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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Direct energy conversion systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential importance of direct energy conversion to the long-term development of fusion power is discussed with stress on the possibility of alleviating waste heat problems. This is envisioned to be crucial for any central power station in the 21st century. Two approaches to direct conversion, i.e., direct collection and magnetic expansion, are reviewed. While other techniques may be possible, none have received sufficient study to allow evaluation. It is stressed that, due to the intimate connection between the type of fusion fuel, the confinement scheme, direct conversion, and the coupling technique, all four element must be optimized simultaneously for high overall efficiency.

Miley, G.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES. A Literature Search  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography comprising 208 unclassified references is presented on nuclear direct energy conversion devices. Major emphasis is placed on auxiliary power devices suitable for use in satellites including reports on nuclear batteries, thermoelectric cells, thermionic conversron and aspects of the SNAP program. (J.R.D.)

Raleigh, H.D. comp.

1961-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

5

MHK Technologies/Direct Energy Conversion Method DECM | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conversion Method DECM Conversion Method DECM < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Direct Energy Conversion Method DECM.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Trident Energy Ltd Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/TE4 Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber Technology Description The Direct Energy Conversion Method DECM device has four major components 1 linear generators that convert straight line mechanical motion directly into electricity 2 floats placed in the sea to capture wave energy through a rising and falling action which drives linear generators resulting in the immediate generation of electricity 3 a sea platform used to support the floats and generators and 4 a conventional anchoring system to moor the rig

6

Direct Energy Conversion for Fast Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermoelectric generators (TEG) are a well-established technology for compact low power output long-life applications. Solid state TEGs are the technology of choice for many space missions and have also been used in remote earth-based applications. Since TEGs have no moving parts and can be hermetically sealed, there is the potential for nuclear reactor power systems using TEGs to be safe, reliable and resistant to proliferation. Such power units would be constructed in a manner that would provide decades of maintenance-free operation, thereby minimizing the possibility of compromising the system during routine maintenance operations. It should be possible to construct an efficient direct energy conversion cascade from an appropriate combination of solid-state thermoelectric generators, with each stage in the cascade optimized for a particular range of temperature. Performance of cascaded thermoelectric devices could be further enhanced by exploitation of compositionally graded p-n couples, as well as radial elements to maximize utilization of the heat flux. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena has recently reported segmented unicouples that operate between 300 and 975 K and have conversion efficiencies of 15 percent [Caillat, 2000]. TEGs are used in nuclear-fueled power sources for space exploration, in power sources for the military, and in electrical generators on diesel engines. Second, there is a wide variety of TE materials applicable to a broad range of temperatures. New materials may lead to new TEG designs with improved thermoelectric properties (i.e. ZT approaching 3) and significantly higher efficiencies than in designs using currently available materials. Computational materials science (CMS) has made sufficient progress and there is promise for using these techniques to reduce the time and cost requirements to develop such new TE material combinations. Recent advances in CMS, coupled with increased computational power afforded by the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), should improve the speed and decrease the cost of developing new TEGs. The system concept to be evaluated is shown in Figure 1. Liquid metal is used to transport heat away from the nuclear heat source and to the TEG. Air or liquid (water or a liquid metal) is used to transport heat away from the cold side of the TEG. Typical reactor coolants include sodium or eutectic mixtures of lead-bismuth. These are coolants that have been used to cool fast neutron reactors. Heat from the liquid metal coolant is rejected through the thermal electric materials, thereby producing electrical power directly. The temperature gradient could extend from as high as 1300 K to 300 K, although fast reactor structural materials (including those used to clad the fuel) currently used limit the high temperature to about 825K.

Brown, N.; Cooper, J.; Vogt, D.; Chapline, G.; Turchi, P.; Barbee Jr., T.; Farmer, J.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Neutral beam based on positive ions with direct energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Positive ions can make efficient neutral beams when direct energy conversion is incorporated at energies up to 150 keV for D/sup 0/, 225 keV for T/sup 0/ and 300 keV for /sup 3/He/sup 0/. Above these energies the efficiency is low (<50%) and falling rapidly, requiring other means for making neutral beams such as negative ions. The virtues of /sup 3/He/sup 0/ beams as a heater are discussed. The role of direct conversion is discussed and the various conversion concepts and the experimental data base are reviewed. The development problems facing direct conversion are: space charge handling, secondary and primary electron suppression, and the fractional energy ions. The next step in the development of efficient neutral beams based on positive ions is argued to be a developmental beam which integrates an advanced ion source with a neutralizer, cryopump, direct converter, heat removal system, and power conditioning system.

Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Blum, A.S.; Hamilton, G.W.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Direct Solar Energy Conversion by the Reduction of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Solar Energy Conversion by the Reduction of CO2 Direct Solar Energy Conversion by the Reduction of CO2 Speaker(s): Reed Jensen Date: August 25, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Reed Jensen has successfully demonstrated the direct solar reduction of CO2 to CO and O2 using a solar concentrator dish and ceramic converter that grew out of his work at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He will discuss the thermochemical, kinetic and spectral properties of the CO2 /CO/ O2 system that enable this process and how the CO is subsequently converted to useful fuels by a range of catalytic processes. He will also discuss the technical difficulties associated with the design, construction and operation of a multi-component optical system that must operate at high temperatures. Results from a prototype system will be discussed defining the efficiencies

9

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001

L.C. BROWN

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor for the period December 1, 1999 through February 29, 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B135 Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor for the period December 1, 1999 through February 29, 2000

Brown, L.C.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

11

Direct Conversion of Light into Work - Energy Innovation Portal  

Alex Zettl, Jean M. J. Fréchet, and a team of Berkeley Lab researchers have discovered a mechanism for converting solar energy directly into mechanical work, thus ...

12

Combustion and direct energy conversion in a micro-combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The push toward the miniaturization of electromechanical devices and the resulting need for micro-power generation (milliwatts to watts) with low-weight, long-life devices has led to the recent development of the field of micro-scale combustion. Since batteries have low specific energy (~200 kJ/kg) and liquid hydrocarbon fuels have a very high specific energy (~50000 kJ/kg), a miniaturized power-generating device, even with a relatively inefficient conversion of hydrocarbon fuels to power, would result in increased lifetime and/or reduced weight of an electronic or mechanical system that currently requires batteries for power. Energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy without any moving parts can be achieved by a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. The TPV system requires a radiation source which is provided by a micro-combustor. Because of the high surface area to volume ratio for micro-combustor, there is high heat loss (proportional to area) compared to heat generation (proportional to volume). Thus the quenching and flammability problems are more critical in a micro-scale combustor. Hence innovative schemes are required to improve the performance of micro-combustion. In the current study, a micro-scale counter flow combustor with heat recirculation is adapted to improve the flame stability in combustion modeled for possible application to a TPV system. The micro-combustor consists of two annular tubes with an inner tube of diameter 3 mm and 30 mm long and an outer tube of 4.2 mm diameter and 30 mm long. The inner tube is supplied with a cold premixed combustible mixture, ignited and burnt. The hot produced gases are then allowed to flow through outer tube which supplies heat to inner tube via convection and conduction. The hot outer tube radiates heat to the TPV system. Methane is selected as the fuel. The model parameters include the following: diameter d , inlet velocity u , equivalence ratio Ï� and heat recirculation efficiency �· between the hot outer flow and cold inner flow. The predicted performance results are as followings: the lean flammability limit increased from 7.69% to 7.86% and the quenching diameter decreased from 1.3 mm to 0.9 mm when heat recirculation was employed. The overall energy conversion efficiency of current configuration is about 2.56.

Lei, Yafeng

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Direct Conversion Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Direct conversion technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

A Review of Previous Research in Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

From the earliest days of power reactor development, direct energy conversion was an obvious choice to produce high efficiency electric power generation. Directly capturing the energy of the fission fragments produced during nuclear fission avoids the intermediate conversion to thermal energy and the efficiency limitations of classical thermodynamics. Efficiencies of more than 80% are possible, independent of operational temperature. Direct energy conversion fission reactors would possess a number of unique characteristics that would make them very attractive for commercial power generation. These reactors would be modular in design with integral power conversion and operate at low pressures and temperatures. They would operate at high efficiency and produce power well suited for long distance transmission. They would feature large safety margins and passively safe design. Ideally suited to production by advanced manufacturing techniques, direct energy conversion fission reactors could be produced more economically than conventional reactor designs. The history of direct energy conversion can be considered as dating back to 1913 when Moseleyl demonstrated that charged particle emission could be used to buildup a voltage. Soon after the successful operation of a nuclear reactor, E.P. Wigner suggested the use of fission fragments for direct energy conversion. Over a decade after Wigner's suggestion, the first theoretical treatment of the conversion of fission fragment kinetic energy into electrical potential appeared in the literature. Over the ten years that followed, a number of researchers investigated various aspects of fission fragment direct energy conversion. Experiments were performed that validated the basic physics of the concept, but a variety of technical challenges limited the efficiencies that were achieved. Most research in direct energy conversion ceased in the US by the late 1960s. Sporadic interest in the concept appears in the literature until this day, but there have been no recent significant programs to develop the technology.

DUONG,HENRY; POLANSKY,GARY F.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; SIEGEL,MALCOLM D.

1999-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD APRIL 1, 2002 THROUGH JUNE 30, 2002  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Direct energy conversion is the only potential means for producing electrical energy from a fission reactor without the Carnot efficiency limitations. This project was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratories, The University of Florida, Texas A&M University and General Atomics to explore the possibilities of direct energy conversion. Other means of producing electrical energy from a fission reactor, without any moving parts, are also within the statement of proposed work. This report documents the efforts of General Atomics. Sandia National Laboratories, the lead laboratory, provides overall project reporting and documentation.

L.C. BROWN

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JULY 1, 2002 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Direct energy conversion is the only potential means for producing electrical energy from a fission reactor without the Carnot efficiency limitations. This project was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratories, The University of Florida, Texas A&M University and General Atomics to explore the possibilities of direct energy conversion. Other means of producing electrical energy from a fission reactor, without any moving parts, are also within the statement of proposed work. This report documents the efforts of General Atomics. Sandia National Laboratories, the lead laboratory, provides overall project reporting and documentation.

L.C. BROWN

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Efficiency calculations for the direct energy conversion system of the Cadarache neutral beam injectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A prototype energy conversion system is presently in operation at Cadarache, France. Such a device is planned for installation on each six neutral beam injectors for use in the Tore Supra experiment in 1989. We present calculations of beam performance that may influence design considerations. The calculations are performed with the DART charged particle beam code. We investigate the effects of cold plasma, direct energy conversion and neutral beam production. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

White, R.C.

1988-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

19

Analysis of a direct energy conversion system using medium energy helium ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A scaled direct energy conversion device was built to convert kinetic energy of singly ionized helium ions into an electric potential by the process of direct conversion. The experiments in this paper aimed to achieve higher potentials and higher efficiencies than ever before. The predicted maximum potential that could be produced by the 150 kV accelerator at the Texas A&M Ion Beam Lab was 150 kV, which was achieved with 92% collection efficiency. Also, an investigation into factors affecting collection efficiency was made. It was concluded that charge was being lost due to charge exchange occurring near the surface of the target which caused positive target atoms to be ejected from the face and accelerated away. Introducing a wire mesh near the face of the target with an electric potential, positive or negative, which aimed to control secondary ion emissions, did not have an effect on the collection efficiency of the system. Also, it was found that the gas pressure inside the chamber did not have an effect on the collection efficiency. The goal of achieving higher electric potentials and higher efficiencies than previous direct conversion work was met.

Carter, Jesse James

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS FOR NUCLEAR AUXILIARY POWER (SNAP). A Literature Search  

SciTech Connect

A total of 553 references are listed on the SNAP program and related topics. The references were taken from Nuclear Science Abstracts to Dec. 31, 1962. The contents are arranged in sections on radioisotope-fueled units, reactorfueled units, direct energy conversion, and general topics on nuclear auxiliary power. (J.R.D.)

Lanier, S.F.; Raleigh, H.D.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,2000 THROUGH FEBRUARY 28,2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,2000 THROUGH FEBRUARY 28,2001

L.C. BROWN

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 2002  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 2002

L.C. BROWN

2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,1999 THRIUGH FEBRUARY 29,2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1,1999 THRIUGH FEBRUARY 29,2000

LC BROWN

2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

24

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001

L.C. BROWN

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1,2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31,2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1,2001 THROUGH DECEMBER 31,2001

L.C. BROWN

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION (DEC) FISSION REACTORS - A U.S. NERI PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct conversion of the electrical energy of charged fission fragments was examined early in the nuclear reactor era, and the first theoretical treatment appeared in the literature in 1957. Most of the experiments conducted during the next ten years to investigate fission fragment direct energy conversion (DEC) were for understanding the nature and control of the charged particles. These experiments verified fundamental physics and identified a number of specific problem areas, but also demonstrated a number of technical challenges that limited DEC performance. Because DEC was insufficient for practical applications, by the late 1960s most R&D ceased in the US. Sporadic interest in the concept appears in the literature until this day, but there have been no recent programs to develop the technology. This has changed with the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative that was funded by the U.S. Congress in 1999. Most of the previous concepts were based on a fission electric cell known as a triode, where a central cathode is coated with a thin layer of nuclear fuel. A fission fragment that leaves the cathode with high kinetic energy and a large positive charge is decelerated as it approaches the anode by a charge differential of several million volts, it then deposits its charge in the anode after its kinetic energy is exhausted. Large numbers of low energy electrons leave the cathode with each fission fragment; they are suppressed by negatively biased on grid wires or by magnetic fields. Other concepts include magnetic collimators and quasi-direct magnetohydrodynamic generation (steady flow or pulsed). We present the basic principles of DEC fission reactors, review the previous research, discuss problem areas in detail and identify technological developments of the last 30 years relevant to overcoming these obstacles. A prognosis for future development of direct energy conversion fission reactors will be presented.

