establish design methodology for SAFCs. ... membrane fuel cells - performances are currently limited by the electrode architectures that have been optimized for use in PEM fuel cells but not alk. ...

Han Zhang; Hidenori Ohashi; Takanori Tamaki; Takeo Yamaguchi

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

166

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Economic Analysis on Direct Use of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel in CANDU Reactors - III: Spent DUPIC Fuel Disposal Cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal costs of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and DUPIC fuels have been estimated based on available literature data and the engineering design of a spent CANDU fuel disposal facility by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The cost estimation was carried out by the normalization concept of total electricity generation. Therefore, the future electricity generation scale was analyzed to evaluate the appropriate capacity of the high-level waste disposal facility in Korea, which is a key parameter of the disposal cost estimation. Based on the total electricity generation scale, it is concluded that the disposal unit costs for spent CANDU natural uranium, CANDU-DUPIC, and PWR fuels are 192.3, 388.5, and 696.5 $/kg heavy element, respectively.

Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hangbok; Roh, Gyuhong; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Investigation of MEA degradation in a passive direct methanol fuel cell under different modes of operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) durability tests were conducted in three different operational modes: continuous operation with constant load (LT1), onoff operation with constant load (LT2) and onoff operation with variable load (LT3). Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF) anode layers were employed in three sets of single passive DMFCs; each membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was run continuously in durability testing for 3000h. The objective of this study is to investigate the degradation mechanisms in an MEA with a porous CNF anode layer under different modes of operation. The polarization curves of single passive \\{DMFCs\\} before and after durability tests were compared. The degradation of DMFC performance under the cyclic LT1 mode was much more severe than that of LT2 and LT3 operation. The loss of maximum power density after degradation tests was 49.5%, 28.4% and 43.7% for LT1, LT2 and LT3, respectively. TEM, SEM and EDS mapping were used to investigate the causes of degradation. The lower power loss for LT2 was mainly attributed to the reversible degradation caused by poor water discharge, which thus reduced the air supply. Catalyst agglomeration was especially observed in LT1 and LT3 and is related to carbon corrosion due to possible fuel starvation. The loss of active catalyst area was a major cause of performance degradation in LT1 and LT3. In addition to this, the dissolution and migration of Ru catalyst from the anode to cathode was identified and correlated with degraded cell performance. In the DMFC, the carbon nanofiber anode catalyst support exhibited higher performance stability with less catalyst agglomeration than the cathode catalyst support, carbon black. This study helps understand and elucidate the failure mechanism of MEAs, which could thus help to increase the lifetime of DMFCs.

A.M. Zainoodin; S.K. Kamarudin; M.S. Masdar; W.R.W. Daud; A.B. Mohamad; J. Sahari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

SPOUTED BED ELECTRODES (SBE) FOR DIRECT UTILIZATION OF CARBON IN FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Phase I project was focused on an investigation of spouted bed particulate electrodes for the direct utilization of solid carbon in fuel cells. This approach involves the use of a circulating carbon particle/molten carbonate slurry in the cell that provides a few critical functions: it (1) fuels the cell continuously with entrained carbon particles; (2) brings particles to the anode surfaces hydrodynamically; (3) removes ash from the anode surfaces and the cell hydrodynamically; (4) provides a facile means of cell temperature control due to its large thermal capacitance; (5) provides for electrolyte maintenance and control in the electrode separator(s); and (6) can (potentially) improve carbon conversion rates by ''pre-activating'' carbon particle surfaces via formation of intermediate oxygen surface complexes in the bulk molten carbonate. The approach of this scoping project was twofold: (1) adaptation and application of a CFD code, originally developed to simulate particle circulation in spouted bed electrolytic reactors, to carbon particle circulation in DCFC systems; and (2) experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of carbon slurry circulation in DCFC systems using simulated slurry mixtures. The CFD model results demonstrated that slurry recirculation can be used to hydrodynamically feed carbon particles to anode surfaces. Variations of internal configurations were investigated in order to explore effects on contacting. It was shown that good contacting with inclined surfaces could be achieved even when the particles are of the same density as the molten carbonate. The use of CO{sub 2} product gas from the fuel cell as a ''lift-gas'' to circulate the slurry was also investigated with the model. The results showed that this is an effective method of slurry circulation; it entrains carbon particles more effectively in the draft duct and produces a somewhat slower recirculation rate, and thus higher residence times on anode surfaces, and can be controlled completely via pressure balance. Experimental investigations in a rectangular spouted vessel hydrodynamics apparatus (SVHA) showed that hydrodynamics can be used to control the circulation, residence time, and distribution of carbon within the spouted bed, as well as provide good particle contact with anode surfaces. This was shown to be a function of viscosity, carbon loading, and particle size, as well as relative densities. Higher viscosities and smaller particle sizes favor more efficient particle entrainment in the draft duct, and particle recirculation. Both the computational and experimental results are consistent with each another and exhibit the same general qualitative behavior. Based upon this work, a design of a prototype SBE/DCFC cell was developed and is presented.

J.M. Calo

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

70-108B One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 December 2, 1997 Key Words: Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, humidification, gas distribution, direct liquid water injection, interdigitated flow fields. * Corresponding... of the catalyst layers were made of waterproof, carbon fiber cloths. Liquid water was injected by two metering pumps into two heated stainless steel coils, where it was preheated to the cell operating temperatures, and then directly into the gas streams...

Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Nguyen, Trung Van

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Control-theoretic cyber-physical system modeling and synthesis: A case study of an active direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A joint optimization of the physical system and the cyber world is one of the key problems in the design of a cyber-physical system (CPS). The major mechanical forces and/or chemical reactions in a plant are commonly modified by actuators in the balance-of-plant ... Keywords: Balance of plants system, Cyber-physical systems, Direct methanol fuel cell

Donghwa Shin; Jaehyun Park; Younghyun Kim; Jaeam Seo; Naehyuck Chang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly increase the methanol-crossover rate, producing an unfavorable * Corresponding author. DepartmentEffect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a

Zhao, Tianshou

173

Complex SrRuO3?Pt and LaRuO3?Pt Catalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Complex SrRuO3?Pt and LaRuO3?Pt Catalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells ... While currently LaRuO3/Pt composition possesses the highest activity, optimization of perovskite structure (by doping from A and B sites) may lead even to more advanced catalysts. ...

Aidong Lan; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

174

To build a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system that produces hydrogen fuel directly from water using sunlight as the energy source.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 SS H2 O2 metaloxide GoalGoal To build a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system that produces hydrogen fuel directly from water using sunlight as the energy source. Approach: development of a multi provides voltage assist using lower-energy photons catalyst surface optimized for hydrogen evolution UH

175

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

177

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. Promoted metal oxide catalysts were tested. Several of these exhibited similar high ethylene to ethane ratios and low carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratios observed for the NaCl/{alpha}-alumina catalyst system reported earlier. Research on catalysts containing potentially activated metals began with testing of metal molecular sieves. Silver catalysts were shown to be promising as low temperature catalysts. Perovskites were tested as potential methane coupling catalysts. A layered perovskite (K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}) gave the highest C{sub 2} yield. Work continued on the economic evaluation of a hypothetical process converting methane to ethylene. An engineering model of the methane coupling system has been prepared. 47 refs., 17 figs., 57 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.

1989-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

178

Exploratory fuel-cell research: I. Direct-hydrocarbon polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. II. Mathematical modeling of fuel-cell cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A strong need exists today for more efficient energy-conversion systems. Our reliance on limited fuel resources, such as petroleum for the majority of our energy needs makes it imperative that we utilize these resources as efficiently as possible. Higher-efficiency energy conversion also means less pollution, since less fuel is consumed and less exhaust created for the same energy output. Additionally, for many industrialized nations, such as the United States which must rely on petroleum imports, it is also imperative from a national-security standpoint to reduce the consumption of these precious resources. A substantial reduction of U.S. oil imports would result in a significant reduction of our trade deficit, as well as costly military spending to protect overseas petroleum resources. Therefore, energy-conversion devices which may utilize alternative fuels are also in strong demand. This paper describes research on fuel cells for transportation.

Perry, M.L.; McLarnon, F.R.; Newman, J.S.; Cairns, E.J.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson Submitted to the graduate degree program..., Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson...

Mattson, Jonathan Michael Stearns

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Direct Investigations of the Immobilization of Radionuclides in the Alteration Products of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safe disposal of the nation's nuclear waste in a geological repository involves unique scientific and engineering challenges owing to the very long-lived radioactivity of the waste. The repository must retain a variety of radionuclides that have vastly different chemical characters for several thousand years. Most of the radioactivity that will be housed in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will be associated with spent nuclear fuel, much of which is derived from commercial reactors. DOE is custodian of approximately 8000 tons of spent nuclear fuel that is also intended for eventual disposal in a geological repository. Unlike the spent fuel from commercial reactors, the DOE fuel is diverse in composition with more than 250 varieties. Safe disposal of spent fuel requires a detailed knowledge of its long-term behavior under repository conditions, as well as the fate of radionuclides released from the spent fuel as waste containers are breached.

Peter C. Burns; Robert J. Finch; David J. Wronkiewicz

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Forest Fuel Characterization Using Direct  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the plantation was 53.65 ton/ha; wood fuels accounted for 70% of this accumulation with 39.62 tons

Standiford, Richard B.

182

mMass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of energy sources can be used to produce hydrogen, including nuclear, coal, natural gas, geothermal, wind, hydroelectric, solar, and biomass. Thus, fuel cell vehicles offer an...

183

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of energy sources can be used to produce hydrogen, including nuclear, coal, natural gas, geothermal, wind, hydroelectric, solar, and biomass. Thus, fuel cell vehicles offer an...

184

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

portfolio of energy sources can be used to produce it, including nuclear, coal, natural gas, geothermal, wind, hydroelectric, solar, and biomass. Thus fuel cell vehicles offer an...

185

Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document provides information about near-term markets (such as for forklifts and telecommunications) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

186

Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This document provides information about near-term markets (such as for forklifts and telecommunications) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

187

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski & Kevin N. Baum One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared under: Subcontract No. AGB-0-40628-01 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Prime Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the U.S. Department of Energy Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gasses and pollutants than

188

Evaluation of Oxydiesel as a Fuel for Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

speed and maximum power for 500 hours on a blend of ethanol, No. 2 diesel, and an additive as compared and diesel with a special additive, has been shown to be a promising new alternative fuel for existing diesel the mixing of diesel fuel with ethanol. The Illinois DCCA has embarked on a widespread research program

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

189

Table 7.9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; 9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million U.S. Dollars. NAICS Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal and Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 10,111 5,328 130 431 3,391 150 442 29 210 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 2,130 932 2 12 673 Q 294 0 158 311221 Wet Corn Milling 1,002 352 1 5 296 1 239 0 107 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 367 105 7 18 87 1 118 29 2 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1,408 698 17 Q 579 18 7 0 18 3115 Dairy Products 1,186 695 20 40 412 8 1 0 10 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

190

Chapter 9 - CAPEX and OPEX Expenditures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter is dedicated to expenditures related to all investments that are made in advance and the operational expenses that will occur from the start up of production onward.

Luiz Amado

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection- A Fuel Economy Solution for The US  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers double digit fuel economy benefits, much lower cost than diesel or hybrid.

192

Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Cell System Water Management Motor Cooling HumidifierComp. Motor Power SM Outlet Mass Flow -C- Desired RH WaterP motor , 0 k comp = P comp P comp , 0 Thermal and water

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

9 9 2003 Energy Expenditures per Square Foot of Commercial Floorspace and per Building, by Building Type ($2010) ($2010) Food Service 4.88 27.2 Mercantile 2.23 38.1 Food Sales 4.68 26.0 Education 1.43 36.6 Health Care 2.76 68.0 Service 1.39 9.1 Public Order and Safety 2.07 32.0 Warehouse and Storage 0.80 13.5 Office 2.01 29.8 Religious Worship 0.76 7.8 Public Assembly 1.73 24.6 Vacant 0.34 4.8 Lodging 1.72 61.5 Other 2.99 65.5 Note(s): Source(s): Mall buildings are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs. EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures: Consumption and Expenditures Tables, Oct. 2006, Table 4; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price deflators. Per Square Foot Per Building

194

State energy price and expenditure report 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The five economic sectors used in SEPER correspond to those used in SEDR and are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Documentation in appendices describe how the price estimates are developed, provide conversion factors for measures used in the energy analysis, and include a glossary. 65 tabs.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation reports on direct hydrogen PEMFC manufacturing cost estimation for automotive applications.

196

Ultra compact direct hydrogen fuel cell prototype using a metal hydride hydrogen storage tank for a mobile phone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The small fuel cell is being researched as an alternative power source to the Li-ion battery in mobile phone. In this paper, a direct hydrogen fuel cell system which powers a mobile phone without a supplementary battery is compactly integrated below 25ml volume at the backside of the phone. The system consists of a small (8ml) metal hydride hydrogen storage tank with 4L hydrogen storage or an energy density of ?640Wh/L, a thin air-breathing planar polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack (13.44cm2נ3mm for a volumetric power density of 335W/L), miniature pressure regulator, and a high efficiency DCDC voltage converting circuitry. The hydrogen storage tank is packed with the AB5 type metal hydride alloy. The eight-cell air-breathing planar stack (8ml) is very thin (3mm) due to a thin flexible printed circuit board current collectors as well as a unique riveting assembly and is capable of a robust performance of 2.68W (200mW/cm2). A miniature pressure regulator is compact with fluidic and electrical connections within 4ml. A miniature DCDC voltage converter operates at an overall efficiency of 90%. Consequently, the estimated energy density of a fully integrated fuel cell system is 205Wh/L (70.5Wh/kg).

Sung Han Kim; Craig M. Miesse; Hee Bum Lee; Ik Whang Chang; Yong Sheen Hwang; Jae Hyuk Jang; Suk Won Cha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures March 2012 3.3.3 Commercial Buildings Aggregate Energy Expenditures, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (2) Total 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 148.6 37.0 17.0 202.6 148.9 37.2 17.1 203.2 145.9 36.2 16.7 198.9 147.5 36.8 16.9 201.2 143.8 35.1 16.4 195.2 145.0 35.5 16.6 197.0 141.1 34.0 16.0 191.1 142.5 34.6 16.2 193.3 136.9 32.1 15.7 184.8 139.1 33.0 15.9 188.0 133.5 31.0 15.4 179.9 135.0 31.6 15.6 182.2 131.0 29.7 15.1 175.8 131.9 30.3 15.3 177.5 128.1 28.7 14.5 171.3 130.0 29.3 15.0 174.4 129.4 29.7 15.4 174.5 127.7 29.2 13.8 170.7 134.8 29.9 14.5 179.2 134.5 28.5 16.9 180.0 141.1

198

Direction on characterization of fuel debris for defueling process in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), defueling of the fuel debris in the reactor core of Units 1-3 is planned to start within 10 years. Preferential items in the characterization of the fuel debris were identified for this work, in which the procedure and handling tools were assumed on the basis of information on 1F and experience after the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The candidates for defueling tools for 1F were selected from among the TMI- 2 defueling tools. It was found that they could be categorized into six groups according to their operating principles. The important properties of the fuel debris for defueling were selected considering the effect of the target materials on the tool performance. The selected properties are shape, size, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, melting point, hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. Of these properties, the mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness) were identified as preferential items, because too few data on these characteristics of fuel debris are available in past severe accident studies. (authors)

Yano, Kimihiko; Kitagaki, Toru; Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Wakui, Ryohei; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kaji, Naoya; Koizumi, Kenji; Washiya, Tadahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokaimura, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report is the sixth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. This 2012 update will cover current status technology updates since the 2011 report, as well as introduce a 2012 bus system analysis considered alongside the automotive system.

200

Annual Capital Expenditures Survey | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Annual Capital Expenditures Survey Annual Capital Expenditures Survey BusinessUSA Data/Tools Apps Challenges Let's Talk BusinessUSA You are here Data.gov » Communities » BusinessUSA » Data Annual Capital Expenditures Survey Dataset Summary Description Provides national estimates of investment in new and used buildings and other structures, machinery, and equipment by U.S. nonfarm businesses with and without employees. Data are published by industry for companies with employees for NAICS 3-digit and selected 4-digit industries. Data on the amount of business expenditures for new plant and equipment and measures of the stock of existing facilities are critical to evaluate productivity growth, the ability of U.S. business to compete with foreign business, changes in industrial capacity, and measures of overall economic performance. In addition, ACES data provide industry analysts with capital expenditure data for market analysis, economic forecasting, identifying business opportunities and developing new and strategic plans. The ACES is an integral part of the Federal Government's effort to improve and supplement ongoing statistical programs. Private companies and organizations,, educators and students, and economic researchers use the survey results for analyzing and conducting impact evaluations on past and current economic performance, short-term economic forecasts, productivity, long-term economic growth, tax policy, capacity utilization, business fixed capital stocks and capital formation, domestic and international competitiveness trade policy, market research, and financial analysis.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

An investigation of regulatory and voluntary environmental capital expenditures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the firm-specific economic consequences of regulatory and voluntary environmental capital expenditures. Using firm-level environmental data, I decompose total environmental capital expenditures into estimates of regulatory and voluntary components. I then examine the relations of regulatory and voluntary environmental capital outlays with future abnormal earnings, stock prices, and stock returns. As predicted, the empirical analysis reveals that regulatory environmental capital expenditures are negatively associated with future abnormal earnings. Moreover, market-based tests indicate that the regulatory component of environmental capital expenditures is negatively priced. Finally, the results suggest that voluntary environmental capital expenditures and regulatory environmental capital expenditures have different firm-specific economic consequences.