D. BELLER; G. POLANSKY; ET AL

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 2002 THROUGH MARCH 31, 2002  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Direct energy conversion is the only potential means for producing electrical energy from a fission reactor without the Carnot efficiency limitations. This project was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratories, The University of Florida, Texas A&M University and General Atomics to explore the possibilities of direct energy conversion. Other means of producing electrical energy from a fission reactor, without any moving parts, are also within the statement of proposed work. This report documents the efforts of General Atomics. Sandia National Laboratories, the lead laboratory, provides overall project reporting and documentation. The highlights of this reporting period are: (1) Cooling of the vapor core reactor and the MHD generator was incorporated into the Vapor Core Reactor model using standard heat transfer calculation methods. (2) Fission product removal, previously modeled as independent systems for each class of fission product, was incorporated into the overall fuel recycle loop of the Vapor Core Reactor. The model showed that the circulating activity levels are quite low. (3) Material distribution calculations were made for the ''pom-pom'' style cathode for the Fission Electric Cell. Use of a pom-pom cathode will eliminate the problem of hoop stress in the thin spherical cathode caused by the electric field.

L.C. BROWN

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoporous Thermal-to-Electrical Energy Conversion System (hand, the indirect energy conversion systems tend to beIn a direct energy conversion system, heat can be converted

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Direct energy conversion in fission reactors: A U.S. NERI project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In principle, the energy released by a fission can be converted directly into electricity by using the charged fission fragments. The first theoretical treatment of direct energy conversion (DEC) appeared in the literature in 1957. Experiments were conducted over the next ten years, which identified a number of problem areas. Research declined by the late 1960's due to technical challenges that limited performance. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative the authors are determining if these technical challenges can be overcome with todays technology. The authors present the basic principles of DEC reactors, review previous research, discuss problem areas in detail, and identify technological developments of the last 30 years that can overcome these obstacles. As an example, the fission electric cell must be insulated to avoid electrons crossing the cell. This insulation could be provided by a magnetic field as attempted in the early experiments. However, from work on magnetically insulated ion diodes they know how to significantly improve the field geometry. Finally, a prognosis for future development of DEC reactors will be presented .

SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; SEIDEL,DAVID B.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; BESENBRUCH,G.; BROWN,L.C.; PARISH,T.A.; ANGHAIE,S.; BELLER,D.E.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Assessment of Methods to Manipulate Thermal Emission and Evaluate the Quality of Thermal Radiation for Direct Energy Conversion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT Control of spectral thermal emission from surfaces may be desirable in some energy related applications, such as nano-scale antenna energy conversion and thermophotovoltaic conversion.… (more)

Wijewardane, Samantha

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

32

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Energy conversion apparatus for supplying variable voltage direct current power to an electrically propelled vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A synchronous machine, operable as both a motor and a generator, is mounted on an electrically powered vehicle, such as a mine shuttle car, and includes a plurality of conductors having connections that are detachably engagable with receptacles of a stationary power bank. Engagement of the conductors with the receptacles supplies variable voltage alternating current power to the machine. The machine is drivingly connected to a flywheel on the vehicle and, operating as a motor, energizes the flywheel to store a preselected amount of mechanical energy. The electrical connection between the vehicle and the power bank is opened after the flywheel has been sufficiently charged. The stored energy in the flywheel is then available to drive the machine as a generator and produce high frequency, three phase, alternating current power. The generated power is transmitted to a full wave silicon controlled rectifier that converts the alternating current power to direct current for powering the traction motors of the vehicle. A variable voltage controller is connected to the rectifier and actuates the rectifier to supply direct current at a selected voltage level. The controller is responsive to an operator foot pedal. By manually depressing the foot pedal to a selected position, the voltage level of the rectified current is controlled. Thus, the speed of the traction motors is adjustable topropel the vehicle at a speed within a given range. After a portion of the energy stored by the flywheel is consumed, the vehicle is returned to the power bank to replenish the energy supply.

Jamison, W.B.; Burr, J.F.

1976-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

34

Wave Energy Conversion Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wave Energy Conversion Technology Wave Energy Conversion Technology Speaker(s): Mirko Previsic Date: August 2, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn Scientists have been working on wave power conversion for the past twenty years, but recent advances in offshore and IT technologies have made it economically competitive. Sea Power & Associates is a Berkeley-based renewable energy technology company. We have developed patented technology to generate electricity from ocean wave energy using a system of concrete buoys and highly efficient hydraulic pumps. Our mission is to provide competitively priced, non-polluting, renewable energy for coastal regions worldwide. Mirko Previsic, founder and CEO, of Sea Power & Associates will discuss ocean wave power, existing technologies for its conversion into

35

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Buy Solar Energy Stocks? Make Photovoltaics your Profession! #12;Challenges Make solar cells more and fossil fuel depletion problems! #12;Photovoltaics: Explosive Growth #12;Take Advantage of Solar Megatrend

Glashausser, Charles

36

Direct Conversion of Biomass into Transportation Fuels  

Direct Conversion of Biomass into Transportation Fuels . Return to Marketing Summary. Skip footer navigation to end of page. Contacts | Web Site Policies | U.S ...

37

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in...

38

Energy Basics: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when...

39

Session: Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology'' by David Robertson and Raymond J. LaSala; ''Materials for Geothermal Production'' by Lawrence E. Kukacka; ''Supersaturated Turbine Expansions for Binary Geothermal Power Plants'' by Carl J. Bliem; ''Geothermal Waster Treatment Biotechnology: Progress and Advantages to the Utilities'' by Eugen T. Premuzic; and ''Geothermal Brine Chemistry Modeling Program'' by John H. Weare.

Robertson, David; LaSala, Raymond J.; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Bliem, Carl J.; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Weare, John H.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Conversion factors for energy equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Conversion factors for energy equivalents, For your convenience, you may convert energies online below. Or display factors as: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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41

Energy Conversion, Storage, and Transport News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Energy Conversion, Storage, and Transport News. Energy Conversion, Storage, and Transport News. (showing ...

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Energy Conversion, Storage, and Transport Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Energy Conversion, Storage, and Transport Portal. Energy Conversion, Storage, and Transport Portal. Programs ...

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

43

Model Energy Conversion Efficiency of Biological Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MML Researchers Model Energy Conversion Efficiency of Biological Systems. Novel, highly efficient energy conversion ...

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in this course: Week 1: Review Week 2: Entropy and exergy Week 3: Power cycles, Otto and Diesel Week 4 resources including: wind, wave energy conversion devices, and fuel cell technologies Week12: Introduction will work in groups as assigned. Experiment: Diesel Engine Assessment: Projects 20% Lab Reports

Bahrami, Majid

45

Wind energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Advanced-fueled fusion reactors suitable for direct energy conversion. Fourth quarterly progress report: October 1976--December 1976 and first quarterly progress report: January 1977--March 1977  

SciTech Connect

The direct energy conversion efficiencies calculated for Cat-D and D-/sup 3/He fueled Tokamak reactors are summarized over a range of reactor designs, collector configurations, assumed T/sub e//T/sub i/ ratios, and power densities. The performance of a system of superconducting coils that produce those fields required to guide escaping plasma along the path between the bundle divertor coils and the direct converter is also discussed.

Blum, A.S. (ed.)

1977-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

47

Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Sponsorship, MS&T Organization.

48

Energy Basics: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy...

49

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draft Programmaticof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~on Ocean TherUial Energy Conversion, June 18, 1979. Ocean

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

notably energy conversion. As research continues in thisnanowires for energy conversion. Chemical Reviews, 2010.for solar energy conversion. Physical Review Letters, 2004.

Fardy, Melissa Anne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

Murphy, L.M.

1985-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents Conversion factors for energy equivalents are derived from the following relations: ...

54

Conversion factors for energy equivalents: All factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Conversion factors for energy equivalents Return to online conversions. Next page of energy equivalents. Definition of uncertainty ...

55

Energy Basics: Biofuel Conversion Processes  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

from the EERE Bioenergy Technologies Office. Thermochemical Conversion Processes Heat energy and chemical catalysts can be used to break down biomass into intermediate compounds...

56

Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Hydrothermal Program is to develop concepts which allow better utilization of geothermal energy to reduce the life-cycle cost of producing electricity from liquid-dominated, hydrothermal resources. Research in the program is currently ongoing in three areas: (1) Heat Cycle Research, which is looking at methods to increase binary plant efficiencies; (2) Materials Development, which is developing materials for use in geothermal associated environments; and (3) Advanced Brine Chemistry, with work taking place in both the brine chemistry modeling area and waste disposal area. The presentations during this session reviewed the accomplishments and activities taking place in the hydrothermal energy conversion program. Lawrence Kukacka, Brookhaven National Laboratory, discussed advancements being made to develop materials for use in geothermal applications. This research has identified a large number of potential materials for use in applications from pipe liners that inhibit scale buildup and reduce corrosion to elastomers for downhole use. Carl J. Bliem, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, discussed preparations currently underway to conduct field investigations of the condensation behavior of supersaturated turbine expansions. The research will evaluate whether the projected 8% to 10% improvement in brine utilization can be realized by allowing these expansions. Eugene T. Premuzic, Brookhaven National Laboratory, discussed advancements being made using biotechnology for treatment of geothermal residual waste; the various process options were discussed in terms of biotreatment variables. A treatment scenario and potential disposal costs were presented. John H. Weare, University of California, San Diego, discussed the present capabilities of the brine chemistry model he has developed for geothermal applications and the information it can provide a user. This model is available to industry. The accomplishments from the research projects presented in this session have been many. It is hoped that these accomplishments can be integrated into industrial geothermal power plant sites to assist in realizing the goal of reducing the cost of energy produced from the geothermal resource.

Robertson, David W.; LaSala, Raymond J.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

57

Vehicle Technologies Office: Solid State Energy Conversion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Conversion to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Solid State Energy Conversion on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Solid State Energy...

58

NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion Jump to: navigation, search Logo: NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion Name NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion AgencyCompany Organization...

59

Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor, Gaseous Core Reactor with Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generator; Final Report - Part I and Part II  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the power conversion cycle and efficiency. The technical issues involving the ionization mechanisms, the power management and distribution and radiation shielding and safety will be discussed in future reports.

Samim Anghaie; Blair Smith; Travis Knight

2002-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

60

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE-EPA Working Group on Ocean TherUial Energy Conversion,Sands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)r:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversion

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Converse, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Converse, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates...

62

Vehicle Technologies Office: Solid State Energy Conversion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid State Energy Conversion The Solid State Energy Conversion R&D activity is focused on developing advanced thermoelectric technologies for utilizing engine waste heat by...

63

Nanostructures for Energy Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These nanoelectrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for enabling ... photoelectrochemical cells for solar hydrogen production, fuel cells ...

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

64

Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

65

Energy Conversion – Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Energy Conversion – Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power, and  ...

66

Energy Conversion and Storage Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

Cairns, E.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Conversion Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conversion Plan Conversion Plan This template is used to document the conversion plan that clearly defines the system or project's conversion procedures; outlines the installation...

68

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect

The Sun provides Earth with a staggering amount of energy - enough to power the great oceanic and atmospheric currents, the cycle of evaporation and condensation that brings fresh water inland and drives river flow, and the typhoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes that so easily destroy the natural and built landscape. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, with magnitude 7.8, released an estimated 10{sup 17} joules of energy, the amount the Sun delivers to Earth in one second. Earth's ultimate recoverable resource of oil, estimated at 3 trillion barrels, contains 1.7 x 10{sup 22} joules of energy, which the Sun supplies to Earth in 1.5 days. The amount of energy humans use annually, about 4.6 x 10{sup 20} joules, is delivered to Earth by the Sun in one hour. The enormous power that the Sun continuously delivers to Earth, 1.2 x 10{sup 5} terawatts, dwarfs every other energy source, renewable or nonrenewable. It dramatically exceeds the rate at which human civilization produces and uses energy, currently about 13 TW.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal Tech

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Energy Storage, Transport, and Conversion in CNST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Storage, Transport, and Conversion in CNST. Nanotribology ... Theory and Modeling of Materials for Renewable Energy. Nanostructures ...

2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

70

Conversion Spacetime in Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

English: This article is a small part of a larger one that has been called TOP (Theory Of Potentials) and in which is shown broadly as energy can be obtained in various ways. Although what Nature does sometimes not be imitated, or at least as effectively. But it describes as it does. Appendices are also included in this article in order to understand certain details that without them you would understand, and the description of them is an experiment (in Appendix C) which dilates the period of an oscillator, causing decrease in frequency simply applying a voltage in the vicinity, and which coincides well with the theory. Spanish: Este artículo es una pequeña porción de otro más grande que se ha dado en denominar TOP (Theory Of Potentials), y en el cual se demuestra ampliamente como se puede obtener energía de diversas maneras. Aunque lo que la naturaleza hace, a veces no se puede imitar, o al menos con tanta eficacia. Pero en él se describe como lo hace. Se incluyen además los Apéndices de dicho artículo, a fin de entender ciertos pormenores que sin ellos no se comprenderían, y en ellos está la descripción de un experimento

Florentino Muñiz Ania

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Direct conversion technology: Annual summary report CY 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown. These tabulations are included herein as figures. 43 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

Massier, P.F.; Bankston, C.P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L.D.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Energy Basics: Biofuel Conversion Processes  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Biofuel Conversion Processes Biopower Bio-Based Products Biomass Resources Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Biofuel Conversion Processes The conversion of...

73

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTOcean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft Programmatic Environ-Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE Assistant Secre-

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. Ocean Systems Branch,Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. Ocean Systems Branch,thermal energy conversion, June 18, 1979. Ocean Systems

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and fabrication of a range of new cell materials and geometries at Konarka's manufacturing facilities, and the irradiation testing and evaluation of these new cell designs within the UML Radiation Laboratory. The primary focus of all this work was to establish the proof of concept of the basic gammavoltaic principle using a new class of dye-sensitized photon converter (DSPC) materials based on KTI's original DSSC design. In achieving this goal, this report clearly establishes the viability of the basic gammavoltaic energy conversion concept, yet it also identifies a set of challenges that must be met for practical implementation of this new technology.

White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

77

"Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

"Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News...

78

"Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events...

79

Conversion factors for energy equivalents: All factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Previous page of energy equivalents. Definition of uncertainty notation eg, 123(45) | Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents. Top. ...

80

Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems By Andrewof Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems by Andrew

Duffin, Andrew Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy Calculator- Common Units and Conversions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Calculator - Common Units and Conversions Energy Calculator - Common Units and Conversions Calculators for Energy Used in the United States: Coal Electricity Natural Gas Crude Oil Gasoline Diesel & Heating Oil Coal Conversion Calculator Short Tons Btu Megajoules Metric Tons Clear Calculate 1 Short Ton = 20,169,000 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2007) Electricity Conversion Calculator KilowattHours Btu Megajoules million Calories Clear Calculate 1 KilowattHour = 3,412 Btu Natural Gas Conversion Calculator Cubic Feet Btu Megajoules Cubic Meters Clear Calculate 1 Cubic Foot = 1,028 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2007); 1 therm = 100,000 Btu; 1 terajoule = 1,000,000 megajoules Crude Oil Conversion Calculator Barrels Btu Megajoules Metric Tons* Clear Calculate 1 Barrel = 42 U.S. gallons = 5,800,000 Btu (based on U.S. consumption,

82

Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

Muralidharan, Shylesh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Introduction to electric energy conversion systems for geothermal energy resources  

SciTech Connect

The types of geothermal energy conversion systems in use are classified as follows: direct, dry steam; separated steam; single-flash steam; double-flash steam; multi-flash steam; brine/Freon binary cycle; and brine/isobutane binary cycle. The thermodynamics of each of these is discussed with reference to simplified flow diagrams. Typical existing power plants are identified for each type of system. (MHR)

DiPippo, R.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy conversion systems ..on thermal energy conversion systems As energy demandsefficient energy conversion in power systems," in Thermal

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon: systems for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct electrochemical conversion of carbon involves discharge of suspensions of reactive carbon particles in a molten salt electrolyte against an oxygen (air) cathode. (Figure 1). The free energy and the enthalpy of the oxidation reaction are nearly identical. This allows theoretical efficiencies ({Delta}G(T)/{Delta}H) to approach 100% at temperatures from 500 to 800 C. Entropy heat losses are therefore negligible. The activities of the elemental carbon and of the carbon dioxide product are uniform throughout the fuel cell and constant over discharge time. This stabilizes cell EMF and allows full utilization of the carbon fuel in a single pass. Finally, the energy cost for pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is generally very low compared with that of steam reforming or water gas reactions. Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon might be compared with molten carbonate fuel cell using carbon rather than hydrogen. However, there are important differences. There is no hydrogen involved (except from trace water contamination). The mixture of molten carbonate and carbon is not highly flammable. The carbon is introduced in as a particulate, rather than as a high volume flow of hydrogen. At the relatively low rates of discharge (about 1 kA/m{sup 2}), the stoichiometric requirements for carbon dioxide by the cathodic reaction may be met by diffusion across the thin electrolyte gap. We report recent experimental work at LLNL using melt slurries of reactive carbons produced by the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. We have found that anodic reactivity of carbon in mixed carbonate melts depends strongly on form, structure and nano-scale disorder of the materials, which are fixed by the hydrocarbon starting material and the conditions of pyrolysis. Thus otherwise chemically pure carbons made by hydrocarbon pyrolysis show rates at fixed potentials that span an order of magnitude, while this range lies 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the current density of graphite plate electrodes. One carbon materials was identified which delivered anode current densities of 1 kA/m{sup 2} at 0.8 V (i.e., 80% efficiency, based on the standard enthalpy of carbon/oxygen reaction, and assuming full conversion), which we believe to be sufficiently great to allow practical application in fuel cell arrays. Since the hydrocarbon starting materials are ''ash free,'' entrainment of ash into the melt is not limiting. Finally, the use of fine carbon particulates in slurries avoids cost and logistics of carbon electrode manufacture and distribution.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Krueger, R

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

86

Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC) Place Washington, DC Product GWECC is a global alternative energy company headquartered in Washington DC, USA. References Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC) is a company located in Washington, DC . References ↑ "Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Global_Waste_to_Energy_Conversion_Company_GWECC&oldid=345924" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

87

Systems and methods for bi-directional energy delivery with galvanic isolation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods are provided for bi-directional energy delivery. A charging system comprises a first bi-directional conversion module, a second bi-directional conversion module, and an isolation module coupled between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module. The isolation module provides galvanic isolation between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module.

Kajouke, Lateef A.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

88

Utilizing Nature's Designs for Solar Energy Conversion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nature's Designs for Solar Energy Conversion Nature's Designs for Solar Energy Conversion Create new materials that: capture, convert, store sunlight Learn from Nature... ...build with chemistry ANL Photosynthesis Group Fundamental Studies  Solar energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis Resolve mechanisms, design principles  Unique capabilities Time-resolved, multi-frequency EPR Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray Ultrafast spectroscopy Multi-molecular: Artificial systems for H 2 photocatalysis  Limitations:  Large solvent, molecular dependencies  Diffusion  Lifetimes  Uncontrolled back-reactions  Most PS contain noble metals  Organic solvent/high proton

89

Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

Cairns, E.J.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

Cairns, E.J.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); DePoy, David M. (Clifton Park, NY)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); DePoy, David Moore (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul Francis (Clifton Park, NY)

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

93

Advanced Energy Conversion LLC AEC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Conversion LLC (AEC) Place New York Zip 12020 Product R&D company focused on power electronics, motion control systems and embedded control. References Advanced Energy...

94

Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in the demonstration of the feasibility of hybrid staging in geothermal energy conversion is described, particularly processes involving the Lysholm engine. The performance limitations of the Lysholm engine were studied. (MHR)

Steidel, R.F. Jr.

1984-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

95

Energy Conversion | Global and Regional Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Conversion Group Energy Conversion Group The Energy Conversion Group offers advanced technical solutions to achieve reduced fossil fuel use in geothermal power and building energy applications. Focus is on advanced materials, biofuel end use, combustion and system concepts. We seek to continuously improve the capabilities of relevant research tools being applied in collaborative initiatives to achieving these goals. Capabilities The group conducts research in a number of energy-related areas. These include advanced materials for geothermal energy, applications of biofuels and alternative fuels, efficiency in heating/cooling equipment, advanced oil burner development and particulate emissions for wood boilers. Advanced Materials for Geothermal Energy Supercritical carbon dioxide has properties midway between a gas and a

96

University of Delaware Institute of Energy Conversion | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Conversion Jump to: navigation, search Name University of Delaware Institute of Energy Conversion Place Delaware Product String representation "University rese ... dium tin...

97

North Dakota Energy Conversion and Transmission Facility Siting...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dakota Energy Conversion and Transmission Facility Siting Act (North Dakota) North Dakota Energy Conversion and Transmission Facility Siting Act (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility...

98

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. To bring the cold water to the surface, ocean thermal energy conversion plants require an expensive, large-diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths. Some energy experts believe that if ocean thermal energy conversion can become cost-competitive with conventional power technologies, it could be

99

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. To bring the cold water to the surface, ocean thermal energy conversion plants require an expensive, large-diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths. Some energy experts believe that if ocean thermal energy conversion can become cost-competitive with conventional power technologies, it could be

100

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy Conversion Devices Inc aka ECD Ovonics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conversion Devices Inc aka ECD Ovonics Conversion Devices Inc aka ECD Ovonics Jump to: navigation, search Name Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics) Place Rochester Hills, Michigan Zip 48309 Sector Solar Product Michigan-based materials developer and holding company for thin-film silicon PV manufacturer United Solar Ovonics. References Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics) is a company located in Rochester Hills, Michigan . References ↑ "Energy Conversion Devices Inc (aka ECD Ovonics)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Energy_Conversion_Devices_Inc_aka_ECD_Ovonics&oldid=34484

102

Semiconductor Metrology for Energy Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... lasers, LEDs, photodetectors, and high-efficiency solar cells critical to optical communication, display, data storage, and energy conservation and ...

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Design and Discovery of Novel Energy Materials: Stephan Lany1; 1NREL ... determine and characterise the state of an electrochemical system, ...

104

MHK Technologies/Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MHK Technologies/Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform MHK Technologies/Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Aqua Magnetics Inc Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Reciprocating Device Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering Technology Description The Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform SECOP consists of submersible hulls supporting a raised work platform containing a number of AMI s reciprocating electric generators Technology Dimensions Device Testing Date Submitted 34:44.5 << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from

105

Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Analog Baseband Circuits for WCDMA Direct-Conversion Receivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design and implementation of analog baseband circuits for low-power single-chip WCDMA direct-conversion receivers. The reference radio system throughout the thesis is UTRA/FDD. The analog baseband circuit consists of two similar channels, which contain analog channel-select filters, programmable-gain amplifiers, and circuits that remove DC offsets. The direct-conversion architecture is described and the UTRA/FDD system characteristics are summarized. The UTRA/FDD specifications define the performance requirement for the whole receiver. Therefore, the specifications for the analog baseband circuit are obtained from the receiver requirements through calculations performed by hand. When the power dissipation of an UTRA/FDD direct-conversion receiver is minimized, the design parameters of an all-pole analog channel-select filter and the following Nyquist rate analog-to-digital converter must be considered simultaneously. In this thesis, it is shown that minimum power consumption is achieved with a fifth-order lowpass filter and a 15.36-MS/s Nyquist rate converter that has a 7- or 8-bit resolution. A fifth-order Chebyshev prototype with a passband ripple of 0.01dB and a –3-dB frequency of 1.92-MHz is adopted in this thesis. The

Jarkko Jussila; Teknillinen Korkeakoulu; Otamedia Oy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

Cairns, E.J.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Ris Energy Report 2 Bioenergy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity production by SOFC fuel cells is one road to obtain a high efficiency in electricity production. In order to meet this demand in a sustainable way, gasifica- tion and SOFC fuel cell conversion systems gasfication gas has the potential to be used directly in SOFC cells or alternatively steam- reformed

109

Direct Conversion Technology. Progress report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Conversion of Waste to Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Almost every industrial operation produces some combustible waste, but conversion of this to useful energy is often more difficult than with other energy recovery projects and requires careful attention to design, operating and maintaining the facilities. Each application requires a careful approach tailored to the installation, but some general design and economic principles do exist. Several waste to energy projects will be discussed to illustrate these principles.

John, T.; Cheek, L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

US energy conversion and use characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent ...  

Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

114

Direct conversion technology. Annual summary report CY 1991, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume III. Wind conversion systems with energy storage. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The variability of energy output inherent in wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has led to the investigation of energy storage as a means of managing the available energy when immediate, direct use is not possible or desirable. This portion of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a wind energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with wind energy conversion systems.

Not Available

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Fundamental Experiment and Analysis of Direct Energy Conversion Using Proton-Conducting Ceramic Fuel Cells Supplied with High-Temperature Nuclear Heat and Natural Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Other Concepts and Assessments / Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems

Satoshi Fukada; Shigenori Suemori

117

On the Energy Conversion during Geostrophic Adjustment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is found that for a continuously stratified fluid which remains so during the geostrophic adjustment, the energy conversion ratio ? (??KE/?PE) is ½, in contrast to the value of ? for a two-layer fluid. Since the two-layer fluid is an ...