Derek Johnston

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

203

Capital expenditure decision making in small firms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A number of studies have been conducted to determine the extent to which large firms utilize sophisticated techniques in capital expenditure decision making. This research effort focuses on financial decision making procedures of small firms, exploring the techniques utilized to evaluate investment opportunities, methods employed to adjust for risk, purposes of expenditures and concern for profitability, and the source and cost of funds. In light of the recent debate on the capital shortage issue, small firms were also asked what type of tax reform they deemed most desirable to stimulate capital investments.

L.R. Runyon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Characterisation of large solid recovered fuel particles for direct co-firing in large PF power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) are solid fuels prepared from high calorific fractions of non-hazardous waste materials intended to be co-fired in coal power plants and industrial furnaces (CEN/TC 343, Solid Recovered Fuels, 2003). They are composed of variety of materials of which some, although recyclable in theory, may have become in forms that made their recycling an unsound option. The SRF with an equivalent median diameter D50 of 6.8mm are to be directly co-fired in an existing pulverised coal power plant. In comparison to pulverised coal, the particle size distribution of the SRF is of several magnitudes higher, resulting in a different burnout behaviour. Size reduction of the SRF to a fraction similar to coal is not economically feasible. As such, the idea is to co-fire SRF without any further size reduction, and of course this proceeding bears the risk of incomplete combustion. Accordingly, the prediction of the burner levels at which the SRF should be injected and whether or not a complete combustion will be achieved under full and part load conditions are the primary objectives of this paper. In this work, laboratory experiments have been conducted to forecast the success of co-firing the SRF in a commercial pulverised coal power plant. It involves the analyses of the fuel and its intermediate chars, generated at conditions comparable to boiler conditions, to determine some characteristic parameters, namely the burnout time, the aerodynamic lift velocity (ALV), and the apparent densities. The information gathered from the lab experiments are correlated to boiler conditions to determine the possible distances they are likely to travel under various regimes, full load and part load, before they are completely consumed. Different scenarios are examined, and based on the results, the optimal boiler injection points are predicted.

Gregory Dunnu; Jrg Maier; Thomas Hilber; Gnter Scheffknecht

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Direct  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

interactions, and the pollutant emission is hence directly proportional to the bulk neutral density. Simultaneously monitoring the total emission at 1040 nm and the...

206

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

3 3 Residential Aggregate Energy Expenditures, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Electricity Total 1980 158.5 1981 164.0 1982 172.3 1983 176.1 1984 178.5 1985 176.8 1986 169.2 1987 167.1 1988 170.1 1989 172.8 1990 168.2 1991 169.9 1992 166.7 1993 175.6 1994 174.9 1995 172.7 1996 181.8 1997 180.0 1998 173.5 1999 174.0 2000 192.8 2001 203.3 2002 192.1 2003 208.8 2004 215.1 2005 236.7 2006 240.0 2007 246.1 2008 259.6 2009 241.6 2010 251.8 2011 251.3 2012 247.1 2013 240.3 2014 239.4 2015 241.7 2016 241.8 2017 243.0 2018 244.7 2019 246.4 2020 247.9 2021 250.4 2022 253.3 2023 255.6 2024 257.8 2025 260.3 2026 263.2 2027 266.0 2028 267.6 2029 268.1 2030 269.7 2031 272.9 2032 276.6 2033 280.4 2034 284.6 2035 288.6 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Residential petroleum products include distillate fuel oil, LPG, and kerosene. EIA, State Energy Data 2009: Prices and Expenditures, Jun. 2011, Table 2 for 1980-2009; EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Early Release, Jan. 2012, Table

207

Study of multi-component fuel premixed combustion using direct numerical simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of and the relative species proportions in these gases however vary considerably. The Syngas obtained by coal gasification is mostly composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with varying levels of carbon dioxide, water and other trace species [2, 3]. The relative... proportions of the predominant gases vary widely depending on the gasification process and the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide mole fractions in the fuel, fH2 = XH2/XCO, is typically larger than 0.1 and it can be as high as 3 [1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8...

Nikolaou, Zacharias M.

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

208

Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

but then declined until about 2004 when gasoline and motor oil expenditures began to rise again. The share of household expenditures on gasoline and oil was exactly the same...

209

Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effects of Fuel-Shell Mix upon Direct-Drive, Spherical Implosions on OMEGA C. K. Li, F. H. Seguin, J. A. Frenje, S. Kurebayashi, and R. D. Petrasso*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Fuel-Shell Mix upon Direct-Drive, Spherical Implosions on OMEGA C. K. Li, F. H. Se September 2002) Fuel-shell mix and implosion performance are studied for many capsule types in direct shortfalls are likely to be caused by fuel-shell mix. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.165002 PACS numbers: 52

211

Government Expenditure on Scientific Research, 1961  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... year is mainly concerned with assisting industry to apply the results of research, records gross expenditure in the year ended March 31, 1961, of 14,467,278, compared with ... the Research Grants Committee considered 447 applications for grants, other than those for very expensive capital projects, with a total value of 3,156,000, compared with 422 valued ...

1962-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

212

Expenditure on Research and Development in Britain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... annual report for 1961-62*, the Advisory Council on Scientific Policy again reviews the expenditure on scientific and technical research and development, which in 1961-62 is estimated at ... -7 per cent of the gross national product, of which about 67 million was capital ...

1963-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Evidence for Direct Electron Transfer by a Gram-Positive Bacterium Isolated from a Microbial Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...vol/vol) from microbial fuel cells. Effects on the rate...experiments with Shewanella algae strain BRY, Geothrix fermentans...glucose in mediatorless microbial fuel cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 21...electricity generation at microbial fuel cell anodes via excretion of...

K. C. Wrighton; J. C. Thrash; R. A. Melnyk; J. P. Bigi; K. G. Byrne-Bailey; J. P. Remis; D. Schichnes; M. Auer; C. J. Chang; J. D. Coates

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

214

Influence of Biodiesel Fuel on the Combustion and Emission Formation in a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The injector needle lift trace at low engine speed was almost identical for both fuels, while at maximum engine speed, a shorter injection delay was observed for biodiesel fuel and the injector needle opened earlier as with D2 fuel. ... Figure 1 Comparison of the engine torque (M), fuel consumption (Gh), and brake specific energy consumption (ge) at full load for biodiesel fuel (BD) and D2 fuel in (a) TAM and (b) MAN engines. ... (7)?Sanatore, A.; Cardone, M.; Rocco, V.; Prati, M. V. A comparative analysis of combustion process in DI diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ...

Ales Hribernik; Breda Kegl

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Manganite nanorods supported palladium - a facile electrocatalyst for direct glycerol fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Manganite (MnOOH) nanorods were synthesised by a hydrothermal method and then used as a supportive material for Palladium towards glycerol electrooxidation in alkaline medium. The smaller quantities (5 and 15 weight %) of palladium are coated on the manganite nanorods by in situ reduction method. The electrooxidation of glycerol at Pd/Manganite electrode exhibits peak current vertexes at ?0.2 V, which is lower than Pd/C. By varying the alkali (KOH) and glycerol concentrations the electrocatalytic behaviour has been changed considerably and was discussed. The present study reveals that the manganite nanorods act as active support material for Pd. The support material will help to oxidise the intermediates formed during electrooxidation of fuel. The possibilities for the removal of poisonous intermediates were also discussed. The effect of support material on the electrooxidation reaction was explained by proper mechanism.

Ramanujam Kannan; Palanisamy Ravichandiran; Kulandaivelu Karunakaran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels will continue to play a significant role in the transportation sector in the future of both the world and the United States because of the their convenience, high energy density, and vast existing infrastructure. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports by developing overseas economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be alleviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology is expected to significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically at a much earlier date than previously forecast.

Srivastava, R.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D.; Klunder, E.B.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Improving gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine efficiency and emissions with hydrogen from exhaust gas fuel reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas fuel reforming has been identified as a thermochemical energy recovery technology with potential to improve gasoline engine efficiency, and thereby reduce CO2 in addition to other gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The principle relies on achieving energy recovery from the hot exhaust stream by endothermic catalytic reforming of gasoline and a fraction of the engine exhaust gas. The hydrogen-rich reformate has higher enthalpy than the gasoline fed to the reformer and is recirculated to the intake manifold, i.e. reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR). The REGR system was simulated by supplying hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) into a conventional EGR system. The hydrogen and CO concentrations in the REGR stream were selected to be achievable in practice at typical gasoline exhaust temperatures. Emphasis was placed on comparing REGR to the baseline gasoline engine, and also to conventional EGR. The results demonstrate the potential of REGR to simultaneously increase thermal efficiency, reduce gaseous emissions and decrease PM formation.

Daniel Fennell; Jose Herreros; Athanasios Tsolakis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Energy consumption and expenditure projections by income quintile on the basis of the Annual Energy Outlook 1997 forecast  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an analysis of the relative impacts of the base-case scenario used in the Annual Energy Outlook 1997, published by the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, on income quintile groups. Projected energy consumption and expenditures, and projected energy expenditures as a share of income, for the period 1993 to 2015 are reported. Projected consumption of electricity, natural gas, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas over this period is also reported for each income group. 33 figs., 11 tabs.

Poyer, D.A.; Allison, T.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Optimal Fueling Strategies for Locomotive Fleets in Railroad Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Price 3 · Railroad fuel consumption remains steady · Crude oil price sharply increases in recent years · Fuel-related expenditure is one of the biggest cost items in the railroad industry #12;Fuel Price · Fuel (diesel) price influenced by: ­ Crude oil price ­ Refining ­ Distribution and marketing ­ Others 4

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

220

wf01 - Energy_Expenditures.xlsx  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6-07 6-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 % Change Natural Gas Northeast Consumption (mcf**) 73.6 74.2 79.6 74.7 79.7 65.6 75.2 77.5 3.1 Price ($/mcf) 14.74 15.18 15.83 13.31 12.66 12.23 11.75 13.38 13.8 Expenditures ($) 1,085 1,127 1,260 994 1,010 802 883 1,036 17.3 Midwest Consumption (mcf) 74.5 78.2 80.8 78.6 80.1 65.4 77.5 77.9 0.5 Price ($/mcf) 11.06 11.40 11.47 9.44 9.23 8.96 8.23 9.15 11.2 Expenditures ($) 824 892 927 742 740 586 638 713 11.8 South Consumption (mcf) 45.3 44.8 47.0 53.4 49.5 41.1 46.6 47.5 1.9 Price ($/mcf) 13.57 14.19 14.08 11.52 11.03 11.47 10.69 11.78 10.3 Expenditures ($) 615 635 661 615 546 472 498 560 12.4 West Consumption (mcf) 46.4 48.1 46.2 47.7 47.2 47.6 46.9 46.5 -0.8 Price ($/mcf) 11.20 11.31 10.86 9.91 9.67 9.38 9.15 9.90 8.1 Expenditures ($) 520 544 502 473 457 447 429

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

8 8 2035 Buildings Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (3) 63.4 13.0 1.6 7.7 0.8 23.1 0.2 20.6 107.2 20.9% Water Heating 23.8 2.2 1.2 3.4 35.8 63.0 12.3% Space Cooling 0.4 55.7 56.1 10.9% Lighting 47.8 47.8 9.3% Electronics (4) 27.2 27.2 5.3% Refrigeration (5) 27.0 27.0 5.3% Computers 14.8 14.8 2.9% Cooking 5.8 0.8 0.8 5.4 12.1 2.3% Wet Clean (6) 0.9 10.4 11.3 2.2% Ventilation (7) 2.4 2.4 0.5% Other (8) 9.3 0.4 12.6 2.0 15.0 88.8 113.2 22.0% Adjust to SEDS (9) 4.6 5.3 5.3 21.7 31.6 6.2% Total 108.2 21.0 1.6 22.3 2.8 47.6 0.2 357.8 513.8 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.8 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($2.0 billion). 3) Includes furnace fans ($4.8 billion). 4) Includes color televisions ($14.2 billion). 5) Includes refrigerators ($24.1 billion) and freezers ($3.0

222

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 2015 Commercial Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal (3) Electricity Total Percent Lighting 28.4 28.4 16.3% Space Heating 14.6 2.9 1.3 0.1 4.3 0.1 4.7 23.7 13.6% Ventilation 15.1 15.1 8.6% Space Cooling 0.3 14.2 14.5 8.3% Refrigeration 9.9 9.9 5.7% Electronics 8.8 8.8 5.1% Water Heating 4.1 0.7 0.7 2.5 7.3 4.2% Computers 5.3 5.3 3.0% Cooking 1.7 0.6 2.3 1.3% Other (4) 2.9 0.3 3.7 1.4 5.4 22.8 31.1 17.8% Adjust to SEDS (5) 5.8 4.5 4.5 17.7 28.1 16.1% Total 29.3 8.4 1.3 3.7 1.5 14.9 0.1 130.0 174.5 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.1 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($1.4 billion). 3) Coal average price is from AEO 2012 Early Release, all users price. 4) Includes service station equipment, ATMs, medical equipment,

223

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

8 8 2035 Residential Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. LPG Kerosene Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (2) 44.3 10.3 7.7 18.6 0.0 16.0 79.0 27.4% Space Cooling (3) 0.0 40.6 40.6 14.1% Water Heating 17.6 1.2 1.2 2.3 17.7 37.6 13.0% Lighting 15.5 15.5 5.4% Refrigeration (4) 17.0 17.0 5.9% Electronics (5) 14.2 14.2 4.9% Wet Cleaning (6) 0.9 10.4 11.3 3.9% Cooking 3.2 0.8 0.8 4.8 8.9 3.1% Computers 8.7 8.7 3.0% Other (7) 0.0 7.7 7.7 47.9 55.7 19.3% Total 66.0 11.5 17.5 29.6 0.0 193.0 288.6 100% Note(s): Source(s): 0.6 0.6 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes furnace fans ($4.8 billion). 3) Fan energy use included. 4) Includes refrigerators ($14.1 billion) and freezers ($2.9 billion). 5) Includes color televisions ($14.2 billion). 6) Includes clothes washers ($0.8 billion), natural gas

224

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 2010 Residential Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. LPG Kerosene Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (2) 38.7 11.2 8.0 19.8 0.0 14.3 72.9 28.9% Space Cooling (3) 0.0 35.4 35.4 14.0% Water Heating (4) 14.3 2.1 2.0 4.0 14.2 32.6 12.9% Lighting 22.6 22.6 9.0% Refrigeration (5) 14.9 14.9 5.9% Electronics (6) 17.8 17.8 7.1% Cooking 2.4 0.8 0.8 6.0 9.2 3.7% Wet Cleaning (7) 0.6 10.7 11.3 4.5% Computers 5.6 5.6 2.2% Other (8) 0.0 4.4 4.4 6.7 11.1 4.4% Adjust to SEDS (9) 13.6 13.6 5.4% Total 56.1 13.3 15.2 29.0 0.0 166.8 251.8 100% Note(s): Source(s): 0.5 0.5 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes furnace fans ($4.5 billion). 3) Fan energy use included. 4) Includes residential recreational water heating ($1.4 billion). 5) Includes refrigerators ($15.3 billion) and freezers ($4.4 billion). 6) Includes color televisions ($11.0

225

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

4 4 2010 Commercial Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal (3) Electricity Total Percent Lighting 35.4 35.4 19.7% Space Heating 15.0 2.9 0.9 0.1 3.9 0.1 8.5 27.5 15.3% Space Cooling 0.4 25.0 25.3 14.1% Ventilation 15.9 15.9 8.9% Refrigeration 11.6 11.6 6.5% Water Heating 4.0 0.6 0.6 2.7 7.3 4.1% Electronics 7.8 7.8 4.3% Computers 6.3 6.3 3.5% Cooking 1.6 0.7 2.3 1.3% Other (4) 2.7 0.3 3.3 1.2 4.8 20.4 28.0 15.6% Adjust to SEDS (5) 6.2 5.2 5.2 0.6 12.0 6.7% Total 29.9 9.0 0.9 3.3 1.3 14.5 0.1 134.8 179.4 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.1 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($1.2 billion). 3) Coal average price is from AEO 2012 Early Release, all users price. 4) Includes service station equipment, ATMs, medical equipment,

226

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 2010 Buildings Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (3) 53.7 14.2 0.9 8.0 0.6 23.7 0.1 23.2 100.8 23.4% Space Cooling 0.4 61.3 61.7 14.3% Lighting 59.3 59.3 13.8% Water Heating 18.3 2.6 2.0 4.6 17.8 40.7 9.4% Refrigeration (4) 26.9 26.9 6.2% Electronics (5) 26.1 26.1 6.1% Ventilation (6) 15.9 15.9 3.7% Cooking 4.0 0.8 0.8 8.8 13.6 3.2% Computers 12.1 12.1 2.8% Wet Cleaning (7) 0.6 11.0 11.6 2.7% Other (8) 2.7 0.3 7.7 1.2 9.2 27.3 39.2 9.1% Adjust to SEDS (9) 6.2 5.2 5.2 11.9 23.4 5.4% Total 86.0 22.3 0.9 18.5 1.8 43.5 0.1 301.6 431.2 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.6 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($1.2 billion). 3) Includes furnace fans ($4.5 billion). 4) Includes refrigerators ($24.1 billion) and freezers ($2.8 billion). 5) Includes color televisions ($11.0

227

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

6 6 2015 Buildings Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Total Percent Space Heating (3) 49.5 15.9 1.3 8.1 0.7 25.9 0.2 18.7 94.3 22.7% Space Cooling 0.3 48.0 48.3 11.6% Lighting 45.9 45.9 11.0% Water Heating 17.6 2.6 1.5 4.1 18.3 40.0 9.6% Refrigeration (4) 24.9 24.9 6.0% Electronics (5) 19.8 19.8 4.7% Ventilation (6) 15.1 15.1 3.6% Computers 11.6 11.6 2.8% Wet Cleaning (7) 0.6 10.8 11.4 2.7% Cooking 3.9 0.9 0.9 4.4 9.1 2.2% Other (8) 2.9 0.3 8.9 1.4 10.6 54.1 67.6 16.3% Adjust to SEDS (9) 5.8 4.5 4.5 17.7 28.1 6.7% Total 80.6 23.3 1.3 19.4 2.1 46.1 0.2 289.3 416.2 100% Note(s): Source(s): Petroleum Electricity 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.7 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($1.4 billion). 3) Includes furnace fans ($4.6 billion). 4) Includes refrigerators ($22.6 billion) and freezers ($2.8 billion). 5) Includes color televisions ($10.9

228

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

7 7 2025 Residential Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. LPG Kerosene Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (2) 39.7 11.5 7.8 19.9 0.0 15.0 74.5 28.6% Space Cooling (3) 0.0 36.2 36.2 13.9% Water Heating 16.0 1.4 1.3 2.7 17.1 35.9 13.8% Lighting 15.2 15.2 5.8% Refrigeration (4) 15.5 15.5 6.0% Electronics (5) 12.0 12.0 4.6% Wet Cleaning (6) 0.8 9.8 10.5 4.1% Cooking 2.7 0.8 0.8 4.3 7.8 3.0% Computers 7.7 7.7 2.9% Other (7) 0.0 6.4 6.4 38.7 45.0 17.3% Total 59.1 12.9 16.3 29.8 0.0 171.3 260.3 100% Note(s): Source(s): 0.6 0.6 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes furnace fans ($4.7 billion). 3) Fan energy use included. 4) Includes refrigerators ($12.7 billion) and freezers ($2.8 billion). 5) Includes color televisions ($12 billion). 6) Includes clothes washers ($0.8 billion), natural gas

229

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

7 7 2025 Buildings Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (3) 56.7 14.3 1.5 7.8 0.7 24.3 0.2 19.5 100.7 22.0% Space Cooling 0.3 50.5 50.9 11.1% Lighting 45.2 45.2 9.9% Water Heating 21.3 2.3 1.3 3.6 19.6 44.4 9.7% Refrigeration (4) 24.9 24.9 5.4% Electronics (5) 23.2 23.2 5.1% Computers 13.2 13.2 2.9% Wet Clean (6) 0.8 9.8 10.5 2.3% Cooking 4.8 0.8 0.8 4.9 10.5 2.3% Ventilation (7) 16.6 16.6 3.6% Other (8) 4.8 0.4 10.6 1.7 12.7 69.8 87.4 19.1% Adjust to SEDS (9) 5.9 4.9 4.9 19.2 30.0 6.6% Total 94.6 21.9 1.5 20.6 2.5 46.4 0.2 316.3 457.4 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.7 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($1.7 billion). 3) Includes furnace fans ($4.7 billion). 4) Includes refrigerators ($22.3 billion) and freezers ($2.6 billion). 5) Includes color televisions ($12.0

230

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

6 6 2025 Commercial Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal (3) Electricity Total Percent Lighting 30.1 30.1 15.2% Space Heating 17.1 2.8 1.5 0.1 4.4 0.2 4.5 26.1 13.3% Electronics 11.2 11.2 5.7% Space Cooling 0.3 14.3 14.6 7.4% Water Heating 5.2 0.8 0.8 2.5 8.5 4.3% Computers 5.5 5.5 2.8% Refrigeration 9.4 9.4 4.8% Ventilation 16.6 16.6 8.4% Cooking 2.1 0.6 2.7 1.4% Other (4) 4.8 0.3 4.3 1.7 6.3 31.2 42.3 21.5% Adjust to SEDS (5) 5.9 4.9 4.9 19.2 30.0 15.2% Total 35.5 8.9 1.5 4.3 1.9 16.5 0.2 145.0 197.1 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.1 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($1.7 billion). 3) Coal average price is from AEO 2011 Early Release, all users price. 4) Includes service station equipment, ATMs, medical equipment,

231

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

7 7 2035 Commercial Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal (3) Electricity Total Percent Lighting 32.3 32.3 14.4% Space Heating 19.0 2.7 1.6 0.2 4.5 0.2 4.6 28.2 12.5% Water Heating 6.3 1.0 1.0 18.1 25.4 11.3% Space Cooling 0.4 15.1 15.5 6.9% Electronics 13.0 13.0 5.8% Refrigeration 10.0 10.0 4.4% Computers 6.0 6.0 2.7% Cooking 2.6 0.6 3.2 1.4% Ventilation 2.4 2.4 1.1% Other (4) 9.3 0.4 4.9 2.0 7.2 40.9 57.5 25.5% Adjust to SEDS (5) 4.6 5.3 5.3 21.7 31.6 14.0% Total 42.2 9.4 1.6 4.9 2.2 18.0 0.2 164.8 225.1 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes kerosene space heating ($0.2 billion) and motor gasoline other uses ($2.0 billion). 3) Coal average price is from AEO 2012 Early Release, all users price. 4) Includes service station equipment, ATMs, medical equipment,

232

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

6 6 2015 Residential Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. LPG Kerosene Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (2) 35.0 13.0 8.1 21.6 0.0 14.0 70.6 29.2% Space Cooling (3) 0.0 33.8 33.8 14.0% Water Heating 13.5 1.9 1.5 3.4 15.8 32.7 13.5% Lighting 17.6 17.6 7.3% Refrigeration (4) 15.0 15.0 6.2% Electronics (5) 10.9 10.9 4.5% Wet Cleaning (6) 0.6 10.8 11.4 4.7% Cooking 2.2 0.9 0.9 3.8 6.8 2.8% Computers 6.3 6.3 2.6% Other (7) 0.0 5.2 5.2 31.3 36.5 15.1% Total 51.3 14.9 15.7 31.1 0.0 159.3 241.7 100% Note(s): Source(s): 0.6 0.6 1) Expenditures include coal and exclude wood. 2) Includes furnace fans ($4.6 billion). 3) Fan energy use included. 4) Includes refrigerators ($12.3 billion) and freezers ($2.8 billion). 5) Includes color televisions ($10.9 billion). 6) Includes clothes washers ($1.1 billion), natural gas

233

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

234

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

235

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

236

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

4 4 2005 Average Household Expenditures as Percent of Annual Income, by Census Region ($2010) Item Energy (1) Shelter (2) Food Telephone, water and other public services Household supplies, furnishings and equipment (3) Transportation (4) Healthcare Education Personal taxes (5) Average Annual Expenditures Average Annual Income Note(s): Source(s): 1) Average household energy expenditures are calculated from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), while average expenditures for other categories are calculated from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE). RECS assumed total US households to be 111,090,617 in 2005, while the CE data is based on 117,356,000 "consumer units," which the Bureau of Labor Statistics defines to be financially independent persons or groups of people that use their incomes to make joint expenditure decisions, including all members of a

237

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

3 3 2005 Average Household Expenditures, by Census Region ($2010) Item Energy (1) Shelter (2) Food Telephone, water and other public services Household supplies, furnishings and equipment (3) Transportation (4) Healthcare Education Personal taxes (5) Other expenditures Average Annual Income Note(s): Source(s): 1) Average household energy expenditures are calculated from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), while average expenditures for other categories are calculated from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE). RECS assumed total US households to be 111,090,617 in 2005, while the CE data is based on 117,356,000 "consumer units," which the Bureau of Labor Statistics defines to be financially independent persons or groups of people that use their incomes to make joint expenditure decisions, including all members of a

238

OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND EXPENDITURES: LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND EXPENDITURES: LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS John R. Mc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v SECTION ONE - OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Recreation Demand Methods

O'Laughlin, Jay

239

Simulating Progressive Expenditure Taxation in an Aging Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter investigates the effects of tax reform from progressive labor income taxation toward progressive expenditure taxation, on capital accumulation, and intragenerational income redistribution. The ... th...

Akira Okamoto Ph.D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Fuel control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel control system is described comprising: a fuel rack movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; a rack control member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; servo system means for moving the fuel rack in response to movement of the rack control member an electrically energizable member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions, the electrically energizable member being urged to move in its fuel-decreasing direction when energized; first coupling means for connecting the electrically energizable member to the rack control member to move the rack control member in its fuel-decreasing direction in response to movement of the electrically energizable member in its fuel-decreasing direction; a mechanical governor control having a member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; second coupling means for connecting the mechanical governor to the rack control member to move the rack control member in its fuel-decreasing direction in response to movement of the mechanical governor member in its fuel-decreasing direction; bias means for biasing the rack control member to move in its fuel-increasing direction.

Staniak, W.A.; Samuelson, R.E.; Moncelle, M.E.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Development of a silicon-based passive gas-liquid separation system for microscale direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design, fabrication and performance characterisation of a passive gas-liquid separation system is presented in this paper. The gas-liquid separation system is silicon-based and its fabrication is compatible with the existing CMU design of the microscale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Both gas and liquid separators consist of staggered arrays of etched-through holes fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The gas separator is coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic polymer to substantiate the gas-liquid separation. To visually characterise the system performance, the gas-liquid separation system is made on a single wafer with a glass plate bonded on the top to form a separation chamber with a narrow gap in between. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is applied for the low-temperature bonding. The maximum pressure for the liquid leakage of the gas separators is experimentally determined and compared with the values predicted theoretically. Several successful gas-liquid separations are observed at liquid pressures between 14.2 cmH2O and 22.7 cmH2O, liquid flow rates between 0.705 cc/min and 1.786 cc/min, and CO2 flow rates between 0.15160 cc/min to 0.20435 cc/min.

C.C. Hsieh; S.C. Yao; Yousef Alyousef

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Study Alternative Fuel Study to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Study As directed by the Nevada Legislature, the Legislative Commission (Commission) conducted an interim study in 2011 concerning the production and use of energy in the state. The study included information on the use

243

Fuel.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8: Coal Price and Expenditure Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2012 State Coal Coal Coke Prices Expenditures Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial...

244

Measurement of Petroleum Fuel Contamination in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction with Direct Raman Spectroscopic Detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is described for determining petroleum fuel contamination in water based on solid-phase microextraction and Raman spectroscopy (SPME/Raman). In this method, contaminants are...

Jager, Michael J; McClintic, Daniel P; Tilotta, David C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

New MEA Materials for Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Performance, Durability, and Cost - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report James Fletcher (Primary Contact), Philip Cox University of North Florida (UNF) 1 UNF Drive Jacksonville, FL 32224 Phone: (904) 620-1844 Email: jfletche@UNF.edu DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000475 Subcontractors: * University of Florida, Gainesville, FL * Northeastern University, Boston, MA * Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, Swindon, UK

246

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report is the seventh annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. The 2013 update covers fuel cell cost analysis of both light duty vehicle (automotive) and transit bus applications for only the current year (i.e., 2013).

248

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

2 2 Residential Energy Prices, by Year and Fuel Type ($2010) LPG ($/gal) 1980 2.24 1981 2.51 1982 2.30 1983 2.14 1984 2.10 1985 1.96 1986 1.54 1987 1.42 1988 1.39 1989 1.48 1990 1.69 1991 1.56 1992 1.40 1993 1.33 1994 1.27 1995 1.22 1996 1.37 1997 1.34 1998 1.15 1999 1.16 2000 1.70 2001 1.59 2002 1.42 2003 1.67 2004 1.84 2005 2.36 2006 2.64 2007 2.81 2008 3.41 2009 2.52 2010 2.92 2011 3.62 2012 3.65 2013 3.43 2014 3.60 2015 3.74 2016 3.79 2017 3.86 2018 3.89 2019 3.92 2020 3.96 2021 3.99 2022 4.02 2023 4.07 2024 4.10 2025 4.15 2026 4.19 2027 4.23 2028 4.26 2029 4.30 2030 4.34 2031 4.35 2032 4.38 2033 4.43 2034 4.50 2035 4.55 Source(s): EIA, State Energy Data 2009: Prices and Expenditures, Jun. 2011, Table 2, p. 24-25 for 1980-2009; EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Early Release, Jan. 2012, Table A3, p. 6-8 for 2010-2035 and Table G1, p. 215 for fuels' heat content; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for

249

CORPORATE DISCLOSURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL EXPENDITURES: A TEST OF ALTERNATIVE THEORIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORPORATE DISCLOSURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL EXPENDITURES: A TEST OF ALTERNATIVE THEORIES Charles capital expenditure; environmental disclosure; environmental regulation; legitimacy theory; materiality DISCLOSURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL EXPENDITURES: A TEST OF ALTERNATIVE THEORIES Introduction The United

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Fourth Annual Report to the Northwest Governors on Expenditures of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers #12;Fourth Annual Report on Expenditures of the Bonneville Power Administration 1 For Fiscal Year 2003 in this report were supplied by the Bonneville Power Administration at the Council's request and were Report on Expenditures of the Bonneville Power Administration 3 Background In July 1999, the governors o

251

Capital Expenditures, Financial Constraints, and the Use of Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capital Expenditures, Financial Constraints, and the Use of Options Tim Adam RMI Working Paper No@nus.edu.sg 1 #12;Capital Expenditures, Financial Constraints, and the Use of Options Abstract This paper of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of NUS Risk Management Institute (RMI). #12;Capital

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

252

The Energy Expenditure of Rats Bearing Walker Carcinoma 256  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the law of conservation of energy holds true for the animal body...010 0.010 0.100 731 The Energy Expenditure of Rats Bearing...product which is difficult to mix. Samples to be burned were...nitro.. Mmir@iiet al. "Energy Expenditure of Tumorous Rats...

G. B. Mider; L. D. Fenninger; F. L. Haven; and J. J. Morton

1951-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Expenditures on Children by Families | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Expenditures on Children by Families Expenditures on Children by Families Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Expenditures on Children by Families Dataset Summary Description This dataset provides expenditures on Children by Families provides estimates of the cost of raising children from birth through age 17 for major budgetary components. Tags {children,families,expenditures,cost,budget,household,income,single-parent,husband-wife} Dataset Ratings Overall 0 No votes yet Data Utility 0 No votes yet Usefulness 0 No votes yet Ease of Access 0 No votes yet Dataset Additional Information Last Updated 2012 Publisher Food and Nutrition Service, Department of Agriculture Contact Name Contact Email Mark.Lino@cnpp.usda.gov

254

Residential Energy Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. The data was collected as part of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). RECS is a national survey that collects residential energy-related data. The survey collected data from 4,381 households in housing units statistically selected to represent the 111.1 million housing units in the United States. Data were obtained from residential energy suppliers for each unit in the sample to produce the data. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB)

255

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

3 3 Buildings Aggregate Energy Expenditures, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Residential Buildings Commercial Buildings Total Building Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (2) Total Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (3) Total Expenditures 1980 89.1 40.5 28.9 158.5 70.9 20.5 17.2 108.6 267.2 1981 94.9 41.3 27.8 164.0 79.4 21.4 16.5 117.3 281.3 1982 99.9 47.9 24.5 172.3 83.4 25.1 13.7 122.2 294.5 1983 103.6 51.0 21.4 176.1 83.6 26.1 14.6 124.3 300.4 1984 103.3 51.6 23.6 178.5 87.6 25.9 14.7 128.2 306.7 1985 105.4 48.8 22.6 176.8 90.0 24.0 12.6 126.6 303.4 1986 106.9 44.2 18.1 169.2 90.5 20.7 9.1 120.2 289.4 1987 108.2 40.9 18.0 167.1 88.7 19.8 9.2 117.7 284.7 1988 110.3 41.8 18.0 170.1 89.9 20.4 8.2 118.5 288.7 1989 110.2 42.9 19.7 172.8 91.5 20.5 8.4 120.4 293.2 1990 110.9 39.0 18.2 168.2 92.9 19.4 9.2 121.5 289.7 1991 113.7 39.2 17.0 169.9 93.9 19.5 7.7 121.1 291.0

256

Economic growth and alternative deficit-reducing tax increases and expenditure cuts: A cross-sectional study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Classifying government expenditures into capital and current expenditures renders the latter as the best type for implementing a reduction in expenditures. Deficit-reducing cuts in capital expenditures are concom...