Hsien Wang Ou

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionOpen cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary1978. 'Open cycle thermal energy converS1on. A preliminary

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Minnesota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Minnesota) Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Minnesota) Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Minnesota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Wind Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Siting and Permitting This section distinguishes between large (capacity 5,000 kW or more) and small (capacity of less than 5,000 kW) wind energy conversion systems (WECS), and regulates the siting of large conversion systems. The statute

120

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary Portuguese version NONE Energy...

124

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionR. E. Hathaway. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion.of sewage effluent in an ocean current. Inst. of Tech. ,

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Energy Conversion Materials Through Chemical Synthesis Route  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conversion Materials Through Chemical Synthesis Route Conversion Materials Through Chemical Synthesis Route Speaker(s): Lionel Vayssieres Date: April 27, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Samuel Mao The ability to design anisotropic nanoparticles with tailored aspect ratio and to order them into large 3-D arrays is an important challenge that scientists have to face to create functionalized nanomaterials. Our approach to control the size and shape of nanoparticles as well as the overall texture of nanoparticulate thin films is to tune their direct aqueous hydrolysis-condensation growth onto substrates by monitoring the interfacial thermodynamics of nanocrystals as well as their kinetics of heteronucleation. Growing materials at very low interfacial tension, i.e. at thermodynamically stable conditions, allows the experimental control of

126

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company is investigating the direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels via partial oxidation. This report describes work completed in the first quarter of the two-year project (first quarter FY 1990). Task 1 of the work, preparation of the Project Management Plan, has been completed. Work was started and progress made on three other tasks during this quarter: Task 2. Modification of an existing Amoco pilot plant to handle the conditions of this project. Minor modifications were made to increase the maximum operating pressure to 1500 psig. Other more extensive modifications are being designed, including addition of an oxygen compressor and recycle system. Task 3.1. Evaluation of a Los Alamos National Laboratory methane oxidation kinetic model for suitability in guiding the experimental portions of this project. Task 3.2. Process variable (e.g. temperature, pressure, residence time) studies to determine optimal partial oxidation conditions. 1 fig.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion bychemistry) and develop renewable energy based processes.biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In

Somorjai, G.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites to identify thethermal energy conversion (OTEC) program; preoperationalOCEAN THERHAL _ENERGY _CONVERSION(OTEC) --:siTE IN PUERTO

Ryan, Constance J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a working molecular solar energy conversion system where noEnergy Storage and Conversion System ..74Thermal (MOST) Energy Storage and Conversion System In this

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Novel Energy...

132

Advanced Materials for Energy Conversion II TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Table of Contents is from Advanced Materials for Energy Conversion II ... Energy Crisis – Fact or Fiction? [pp. .... W.-M. Chien, A. Price and D. Chandra.

133

Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid system consists of two or more energy conversion processes. This study examines the use of three energy conversion machines in hybrid systems: the conventional single-phase turbine, and the two-phase expanders known as the Lysholm engine and the radial outflow reaction turbine. Two hybrid systems are presented. The first is a two-stage, single-flash system with the Lysholm engine as the first stage, and a separator and conventional turbine as the second stage. The second system adds a radial outflow reaction turbine to recover a part of the energy rejected in the second stage. A theoretical specific power of 41.3 kW.s/lb is predicted for the two-stage, single-flash hybrid system. The addition of the radial outflow rotary turbine increases performance to 44.8 kW.s/lb. Both are superior to the double-flash system, with a specific power of 37.8 kW.s/lb. In addition, the hybrid system offers operating flexibility.

Steidel, R.F.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Energy conversion device with improved seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An energy conversion device comprising an improved sealing member adapted to seal a cation-permeable casing to the remainder of the device. The sealing member comprises a metal substrate which (i) bears a nonconductive and corrosion resistant coating on the major surface to which said casing is sealed, and (ii) is corrugated so as to render it flexible, thereby allowing said member to move relative to said casing without cracking the seal therebetween. Corrugations may be circumferential, radial, or both radial and circumferential so as to form dimples. The corrugated member may be in form of a bellows or in a substantially flat form, such as a disc.

Miller, Gerald R. (Salt Lake City, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Midvale, UT)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Direct Conversion of Radioisotope Energy to Electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new chemical reactor has been tested for Field Enhanced Diffusion by Optical Activation doping and purification of SiC, GaN and AlN films. Different conditions have been used on SiC, GaN and AlN samples including temperature variation, electrical field variation, variations in electrical current and optical activation. A 5mW (630-680) nm laser was used for optical activation. It was observed that optical activation has a major effect on ion drift rates. It was also observed that the magnitude of the electrical current also enhanced ion drift rates by a postulated current drag mechanism. I-V characteristic curves were measured to verify changes in the electrical properties of the samples SIMS was used to analyze the concentrations of impurities in the film samples before and after treatment. It has been demonstrated that the field-enhanced diffusion by optical activation method can dope and purify the films. As a result, the electrical properties of the wafers have been significantly improved during treatment especially in cases where a laser is used.

Marks Prelas; Alexey Spitsyn; Alejandro Suarez; Eric Stienfelds; Dickerson Moreno; Bia-Ling Hsu; Tushar Ghosh; Robert Tompson; Sudarshan Loyalka; Dabir Viswanath

2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

136

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES. A Literature Search  

SciTech Connect

Unclassified references (344) to information on nuclear batteries, thermoelectric cells, thermionic cells, and the SNAP program are given. (N.W.R.)

Raleigh, H.D. comp.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

Fayer, M.D.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Exploring electron and phonon transport at the nanoscale for thermoelectric energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are capable of solid-state direct heat to electricity energy conversion and are ideal for waste heat recovery applications due to their simplicity, reliability, and lack of environmentally harmful ...

Minnich, Austin Jerome

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various option will be performed as experimental data become available. The project is of two year's duration and contains three major tasks: Project Management Plan, Pilot Plant Modification, and Comparison of Preliminary Data With Los Alamos Model: We will determine if the kinetic model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory can be used to guide our experimental effort. Other subtasks under Task 3 include: Pressure/Temperature/Reaction Time Effects; Study of Different Injection Systems: Different schemes for introducing and mixing reactants before or within the reactor will be evaluated theoretically and/or experimentally; Study of Different Quench Systems; Effect of Reactor Geometry; Effect of Reactor Recycle; and Enhanced-Yield Catalyst Study. 5 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center Solar Thermal Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center Solar Thermal Conversion Major Functions: · Solar #12;Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center Solar Thermal Conversion Solar energy a surface is heated by a certain flux of incident solar energy is determined by the balance of incident

Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large, M.Sc. Candidate University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Oceanography Hawaii Natural Energy

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

142

On the conversion of rest energy in horizon energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the Verlinde formula for the entropy variation of a holographic screen is a consequence of the conversion of the particle energy in horizon energy. The special role played by the particular displacement $\\Delta x = c^{2}/a$ is emphasized, $a$ being the particle acceleration. Using the Heisenberg Principle we show that the energy on the causal horizon (viewed as a holographic screen) of an inertial observer is proportional to its radius, as for a black hole.

Hristu Culetu

2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

Compact harsh environment energy conversion systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quest for energy is leading the industry into drilling deeper wells. Typically, a temperature gradient of 1°C/150 ft can be expected, with bottom hole temperatures reaching beyond 200°C in many areas of the world. Moreover, the increased recovery benefits and cost reductions possible with the use of horizontal and multilateral wells has triggered a need for higher power energy conversion systems in bottom hole assemblies, such as rotary steerable tools and downhole tractors. The concepts developed throughout this work address some of these new needs. This research investigated improvements, novel solutions and considerations that will lead to significant advantages in terms of reliability, extended temperature operation, increased power capability and reduced size and cost of compact harsh environment energy conversion systems. Improvements to both the electromechanical subsystem and the power electronic subsystem are introduced. Air gap viscous losses were shown to a have a significant effect on the optimal design of submersible PM (permanent magnet) machines, and a design procedure to account for this loss component in the design was developed. The application of a dual winding exterior rotor PM machine in a downhole environment enabled a significant increase in the application’s torque capability, provided protection against generator winding over voltage, and reduced parts count. Comprehensive switching device qualification, testing, and simulation lead to a simple failure mitigation technique for the operation of the most suitable devices at elevated temperature. A flying capacitor multilevel inverter was then successfully constructed and temperature tested. A novel motor drive concept suited for elevated temperature oil filled environment applications concluded the research.

Ahmed, Shehab

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Techniques,” Energy Conversion and Management, 39 (11),Applications,” Energy Conversion and Management, 45 , pp.2011, “Low-grade Heat Conversion into Power Using Organic

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Program PreoperationalOcean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), U.S. Department ofOregon State University. Conversion Power Plants. Corvallis,

Sullivan, S.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

Keolian, Robert M. (Monterey, CA); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Energy Conversion and Transmission Facilities (South Dakota) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Conversion and Transmission Facilities (South Dakota) Energy Conversion and Transmission Facilities (South Dakota) Energy Conversion and Transmission Facilities (South Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Retail Supplier Institutional Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider South Dakota Public Utilities Commission This legislation applies to energy conversion facilities designed for or capable of generating 100 MW or more of electricity, wind energy facilities with a combined capacity of 100 MW, certain transmission facilities, and

148

Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived compounds into desirable products. Cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes break down the carbohydrate fractions of biomass to five- and six-carbon sugars in a process known as hydrolysis. Yeast and bacteria then ferment the sugars into products such as ethanol. Biotechnology advances are expected to lead to dramatic

149

Modeling and analysis of energy conversion systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to assess the need for and the feasibility of developing a computer code that could model thermodynamic systems and predict the performance of energy conversion systems. To assess the market need for this code, representatives of a few industrial organizations were contacted, including manufacturers, system and component designers, and research personnel. Researchers and small manufacturers, designers, and installers were very interested in the possibility of using the proposed code. However, large companies were satisfied with the existing codes that they have developed for their own use. Also, a survey was conduced of available codes that could be used or possibly modified for the desired purpose. The codes were evaluated with respect to a list of desirable features, which was prepared as a result of the survey. A few publicly available codes were found that might be suitable. The development, verification, and maintenance of such a code would require a substantial, ongoing effort. 21 refs.

Den Braven, K.R. (Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Stanger, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate None Program Info State Ohio Program Type Sales Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% exemption Provider Ohio Department of Taxation Ohio may provide a sales and use tax exemption for certain tangible personal property used in energy conversion, solid waste energy conversion, or thermal efficiency improvement facilities designed, constructed, or installed after December 31, 1974. Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for the

151

Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

Druxman, Lee Daniel

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Will lecture on: Understanding and Controlling Solar Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Will lecture on: Understanding and Controlling Solar Energy Conversion: The relationship between, and their relationship to their ability to harvest solar energy in the form of electricity. In particular, morphology low carbon electricity (solar and thermal energy conversion, off-shore wind, biofuels, nuclear

Rimon, Elon

153

NETL: Third Annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Conference Proceedings Third Annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop March 21-22, 2002 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Disclaimer This...

154

Liquid Metal MHD Energy Conversion in Fusion Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Innovative Concepts for Power Conversion / Proceedings of the Seveth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Reno, Nevada, June 15–19, 1986)

L. Blumenau; H. Branover; A. El-Boher; E Spero; S. Sukoriansky; G. Talmage; E. Greenspan

155

In-Situ MHD Energy Conversion for Fusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Innovative Concepts for Power Conversion / Proceedings of the Seveth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Reno, Nevada, June 15–19, 1986)

R. B. Campbell; M. A. Hoffman; B. G. Logan

156

A Study of Conversion Reactions Using Electron Energy Loss  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, conversion mechanism in NiO was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

157

Method for conversion of beta-hydroxy carbonyl compounds - Energy ...  

Conversion products find use, e.g., ... United States Patent ... as operator of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE ...

158

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III...

159

Chromium Alloys for More Efficient Fossil Energy Conversion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In order to improve efficiency and reduce environmental emissions in fossil energy conversion systems, new technologies such as oxy- fuel gas ...

160

Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

None

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conversion Efficiency Basics Conversion Efficiency Basics Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis The conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, is the percentage of the solar energy shining on a PV device that is converted into electrical energy, or electricity. Improving this conversion efficiency is a key goal of research and helps make PV technologies cost-competitive with more traditional sources of energy. Factors Affecting Conversion Efficiency Much of the energy from sunlight reaching a PV cell is lost before it can be converted into electricity. But certain characteristics of solar cell materials also limit a cell's efficiency to convert the sunlight it receives. Wavelength of Light Light is composed of photons-or packets of energy-that range in

163

Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

Kiran Manchiraju

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

164

Photonic Crystals for Enhancing Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) converts the radiant energy of a thermal source into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells. TPV has a number of attractive features, including: fuel versatility (nuclear, fossil, solar, etc.), quiet operation, low maintenance, low emissions, light weight, high power density, modularity, and possibility for cogeneration of heat and electricity. Some of these features are highly attractive for military applications (Navy and Army). TPV could also be used for distributed power and automotive applications wherever fuel cells, microturbines, or cogeneration are presently being considered if the efficiencies could be raised to around 30%. This proposal primarily examine approaches to improving the radiative efficiency. The ideal irradiance for the PV cell is monochromatic illumination at the bandgap. The photonic crystal approach allows for the tailoring of thermal emission spectral bandwidth at specific wavelengths of interest. The experimental realization of metallic photonic crystal structures, the optical transmission, reflection and absorption characterization of it have all been carried out in detail and will be presented next. Additionally, comprehensive models of TPV conversion has been developed and applied to the metallic photonic crystal system.