Mohsen Fardmanesh

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

E-Print Network 3.0 - alterarions energy expenditure Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

causes greater energy expenditure... but also weighted to match the mass of the walking boots. We estimated metabolic energy expenditure, joint... fixation with walking boots...

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity energy expenditure Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

causes greater energy expenditure... but also weighted to match the mass of the walking boots. We estimated metabolic energy expenditure, joint... fixation with walking boots...

259

Fuel.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6: Total Petroleum Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Residential Commercial...

260

Fuel.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1: Kerosene Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Consumption Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial Total Residential Commercial Industrial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Fuel.vp  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

3: Liquefied Petroleum Gases Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Residential Commercial...

262

Potential for Reduction of Exhaust Emissions in a Common-Rail Direct-Injection Diesel Engine by Fueling with FischerTropsch Diesel Fuel Synthesized from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the constant speed/varying load test modes, the use of CFT also resulted in a general reduction of regulated emissions. ... (5, 6) Moreover, FT diesel fuels can be used in contemporary diesel engines without any modification and with a negligible or weak improvement of engine efficiency. ... Liu, Z.; Shi, S.; Li, Y.Coal liquefaction technologiesDevelopment in China and challenges in chemical reaction engineering Chem. ...

Chonglin Song; Guohong Gong; Jinou Song; Gang Lv; Xiaofeng Cao; Lidong Liu; Yiqiang Pei

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Investigation of Fuel Effects on Dilute, Mixing-Controlled Combustion in an Optical Direct-Injection Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

School of Engineering, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, and Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 ... Additionally, data obtained from this study provide fundamental insights into NOx and PM formation mechanisms in diesel engines. ... Results show that increasing fuel oxygenation produces lower in-cylinder and engine-out soot levels, consistent with existing studies of the effects of fuel oxygenation on soot emissions from diesel engines. ...

A. S. (Ed) Cheng; Ansis Upatnieks; Charles J. Mueller

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Comparison of PM emissions from a gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injected (PFI) vehicle measured by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) with two fuels: Gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two Euro 4 gasoline passenger vehicles (one gasoline direct injected vehicle and one port fuel injected vehicle) were tested over the cold start New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Each vehicle was respectively fueled with gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline. Particle number concentrations were measured by the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particle masses were measured by gravimetric method and estimated from the number distributions using two density distributions (one is constant with the particle size and one is power law related with the size). The first 7 stages of ELPI were used for estimation. The results show that for each vehicle, PM masses measured by gravimetric method, the total PM numbers measured by ELPI and estimated PM masses for M15 are lower than those for gasoline. For each kind of fuel, PM masses by two methods and total PM numbers from the GDI vehicle are higher than those from the PFI one. PM number distribution curves of the four vehicle/fuel combinations are similar. All decline gradually and the maximum number of each curve occurs in the first stage. More than 99.9% numbers locate in the first 8 stages of which diameters are less than 1?m. PM number emissions correlate well with the acceleration of the two vehicles. The estimated particle masses were much lower than the gravimetric measurements.

Bin Liang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Xiukun Han; Liping Gao; Lijun Hao; Wentao Ye; Peipei Dai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Return on investment and corporate capital expenditures: Empirical evidence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known (e.g., Gordon 1996, Chapter 8) that maximizing a firm's ROI is not equivalent to maximizing the value of the firm. This fact notwithstanding, it is often claimed that many managers use ROI in making capital expenditure decisions. The purpose of our paper is to empirically examine this claim. The primary findings presented in this paper offer substantial evidence demonstrating the positive association between ROI and capital expenditures. The positive association between ROI and capital expenditures occurs even where the interests of owners and managers are apparently in conflict.

Lawrence A. Gordon; Raghavan J. Iyengar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Investment opportunities and market reaction to capital expenditure decisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we argue that share price reaction to a firm's capital expenditure decisions depends critically on the market's assessment of the quality of its investment opportunities. We postulate that announcements of increases (decreases) in capital expenditures positively (negatively) affect the stock prices of firms with valuable investment opportunities. Contrarily, we predict that announcements of increases (decreases) in capital spending negatively (positively) affect the share prices of firms without such opportunities. Our empirical results are generally consistent with these predictions. Overall, empirical evidence supports our conjecture that it is the quality of the firm's investment opportunities rather than its industry affiliation which determines the share price reaction to its capital expenditure decisions.

Kee H. Chung; Peter Wright; Charlie Charoenwong

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Note on gross capital formation and R&D expenditure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Companies often consider the cost of R&D projects (especially salaries paid to R&D personnel) as part of their current expenses. Companies continue to do this practice even without exactly specifying what they mean by R&D project costs. This practice is misleading because spending on research is undeniably a form of fixed capital investment, even more so than the item that economists consider as the epitome of fixed capital investment ?? purchase of machinery. The dynamics of the possible relationship between investment in research and investment in machinery is that during times of economic expansion, firms tend to increase their investment in research to come up with product innovations capable of exploiting increasing effectual demand. Over time, this investment results in the emergence of the direct relationship between expense on industrial R&D and the business cycle. We tested this hypothesis both in Italy and in the USA. Our experiments are based on OECD statistics, referring to R&D spending from 1987 to 1999, and on the magnitude 'Gross Capital Formation' in the manufacturing industry. We chose to represent our conjecture about a causal relationship between investment cycle and R&D expenditure econometrically.

Mario De Marchi; Maurizio Rocchi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Basis for Contributions by New Members to Past Capital Expenditure - Draft Note by the UK Delegation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basis for Contributions by New Members to Past Capital Expenditure - Draft Note by the UK Delegation

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Special Contribution by New Member States to Capital Expenditure Previously Incurred by the Organization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Special Contribution by New Member States to Capital Expenditure Previously Incurred by the Organization

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Special Contribution by New Member States to Capital Expenditure Previously Incurred by the Organization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Special Contribution by New Member States to Capital Expenditure Previously Incurred by the Organization

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Note on R&D expenditures and fixed capital formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we deal with the fixed capital nature of the means of production and ... . We argue that these R&D current expenditures typically have the nature of fixed investments. ... then present an empirical ...

Mario De Marchi; Maurizio Rocchi

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992 - Publication  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Expenditures > Publication and Tables and Expenditures > Publication and Tables 1992 Consumption & Expenditures Publication and Tables Figure ES1. Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings by Energy Sources, 1992 Separater Bar To View and/or Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader . If you experience any difficulties, visit our Technical Frequently Asked Questions. You have the option of downloading the entire report or selected sections of the report. Separater Bar Full Report - Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures, 1992 (file size 1.07 MB) pages: 214 Selected Sections Main Text - requires Adobe Acrobat Reader (file size 193,634 bytes) pages: 28, includes the following: Contacts Contents Executive Summary Introduction Background

273

Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the seventh report submitted to Congress in accordance with section 5(d)(2)(E)(ii)(II) of Title I--Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act). This section of the Act directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to summarize the annual expenditures of funds disbursed from the DOE surcharge escrow account and to assess compliance of these expenditures with the limitations specified in the Act. In addition to placing limitations on the use of these funds, the Act also requires the nonsited compact regions and nonmember States to provide DOE with an itemized report of their expenditures on December 31 of each year in which funds are expended. Within 6 months after receiving the individual reports, the Act requires the Secretary to furnish Congress with a summary of the reported expenditures and an assessment of compliance with the specified usage limitations. This report fulfills that requirement. DOE disbursed funds totaling $15,037,778.91 to the States and compact regions following the July 1, 1986, January 1, 1988, and January 1, 1990, milestones specified in the Act. Of this amount, $1,445,701.61 was expended during calendar year 1992 and $10,026,763.87 was expended during the prior 6 years. At the end of December 1992, $3,565,313.43 was unexpended. DOE has reviewed each of the reported expenditures and concluded that all reported expenditures comply with the spending limitations stated in section 5(d)(2)(E)(i) of the Act.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Table A39. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" 9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.3,2,1.6,1.2

275

A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

276

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel?Diethyl Adipate Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The advantage of a diesel engine compared with a gasoline engine is the fuel economy benefits; however, the high NOx and smoke emissions still remain the main obstacles for the increasing application of diesel engines with the increasing concerns for environmental protection and implementation of more stringent exhaust gas regulations, thus further reduction in engine emissions becomes one of major tasks in engine development. ... In the application of pure oxygenated fuels, Fleisch et al.,1 Kapus et al.,2 and Sorenson et al.3 have studied dimethyl ether (DME) in the modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow emission prospects without fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Murayama, T.; Zheng, M.; Chikahisa, T. Simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx from a DI diesel engine with EGR and dimethyl carbonate; SAE paper 952518, Society of Automotive Engineers:? Warrendale, PA, 1995. ...

Yi Ren; Zuohua Huang; Haiyan Miao; Deming Jiang; Ke Zeng; Bing Liu; Xibin Wang

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

277

Direct conversion of surplus fissile materials, spent nuclear fuel, and other materials to high-level-waste glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the end of the cold war the United States, Russia, and other countries have excess plutonium and other materials from the reductions in inventories of nuclear weapons. The United States Academy of Sciences (NAS) has recommended that these surplus fissile materials (SFMs) be processed so they are no more accessible than plutonium in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This spent fuel standard, if adopted worldwide, would prevent rapid recovery of SFMs for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. The NAS recommended investigation of three sets of options for disposition of SFMs while meeting the spent fuel standard: (1) incorporate SFMs with highly radioactive materials and dispose of as waste, (2) partly burn the SFMs in reactors with conversion of the SFMs to SNF for disposal, and (3) dispose of the SFMs in deep boreholes. The US Government is investigating these options for SFM disposition. A new method for the disposition of SFMs is described herein: the simultaneous conversion of SFMs, SNF, and other highly radioactive materials into high-level-waste (HLW) glass. The SFMs include plutonium, neptinium, americium, and {sup 233}U. The primary SFM is plutonium. The preferred SNF is degraded SNF, which may require processing before it can be accepted by a geological repository for disposal.

Forsberg, C.W.; Elam, K.R.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES Capital Outlays CAPITAL OUTLAYS are expenditures that result in acquisitions of, additions to, replacement of, or major repairs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES ­ Capital Outlays 2-G page 1 CAPITAL OUTLAYS are expenditures that result and other purchase-related costs. #12;EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES ­ Capital Outlays 2-G page 2 7300 and future fiscal periods. These objects are not to include cost of service contracts. 7100 Capital Outlays

Harms, Kyle E.

279

Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013 1 and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas and propane will increase by 13% and 9%, respectively, this winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) compared with last winter. Projected U.S. household expenditures are 2% higher for electricity and 2% lower for heating oil this winter. Although EIA expects average expenditures for households that heat with natural gas will be significantly higher than last winter, spending for gas heat will still be lower than the previous 5-year average (see EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook slideshow).  Brent crude oil spot prices fell from a recent peak of $117 per barrel in early September to

280

Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a Direct-Hydrogen, Load-Following Fuel 13. S. Gelfi, A.G.versus a Direct-Hydrogen Load-Following Fuel Cell te d M 22.vehicle model of a load-following direct hydrogen fuel cell

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

JOBS FC 1.0 (JOBS and economic impacts of Fuel Cells)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 (JOBS and economic impacts of Fuel Cells)* Marianne Mintz, Argonne National Laboratory Eric Stewart and Catherine Mertes, RCF Economic & Financial Consulting May 22, 2012 *Funded by EERE-FCT Program JOBS FC uses input-output approach to model deployment 2  JOBS FC is a user-friendly spreadsheet-based tool that calculates direct, indirect and induced job creation, wages and sales resulting from FC production, installation, operation and fueling.  JOBS FC uses Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers to capture effect of expenditures on earnings, output and employment  JOBS FC models gross and net jobs created by 3 technologies, 3 applications, multiple FC capacities (defaults shown) $ Jobs are created at each stage in FC

282

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

2 2 2005 Household Energy Expenditures, by Vintage ($2010) | Year | Prior to 1950 887 | 22% 1950 to 1969 771 | 22% 1970 to 1979 736 | 16% 1980 to 1989 741 | 16% 1990 to 1999 752 | 16% 2000 to 2005 777 | 9% | Average 780 | Total 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1.24 2,003 1) Energy expenditures per square foot were calculated using estimates of average heated floor space per household. According to the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), the average heated floor space per household in the U.S. was 1,618 square feet. Average total floor space, which includes garages, attics and unfinished basements, equaled 2,309 square feet. EIA, 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Oct. 2008 for 2005 expenditures; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price inflators.

283

Extended Two Dimensional Nanotube and Nanowire Surfaces as Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transportation field: solid oxide fuel cells require highto solid oxide, alkaline, and direct alcohol fuel cells.

Alia, Shaun Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dual Tank Fuel System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

Wagner, Richard William (Albion, NY); Burkhard, James Frank (Churchville, NY); Dauer, Kenneth John (Avon, NY)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

285

Emissions and fuel economy of a vehicle with a spark-ignition, direct-injection engine : Mitsubishi Legnum GDI{trademark}.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1997 Mitsubishi Legnum station wagon with a 150-hp, 1.8-L, spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engine was tested for emissions by using the FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 test cycles and four different fuels. The purpose of the tests was to obtain fuel-economy and emissions data on SIDI vehicles and to compare the measurements obtained with those of a port-fuel-injection (PFI) vehicle. The PFI vehicle chosen for the comparison was a 1995 Dodge Neon, which meets the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) emissions goals of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) less than 0.125 g/mi, carbon monoxide (CO) less than 1.7 g/mi, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) less than 0.2 g/mi, and particulate matter (PM) less than 0.01 g/mi. The Mitsubishi was manufactured for sale in Japan and was not certified to meet current US emissions regulations. Results show that the SIDI vehicle can provide up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle does, with correspondingly lower greenhouse gas emissions. The SIDI vehicle as designed does not meet the PNGV goals for NMHC or NO{sub x} emissions, but it does meet the goal for CO emissions. Meeting the goal for PM emissions appears to be contingent upon using low-sulfur fuel and an oxidation catalyst. One reason for the difficulty in meeting the NMHC and NO{sub x} goals is the slow (200 s) warm-up of the catalyst. Catalyst warm-up time is primarily a matter of design. The SIDI engine produces more NMHC and NO{sub x} than the PFI engine does, which puts a greater burden on the catalyst to meet the emissions goals than is the case with the PFI engine. Oxidation of NMHC is aided by unconsumed oxygen in the exhaust when the SIDI engine operates in stratified-charge mode, but the same unconsumed oxygen inhibits chemical reduction of NO{sub x} . Thus, meeting the NO{sub x} emissions goal is likely to be the greatest challenge for the SIDI engine.

Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

286

A New Approach For Direct Disposal Of Spent Fuel Into Deep Vertical Boreholes In A Salt Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the reference concept for the disposal of heat generating radioactive waste in Germany. It also highlights a new approach to reduce efforts for the transport and handling of waste canisters by introducing a new canister type for spent fuel (BSK 3). The objectives and the scope of a corresponding research and development program performed in the context of the 6. European Framework Program will be presented. The entire emplacement process and the technical components will be described and illustrated. The program for the corresponding 1:1-scale demonstration tests and the location of the test site will be explained. Eventually, an outlook on the planned demonstration test will be given. (authors)

Bollingerfehr, W.; Filbert, W.; Wehrmann, J. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Fuel.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

F2: Jet Fuel Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 F2: Jet Fuel Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Jet Fuel a Consumption Prices Expenditures Thousand Barrels Trillion Btu Dollars per Million Btu Million Dollars Alabama 2,193 12.4 23.24 289.1 Alaska 19,966 113.2 23.28 2,635.6 Arizona 3,812 21.6 23.28 503.2 Arkansas 988 5.6 22.84 128.0 California 94,474 535.7 22.88 12,256.9 Colorado 10,601 60.1 23.04 1,384.7 Connecticut 1,699 9.6 23.55 226.9 Delaware 132 0.7 23.08 17.3 Dist. of Col. 0 0.0 - - Florida 33,167 188.1 23.23 4,368.5 Georgia 11,252 63.8 22.84 1,457.5 Hawaii 11,311 64.1 22.94 1,471.3 Idaho 726 4.1 24.50 100.9 Illinois 24,668 139.9 22.85 3,196.2 Indiana 8,519 48.3 22.80 1,101.3 Iowa 1,101 6.2 23.44 146.3 Kansas 2,759 15.6 22.97 359.3 Kentucky 9,000 51.0 23.07 1,177.5 Louisiana 19,080 108.2 22.79 2,464.9 Maine 1,175 6.7 23.55 156.9 Maryland 2,100 11.9 23.08 274.8 Massachusetts

288

Court Committee Structure Capital Expenditure Committee is a "peer" committee sitting between Estates Committee, Finance Committee and Senior Management Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Court Committee Structure Capital Expenditure Committee is a "peer" committee sitting between Audit Committee Estates Committee Estates Management Committee Capital Expenditure Committee Finance Committee Capital Expenditure Committee Investment Advisory Committee Student Finance Subcommittee Health

Glasgow, University of

289

An intervention analysis for the relationship between capital expenditure decisions and the market value of firms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article is meant to explore the relationship between corporate capital expenditure decisions and the market value of firms ... . The article shows that deep cuts in capital expenditures may, for sink-hole ty...

Yang-Tzong Tsay; Ken Hung

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Nonlinear relationship between health care expenditure and its determinants: a panel smooth transition regression model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper employs a panel of 16 OECD countries over the period 19752009 to reexamine the health care expenditure (HCE)-income relationship by considering a lagged ratio of public expenditures on health as th...

Po-Chin Wu; Shiao-Yen Liu; Sheng-Chieh Pan

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

2012-13 Expenditures Req # Amount Category Vendor Detail  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

803472 $800 Food Costco Food, drink, paper COGS 802508 $891 Expense Advance Business Machines Service2012-13 Expenditures Req # Amount Category Vendor Detail SGA OFFICES COGS 801857 $800 Food Publix Food, drink, paper COGS 803830 $2,750 Expense Astro Tour Rental - Tour Bus COGS 803835 $650 Food Grammy

292

Expenditure by Colleges of Advanced Technology in Britain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... at the colleges of advanced technology to be 660,000. He estimated net recurrent expenditure after allowing for income receivable from fees and sources other than Ministry grant was ... receivable from fees and sources other than Ministry grant was 7,532,107, besides capital ...

1962-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

293

Audit of controls over Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory subcontractor expenditures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In January 1989 the Department of Energy contracted with Universities Research Association, Inc. to design, construct, manage, operate, and maintain the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. Through Fiscal Year 1992, costs for subcontractor goods and services accounted for about 75 percent of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory expenditures. The Office of Inspector General evaluated the adequacy of controls in place to ensure that subcontractor costs were reasonable, as required by the contract. The following conclusions were drawn from the audit. The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory did not consistently exercise prudent business judgment in making subcontractor expenditures. As a result, $60 million in expenditures already made and $128 million planned with commercial subcontractors were, in the authors opinion, unnecessary, excessive, or represented uncontrolled growth. The audit also found inadequate justifications, accountability, and cost controls over $143 million in expenditures made and $47 million planned with other Department of Energy laboratories. Improvements were needed in subcontract administration and internal controls, including appropriate audit coverage of the subcontracts. In addition, Department of Energy guidance concerning procurement actions between the laboratories needed to be established.

Not Available

1993-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

294

Sex differences in energy expenditure in nonhuman primates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1986 Time and energy budgets. In...141^166. New York: Alan R. Liss...175^200. New York and London...colobus as a low-energy strategist...pp. 11^33. New York: Cambridge University...and C. Ross Energy expenditure in...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

CREEL CENSUS AND EXPENDITURE STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CREEL CENSUS AND EXPENDITURE STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER, MONTANA, 1951 Marine Biological STUDY, NORTH FORK SUN RIVER, MONTANA, 1951 Marine Biological Laboratory JUN16 1954 WOODS HOLE, MASS MAP CREEL CENSUS SUN RIVER MONTANA DRAWN i*^ ^ TRACED- _2£jLt:l SUBMITTED . 1 V N 01 1 VN ei

296

Economic Impact of Fuel Cell Deployment in Forklifts and for Backup Power under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report presents estimates of economic impacts associated with expenditures under the ARRA, also known as the Recovery Act, by the USDOE for the deployment of fuel cells in forklift and backup power applications.

297

Fuel.vp  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

F20: Natural Gas Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial Transpor- tation Electric Power Total Residential Commercial...

298

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

the purpose of producing or blending diesel fuel containing at least 2% biodiesel or green diesel. Eligible direct costs must have been incurred after December 31, 2002. A...

299

Direct comparison between X-ray nanotomography and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructure characterization of a solid oxide fuel cell anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been applied to characterize the microstructure of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode. A direct comparison between the results of both methods is conducted on the same region of the microstructure to assess the spatial resolution of the nano-CT microstructure, SEM being taken as a reference. A registration procedure is proposed to find out the position of the SEM image within the nano-CT volume. It involves a second SEM observation, which is taken along an orthogonal direction and gives an estimate reference SEM image position, which is then refined by an automated optimization procedure. This enables an unbiased comparison between the cell porosity morphologies provided by both methods. In the present experiment, nano-CT is shown to underestimate the number of pores smaller than 1 ?m and overestimate the size of the pores larger than 1.5 ?m. - Highlights: ? X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and SEM are used to characterize an SOFC anode. ? A methodology is proposed to compare the nano-CT and SEM data on the same region. ? The spatial resolution of the nano-CT data is assessed from that comparison.

Quey, R., E-mail: quey@emse.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); cole des Mines de Saint-tienne, CNRS UMR 5307, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-tienne, Cedex 2 (France); Suhonen, H., E-mail: heikki.suhonen@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Laurencin, J., E-mail: jerome.laurencin@cea.fr [CEA-Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cloetens, P., E-mail: peter.cloetens@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Bleuet, P., E-mail: pierre.bleuet@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles Using Supercapacitors: Device Characteristics, Control Strategies, and Simulation Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

considered: (a) Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)has focused mainly on hydrogen fuel cells and batteries.are considered: Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

HISTORY | Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Together with the electric motor, dynamo, gas turbine, internal combustion engine, and the fused salt electrolysis of aluminum, the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century brought about the fuel cell the silent or cold combustion of fossil fuels by the electrochemical oxidation with atmospheric oxygen to water and carbon dioxide. Wilhelm Ostwald, in 1894, emphasized the high efficiency and the nonpolluting properties of the direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity in contrast to the then combination of steam engine and dynamo, which reached only about 10% efficiency. Direct coal fuel cells designed for the propulsion of ships, however, have not become a reality so far. Instead of fuel cells and batteries, internal combustion engines determined the nineteenth- and twentieth- century technological landscape. Against the background of the oil crisis and the long-term scarcity of natural gas, crude oil, and coal, new hopes have focused on fuel cell technology, which saw first early splendid applications during the space programs of the 1960s, in submarines since the 1980s, and in experimental zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) since the 1990s. This article outlines (1) early insights about energy conversion: Grove's cell, direct conversion of coal and indirect fuel cells; (2) historical roots of alkaline fuel cells: the discovery of gas diffusion electrodes; low-pressure alkaline fuel cell conquer spacecrafts and submarines; (3) polymer electrolyte fuel cells: solid polymer technology, electric vehicles, direct methanol fuel-cell, stationary power systems and portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems; (4) phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC): acid fuel cells, PAFC plants in Japan, gasoline fuel cells; and (5) high-temperature fuel cells: molten carbonate fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell.

P. Kurzweil

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

FUEL CELLS MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS | Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) emerged during the twentieth century as one of the key fuel cell types. It uses an electrolyte of alkali metal carbonates, operates typically at 650C, and is best suited to hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, coal gas, or biogas. The high operating temperature enables such fuels to be fed directly to the MCFC stacks, leading to conversion efficiencies greater than 50%. Molten carbonate fuel cell systems are ideally suited to applications that need continuous base load power. The first commercial systems, at the 300kW scale, are therefore being used in applications such as hospitals and hotels.

A.L. Dicks

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

1 1 2005 Energy Expenditures per Household, by Housing Type and Square Footage ($2010) Per Household Single-Family 1.16 Detached 1.16 Attached 1.20 Multi-Family 1.66 2 to 4 units 1.90 5 or more units 1.53 Mobile Home 1.76 All Homes 1.12 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Energy expenditures per square foot were calculated using estimates of average heated floor space per household. According to the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), the average heated floor space per household in the U.S. was 1,618 square feet. Average total floor space, which includes garages, attics and unfinished basements, equaled 2,309 square feet. EIA, 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Oct. 2008, Table US-1 part1; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for

306

Green Pricing Program Marketing Expenditures: Finding the Right Balance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

449 449 September 2009 Green Pricing Program Marketing Expenditures: Finding the Right Balance Barry Friedman and Mackay Miller National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46449 September 2009 Green Pricing Program Marketing Expenditures: Finding the Right Balance Barry Friedman and Mackay Miller Prepared under Task No. SAO9.3003 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

307

Post-IPO capital expenditures and market feedback  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an empirical test of the market feedback hypothesis, a theory suggesting that information aggregated in the IPO process is used for the firms investment decision. We examine the relation between post-IPO unexpected capital expenditures and feedback generated during the IPO process for 1543 \\{IPOs\\} between 1987 and 1995. Feedback is measured by (i) the unexpected price adjustment made at the end of the waiting period and (ii) the unexpected initial return. Consistent with the hypothesis, we find that positive feedback is followed by positive abnormal capital expenditures. A long-term event study finds no significant difference in stock returns between positive and negative feedback IPOs. This suggests that firms should not ignore market feedback as there is no evidence for a feedback related bias in post-IPO stock prices.

Jos van Bommel; Theo Vermaelen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Private health care expenditure and quality in Beveridge systems: Cross-regional differences in the Italian NHS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Private health care expenditure ranges from 15% to 30% of total healthcare spending in OECD countries. The literature suggests that there should be an inverse correlation between quality of public services and private expenditures. The main objective of this study is to explore the association between quality of public healthcare and private expenditures in the Italian Regional Healthcare Systems (RHSs).The institutional framework offered by the Italian NHS allows to investigate on the differences among the regions while controlling for institutional factors.The study uses micro-data from the ISTAT Household Consumption Survey (HCS) and a rich set of regional quality indicators. The results indicate that there is a positive and significant correlation between quality and private spending per capita across regions. The study also points out the strong association between the distribution of private consumption and income. In order to account for the influence of income, the study segmented data in three socio-economic classes and computed cross-regional correlations of \\{RHSs\\} quality and household healthcare expenditure per capita, within each class. No correlation was found between the two variables.These findings are quite surprising and call into question the theory that better quality of public services crowds out private spending, or, at the very least, it undermines the simplistic notions that higher levels of private spending are a direct consequence of poor quality in the public sector. This suggests that policies should avoid to simplistically link private spending with judgements or assessments about the functioning or efficacy of the public system and its organizations.

Mario Del Vecchio; Lorenzo Fenech; Anna Prenestini

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

310

Effect of Au, Ag and Cu thin films' thickness on the electrical parameters of metal-porous silicon direct hydrogen fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of the thickness of the gold, silver and cupper films on the electrical properties such as open circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Isc), in the direct hydrogen fuel cell, which uses water as a source of hydrogen, is studied by fabricating Metal/Porous Silicon/n-Silicon/Indium structures. The Porous Silicon (PS) layer on n-type (111) oriented silicon wafers were prepared by anodization. The thin films of Au or Ag or Cu with different thicknesses between 120 and 600nm were deposited onto the PS surface by the electron-beam technique. The obtained results indicated that Voc and Isc, strongly depend on the Au, Ag and Cu layer thicknesses. The Au/PS/n-Si structure generated highest Voc and Isc values for all thicknesses of Au film. The best values of Voc and Isc were obtained at 325nm as 0.89V and 0.021mA for Au, at 350nm as 0.75V and 0.017mA for Ag, at 350nm as 0.50V and 0.010mA, respectively.

Cigdem Oruc; Sevinc Guler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Center to someone by E-mail Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Recent Federal Actions This list includes recent federal actions, such as Federal Register notices and rulemaking actions, agency directives or agency communications, that are all publicly available. These actions relate to alternative fuels and vehicles, fuel blends, hybrid vehicles, and idle reduction and fuel economy measures. When rulemakings are finalized, they will move to the list of

312

Determination of Aromatics in Jet and Diesel Fuels by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (SFCFID): A Quantitative Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......fuels (2). However, these techniques are not generally used in routine analysis because of the high initial capital expenditure and the require ment of highly skilled operators. Liquid chromatography ( L C ) has been used extensively in the......

F.P. Di Sanzo; R.E. Yoder

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Material Handling Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report provides cost estimates for the manufacture of 10 kW and 25 kW PEM fuel cells designed for material handling applications.

314

Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

clean clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy/ Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC March 29, 2011 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. *FuelCell Energy, Inc. *Renewable and Liquid Fuels Experience *HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack for Shipboard APU *Solid Oxide Experience and Applications DOE-ONR Workshop FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. FuelCell Energy, Inc. * Premier developer of fuel cell technology - founded in 1969 * Over 50 power installations in North America, Europe, and Asia * Industrial, commercial, utility

315

Fuel Cell Power PlantsFuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of stationary fuel Premier developer of stationary fuel cell technology -- founded in 1969 · Over 50 efficiency 60% DFC-ERGDFC ERG DFC/Turbine 58 ­ 70% Direct FuelCell (DFC)* 47% Natural Gas Engines Small Gas 30 ­ 42% Turbines * Combined Heat & Power 25 ­35% Micro- (CHP)) fuel cell applications( pp

316

Alternative Fuel News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

direction for alternative fuels is emerging within direction for alternative fuels is emerging within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As a result of public input and new requirements, consideration of a proposed rule for local government and private fleet alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) acquisition requirements has been delayed. In this special issue of Alternative Fuel News, we summa- rize DOE's current position on the local government and private fleet rulemaking that has been under considera- tion. We'll also take a look at the new area of focus-niche markets-an area that is promising to be another effective way to help meet national targets for displacing petroleum- based fuels. The Local Government and Private Fleet Rule The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires that replacement fuels comprise 10% of total U.S. motor fuel

317

High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including methanol, ethanol, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and so on, ethanol is the best choice, as it has abundant than Pt and has a much lower price, and thus the cost of fuel cell technology can be greatly. Secondly, Pd is more abundant than Pt and has a much lower price, and thus the cost of fuel cell technology

Zhao, Tianshou

318

Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

9 9 Average Annual Energy Expenditures per Household, by Year ($2010) Year 1980 1,991 1981 1,981 1982 2,058 1983 2,082 1984 2,067 1985 2,012 1986 1,898 1987 1,846 1988 1,849 1989 1,848 1990 1,785 1991 1,784 1992 1,729 1993 1,797 1994 1,772 1995 1,727 1996 1,800 1997 1,761 1998 1,676 1999 1,659 2000 1,824 2001 1,900 2002 1,830 2003 1,978 2004 2,018 2005 2,175 2006 2,184 2007 2,230 2008 2,347 2009 2,173 2010 2,201 2011 2,185 2012 2,123 2013 2,056 2014 2,032 2015 2,030 2016 2,007 2017 1,992 2018 1,982 2019 1,973 2020 1,963 2021 1,961 2022 1,964 2023 1,962 2024 1,959 2025 1,957 2026 1,959 2027 1,960 2028 1,953 2029 1,938 2030 1,932 2031 1,937 2032 1,946 2033 1,956 2034 1,967 2035 1,978 Source(s): Average Expenditure EIA, State Energy Data 2009: Prices and Expenditures, Jun. 2011 for 1980-2009; EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Early Release, Jan. 2012, Table A2, p. 3-

320

Market reaction to capital expenditures of powerful CEOs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is controversial whether governance structure affects the value of the firm. This paper examines the sensitivity of firm value to capital expenditure under various levels of CEO power. The paper uses two measures of CEO power and finds that the greater the power of the CEO the less the increase in market value for a given increase in capital spending. The results are robust to the inclusion of firm and governance characteristics and indicate that the market is weary of investment decisions made by powerful CEOs.