LIN, SHAWN-YU; FLEMING, JAMES G.; MORENO, JOSEPH A.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Share of Conversion Capacity - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In the early to mid 1980’s, Atlantic Basin refiners rapidly expanded their conversion capacity as a consequence of the belief that world crude production would get ...

166

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Harvesting useful electric energy from ambient thermal gradients and/or temperature fluctuations is immensely important. For many years, a number of direct and indirect thermal-to-electrical energy… (more)

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Long-respected international experts on thermoelectrics (Dixon, Ertl and Goldsmid supported by Ure) determine the probable maximum figure of merit (ZT) for fully matured thermoelectric generators as about unity from ordiary temperatures to 2000 K. Thus the maximum efficiency for fully matured thermoelectrics would be approximately 0.414 (l - r/sub T/)/(1.414 + r/sub T/) where r/sub T/ is the ratio of cold and hot junction temperatures. This limitation contrasts with the recent burst of enthusiasm for high-temperature thermoelectrics - based on calculated figures of merit and efficiencies that increase more and more rapidly with rising temperatures. Unfortunately these calculations neglect internal radiation effects which diminish thermoelectric figures of merit significantly at 1000 K and substantially at 2000 K: The effective thermal-conductivity contribution of intrathermoelectric radiative dissipation increases with the third power of temperature. Therefore the quotation from Thermoelectricy: Science and Engineering by Heikes and Ure apparently still prevails: ...thermoelectric devices appear difficult to extend in the direction of high temperature, while thermionic devices become inefficient at low temperature. Accordingly consideration of thermoelectric power generation with high-temperature heat sources should include utilization of TEC topping thermoelectrics. However TEC alone or TEC topping more-efficient conversion systems like steam or gas turbines, combined cycles or Stirling engines would be more desirable generally.

Morris, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Supramolecular Structures for Photochemical Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 The goal of this project is to mimic the energy transduction processes by which photosynthetic organisms harvest sunlight and convert it to forms of energy that are more easily used and stored. The results may lead to new technologies for solar energy harvesting based on the natural photosynthetic process. They may also enrich our understanding and control of photosynthesis in living organisms, and lead to methods for increasing natural biomass production, carbon dioxide removal, and oxygen generation. In our work to date, we have learned how to make synthetic antenna and reaction center molecules that absorb light and undergo photoinduced electron transfer to generate long-lived, energetic charge-separated states. We have assembled a prototype system in which artificial reaction centers are inserted into liposomes (artificial cell-like constructs), where they carry out light-driven transmembrane translocation of hydrogen ions to generate proton motive force. By insertion of natural ATP synthase into the liposomal bilayer, this proton motive force has been used to power the synthesis of ATP. ATP is a natural biological energy currency. We are carrying out a systematic investigation of these artificial photosynthetic energy harvesting constructs in order to understand better how they operate. In addition, we are exploring strategies for reversing the direction of the light-powered proton pumping. Most recently, we have extended these studies to develop a light-powered transmembrane calcium ion pump that converts sunlight into energy stored as a calcium ion concentration gradient across a lipid bilayer.

Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.

2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

169

E2I EPRI Assessment Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of offshore wave power to provide efficient, reliable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly electrical definition study in CY 2004. This study will produce system designs for wave energy conversion device power plants, performance estimate and economic assessments for one site ­ wave energy conversion device per

170

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NETL Publications NETL Publications 2001 Conference Proceedings Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop March 29-30, 2001 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Plenary Session Selected Presentations on Current DOE Work Supporting SECA Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

171

Converse County, Wyoming: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Converse County, Wyoming: Energy Resources Converse County, Wyoming: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.0489425°, -105.4068079° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.0489425,"lon":-105.4068079,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

172

Photochemical energy conversion by membrane-bound photoredox systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of our effort during the past grant period has been directed towards investigating electron transfer processes involving redox proteins at lipid bilayer/aqueous interfaces. This theme, as was noted in our previous three year renewal proposal, is consistent with our goal of developing biomimetic solar energy conversion systems which utilize the unique properties of biological electron transfer molecules. Thus, small redox proteins such as cytochrome c, plastocyanin and ferredoxin function is biological photosynthesis as mediators of electron flow between the photochemical systems localized in the membrane, and more complex soluble or membrane-bound redox proteins which are designed to carry out specific biological tasks such as transbilayer proton gradient formation, dinitrogen fixation, ATP synthesis, dihydrogen synthesis, generation of strong reductants, etc. In these studies, we have utilized two principal experimental techniques, laser flash photolysis and cyclic voltammetry, both of which permit direct measurements of electron transfer processes.

Tollin, G.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

Wang, Lee-Ping

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Direct Carbon Conversion: Review of Production and Electrochemical Conversion of Reactive Carbons, Economics and Potential Impact on the Carbon Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over global warning have motivated the search for more efficient technologies for electric power generation from fossil fuels. Today, 90% of electric power is produced from coal, petroleum or natural gas. Higher efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions per unit of electric energy. Exercising an option of deep geologic or ocean sequestration for the CO{sub 2} byproduct would reduce emissions further and partially forestall global warming. We introduce an innovative concept for conversion of fossil fuels to electricity at efficiencies in the range of 70-85% (based on standard enthalpy of the combustion reaction). These levels exceed the performance of common utility plants by up to a factor of two. These levels are also in excess of the efficiencies of combined cycle plants and of advanced fuel cells now operated on the pilot scale. The core of the concept is direct carbon conversion a process that is similar to that a fuel cell but differs in that synthesized forms of carbon, not hydrogen, are used as fuel. The cell sustains the reaction, C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2} (E {approx} 1.0 V, T = 800 C). The fuel is in the form of fine particulates ({approx}100 nm) distributed by entrainment in a flow of CO{sub 2} to the cells to form a slurry of carbon in the melt. The byproduct stream of CO{sub 2} is pure. It affords the option of sequestration without additional separation costs, or can be reused in secondary oil or gas recovery. Our experimental program has discovered carbon materials with orders of magnitude spreads in anode reactivity reflected in cell power density. One class of materials yields energy at about 1 kW/m{sup 2} sufficiently high to make practical the use of the cell in electric utility applications. The carbons used in such cells are highly disordered on the nanometer scale (2-30 nm), relative to graphite. Such disordered or turbostratic carbons can be produced by controlled pyrolysis (thermal decomposition) of hydrocarbons extracted from coal, petroleum or natural gas. For coal and lignite, such hydrocarbons may be produced by cyclic hydrogenation (hydropyrolysis), with the recycle of the hydrogen intermediate following pyrolysis. Starting with common CH{sub x} feedstock for carbon black manufacture, the ash entrained into the carbon (<0.03%) does not jeopardize cell life or enter into the economic estimates for power generation. The value of carbon (relative to hydrogen) as an electrochemical fuel derives from thermodynamic aspects of the C/O{sub 2} reaction. First, the entropy change of the C/O{sub 2} reaction is nearly zero, allowing theoretical efficiencies ({Delta}G(T)/{Delta}H{sub i298}) of 100% (cf. H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} theoretical efficiency of 70%). Second, the thermodynamic activity of the carbon fuel and the CO{sub 2} product are spatially and temporally invariant. This allows 100% utilization of the carbon fuel in single pass (cf. hydrogen utilizations of 75-85%). The carbodmelt slurry is non-explosive at operating temperatures. The total energy efficiency for the C/O{sub 2} is roughly 80% for cell operation at practical rates. In summary, what gives this route its fundamental advantage in energy conversion is that it derives the greatest possible fraction of energy of the fossil resource from an electrochemical reaction (C+O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) that is comparatively simple to operate at efficiencies of 80%, in a single-pass cell configuration without bottoming turbine cycles.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Upadhye, R; Pasternak, A; Steinberg, M

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

175

Reversible information-energy conversions in a quantum hybrid system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of a quantum hybrid opto-mechanical transducer in the context of information thermodynamics, and show that it provides a valuable platform to monitor information- to-energy conversions at the quantum level. An optically active emitter interacts with the electromagnetic field, that plays the role of an out-of-equilibrium heat bath. The bit of information encoded in the emitter is reversibly converted into mechanical energy stored in a nano-resonator whose displacement is measurable in time, offering direct access to the elementary work exchanged. The study of the complete thermodynamical cycle described over a full mechanical period reveals a new type of Landauer's erasure that produces, instead of costing, work. We finally show that this device can be turned into a powerful heat engine operating at Carnot efficiency.

Cyril Elouard; Maxime Richard; Alexia Auffèves

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

176

Energy Conversion Materials Through Chemical Synthesis Route  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conversion Materials Through Chemical Synthesis Route Speaker(s): Lionel Vayssieres Date: April 27, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Samuel Mao The...

177

Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conversions Inc Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc Place Frederick, Maryland Sector Biomass Product Atlantic Biomass Conversions is working on a system and a genetically modified bacteria to convert sugar beet pulp waste into methanol. Coordinates 45.836395°, -98.507249° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.836395,"lon":-98.507249,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

178

Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy  

SciTech Connect

The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Hammagren, Erik J. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Biomass conversion Task 4 1988 program of work: International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For biomass to meet its potential as an energy resource, conversion processes must be available which are both efficient and environmentally acceptable. Conversion can include direct production of heat and electricity as well as production of intermediate gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels. While many biomass conversion processes are commercially available at present, others are still in the conceptual stage. Additional research and development activities on these advanced concepts will be necessary to fully use biomass resources. Ongoing research on biomass conversion processes is being conducted by many nations throughout the world. In an effort to coordinate this research and improve information exchange, several countries have agreed to a cooperative effort through the International Energy Agency's Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA). Under this Agreement, Task IV deals specifically with biomass conversion topics. The cooperative activities consists of information exchange and coordination of national research programs on specific topics. The activities address biomass conversion in a systematic manner, dealing with the pretreatment of biomass prior to conversion, the subsequent conversion of the biomass to intermediate fuels or end-product energy, and then the environmental aspects of the conversion process. This document provides an outline of cooperative work to be performed in 1988. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Stevens, D.J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Biomass conversion Task 4 1988 program of work: International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement  

SciTech Connect

For biomass to meet its potential as an energy resource, conversion processes must be available which are both efficient and environmentally acceptable. Conversion can include direct production of heat and electricity as well as production of intermediate gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels. While many biomass conversion processes are commercially available at present, others are still in the conceptual stage. Additional research and development activities on these advanced concepts will be necessary to fully use biomass resources. Ongoing research on biomass conversion processes is being conducted by many nations throughout the world. In an effort to coordinate this research and improve information exchange, several countries have agreed to a cooperative effort through the International Energy Agency's Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA). Under this Agreement, Task IV deals specifically with biomass conversion topics. The cooperative activities consists of information exchange and coordination of national research programs on specific topics. The activities address biomass conversion in a systematic manner, dealing with the pretreatment of biomass prior to conversion, the subsequent conversion of the biomass to intermediate fuels or end-product energy, and then the environmental aspects of the conversion process. This document provides an outline of cooperative work to be performed in 1988. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Stevens, D.J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

MHK Technologies/Wave Energy Conversion Activator WECA | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Activator WECA Activator WECA < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Wave Energy Conversion Activator WECA.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Daedalus Informatics Ltd Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 4 Proof of Concept Technology Description The full scale WECA design is ideally fabricated with steel so as to be suitable for mounting on the run up wall of breakwaters or other rigid or floating structures The oscillating wave surge converter absorbs most of the energy of the impacting waves and turn it into compressed air which is subsequently converted into electric power or other forms of energy The device utilizes the Critical Momentum Wedge principle where the water rushing into the device resembles a virtual Wedge of kinetic energy

182

North Dakota Energy Conversion and Transmission Facility Siting Act (North  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dakota Energy Conversion and Transmission Facility Siting Act Dakota Energy Conversion and Transmission Facility Siting Act (North Dakota) North Dakota Energy Conversion and Transmission Facility Siting Act (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Line Extension Analysis

183

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center Solar Thermal Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center Solar Thermal Conversion Major Functions: · Solar Center Collection The temperature to which a surface is heated by a certain flux of incident solar energy - 1914 Between 1880 and 1910, there were 48 articles on solar energy as a world energy source

Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

184

Transmission and Conversion of Energy by Coupled Soft Gears  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamical aspects of coupled deformable gears are investigated to clarify the differences of mechanical properties between the machines consist of hard materials and those of soft materials. In particular, the performances of two functions, the transmission and the conversion of the energy, are compared between the hard and soft gears systems. First, the responses of the coupled gears against a constant torque working on one of gears are focused for two types of couplings; P) a pair gears are coupled, and T) three gears are coupled with forming a regular triangle. In systems with the coupling P), we obtain trivial results that the rotational energy can be transmitted to other gear only if these gears are hard enough. On the other hand, in systems with the coupling T), the transmission of the rotational energy to one of the other gears appears only if these gears are soft enough. Second, we show the responses of this system in which one of gears have contact with a high temperature heat bath and the other gears have contact with a 0 temperature heat bath. With the coupling T), the directional rotations appear in two gears having contact with 0 temperature heat bath. Here, the direction of these rotations change depending on the noise strength.