Anwar Boumosleh; Elias Raad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Awareness Program Fuels Energy Savings Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AWARENESS PROGRAM FUELS ENERGY SAVINGS PROJECTS ALEKS M. KLIDZEJS Senior Mechanical Engineer 3M Company Saint Paul, Minnesota ABSTRACT Energy awareness concepts were incorporated as part of a plant energy survey and played a major part... in the followup program. Plant manager support was received and multi-disciplinary task group was established to review and recommend energy saving potentials. Beyond instilling traditional benefits of an awareness program, capital expenditure energy savings...

Klidzejs, A. M.

322

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 2005 Households and Energy Expenditures, by Income Level ($2010) Energy Expenditures by Household Income Households (millions) Household Less than $10,000 9.9 9% $10,000 to $14,999 8.5 8% $15,000 to $19,999 8.4 8% $20,000 to $29,999 15.1 14% $30,000 to $39,999 13.6 12% $40,000 to $49,999 11.0 10% $50,000 to $74,999 19.8 18% $75,000 to $99,999 10.6 10% $100,000 or more 14.2 13% Total 111.1 100% Note(s): Source(s): 7% 1) See Table 2.3.15 for more on energy burdens. 2) A household is defined as a family, an individual, or a group of up to nine unrelated individuals occupying the same housing unit. EIA, 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, Oct. 2008, Table US-1 part 2; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price inflators. 2,431 847 3% 2,774 909 3% 1,995

323

Direct Visualization of Spray and Combustion Inside a DI-SI Engine and Its Implications to Flex-Fuel VVT Operations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fuel, injection timing, and valve deactivation in a DI optical accessible engine with side-mounted, multi-hole injector are investigated using CFD and high-speed imaging of sprays and combustion.

324

Effects of Bioethanol-Blended Diesel Fuel on Combustion and Emission Reduction Characteristics in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea ... As a fuel for compression engines, bioethanol-blended diesel fuels have some different trends on the exhaust emission characteristics according to the engine load. ... The paper begins with an introduction of general information on the nature of emissions of exhaust gases, including the toxicity and causes of emissions for both spark-ignition and diesel engines. ...

Su Han Park; Junepyo Cha; Chang Sik Lee

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

325

Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

Rechard, R.P. [ed.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to clarify how green turtles manage their energy expenditure during...estimate internal energy expenditure, such...consumption rate of fed green turtles is approximately...Georges. 2011 Energy expenditure of freely swimming adult green turtles (Chelonia...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effect of local government expenditure on the ratio of output to capital: Evidence from panel data at Chinas provincial level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper divides the expenditure of local government into the productive and nonproductive expenditure for revealing the effect of local governments expenditure on output-capital efficiency through model and e...

Tao Jin; Jianhui Zhang

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Fuel Cells Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION / ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy Pat Davis 2 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Goal : Develop and demonstrate fuel cell power system technologies for transportation, stationary, and portable applications. 3 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Objectives * Develop a 60% efficient, durable, direct hydrogen fuel cell power system for transportation at a cost of $45/kW (including hydrogen storage) by 2010. * Develop a 45% efficient reformer-based fuel cell power system for transportation operating on clean hydrocarbon or alcohol based fuel that meets emissions standards, a start-up time of 30 seconds, and a projected manufactured cost of $45/kW by

330

MECS Fuel Oil Figures  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

: Percentage of Total Purchased Fuels by Type of Fuel : Percentage of Total Purchased Fuels by Type of Fuel Figure 1. Percent of Total Purchased Fuel Sources: Energy Information Administration. Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS): Consumption of Energy; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM): Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries: Statistical Abstract of the United States. Note: The years below the line on the "X" Axis are interpolated data--not directly from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey or the Annual Survey of Manufactures. Figure 2: Changes in the Ratios of Distillate Fuel Oil to Natural Gas Figure 2. Changes in the Ratios of Distillate Fuel Oil to Natural Gas Sources: Energy Information Administration. Office of

331

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technical Publications Technical Publications Technical information about fuel cells published in technical reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and Web sites is provided here. General Transportation Stationary/Distributed Power Auxiliary & Portable Power Manufacturing General Economic Impact of Fuel Cell Deployment in Forklifts and for Backup Power under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-This report by Argonne National Laboratory presents estimates of economic impacts associated with expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also known as the Recovery Act, by the U.S. Department of Energy for the deployment of fuel cells in forklift and backup power applications. (April 2013). An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment-This report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. (April 2013).

332

Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while...

333

Fuel.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5: Wood and Biomass Waste Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2012 State Prices Expenditures Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Total b Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Total b Residential...

334

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

8 8 Average Annual Energy Expenditures per Square Foot of Commercial Floorspace, by Year ($2010) Year $/SF 1980 (1) 2.12 1981 2.22 (2) 1982 2.24 1983 2.21 1984 2.25 1985 2.20 1986 2.06 1987 2.00 1988 1.99 1989 2.01 1990 1.98 1991 1.92 1992 1.86 1993 1.96 1994 2.05 1995 2.12 1996 2.10 1997 2.08 1998 1.97 1999 1.88 2000 2.06 2001 2.20 2002 2.04 2003 2.13 2004 2.16 2005 2.30 2006 2.36 2007 2.35 2008 1.71 2009 2.43 2010 2.44 2011 2.44 2012 2.35 2013 2.28 2014 2.27 2015 2.29 2016 2.29 2017 2.28 2018 2.29 2019 2.29 2020 2.29 2021 2.31 2022 2.32 2023 2.32 2024 2.32 2025 2.32 2026 2.32 2027 2.33 2028 2.32 2029 2.31 2030 2.31 2031 2.32 2032 2.35 2033 2.37 2034 2.39 2035 2.42 Note(s): Source(s): EIA, State Energy Data Prices and Expenditures Database, June 2011 for 1980-2009; EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Early Release, Jan. 2012, Summary Reference Case Tables, Table A2, p. 3-5 and Table A5, p. 11-12 for consumption, Table A3, p. 6-8 for prices for 2008-2035; EIA, Annual Energy Review

335

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiative forcing from bio- fuel and gasoline GHG emissions,directly to additional bio- fuel feedstocks. The averagelife cycle GHGs from bio- fuels highlights the limitations

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

the volumes and carbon intensities of the fuels they provide in Oregon. In February 2014, Governor Kitzhaber directed DEQ to draft rules for the next phase of the Program,...

337

AUTHORIZING THE ISSUANCE AND SALE OF CAPITAL PROJECTS GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS TO MAKE CAPITAL EXPENDITURES FOR SENIOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTHORIZING THE ISSUANCE AND SALE OF CAPITAL PROJECTS GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS TO MAKE CAPITAL EXPENDITURES.--For the purpose of providing funds for capital expenditures as authorized in the 2014 Capital Projects General Capital Projects General Obligation Bond Act. SECTION 4. EXPENDITURES.--The proceeds from the sale of #12

Johnson, Eric E.

338

Injector having multiple fuel pegs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

340

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Table ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2011, United States  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2011, United States ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2011, United States Year Primary Energy Electric Power Sector h,j Retail Electricity Total Energy g,h,i Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i,j Coking Coal Steam Coal Total Exports Imports Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f,g Prices in Dollars per Million Btu 1970 0.45 0.36 0.38 1.27 0.93 0.59 1.16 0.73 1.43 2.85 0.42 1.38 1.71 0.18 1.29 1.08 0.32 4.98 1.65 1975 1.65 0.90 1.03 2.37 3.47 1.18 2.60 2.05 2.96 4.65 1.93 2.94 3.35 0.24 1.50 2.19 0.97 8.61 3.33 1980 2.10 1.38 1.46 2.54 3.19 2.86 6.70 6.36 5.64 9.84 3.88 7.04 7.40 0.43 2.26 4.57 1.77 13.95 6.89 1985 2.03 1.67 1.69 2.76 2.99 4.61 7.22 5.91 6.63 9.01 4.30 R 7.62 R 7.64 0.71 2.47 4.93 1.91 19.05

342

Teaching Direct Marketing and Small Farm Viability: Resources for Instructors - Unit 2, Small Farm Business Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Expenditures; Capital Expenditures; etc). iv. Actual hardabove zero. xi. Capital Expenditures Equipment isis considered a capital expenditure as it bene?ts the

Miles, Albie; Brown, Martha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Power Plants Power Plants Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean FuelCell Energy, Inc. * Premier developer of stationary fuel Premier developer of stationary fuel cell technology - founded in 1969 * Over 50 installations in North America, Europe, and Asia * Industrial, commercial, utility products products * 300 KW to 50 MW and beyond FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. g Product Line Based on Stack Building Block Cell Package and Stack Four-Stack Module DFC3000 Two 4-Stack Modules 2.8 MW Single-Stack Module Single Stack Module DFC1500 One 4-Stack Module 1.4 MW DFC300

344

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel CellCost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation - Compressed Hydrogen and PEM

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

retailers offer a mower fuel tank exchange program and deliver replacement propane tanks directly to the customer. Local propane fueling stations may also have the ability to...

346

NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Photo of a gasoline direct injection piston with injector. NREL studies the effects of new fuel properties on performance and emissions in...

347

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

348

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

349

U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Activities: Progress and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Department of Energy Fuel Cell Activities: Progress and Future Directions: Total Energy USA 2012 U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Activities: Progress and Future Directions:...

350

Occupational physical activity, energy expenditure and 11-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

expenditure measurements. Ergonomics. 1985;28(1):3659.time and physical workload. Ergonomics. Lynch JW, Kaplan GA,arm and leg exercise. Ergonomics. 1998;41(1):109 Shvartz E,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The impact of ageing on health care expenditures: a study of steepening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some researchers claim that health care expenditures for older people are growing faster than for the rest of the population. This process is referred to as steepening. The aim of this paper is to test steepening

Fredrik Alexander Gregersen

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Manager Power and Decision of Capital Expenditure: Empirical Research from Chinas Securities Market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Manager power in the firm is so strength that weakens the effect of incentive pay, and always brings out various negative consequences. So the actual capital expenditure, which could be the engine of firm ... pap...

Jing Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

E-Print Network 3.0 - adolescent energy expenditure Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hedge said, "and has helped the United States become a nation of workaholics... 's expenditure on this approach. ne of the keys to stemming the obesity ... Source: Wang, Z....

354

Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The overall share of annual household expenditures for transportation was lower in 2010 than it was in 1984, reaching its lowest point in 2009 at 15.5%. In the early to mid-1980s when oil prices...

355

Evidence on the Usefulness of Capital Expenditures as an Alternative Measure of Depreciation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investment professionals often suggest that accounting earnings is a more useful indicator of share value if adjusted by substituting current capital expenditures for reported depreciation. We investigate the use...

Dennis Chambers; Ross Jennings; Robert B. Thompson II

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fact #747: October 1, 2012 Behind Housing, Transportation is the Top Household Expenditure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Except for housing, transportation was the largest single expenditure for the average American household in 2010. The average household spends more on transportation in a year than on food. Vehicle...

357

EnvironmentalManagementExpenditures: AssessingtheFinancialReturnsfromStructuralandInfrastructuralInvestments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and inventory metrics. Key Words: sustainable development, environmental management practices, pollution;2 compliance within a region or industry (Hahn, 2000). In addition, the nature and form of environmentalEnvironmentalManagementExpenditures: Assessingthe

Edwards, Paul N.

358

Analysis of dynamics of public and private expenditures on health care and education in contemporary Russia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides an estimate of the dynamics in expenditures on health care and education made from all sources in Russia in the 19952012 and viewed as investments in human capital. These data from Russia ...

V. N. Ivanov; A. V. Suvorov; E. E. Balashova

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

National patterns of energy demand and expenditures by Hispanics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is based on ongoing research, at Argonne National Laboratory, being done for the Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) of the US Department of Energy. Under its legislative mandate MI is required to assess the impact of government policy, programs, and actions on US minorities. In line with this mission Argonne is currently involved in characterizing and analyzing the patterns of energy demand and expenditures of minorities. A major barrier associated with this task is the availability of sufficient data. With the possible exception of blacks, analysis of the patterns of energy demand for most minority population categories is all but impossible because of small sample sizes. The major source of residential energy consumption data, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, only collects data on 5000 to 7000 households. For many minority population categories, this number of observations make any meaningful statistical analysis at least at the regional Census level practically impossible, with any further refinement of the analysis becoming even more difficult. In this paper our primary purpose is to describe the patterns of energy demand for Hispanics and nonhispanics but ancillary to that briefly present one possible solution to the data availability problem.

Poyer, D.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Chapter 17 - Expenditure Incidence and Economy-Wide Incidence Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chapter 17 has two distinct sets of topics. The first part offers an analysis of expenditure incidence that covers the incidence of transfer payments, decreasing cost services, and nonexclusive goods. The second part discusses economy-wide incidence studies. Highlighted are the Pechman and Okner sources and uses approach to tax incidence, computable general equilibrium models (briefly), the Auerbach and Kotlikoff analysis of tax incidence in a dynamic setting using an OLG model, and the Fullerton and Rodgers model of lifetime tax incidence. The Appendix to Chapter 17 on tax reform considers four broad-based tax reform proposals that are common in the economics literature, bringing together some theoretical results from previous chapters and then turning to other issues that are not discussed elsewhere in the text. These include whether income from capital should be taxed, Michael Kremer's call for aged-based marginal tax rates, and the general problem of commitment or time-inconsistency in second-best analysis with imperfect information.

Richard W. Tresch

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Table N11.4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 19  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" 4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources","RSE"

362

"Table A38. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,,"Total United States"

363

Table 7.10 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources","RSE"

364

"Table A46. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" 6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" " Gas by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries," 1991 " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","------------","-","RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Pipelines","Supplier(d)","Factors"

365

"Table A48. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" 8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" " Gas by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","------------","-----------","RSE" " ","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Pipelines","Supplier(d)","Factors"," "

366

Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsins 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature up to 800C.

Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The impact of medicare capital prospective payment regulation on hospital capital expenditures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our study examines the impact of the capital prospective payment system (CPPS), implemented by Medicare in 1991, on capital expenditures and cost-effective behavior of non-proprietary hospitals. As noted in the paper, we use audited financial statement data for a large national sample of hospitals. Univariate analyses demonstrate a statistically significant decline in capital expenditures in the years following the CPPS regulation without significant changes in relative aggregate operating expenses. These preliminary findings suggest that CPPS induces some cost-effective behavior by hospital managers. Ordinary least-squares (OLS) regressions indicate that capital expenditures before and after CPPS are differently affected by the changes in most explanatory variables. Further OLS regressions indicate that high-cost (low-cost) hospitals decrease (increase) capital expenditures following CPPS, once other factors are controlled for. Managerial accounting implications for hospitals include the effect of the regulation on capital budgeting decisions. Greater accounting disclosure may be necessary so that alternative modes of coping with the regulation can be discerned. Policymakers and regulators should also be aware that although reductions in capital expenditures may have favorable short-term effects of reducing health care costs, a potentially negative public health impact may result if capital expenditures continue to decrease.

Ran Barniv; Kreag Danvers; Joanne Healy

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

369

The implications of using hydrocarbon fuels to generate electricity for hydrogen fuel powered automobiles on electrical capital, hydrocarbon consumption, and anthropogenic emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper considers some of the impacts of adopting hydrogen fuel cell powered electric automobiles in the US. The change will need significant adjustments to the electrical generation industry including additional capital and hydrocarbon fuel consumption as well as impacting anthropogenic greenhouse emissions. Examining the use of three fuels to generate hydrogen fuels, using three production methods, distributed in three geographic scenarios, we determine that while the change reduces anthropogenic greenhouse emissions with minimal additional electrical generation capital expenditures, it accelerates the use of natural gas. Electrolysis provides a sustainable, longer-term solution, but requires more capital investment in electrical generation and yields an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse emissions.

Derek Tittle; Jingwen Qu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Potential Benefits of Utilizing Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units in Lieu of Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Idling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost Estimates for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cellsmanufacturing costs of automotive PEM fuel cell systems incosts of different sizes of direct-hydrogen PEM fuel cell

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Steady state thermal stress analyses of two-dimensional and three-dimensional solid oxide fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert fuels directly into electrical energy without combustion. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is the most promising energy (more)

Valluru, Srividya.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Digg

373

Fuel System and Fuel Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel management provides optimal solutions to reduce fuel consumption. Merchant vessels, such as container ships, drive at a reduced speed to save fuel since the reduction of the speed from...?1 lowers consumption

Michael Palocz-Andresen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liu. A parametric study of PEM fuel cell performances.economic design of PEM fuel cell systems by multi-objectiveEstimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell System for Automotive

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions

376

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Motor Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax Effective January 1, 2014, a person who operates a commercial motor vehicle

377

Microstructured Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro fuel cells ; Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells ; Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ...

Luc G. Frechette

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition The definition of an alternative fuel includes natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, hydrogen, fuel mixtures containing not less

379

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fueling Stations Photo of an ethanol fueling station. Thousands of ethanol fueling stations are available in the United States.

380

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Promotion The Missouri Alternative Fuels Commission (Commission) promotes the continued production and use of alternative transportation fuels in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Fueling Stations Photo of a hydrogen fueling station. A handful of hydrogen fueling stations are available in the United States

382

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a biodiesel fueling station. Hundreds of biodiesel fueling stations are available in the United States.

383

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen is a versatile energy car-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Fuel Cells Hydrogen is a versatile energy car- rier that can be used efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen -- is the key to making it happen. Stationary fuel cells can and trucks. Why Fuel Cells? Fuel cells directly convert the chemical energy in hydrogen to electricity

384

Fundamental Models for Fuel Cell Engineering Chao-Yang Wang*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagnostics 4757 4.4. Model Validation 4758 4.5. Summary and Outlook 4760 5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 4760 5 electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). AlsoFundamental Models for Fuel Cell Engineering Chao-Yang Wang* Departments of Mechanical Engineering

385

Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

386

Housing subsidies and tax expenditures: The case of mortgage credit certificates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many developed countries, the most significant housing subsidy programs are funded by tax expenditures rather than direct appropriations. Beyond the subsidy to homeownership under the personal income tax, the U.S. tax code provides additional subsidies to specific groups of homeowners. For example, the Mortgage Revenue Bond program (MRB) permits lower levels of government to issue tax-exempt debt, using the proceeds to supply mortgages at below-market interest rates to deserving households. States are also permitted to issue and distribute Mortgage Credit Certificates (MCCs) which entitle recipient homeowners to claim a tax credit for some portion of the mortgage interest paid rather than the tax deduction claimed by other homeowners. This paper documents the wide variations in reliance upon \\{MCCs\\} and \\{MRBs\\} across U.S. states and the emergence of Mortgage Credit Certificates as the largest housing program administered by California, the largest U.S. state. The paper also provides an economic analysis of the MCC program using micro data on more than 12 thousand program recipients in California. We estimate the extent and distribution of MCC subsidies across income and demographic groups, measuring the dollar amount of federal subsidies and their effects upon the user cost of residential capital and the demand price of housing. We estimate Poisson models of the geographic incidence of MCC subsidies across neighborhoods of varying socio-demographic composition and deprivation. Finally, we note differences in the administrative and programmatic costs of \\{MCCs\\} and MRBs, suggesting that there are clear reasons to favor Mortgage Credit Certificates as a means of subsidizing deserving households.

Erica Greulich; John M. Quigley

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

Not Available

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

389

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

390

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on AddThis.com...

391

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on AddThis.com... More in this section...

392

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on AddThis.com...

393

Update to Assessment of Direct Disposal in Unsaturated Tuff of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Waste Owned by U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this study is to provide information and guidance to the Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) about the level of characterization necessary to dispose of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The disposal option modeled was codisposal of DOE SNF with defense high-level waste (DHLW). A specific goal was to demonstrate the influence of DOE SNF, expected to be minor, in a predominately commercial repository using modeling conditions similar to those currently assumed by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). A performance assessment (PA) was chosen as the method of analysis. The performance metric for this analysis (referred to as the 1997 PA) was dose to an individual; the time period of interest was 100,000 yr. Results indicated that cumulative releases of 99Tc and 237Np (primary contributors to human dose) from commercial SNF exceed those of DOE SNF both on a per MTHM and per package basis. Thus, if commercial SNF can meet regulatory performance criteria for dose to an individual, then the DOE SNF can also meet the criteria. This result is due in large part to lower burnup of the DOE SNF (less time for irradiation) and to the DOE SNF's small percentage of the total activity (1.5%) and mass (3.8%) of waste in the potential repository. Consistent with the analyses performed for the YMP, the 1997 PA assumed all cladding as failed, which also contributed to the relatively poor performance of commercial SNF compared to DOE SNF.

P. D. Wheatley (INEEL POC); R. P. Rechard (SNL)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Internal baffling for fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

395

Energy expenditures and carbon-dioxide emissions at blast furnaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction of iron and the material balances of carbon shows that the CO2 levels in the blast-furnace gas may be maintained by lowering the carbon consumption in the direct reduction ...

G. V. Korshikov; V. N. Titov; V. G. Mikhailov

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: About  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About the Fuel Cell Technologies Office About the Fuel Cell Technologies Office The Fuel Cell Technologies Office conducts comprehensive efforts to overcome the technological, economic, and institutional barriers to the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cells. The office is aligned with the strategic vision and goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The office's efforts will help secure U.S. leadership in clean energy technologies and advance U.S. economic competitiveness and scientific innovation. What We Do DOE is the lead federal agency for directing and integrating activities in hydrogen and fuel cell R&D as authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Fuel Cell Technologies Office is responsible for coordinating the R&D activities for DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes activities within four DOE offices (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [EERE], Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and Office of Science).

397

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

398

Sources of influence on capital expenditure decisions: a contextual study of accounting performance measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports the results of a series of case studies of capital expenditure decision processes in divisionalized firms. The case studies were designed to explore the elements of broadly defined control systems operating on divisional management participants in these decisions. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with central and divisional management. The findings provide an insight into the incidence of functional capital expenditure decisions, and the contextual influences on divisional management. In particular they illustrate the role of managerial service histories, corporate familiarity with divisional operations, strategic planning and multiple performance measures within the organizational control system.

Anne M. Lillis

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Maintenance and repair expenditures: determinants and tradeoffs with new capital goods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traditionally economic analysis has focused on new capital investment, while ignoring expenditures to maintain or repair existing stock. Recent, broader theories of replacement have emphasized the important role played by both maintenance and utilization rates. However, the decision to extend the service life of capital has been given scant empirical attention, owing partly to a lack of appropriate data. This study exploits survey data that report annual maintenance/repair expenditures for Canadian manufacturing industries. A standard production framework, modified to incorporate endogenous depreciation, guides the econometric analysis. The empirical results indicate that the cost of capital, among other variables, has a statistically significant effect on maintenance/repair decisions.

J.K. Mullen; Martin Williams

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Aqueous and pyrochemical reprocessing of actinide fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processing of the nuclear fuel actinides has developed in two independent directionsaqueous processing and pyroprocessing. Similarities in the two processes, their...

L. Mac Toth Ph.D.; Walter D. Bond Ph.D.; Larry R. Avens Ph.D.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Synthetic Fuel  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

States Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) States Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) Washington, DC Dr. Sunita Satyapal U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Program Manager 3/14/2012 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 3/19/2013 eere.energy.gov * Introduction - Technology and Market Overview * DOE Program Overview - Mission & Structure - R&D Progress - Demonstration & Deployments * State Activities - Examples of potential opportunities Outline 3 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 3/19/2013 eere.energy.gov Fuel cells - convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy, bypassing inefficiencies associated with thermal energy conversion. Available energy is equal to the Gibbs free energy. Combustion Engines - convert chemical energy into thermal energy and

403

Experimental Investigation in Optimizing the Hydrogen Fuel on a Hydrogen Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lee et al.(8) studied the performance of a dual-injection hydrogen-fueled engine by using solenoid in-cylinder injection and an external fuel injection technique. ... Zuohua, H.; Jinhua, W.; Bing, L.; Ke, Z.; Jinrong, Y.; Deming, J. Combustion Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Engine Fueled with Natural Gas-Hydrogen Mixtures Energy Fuels 2006, 20 ( 2) 540 546 ... Timed manifold injection (TMI) has the potential of being the most appropriate fueling strategy. ...

N. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine technology in the near term as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost...

405

Do households smooth expenditure over anticipated income changes? Evidence from bonus payments to public employees in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides new evidence of consumers reaction to an anticipated sizable change in income. Until FY2002, Japanese public employees received predictable large bonus payments three times a fiscal year (in June, December, and March), but the March bonus was abolished in FY2003. We compare the seasonal patterns of public employees expenditure before and after the reform of the bonus payment schedule. Contrary to the prediction of the life cycle/permanent income hypothesis (LC/PIH), we find evidence that monthly patterns of household expenditure were significantly affected by the anticipated large change in income pattern. However, at closer inspection, this excess sensitivity of expenditure is observed only for expenditure subcategories of some durability, i.e., durables and semi-durables. Thus, while the LC/PIH does not appear to hold for expenditure (which we observe here), it may still hold for consumption.

Masahiro Hori; Satoshi Shimizutani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange...

407

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Household Expenditures  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Sector Demand Module generates forecasts of commercial sector energy demand through 2020. The definition of the commercial sector is consistent with EIA’s State Energy Data System (SEDS). That is, the commercial sector includes business establishments that are not engaged in transportation or in manufacturing or other types of industrial activity (e.g., agriculture, mining or construction). The bulk of commercial sector energy is consumed within buildings; however, street lights, pumps, bridges, and public services are also included if the establishment operating them is considered commercial. Since most of commercial energy consumption occurs in buildings, the commercial module relies on the data from the EIA Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) for characterizing the commercial sector activity mix as well as the equipment stock and fuels consumed to provide end use services.12

408

Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...simultaneously to reveal the energy expended during...turtles manage their energy expenditure during...taking physical measurements of the turtles...embedded. A logger unit was affixed to...underestimation of energy expenditure per unit body weight. Consequently...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fueling Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

410

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emerging Fuels Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Emerging Alternative Fuels Several emerging alternative fuels are under development or already developed and may be available in the United States. These fuels may

411

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

412

COMMON EXPENDITURE TYPES USED FOR PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT "ET" Description Notes "ET" Description Notes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMMON EXPENDITURE TYPES USED FOR PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT "ET" Description Notes "ET" Description CAPITAL EXP SU OWNED ($5K AND GREATER) Useful Life 55136 SPEC PURPOSE DATA HOLDING (Note 3) lab eqpt POSTAGE AND SHIPPING 52077 SU PROCEEDS DISP CAP EQUIP (SALE) N/A 55310 POSTAGE stamps, fedex, etc CAPITAL

Straight, Aaron

413

Do Campaign Contributions and Lobbying Expenditures by Firms Create Political Capital?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the relation between a firms campaign contributions and lobbying expenditures and its Tobins q. We follow other studies that use q...to measure the value of the firms intangible capital (e.g., the v...

Philip Hersch; Jeffry M. Netter; Christopher Pope

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Gambling with the house money in capital expenditure decisions: An experimental analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper extends the work of Thaler and Johnson (Management Science, 1990, 36, no. 6, 643660) on prior gains and losses in a business context. In support of their results, the current experimental analysis on capital expenditure decisions finds that prior gains shift behaviour towards risk seeking. The results do not, however, offer evidence of prior losses shifting behaviour towards risk aversion.

Kevin Keasey; Philip Moon

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The association between research and development expenditure and firm performance: testing a life cycle hypothesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although prior studies provide evidence that investment in research and development (R&D) expenditure enhances a firm's performance, very little evidence is available on the impact of a firm's life cycle stages on the association between R&D expenditures and firm performance. We classify firms into three-life cycle stages, namely, growth, mature and stagnant, and choose four-life cycle classification variables which are dividends, sales growth, capital expenditure and firm age. Using 769-firm-year observations over a period of 11-years in Australia, we find that the abnormal returns to unexpected expensed R&D amounts are significantly negative. Further, our results suggest that market reaction to expensed R&D is more negatively pronounced during the stagnant phase of a firm's life cycle, suggesting that the market perceives that firms have limited prospects to derive benefits arising out of expensed R&D expenditures. The results suggest that the relationship between performance and investment in R&D is not linear but is moderated by a firm's life cycle which should be taken into account when making policy that is based on stock-based performance.

Kamran Ahmed; Mohammed Jinan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Resting and daily energy expenditures of free-living field voles are positively correlated but reflect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1050 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway; Aberdeen Centre for Energy RegulationResting and daily energy expenditures of free-living field voles are positively correlated and Obesity, Division of Energy Balance and Obesity, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB24 9SB

Lambin, Xavier

417

US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in order to bring the price of oil closer to its marginal social cost. There is in fact a long historyUS military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles Mark A. Delucchi l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 May 2007 Accepted 3 March 2008 Available online 21 April

Murphy, James J.

418

Texas AgriLife Research Procedure 21.01.03.A1.01 Expenditure of Funds Page 1 of 1 Texas AgriLife Research Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Texas AgriLife Research Procedure 21.01.03.A1.01 Expenditure of Funds Page 1 of 1 Texas AgriLife Research Procedures 21.01.03.A1.01 EXPENDITURE OF FUNDS Approved: May 11, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: May 11, 2014 PROCEDURE STATEMENT This procedure establishes the guidelines for expenditure of Texas Agri

419

Fuels From Sunlight Hub | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuels From Sunlight Hub Fuels From Sunlight Hub Fuels From Sunlight Hub August 1, 2010 - 4:11pm Addthis Researchers from across disciplines are working together to create energy and fuels directly from sunlight, and create a process that's economically viable. Researchers from across disciplines are working together to create energy and fuels directly from sunlight, and create a process that's economically viable. The Solar Energy-to-Fuels Conversion Challenge Designing highly efficient, non-biological, energy conversion "machines" that generate fuels directly from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide is both a formidable challenge and an opportunity. Such a process could revolutionize our ability to tap new energy sources that are both renewable and environmentally-friendly while improving energy

420

Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2009 Annual Progress Report - Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Printable Version 2009 Annual Progress Report V. Fuel Cells This section of the 2009 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program focuses on fuel cells. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Adobe Reader. Fuel Cells Program Element Introduction, Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos, U.S. Department of Energy (PDF 262 KB) A. Analysis/Characterization Fuel Cell Systems Analysis (PDF 560 KB), Rajesh Ahluwalia, Argonne National Laboratory Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell System for Automotive Applications (PDF 1.4 MB), Brian James, Directed Technologies, Inc. Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stack/Systems (PDF 724 KB), Jayanti Sinha , TIAX LLC Fuel Cell Testing at Argonne National Laboratory (PDF 458 KB), Ira

422

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2008 Annual Progress Report - Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Printable Version 2008 Annual Progress Report V. Fuel Cells This section of the 2008 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program focuses on fuel cells. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Adobe Reader. Fuel Cells Sub-Program Overview, Nancy Garland, U.S. Department of Energy (PDF 204 KB) A. Analysis/Characterization Fuel Cell Systems Analysis, Rajesh Ahluwalia, Argonne National Laboratory (PDF 375 KB) Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell System for Automotive Applications, Brian James, Directed Technologies, Inc. (PDF 1.0 MB) Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stack/Systems, Jayanti Sinha, TIAX LLC (PDF 437 KB) Microstructural Characterization Of PEM Fuel Cell MEAs, Karren More, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (PDF 414 KB)

423

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

424

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid electrolyte fuel cells Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Liquid Fed Direct Fuel...

425

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fuel performance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Liquid Fed Direct Fuel...

426

New Formic Acid Fuel Cell Orientations to Reduce the Cost of Cell Components.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Formic acid fuel cells show the potential of outperforming or replacing direct methanol fuel cells. A number of issues need to be overcome in order (more)

Holtkamp, John Calvin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Vehicles Vehicles Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on AddThis.com... Fuel Prices As gasoline prices increase, alternative fuels appeal more to vehicle fleet managers and consumers. Like gasoline, alternative fuel prices can fluctuate based on location, time of year, and political climate. Alternative Fuel Price Report

428

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel License to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel License Any person acting as an alternative fuels dealer must hold a valid alternative fuel license and certificate from the Wisconsin Department of Administration. Except for alternative fuels that a dealer delivers into a

429

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel License to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel License Alternative fuel providers, bulk users, and retailers, or any person who fuels an alternative fuel vehicle from a private source that does not pay

430

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

431

Definition: Fuel cell | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel cell Fuel cell Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Fuel cell An electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into electricity. View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen/air to sustain the chemical reaction; however, fuel cells can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied. In 1838, German physicist Christian Friedrich Schönbein invented the first

432

Alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust...