Akinori Awazu

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

185

Standards for photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides the results of a search for existing domestic standards and related documents for possible application in the development of a standards base for photovoltaic energy conversion systems. The search resulted in locating about 150 test methods, recommended practices, standards, solar-thermal performance criteria, and other standards-related documents. They are listed by topic areas in the appendix. The listing was prepared to assist those involved in developing performance criteria for photovoltaic systems and in identifying methods to test system performance against these criteria. It is clear from the results of the search that few standards are directly applicable to terrestrial solar photovoltaic systems and that much standards development is required to support the commercialization of such systems.

Schafft, H. A.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

187

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CH 630 252 2779 TO AGCP-HQ P.0204 * * STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER...

188

Organic Membranes for Energy Conversion and "Green" Manufacturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Membranes for Energy Conversion and "Green" Manufacturing Speaker(s): John Kerr Date: January 17, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Cynthia...

189

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycle ocean thermal difference power plant. M.S. Thesis,ocean thermal energy conversion power plants. M.S. Thesis.comments on the thermal effects of power plants on fish eggs

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A New Earth-Abundant Semiconductor for Solar Energy Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, G2, ZnSnN2: A New Earth-Abundant Semiconductor for Solar Energy Conversion. Author(s), Lise Lahourcade, Naomi C Coronel, Harry A ...

191

WIND ENERGY POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM REDUCING GEARBOX STRESS ...  

A wind energy power conversion system includes a gearbox, a generator, an AC to DC power converter, a DC link, and a DC to AC power converter, and at least one ...

192

Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

193

Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured ...  

A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal ...

194

Energy Conversion Facilities Property Tax Exemption (Ohio) |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass, Municipal Solid Waste, CHPCogeneration Active Incentive No Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy Category Renewable Energy Incentive Programs Amount 100% exemption...

195

Energy Conversion Facilities Corporate Tax Exemption (Ohio) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass, Municipal Solid Waste, CHPCogeneration Active Incentive No Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy Category Renewable Energy Incentive Programs Amount 100% Exemption...

196

DOE Directives | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Directives DOE Directives DOE Directives Directives are the Department of Energy's primary means to communicate and institutionalize directives and policies and to establish requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. DOE O 413.3A - Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets DOE G 413.3-1 - Managing Design and Construction Using Systems Engineering for Use with DOE O 413.3A DOE G 413.3-2 - Quality Assurance Guide for Project Management DOE G 413.3-3 - Safeguards and Security for Program and Project Management DOE G 413.3-8 - Environmental Management (EM) Cleanup Projects DOE G 413.3-9 - U.S. Department of Energy Project Review Guide for Capital Asset Projects DOE G 413.3-10 - Earned Value Management System (EVMS)

197

Portfolio Manager Technical Reference: Thermal Conversion Factors | ENERGY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Conversion Factors Thermal Conversion Factors Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

198

Multi-objective design and optimization of district energy systems including polygeneration energy conversion technologies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the present context of finding ways to decrease CO2 emissions linked with human activity, district energy systems including polygeneration energy conversion technologies are likely… (more)

Weber, Céline Isabelle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

Cairns, E.J.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Direct Energy, LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct Energy, LP Place Texas Utility Id 15871 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC ERCOT Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Energy Basics: Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, is the percentage of the solar energy shining on a PV device that is converted into electrical energy, or electricity....

202

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) A New Secure Renewable Energy Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) A New Secure Renewable Energy Source For Defense New Ventures #12;What is OTEC? OTEC B fiOTEC Benefits: Large Renewable Energy Source 3-5 Terawatts Water Temperature Delta 2 A New Clean Renewable 24/7 Energy Source #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

203

Direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain: Feasibility investigation for HARP-AMFPI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors are investigating the concept of a direct-conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain for low-dose x-ray imaging. It consists of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor partitioned into a thick drift region for x-ray-to-charge conversion and a relatively thin region called high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor (HARP) in which the charge undergoes avalanche multiplication. An active matrix of thin film transistors is used to read out the electronic image. The authors call the proposed imager HARP active matrix flat panel imager (HARP-AMFPI). The key advantages of HARP-AMFPI are its high spatial resolution, owing to the direct-conversion a-Se layer, and its programmable avalanche gain, which can be enabled during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise and disabled during high dose radiography to prevent saturation of the detector elements. This article investigates key design considerations for HARP-AMFPI. The effects of electronic noise on the imaging performance of HARP-AMFPI were modeled theoretically and system parameters were optimized for radiography and fluoroscopy. The following imager properties were determined as a function of avalanche gain: (1) the spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency; (2) fill factor; (3) dynamic range and linearity; and (4) gain nonuniformities resulting from electric field strength nonuniformities. The authors results showed that avalanche gains of 5 and 20 enable x-ray quantum noise limited performance throughout the entire exposure range in radiography and fluoroscopy, respectively. It was shown that HARP-AMFPI can provide the required gain while maintaining a 100% effective fill factor and a piecewise dynamic range over five orders of magnitude (10{sup -7}-10{sup -2} R/frame). The authors have also shown that imaging performance is not significantly affected by the following: electric field strength nonuniformities, avalanche noise for x-ray energies above 1 keV and direct interaction of x rays in the gain region. Thus, HARP-AMFPI is a promising flat-panel imager structure that enables high-resolution fully quantum noise limited x-ray imaging over a wide exposure range.

Wronski, M. M.; Rowlands, J. A. [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type / Topic 2 Geothermal Energy Production from Low Temperature Resources, Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells, and Geopressured Resources Project Type / Topic 3 Low Temperature Resources Project Description Using mass-produced chiller equipment for "reverse refrigeration" to generate electricity: This approach allows Johnson Controls to take advantage of the economies of scale and manufacturing experience gained from current products while minimizing performance risks. Process efficiencies will be increased over the current state of the art in two ways: better working fluids and improved cycle heat management.

205

Biomimetic approach to solar energy conversion: artificial photosynthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of efforts to devise apparatus and systems for using solar energy for chemical purposes by methods that mimic those used by photosynthetic organisms are reported. Sufficient progress has been made in the understanding of plant photosynthesis to make artificial photosynthesis a reasonable goal. Artificial photoreaction centers, the apparatus used by photosynthetic organisms for light energy conversion to chemical oxidizing and reducing capacity, have been made in the laboratory. The synthetic reaction centers mimic with remarkable fidelity the properties of their in vivo prototypes. Some of the formidable problems that must still be solved and the future prospects for biomimetic devices for solar energy conversion are discussed.

Katz, J.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Energy Conversion Devices Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Development...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell(tm) Texaco Ovonic Fuel Cell Company, LLC non-precious metal catalysts regenerative braking energy absorption capability wide temperature range instant...

207

Energy Conversion, Storage, and Transport Programs and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Society of Automotive Engineers International (SAE) has proposed a ... hydrogen storage material satisfies the Department of Energy (DoE) goal ...

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This terminology pertains to photovoltaic (radiant-to-electrical energy conversion) device performance measurements and is not a comprehensive list of terminology for photovoltaics in general. 1.2 Additional terms used in this terminology and of interest to solar energy may be found in Terminology E 772.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy for each ton of coal processed. Thus, the oxygen plants in a commercial coal conversion facility may require 150 megawatts. Design of the oxygen plants will require close attention to energy consumption. Many coal conversion processes can accept oxygen at less than the historical 99.5% purity with significant savings in energy and cost. The air separation process is reviewed with emphasis on optimum oxygen purity. An energy reduction of 8.4% can be achieved when oxygen purity is reduced from 99.5% to 95%. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton makes it a major energy consumer. The growing synfuels industry -- conversion of coal into hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feed-stocks -- will greatly increase the production of oxygen and presents major opportunities for energy conservation.

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Optimal control in energy conversion of small wind power systems with permanent-magnet-synchronous-generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of a low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) connected directly to the turbine. A development system was built in order to ... Keywords: hardware-in-the-loop simulation, maximum power point tracking, optimal control, permanent-magnet synchronous generator, wind system

C. Vlad; I. Munteanu; A. I. Bratcu; E. Ceanga

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Electrostatic Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter focuses on vibration energy harvesting using electrostatic converters. It synthesizes the various works carried out on electrostatic devices, from concepts, models and up to prototypes, and covers both standard (electret-free) and electret-based electrostatic vibration energy harvesters (VEH).

Boisseau, S; Seddik, B Ahmed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

Cairns, E.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Polymer Based Nanocomposites for Solar Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic semiconductor-based photovoltaic devices offer the promise of low cost photovoltaic technology that can be manufactured via large-scale, roll-to-roll printing techniques. Existing organic photovoltaic devices are currently limited to solar power conversion efficiencies of 3?5%. This is because of poor overlap between the absorption spectrum of the organic chromophores and the solar spectrum, non-ideal band alignment between the donor and acceptor species, and low charge carrier mobilities. To address these issues, we are investigating the development of dendrimeric organic semiconductors that are readily synthesized with high purity. They also benefit from optoelectronic properties, such as band gap and band positions, which can be easily tuned by substituting different chemical groups into the molecule. Additionally, we are developing nanostructured oxide/conjugated polymer composite photovoltaics. These composites take advantage of the high electron mobilities attainable in oxide semiconductors and can be fabricated using low-temperature solution-based growth techniques. Here, we discuss the synthesis and preliminary device results of these novel materials and composites.

Shaheen, S.; Olson, D.; White, M.; Mitchell, W.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C.; Rumbles, G.; Gregg, B.; Ginley, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Energy Conversion, Mixing Energy, and Neutral Surfaces with a Nonlinear Equation of State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Conversion, Mixing Energy, and Neutral Surfaces with a Nonlinear Equation of State JONAS energy, it is generally assumed that it does not produce a restoring buoyancy force. However, it is here effect) such a neutral displacement is accompanied by a conversion between internal energy E

Nycander, Jonas

215

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demand due to emerging economies like China, India, and Brazil. Coal and natural gas resources 7296 O. It seems sensible toconsider OTEC as one of the renewable energy technologies of the future. Introduction

216

Nanostructured Functional Materials for Energy Conversion and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... V: Clean Coal-, Hydrogen Based-Technologies, Fuel Cells, and Materials for Energy Storage ... Deployment of New High Temperature Alloys for Power Generation Systems ... Materials Metrology for a Hydrogen Distribution Infrastructure.

217

Sunlight Direct | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct Direct Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunlight Direct Place San Diego, California Zip 92128 Sector Solar Product Developed a system that tracks and concentrates solar energy for distributed power generation Website http://www.sunlight-direct.com Coordinates 33.0013938°, -117.0735241° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.0013938,"lon":-117.0735241,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

218

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Catalysis & Energy Conversion -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ceramic Electrochemistry Ceramic Electrochemistry * Members * Contact * Publications * Overview * Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Steam Electrolysis Catalysis & Energy Conversion Home Ceramic Electrochemistry Dave Carter and solid oxide fuel cell Materials scientist John David Carter prepares a solid oxide electrochemical cell for high temperature testing. Research activities in the Ceramic Electrochemistry Group are focused on the development of ceramic-based electrochemical devices and components, such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and High Temperature Steam Electrolyzers (HTSE). This extends to materials synthesis, fabrication, and characterization. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research As part of the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, the goal of this research is the development of solid

219

Commercialization analysis of large wind energy conversion systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The framework is described that can be used to evaluate potential new federal incentives to facilitate the market acceptance of utility-scale wind energy conversion systems. The insights gained from utilizing this framework to evaluate a variety of hypothetical federal incentives are discussed. The heart of the evaluation framework is an explicit representation of the decisions made by utility purchasers, suppliers, and government agencies with respect to the utilization and fabrication of large wind energy conversion systems. The demand-side and supply-side aspects of the multiparty commercialization model are described, and the model's struture is explained. (LEW)

Boyd, D.W.; Buckley, O.E.; Haas, S.M.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Controlling Energy Costs with Coal Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Even with a decade of substantial energy reduction in America's manufacturing plants and a temporary 'oil glut', energy often represents the largest plant expense, higher than labor or raw materials. Energy is not only a major plant expense; it is usually regarded as the most controllable. Fluidized bed combustion technology allows industrial steam users to use low-grade coals that are outside of mainstream coal markets, are abundant, and are very inexpensive, being one-quarter to one-third the price of oil or gas. This paper discusses the economics of low-grade coal, what is fluidized bed technology and its comparison to conventional coal and gas/oil fired systems, and one coal-fired FBC installation in Texas.

Sadowski, R. S.; von Hippel, C. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structures (Plantships) · Bottom-Mounted Structures · Model Basin Tests/ At-Sea Tests · 210 kW OC-OTEC systems and with an investment payback period estimated at 3 to 4 years. #12;OTEC 12 Energy Carriers & Attachments #12;#12;#12;#12;Bottom-Mounted Structures · Fixed Towers · Guyed Towers · TLP not shown · Causeway

222

Energy conversion in Purple Bacteria Photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of how photosynthetic organisms convert light offers insight not only into nature's evolutionary process, but may also give clues as to how best to design and manipulate artificial photosynthetic systems -- and also how far we can drive natural photosynthetic systems beyond normal operating conditions, so that they can harvest energy for us under otherwise extreme conditions. In addition to its interest from a basic scientific perspective, therefore, the goal to develop a deep quantitative understanding of photosynthesis offers the potential payoff of enhancing our current arsenal of alternative energy sources for the future. In the following Chapter, we consider the trade-off between dynamics, structure and function of light harvesting membranes in Rps. Photometricum purple bacteria, as a model to highlight the priorities that arise when photosynthetic organisms adapt to deal with the ever-changing natural environment conditions.

Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Quiroga, Luis; Zhao, Guannan; Johnson, Neil F

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Energy conversion in Purple Bacteria Photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of how photosynthetic organisms convert light offers insight not only into nature's evolutionary process, but may also give clues as to how best to design and manipulate artificial photosynthetic systems -- and also how far we can drive natural photosynthetic systems beyond normal operating conditions, so that they can harvest energy for us under otherwise extreme conditions. In addition to its interest from a basic scientific perspective, therefore, the goal to develop a deep quantitative understanding of photosynthesis offers the potential payoff of enhancing our current arsenal of alternative energy sources for the future. In the following Chapter, we consider the trade-off between dynamics, structure and function of light harvesting membranes in Rps. Photometricum purple bacteria, as a model to highlight the priorities that arise when photosynthetic organisms adapt to deal with the ever-changing natural environment conditions.

Felipe Caycedo-Soler; Ferney J. Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Guannan Zhao; Neil F. Johnson

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Direct application of geothermal energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

Reistad, G.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

This paper is published as part of a Dalton Transactions themed issue on: Solar Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is published as part of a Dalton Transactions themed issue on: Solar Energy Conversion and Paul King, Dalton Trans., 2009, DOI: 10.1039/b913426n Solar energy conversion in a photoelectrochemical and the optimization of solar energy conversion using DSSCs.7­9 Currently, the maximum solar conversion efficiency

227

Nanowire silicon as a material for thermoelectric energy conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric (TE) material for TE energy conversion, it is necessary to reduce its relatively high thermal conductivity, while maintaining the high power factor. This can be done by structuring silicon into 1-D ...

A. Stranz; J. Kähler; S. Merzsch; A. Waag; E. Peiner

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Introduction to Solar Energy Conversion Solar energy represents the largest energy input into the terrestrial system. Despite its  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the resource to allow supply to meet demand at all times. Photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency hasIntroduction to Solar Energy Conversion Solar energy represents the largest energy input the global energy demand on its own. The challenges that need to be addressed to make solar energy viable

Nur, Amos

229

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program Management Plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of the Associate Laboratory Director for Energy and Environmental Technology has established the OTEC Program Management Office to be responsible for the ANL-assigned tasks of the OTEC Program under DOE's Chicago Operations and Regional Office (DOE/CORO). The ANL OTEC Program Management Plan is essentially a management-by-objective plan. The principal objective of the program is to provide lead technical support to CORO in its capacity as manager of the DOE power-system program. The Argonne OTEC Program is divided into three components: the first deals with development of heat exchangers and other components of OTEC power systems, the second with development of biofouling counter-measures and corrosion-resistant materials for these components in seawater service, and the third with environmental and climatic impacts of OTEC power-system operation. The essential points of the Management Plan are summarized, and the OTEC Program is described. The organization of the OTEC Program at ANL is described including the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of the organizational groupings. The system and policies necessary for the support and control functions within the organization are discussed. These functions cross organizational lines, in that they are common to all of the organization groups. Also included are requirements for internal and external reports.

Combs, R E

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

2003-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

231

Future of photovoltaic energy conversion in developing countries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies reveal that photovoltaic energy conversion will be economically viable for usage in developing countries. An overview of programs designed to lower the costs of such conversion systems is presented. Government goals are reviewed, as well as application projects relative to rural usage. A summary of the state-of-the-art in both advanced research and commercially available technology is presented. It is concluded that with the range of the work being done, such systems will be viable for many rural applications within 5 years.

Hogan, S.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

SPS energy conversion and power management workshop. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1977 a four year study, the concept Development and Evaluation Program, was initiated by the US Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As part of this program, a series of peer reviews were carried out within the technical community to allow available information on SPS to be sifted, examined and, if need be, challenged. The SPS Energy Conversion and Power Management Workshop, held in Huntsville, Alabama, February 5 to 7, 1980, was one of these reviews. The results of studies in this particular field were presented to an audience of carefully selected scientists and engineers. This first report summarizes the results of that peer review. It is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject. Rather, it is designed to look at the SPS energy conversion and power management options in breadth, not depth, to try to foresee any troublesome and/or potentially unresolvable problems and to identify the most promising areas for future research and development. Topics include photovoltaic conversion, solar thermal conversion, and electric power distribution processing and power management. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

Bomelburg, H.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides with Balanced Acid–Base Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bio-mass conversion has attracted increasing research interests to produce bio-fuels with bio-ethanol being a major product. Development of advanced processes to further upgrade bio-ethanol to other value added fuels or chemicals are pivotal to improving the economics of biomass conversion and deversifying the utilization of biomass resources. In this paper, for the first time, we report the direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene with high yield (~83%) on a multifunctional ZnxZryOz mixed oxide with a dedicated balance of surface acid-base properties. This work illustrates the significance of rational design of a multifunctional mixed oxide catalyst for one step bio-ethanol conversion to a value-added intermediate, isobutene, for chemical and fuel production. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

235

Contributions to Key Energy Conversion Technologies and Advanced Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contributions to Key Energy Conversion Technologies and Advanced Methods Contributions to Key Energy Conversion Technologies and Advanced Methods for Optimum Energy Systems Design and Planning Speaker(s): Daniel Favrat Date: February 27, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare This presentation reviews some of EPFL-LENI's recent contributions to advanced cogeneration and heat pump technologies as well as to new system design approaches based on multimodal evolutionar algorithms. In the field of cogeneration, theoretical and experimental results show that gas engines with unscavenged ignition prechambers can, without the need of a catalyst, achieve high efficiencies with reasonable emissions with both natural gas and biogas. Combination with Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) heat recovery

236

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 Continuously variable transmissions: theory and practice Beachley, N.H.; Frank, A.A. (null) 205 A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P. (1996) 173 Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem (2005) 153 Building a secondary containment system Broder, M.F. (1994) 144 An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc) (2008) 141 Ammonia usage in vapor compression for refrigeration and air-conditioning in the United States

237

Direct Energy Services (Maine) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Maine) Maine) Jump to: navigation, search Name Direct Energy Services Place Maine Utility Id 54820 References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File2_2010[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Commercial: $0.1070/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File2_2010" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Direct_Energy_Services_(Maine)&oldid=412516" Categories: EIA Utility Companies and Aliases Utility Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

238

Solar energy conversion systems engineering and economic analysis radiative energy input/thermal electric output computation. Volume III  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct energy flux analytical model, an analysis of the results, and a brief description of a non-steady state model of a thermal solar energy conversion system implemented on a code, SIRR2, as well as the coupling of CIRR2 which computes global solar flux on a collector and SIRR2 are presented. It is shown how the CIRR2 and, mainly, the SIRR2 codes may be used for a proper design of a solar collector system. (LEW)

Russo, G.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Table B1. Metric Conversion Factors - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

334 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 aExact conversion. bCalculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

240

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon anode fuels in molton salt media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are conducting research into the direct electrochemical conversion of reactive carbons into electricity--with experimental evidence of total efficiencies exceeding 80% of the heat of combustion of carbon. Together with technologies for extraction of reactive carbons from broad based fossil fuels, direct carbon conversion addresses the objectives of DOE's ''21st Century Fuel Cell'' with exceptionally high efficiency (>70% based on standard heat of reaction, {Delta}H{sub std}), as well as broader objectives of managing CO{sub 2} emissions. We are exploring the reactivity of a wide range of carbons derived from diverse sources, including pyrolyzed hydrocarbons, petroleum cokes, purified coals and biochars, and relating their electrochemical reactivity to nano/microstructural characteristics.

Cherepy, N; Krueger, R; Cooper, J F

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 169 Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System Burress, Timothy A [ORNL]; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL]; Coomer, Chester [ORNL]; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL]; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL]; Cunningham, Joseph Philip [ORNL]; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL]; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL]; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL] (2011) 116 Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Syneregy Drive System Burress, T.A.; Coomer, C.L.; Campbell, S.L.; Seiber, L.E.; Marlino, L.D.; Staunton, R.H.; Cunningham, J.P. (2008) 102 A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design

242

Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization | OSTI,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) Continuously variable transmissions: theory and practice Beachley, N.H.; Frank, A.A. () Review of air flow measurement techniques McWilliams, Jennifer (2002) Building a secondary containment system Broder, M.F. (1994) Cost benefit analysis of the night-time ventilative cooling in office building Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David (2003) Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Syneregy Drive System Burress, T.A.; Coomer, C.L.; Campbell, S.L.; et al. (2008) Nanofluid technology : current status and future research. Choi, S. U.-S. (1998) An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral

243

SiGe analog AGC circuit for an 802.11a WLAN direct conversion receiver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This brief presents a baseband automatic gain control (AGC) circuit for an IEEE 802.11a wireless local area network (WLAN) direct conversion receiver. The whole receiver is to be fully integrated in a low-cost 0.25-µm 75-GHz SiGe bipolar complementary ... Keywords: bipolar complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (BiCMOS) integrated circuits, feedforward systems, gain control, peak detector, variable gain amplifier (VGA), wireless local-area network (WLAN)

J. P. Alegre; S. Celma; B. Calvo; N. Fiebig; S. Halder

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mahkamov, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 11(S. Wongwises, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.E. Barbier, Renewable Sustainable Energy Review, Vol. 6, pp.

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the portion of thermal energy that can be converted toof high-performance thermal energy harvesting systems, butreferred to as the thermal energy from low- temperature heat

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SAN DIEGO Recycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to ElectricalRecycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical Energyenergy, geothermal energy, wasted heat from a nuclear

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion using photonic bandgap selective emitters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity comprises heating a metallic photonic crystal to provide selective emission of radiation that is matched to the peak spectral response of a photovoltaic cell that converts the radiation to electricity. The use of a refractory metal, such as tungsten, for the photonic crystal enables high temperature operation for high radiant flux and high dielectric contrast for a full 3D photonic bandgap, preferable for efficient thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

DIRECTED ENERGY BIOMETRICS AND REMOTE SENSING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... New and Reorganized Appendices ?Sample Audit Forms ?And more ANSI Z 136.8 Page 6. DIRECTED ENERGY REMOTE SENSING: ...

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Exceeding the solar cell Shockley-Queisser limit via thermal up-conversion of low-energy photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum efficiency of ideal single-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells is limited to 33% (for one sun illumination) by intrinsic losses such as band edge thermalization, radiative recombination, and inability to absorb below-bandgap photons. This intrinsic thermodynamic limit, named after Shockley and Queisser (S-Q), can be exceeded by utilizing low-energy photons either via their electronic up-conversion or via thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion process. However, electronic up-conversion systems have extremely low efficiencies, and practical temperature considerations limit the operation of TPV converters to the narrow-gap PV cells. Here we develop a conceptual design of a hybrid TPV platform, which exploits thermal up-conversion of low-energy photons and is compatible with conventional silicon PV cells by using spectral and directional selectivity of the up-converter. The hybrid platform offers sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency exceeding that imposed by the S-Q limit on the corresponding PV cells ...

Boriskina, Svetlana V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

(Small scale wind energy conversion programmatic equipment. Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to provide South Dakota citizens with a case study of the institutional and technical problems encountered in the installation, maintenance and use of a small wind energy system. The project will provide information on wind turbine reliability, maintenance requirements and power production to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale wind energy conversion projects for South Dakota. The system was installed by vocational students and instructors at Mitchell Vocational School. It has been in operation since the fall of 1983.