434

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

2 2 Commercial Energy Prices, by Year and Fuel Type ($2010) Electricity Natural Gas Distillate Oil Residual Oil ($/gal) ($/gal) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 9.39 104.50 2.79 3.78 9.35 104.74 2.81 3.81 9.47 101.25 2.73 3.69 9.40 103.22 2.76 3.75 9.54 99.28 2.67 3.60 9.51 100.49 2.70 3.64 9.52 94.53 2.66 3.52 9.55 97.45 2.64 3.55 9.46 90.92 2.61 3.46 9.48 92.13 2.63 3.49 9.49 87.65 2.54 3.41 9.47 89.48 2.58 3.42 9.58 85.91 2.41 3.28 9.54 86.36 2.49 3.34 9.57 87.02 2.07 2.97 9.52 84.58 2.26 3.14 10.09 86.14 2.34 3.55 9.76 87.22 2.37 3.57 10.27 97.87 1.49 2.03 10.14 90.95 1.66 2.86 10.04 114.33 1.51 2.47 10.56 121.16 2.01 3.34 9.59 121.45 1.24 2.07 10.13 124.31 1.39 2.32 9.44 94.94 0.93 1.23

435

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

Residential Energy Prices, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 per Million Btu) Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (1) Avg. 1980 36.40 8.35 16.77 17.64 1981 38.50 8.88 18.35 19.09 1982 40.15 10.08 17.28 19.98 1983 40.43 11.30 16.08 21.00 1984 38.80 11.02 15.61 20.20 1985 38.92 10.68 14.61 20.10 1986 38.24 9.98 11.88 19.38 1987 37.29 9.22 11.23 18.73 1988 36.22 8.80 10.83 18.02 1989 35.67 8.71 11.96 17.93 1990 35.19 8.63 13.27 18.64 1991 34.88 8.38 12.49 18.31 1992 34.79 8.28 11.23 17.76 1993 34.52 8.47 10.75 17.76 1994 34.04 8.63 10.63 17.87 1995 33.43 8.00 10.33 17.50 1996 32.63 8.21 11.70 17.28 1997 32.34 8.83 11.47 17.69 1998 31.33 8.55 9.96 17.73 1999 30.52 8.29 10.13 17.09 2000 30.13 9.54 14.18 18.06 2001 30.71 11.50 13.98 19.38 2002 29.73 9.24 12.26 17.89 2003 30.05 10.87 14.21 18.88 2004 29.98 11.97 15.54 19.76 2005 30.64 13.66 18.93 21.50 2006 32.67 14.30 21.06 23.34 2007 32.50

436

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

1 1 Building Energy Prices, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 per Million Btu) Residential Buildings Commercial Buildings Building Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (1) Avg. Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (2) Avg. Avg. (3) 1980 36.40 8.35 16.77 17.64 37.22 7.70 13.06 18.52 17.99 1981 38.50 8.88 18.35 19.09 39.06 8.29 14.78 20.56 19.68 1982 40.15 10.08 17.28 19.98 40.15 9.40 13.28 21.21 20.48 1983 40.43 11.30 16.08 21.00 39.51 10.43 12.53 21.55 21.23 1984 38.80 11.02 15.61 20.20 38.68 10.00 12.04 21.14 20.58 1985 38.92 10.68 14.61 20.10 38.29 9.60 11.68 21.41 20.63 1986 38.24 9.98 11.88 19.38 37.09 8.69 7.85 20.17 19.70 1987 37.29 9.22 11.23 18.73 34.93 7.93 8.16 19.14 18.90 1988 36.22 8.80 10.83 18.02 33.60 7.45 7.47 18.24 18.11 1989 35.67 8.71 11.96 17.93 33.06 7.34 8.13 18.29 18.07 1990 35.19 8.63 13.27 18.64 32.49 7.20 9.31 18.62 18.63 1991 34.88 8.38 12.49 18.31

437

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

Commercial Energy Prices, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 per Million Btu) Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (1) Average 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (2) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 27.39 10.47 27.48 21.15 27.10 10.45 27.73 21.01 27.56 10.32 27.04 21.10 27.52 10.45 27.28 21.18 27.86 10.05 26.41 21.06 27.74 10.12 26.73 21.07 28.00 9.75 25.85 20.90 27.96 9.93 26.16 21.01 27.78 9.21 25.46 20.46 27.90 9.45 25.69 20.67 27.76 8.95 24.95 20.23 27.72 9.09 25.24 20.32 27.96 8.64 24.34 20.11 27.81 8.77 24.80 20.14 27.91 8.46 23.15 19.90 28.07 8.59 24.07 20.11 28.61 8.72 23.94 20.36 28.05 8.70 22.00 19.99 29.73 9.10 20.28 20.99 29.57 8.61 24.24 21.03 30.95 12.12 23.75 23.21 30.09 9.79 15.83 21.13 29.70

438

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

2 2 Building Energy Prices, by Year and Fuel Type ($2010) (cents/therm) (cents/gal) ($/gal) 1980 12.42 83.51 1.53 2.24 12.70 77.01 1.43 2.05 1981 13.14 88.83 1.47 2.51 13.33 82.90 1.63 2.32 1982 13.70 100.83 1.54 2.30 13.70 93.95 1.40 2.11 1983 13.79 113.04 1.51 2.14 13.48 104.33 1.30 1.75 1984 13.24 110.16 1.46 2.10 13.20 100.01 1.37 1.68 1985 13.28 106.80 1.37 1.96 13.06 95.96 1.21 1.56 1986 13.05 99.76 1.25 1.54 12.66 86.86 0.71 1.01 1987 12.72 92.16 1.22 1.42 11.92 79.32 0.79 1.05 1988 12.36 87.96 1.15 1.39 11.46 74.52 0.62 0.95 1989 12.17 87.08 1.39 1.48 11.28 73.39 0.70 1.07 1990 12.01 86.28 1.40 1.69 11.08 72.04 0.78 1.26 1991 11.90 83.77 1.34 1.56 10.97 69.49 0.58 1.11 1992 11.87 82.80 1.24 1.40 10.93 68.64 0.58 1.01 1993 11.78 84.73 1.19 1.33 10.81 71.91 0.58 0.96 1994 11.62 86.30 1.25 1.27 10.57 74.09 0.60 0.90 1995 11.41 79.96 1.22 1.22 10.32 66.99 0.64 0.88 1996 11.13 82.07 1.36 1.37

439

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Electricity Fuel Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Electricity Basics Production & Distribution Research & Development Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Electricity Fuel Basics Photo of a plug-in hybrid vehicle fueling. Electricity is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act

440

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition The following fuels are defined as alternative fuels by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992: pure methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols; blends of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax A state excise tax is imposed on the use of alternative fuels. Alternative fuels include liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane), compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG). The current tax rates are as

442

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard RFS Volumes by Year Enlarge illustration The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a federal program that requires transportation fuel sold in the U.S. to contain a minimum volume of

443

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuels Tax Alternative Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax Excise taxes on alternative fuels are imposed on a gasoline gallon equivalent basis. The tax rate for each alternative fuel type is based on the number of motor vehicles licensed in the state that use the specific

444

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Loans Fuel Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Loans The Oregon Department of Energy administers the State Energy Loan Program (SELP) which offers low-interest loans for qualified projects. Eligible alternative fuel projects include fuel production facilities, dedicated

445

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax Alternative fuels are subject to an excise tax at a rate of $0.205 per gasoline gallon equivalent, with a variable component equal to at least 5% of the average wholesale price of the fuel. (Reference Senate Bill 454,

446

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax The excise tax imposed on an alternative fuel distributed in New Mexico is $0.12 per gallon. Alternative fuels subject to the excise tax include liquefied petroleum gas (or propane), compressed natural gas, and liquefied

447

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Tax Alternative Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax The Minnesota Department of Revenue imposes an excise tax on the first licensed distributor that receives E85 fuel products in the state and on distributors, special fuel dealers, or bulk purchasers of other alternative

448

Fuel Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... FUEL research was discussed by Sir Harry McGowan, who succeeds Sir William Larke as president of the Institute of Fuel, in ... has a ragged front, and new knowledge is continually changing relative national positions. Sir Harry McGowan referred to the domestic use of raw coal, which is still preferred to ...

1934-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

449

Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option.

McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Development of ultrafast computed tomography of highly transient fuel sprays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-generation automotive internal combustion engines.1 Among these is gasoline direct-injection (GDI) technology, which has. In a combustion system employing GDI, the fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber instead of the air, the fuel efficiency can be greatly improved. Therefore, detailed analyses of the fuel sprays in the GDI

Gruner, Sol M.

451

Table 7.10 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: Million U.S. Dollars. Electricity Components Natural Gas Electricity Electricity from Sources Natural Gas NAICS Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Total United States 311 Food 5,328 4,635 692 3,391 1,675 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 932 850 82 673 261 311221 Wet Corn Milling 352 331 21 296 103 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 105 87 18 87 39 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 698

452

The efficiency of internal capital markets: Evidence from the Annual Capital Expenditure Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Does firm diversity result in an efficient or inefficient allocation of capital? Are diversified firms value creating or value destroying? We apply a panel data model to examine the relationship between firm diversity and firm value using both COMPUSTAT and the Annual Capital Expenditure Survey (ACES) data. Our main empirical result confirms that firm diversity is negatively related to the efficiency of investment (firm value), which is consistent with the majority findings of recent studies. However, once we distinguish between capital expenditure for structures and equipment, we find that while firms do inefficiently allocate capital for equipment, they efficiently allocate capital for structures. These results suggest that when the decision has long-lasting repercussions, headquarters will, more often than not, make the correct choice.

Sumit Agarwal; I-Ming Chiu; Victor Souphom; Guy M. Yamashiro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Assessment to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Assessment The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) prepared a report, Opportunities for DOD Use of Alternative and Renewable Fuels, on the use and potential use of

454

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Basics Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be

455

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard At least 2% of all diesel fuel sold in Washington must be biodiesel or renewable diesel. This requirement will increase to 5% 180 days after the

456

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Fuel Use to Biodiesel Fuel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Fuel Use The Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT) may purchase biodiesel for use in IDOT vehicles through the biodiesel fuel revolving fund created in the state treasury. The fund consists of money received from the sale of Energy

457

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Tax Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax Special fuels, including biodiesel, biodiesel blends, biomass-based diesel, biomass-based diesel blends, and liquefied natural gas, have a reduced tax rate of $0.27 per gallon. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane) and

458

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Special Fuel Tax to Special Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Special Fuel Tax Effective January 1, 2014, certain special fuels sold or used to propel motor vehicles are subject to a license tax. Liquefied natural gas is subject to a tax of $0.16 per diesel gallon equivalent. Compressed natural

459

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Basics to Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively

460

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use to Fuel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Fuel Use The South Dakota Department of Transportation and employees using state diesel vehicles must stock and use fuel blends containing a minimum of 2% biodiesel (B2) that meets or exceeds the most current ASTM specification

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen Fuel Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hydrogen Fuel Specifications The California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Measurement Standards (DMS) established interim specifications for hydrogen fuels for

462

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Laws & Incentives Flexible Fuel Vehicles Photo of a flexible fuel vehicle.

463

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use Fuel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Use All state employees operating flexible fuel or diesel vehicles as part of the state fleet must use E85 or biodiesel blends whenever reasonably available. Additionally, the Nebraska Transportation Services Bureau and

464

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax Alternative fuels used to propel vehicles of any kind on public highways are taxed at a rate determined on a gasoline gallon equivalent basis. The tax rates are posted in the Pennsylvania Bulletin. (Reference Title 75

465

The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time ...

Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Predicting Consumption Expenditure for the Analysis of Health Care Financing Equity in Low Income Countries: a Comparison of Approaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The analysis of equity in the distribution of health care payments requires nationally representative income and expenditure surveys, containing information on health care payments and ability to pay. Suchnat...

Gemini Mtei; Josephine Borghi; Kara Hanson

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Is health care expenditure across Europe converging? Findings from the application of a nonlinear panel unit root test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uneven patterns of health care expenditure are a prominent feature of late capitalist society. Across Europe, spearheaded by European Union (EU) economic integration, there continues to be debate concerning he...

Chi Keung Marco Lau; Ka Wai Terence Fung; Lee Pugalis

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The impact of public education expenditure on human capital, growth, and poverty in Tanzania and Zambia: a general equilibrium approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impact of public education expenditure on human capital, the supply of different labor skills, and its macroeconomic and distributional consequences is appraised within a multisector CGE model. The model is applied to and calibrated for two Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs), Tanzania and Zambia. The simulation results suggest that education expenditure can raise economic growth. However, to maximize benefits from education expenditure, a sufficiently high level of physical investment is needed, as are measures that improve the match between the pattern of educational output and the structure of effective demand for labor. An important result of the simulation experiments is that a well-targeted pattern of education expenditure can be effective for poverty alleviation.

Hong-Sang Jung; Erik Thorbecke

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

How Firms Make Capital Expenditure Decisions: Financial Signals, Internal Cash Flows, Income Taxes and the Tax Reform Act of 1986  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper empirically assesses the determinants of future net capital expenditures for a broad cross-section of COMPUSTAT ... stock prices not only lower the cost of capital, but also signal good investment oppo...

Randolph Beatty; Susan Riffe; Ivo Welch

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis on the annual energy outlook 2000 forecast.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The changes in the patterns of energy use and expenditures by population group are analyzed by using the 1993 and 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Surveys. Historically, these patterns have differed among non-Hispanic White households, non-Hispanic Black households, and Hispanic households. Patterns of energy use and expenditures are influenced by geographic and metropolitan location, the composition of housing stock, economic and demographic status, and the composition of energy use by end-use category. As a consequence, as energy-related factors change across groups, patterns of energy use and expenditures also change. Over time, with changes in the composition of these factors by population group and their variable influences on energy use, the impact on energy use and expenditures has varied across these population groups.

Poyer, D. A.; Decision and Information Sciences

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Energy ■ Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US ■ Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

472

LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

density 4 Hydrogen polymer electrolyteHydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)membrane fuel1 LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. BardMaterials Science and Engineering Program 2 CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANT DIRECT FUEL CELL POWER PLANT Heat

Lightsey, Glenn

473

California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation by Chris White of the California Fuel Cell Partnership provides information about alternative fuels research.

474

Fuel Processing Valri Lightner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ORNL, NETL #12;Accomplishments · Demonstrated in the lab an advanced fuel flexible fuel processor

475

Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost Estimates for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cellsmanufacturing costs of automotive PEM fuel cell systems incosts of di?erent sizes of direct-hydrogen PEM fuel cell

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Tuning the transport properties of layer-by-layer thin films for fuel cell applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The increasing global focus on alternative energy sources has led to a renewed interest in fuel cells. For low power, portable applications, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are the most promising type of fuel cell. DMFCs ...

Ashcraft, James Nathan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Mandate All gasoline sold in the state must be blended with 10% ethanol (E10). Gasoline with an octane rating of 91 or above is exempt from this mandate,

478

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Promotion Recognizing that biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel will be an important part of the state's energy economy and advanced research in

479

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Quality Standards Fuel Quality Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Fuel Quality Standards The South Dakota Department of Public Safety may promulgate rules establishing: Standards for the maximum volume percentages of ethanol and methanol

480

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Mandate One year after in-state production has reached 350 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol and sustained this volume for three months, all gasoline

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct fuel expenditure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuels Alternative Fuels Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Promotion The state of Hawaii has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the U.S. Department of Energy to collaborate to produce 70% of the state's

482

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Tax Alternative Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax The excise tax imposed on compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane) used to operate a vehicle can be paid through an annual flat rate sticker tax based on the

483

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Promotion The Texas Bioenergy Policy Council and the Texas Bioenergy Research Committee were established to promote the goal of making biofuels a

484

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard Within six months following the point at which monthly production of denatured ethanol produced in Louisiana equals or exceeds a minimum annualized production volume of 50 million gallons, at least 2% of the

485

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Tax Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax The state road tax for vehicles that operate on propane (liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG) or natural gas is paid through the purchase of an annual flat fee sticker, and the amount is based on the vehicle's gross

486

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Stations to someone by E-mail Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Propane Fueling Stations Photo of a liquefied petroleum gas fueling station. Thousands of liquefied petroleum gas (propane) fueling stations are

487

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

489

Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

490

Fuels - Biodiesel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

* Biodiesel * Biodiesel * Butanol * Ethanol * Hydrogen * Natural Gas * Fischer-Tropsch Batteries Cross-Cutting Assessments Engines GREET Hybrid Electric Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Materials Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Clean Diesel Fuels Background Reducing our country's dependence on foreign oil and the rising costs of crude oil are primary reasons for a renewed interest in alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Stringent emissions regulations and public concern about mobile sources of air pollution provide additional incentives to develop fuels that generate fewer emissions, potentially reducing the need for sophisticated, expensive exhaust after-treatment devices.

491

Nuclear Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The core of a nuclear reactor is composed of a controlled critical configuration of a fissile material, which in strict a sense is the fuel. This fissile material is contained in a matrix, normally a ceramic c...

Rudy J. M. Konings; Thierry Wiss

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Fuel economizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel economizer device for use with an internal combustion engine fitted with a carburetor is disclosed. The fuel economizer includes a plate member which is mounted between the carburetor and the intake portion of the intake manifold. The plate member further has at least one aperture formed therein. One tube is inserted through the at least one aperture in the plate member. The one tube extends longitudinally in the passage of the intake manifold from the intake portion toward the exit portion thereof. The one tube concentrates the mixture of fuel and air from the carburetor and conveys the mixture of fuel and air to a point adjacent but spaced away from the inlet port of the internal combustion engine.

Zwierzelewski, V.F.

1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z