Wegman, S.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

251

Optimisation of a Small Non Controlled Wind Energy Conversion System for Stand-Alone Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimisation of a Small Non Controlled Wind Energy Conversion System for Stand-Alone Applications. This article proposes a method to optimize the design of a small fixed-voltage wind energy conversion system are shown and discussed. Key words Wind energy conversion system, stand-alone application, nonlinear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

The State of the Art of Generators for Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The State of the Art of Generators for Wind Energy Conversion Systems Yassine Amirat, Mohamed Benbouzid, Bachir Bensaker and René Wamkeue Abstract--Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) have become. I. INTRODUCTION Wind energy conversion is the fastest-growing source of new electric generation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Static power conversion techniques for unique energy devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar power, fuel cells, and supercapacitors are some hics. of the new energy devices that are being used today in various power applications. The first two of these devices are exciting alternative sources of clean energy. The third device is an important new energy storage device that has some properties of a battery and a capacitor allowing it to be used in applications where attributes of both are needed. To realize the full potential of these energy sources, novel engineering strategies have to be implemented to manage the conversion of power. Since these devices are relatively new and their development is constantly maturing, a introduction to these devices will be a useful to those unfamiliar with the state of the art of solar cells, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. In this paper characteristics of each technology will be reviewed and design consideration will be discussed, and methods of utilizing each of these devices will be offered.

Welch, Richard Andrew

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT FOR THE NOVEMBER 1977 GOTEC-02 CRUISE TO THE GULF OF MEXICO MOBILE SITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

02 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PRELIMINARY DATA REPORTOcean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites in the Gulf ofOcean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Sites: Puerto Rico,

Commins, M.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION ECOLOGICAL DATA REPORT FROM 0. S. S. RESEARCHER IN GULF OF MEXICO, JULY 12-23, 1977.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

01 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION ECOLOGICAL DATA REPORTOcean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Sites: Puerto Rico,Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant were in- itiated in

Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. Dawley, I. Wind Energy Conversion System Monitoring &ment of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Los AlamosCommerical Wind Energy Conversion System Monitoring and

Kay, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT FOR THE NOVEMBER 1977 GOTEC-02 CRUISE TO THE GULF OF MEXICO MOBILE SITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9437 GOTEC-02 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PRELIMINARYto potential Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites inThree Proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Sites:

Commins, M.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Focus Area 2 - Biomass Deconstruction and Conversion : BioEnergy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deconstruction and Conversion BESC research in biomass deconstruction and conversion targets CBP by studying model organisms and thermophilic anaerobes to understand novel...

259

Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC Place Los Angeles, California Product Owner of landfill gas plant....

260

Direct conversion of plutonium-containing materials to borosilicate glass for storage or disposal  

SciTech Connect

A new process, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), has been invented for the direct conversion of plutonium metal, scrap, and residue into borosilicate glass. The glass should be acceptable for either the long-term storage or disposition of plutonium. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into homogeneous glass (1) simplifies safeguards and security; (2) creates a stable chemical form that meets health, safety, and environmental concerns; (3) provides an easy storage form; (4) may lower storage costs; and (5) allows for future disposition options. In the GMODS process, mixtures of metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids containing plutonium are fed directly into a glass melter where they are directly converted to glass. Conventional glass melters can accept materials only in oxide form; thus, it is its ability to accept materials in multiple chemical forms that makes GMODS a unique glass making process. Initial proof-of-principle experiments have converted cerium (plutonium surrogate), uranium, stainless steel, aluminum, and other materials to glass. Significant technical uncertainties remain because of the early nature of process development.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Catalysis & Energy Conversion -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations iact logo Argonne National Laboratory along with its academic partners has established an Energy Frontier Research Center, the Institute for Atom-efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) whose focus is to advance the science of catalysis for the efficient conversion of energy resources into usable forms. IACT is one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers that DOE has established in the United States. IACT is a partnership among world-class scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University, Purdue University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving integrated catalyst synthesis, advanced characterization, catalytic experimentation, and computation, IACT is addressing key

262

Carbon dioxide release from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of recent measurements of CO{sub 2} release from an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) experiment. Based on these data, the rate of short-term CO{sub 2} release from future open-cycle OTEC plants is projected to be 15 to 25 times smaller than that from fossil-fueled electric power plants. OTEC system that incorporate subsurface mixed discharge are expected to result in no long-term release. OTEC plants can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions when substituted for fossil-fueled power generation. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Green, H.J. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Guenther, P.R. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload

264

Photovoltaic energy conversion The objective of this laboratory is for you to explore the science and engineering of the conversion of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic energy conversion Objective The objective of this laboratory is for you to explore the photovoltaic energy conversion process is optimal only for photons with energies above, but not too far the science and engineering of the conversion of light to electricity by photovoltaic devices. Preparation

Braun, Paul

265

DOE Directives | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

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266

EIA Renewable Energy- Average Energy Conversion Efficiency of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Renewables and Alternate Fuels > Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Annual Report > Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Source: Average Energy ...

267

A superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analog-to-digital conversion of microwave radio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct analog-to-digital conversion of multi-GHz radio frequency (RF) signals is the ultimate goal in software radio receiver design but remains a daunting challenge for any technology. This thesis examines the potential ...

Bulzacchelli, John F. (John Francis)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in thermal energy conversion efficiency over present solarsolar thermal- photovoltaic co-generation scheme could have potentially very high solar-to-electric efficiency.solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies are attained and no thermal

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, 2006 1 Distributed Control Agents Approach to Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, 2006 1 Distributed Control Agents Approach to Energy a new scheme for an energy management system in the form of distributed control agents. The control and a minimum amount of communication. A case study using the distributed agents within a multilayer system

Lai, Hong-jian

270

Multidimensional direct free energy perturbation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we propose a multidimensional free energy perturbation scheme that allows the evaluation of the free energy difference between a state sampled based on importance sampling and almost any state that can be constructed by the reduction of the number of molecules in the system and the change of either the interaction energy or the thermodynamic state variable (e.g.

Georgios C. Boulougouris

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. To combine the analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. It is capable of solving for both unsteady and steady thermionic converter behavior including possible laser ionization enhancement or atomic recombination lasing. A proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed. (WHK)

Lawless, J.L. Jr.; Lam, S.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)] [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Contribution of chemistry to energy. [Fuels from coal; solar energy storage/conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemistry has contributed in many ways to energy production and conversion in the fossil fuel era. The challenges facing chemists and chemical engineers as we look forward to the 21st Century are addressed. This paper discusses some of the means that can be employed to meet this challenge both in the near-term and long-term, particularly alternate fuels from coal and solar energy storage and conversion. A leading candidate for an energy supply medium is hydrogen; implementing this concept may well be the greatest challenge faced by chemists as we leave the age of fossil fuels and enter the era of renewable energy. (DLC)

Cox, K.E.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength .lambda..sub.IF approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength .lambda..sub.g of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5.lambda..sub.IF to .lambda..sub.IF and reflect from .lambda..sub.IF to about 2.lambda..sub.IF ; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5.lambda..sub.IF.

Brown, Edward J. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middlegrove, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}.

Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}. 10 figs.

Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

1997-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

278

Direct Energy Services (New York) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Services (New York) Jump to: navigation, search Name Direct Energy Services Place New York Utility Id 54820 References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

279

Adaptive fuzzy regulation of the DC-bus capacitor voltage in a wind energy conversion system (WECS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new voltage regulator of the DC-bus capacitor of a variable speed wind power generation system based on adaptive fuzzy system. The change in the fuzzy rule base is done using a variable-structure direct adaptive control algorithm ... Keywords: Adaptive control, Fuzzy systems, Wind energy conversion systems

A. L. Elshafei; M. A. Azzouz

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

A peak power tracker for low-power permanent-magnet-synchronous-generator-based wind energy conversion systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of a low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) connected directly to the turbine. A test rig was built in order to carry out ... Keywords: hardware-in-the-loop simulation, maximum power point tracking, optimal control, permanent-magnet synchronous generator, wind system

C. Vlad; I. Munteanu; A. I. Bratcu; E. Ceanga

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. The behavior of alkaline earth/metal oxide/halide catalysts containing strontium was found to be different from the behavior of catalysts containing barium. Two approaches were pursued to avoid the heterogeneous/homogeneous mechanism in order to achieve higher C{sub 2} selectivity/methane conversion combinations. One approach was to eliminate or minimize the typical gas phase combustion chemistry and make more of the reaction occur on the surface of the catalyst by using silver. Another approach was to change the gas phase chemistry to depart from the typical combustion reaction network by using vapor-phase catalysts. The layered perovskite K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} was further studied. Modifications of process and catalyst variables for LaCaMnCoO{sub 6} catalysts resulted in catalysts with superior performance. Results obtained with a literature catalyst Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} were better than those obtained with NaCO{sub 3}/Pr-Ce oxide or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Ag-Pr-Ce oxide. 52 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.; Matherne, J.L.; Kinkade, N.E.

1990-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

282

The magnesium silicide germanide stannide alloy: A new concept in ocean thermal energy conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In devices hitherto used for the direct conversion of heat into electricity, commonly known as ''thermoelectric energy converters'', the efficiency of conversion is appreciably lower than that of conventional reciprocating or rotary heat engines. This low efficiency is brought about by the physical properties of the materials selected for the manufacture of these devices. The materials that are currently being used for this purpose are either simple elements and alloys thereof, such as silicon and germanium, or intermetallic compounds, either simple or alloys and solid solutions thereof. Of the latter, mention may be made of bismuth telluride, antimony telluride, lead telluride, antimony silver telluride, lead selenide, bismuth selenide, antimony selenide, etc., as well as mixtures and solid solutions of these and other compounds. A search in respect of these materials carried out in the U.S. Patent literature indicates indeed a quite substantial and impressive record.

Nicolaou, M.C.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Commercial application of thermionic conversion using a fusion reactor energy source. A preliminary assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary assessment of using thermionic conversion as a topping cycle for fusion reactors is presented. Because of the absence of restrictive temperature limitations for fusion-reactor blankets, fusion reactors may offer significant advantages, compared to fission reactors and fossil-fuel energy sources, for utilizing thermionic topping cycles. A system with a thermionic topping cycle and a conventional steam-turbine generator that utilizes the heat rejected by the thermionic converters is presented for illustration. This system consists of conceptual laser-fusion reactors with high-temperature radiating reactor blankets serving as heat sources for the thermionic topping cycle. The design concept appears to be equally adaptable to magnetically confined fusion reactors. For the example analyzed, net conversion efficiencies of combined thermionic and steam-turbine cycles are high, exceeding 50 percent for some values of the operating parameters, and the cost of producing low-voltage direct current for electrochemical processing is low.

Frank, T.G.; Kern, E.A.; Booth, L.A.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biochemical Conversion Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant A pilot-scale conversion plant for researchers, industry partners, and stakeholders to test a variety of biochemical conversion processes and technologies. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. In the biochemical conversion pilot plant, NREL's engineers and scientists focus on all aspects of the efficiency and cost reduction of biochemical conversion processes. Our capabilities accommodate research from bench-scale to pilot-scale (up to one ton per day). NREL's biochemical conversion pilot plant is located in the Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF). Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL/PIX 20248

285

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. Promoted metal oxide catalysts were tested. Several of these exhibited similar high ethylene to ethane ratios and low carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratios observed for the NaCl/{alpha}-alumina catalyst system reported earlier. Research on catalysts containing potentially activated metals began with testing of metal molecular sieves. Silver catalysts were shown to be promising as low temperature catalysts. Perovskites were tested as potential methane coupling catalysts. A layered perovskite (K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}) gave the highest C{sub 2} yield. Work continued on the economic evaluation of a hypothetical process converting methane to ethylene. An engineering model of the methane coupling system has been prepared. 47 refs., 17 figs., 57 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.

1989-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

286

WATER CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY RESOURCE EXTRACTION, PROCESSING, AND CONVERSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A review of the literature for estimates of water intensity of energyresource extraction, processing to fuels, and conversion to electricity

Erik Mielke; Laura Diaz Anadon; Venkatesh Narayanamurti; Erik Mielke; Laura Diaz Anadon; Venkatesh Narayanamurti

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Catalysis & Energy Conversion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Materials Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Materials * Members * Contact * Publications * Overview * Alternative Electrocatalysts * Electrocatalyst Durability * Hydrogen Storage * Electrocatalyst Degradation Catalysis & Energy Conversion Home Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Materials Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are promising alternatives to conventional power systems for transportation, portable, and stationary applications due to their high efficiency of converting fuel to electricity, low emissions, and low operating temperatures. Three major issues for PEFC systems, especially for portable and transportation use, are cost, lifetime, and fuel storage, with the fuel of choice being hydrogen. Argonne's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Materials group has active research projects in these three areas, to enable the use of this promising technology in a variety of applications.

288

Land-use implications of wind-energy-conversion systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An estimated 20 utilities in the United States are now investigating potential wind machine sites in their areas. Identifying sites for wind machine clusters (wind farms) involves more than just finding a location with a suitable wind resource. Consideration must also be given to the proximity of sites to existing transmission lines, environmental impacts, aesthetics, and legal concerns as well as the availability of and alternative uses for the land. These issues have made it increasingly difficult for utilities to bring conventional power plants on-line quickly. Utilities are now required, however, to give careful consideration to specific legal, social, and environmental questions raised by the siting of wind energy conversion systems (WECS).

Noun, R.J.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Siting handbook for small wind energy conversion systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This handbook was written to serve as a siting guide for individuals wishing to install small wind energy conversion systems (WECS); that is, machines having a rated capacity of less than 100 kilowatts. It incorporates half a century of siting experience gained by WECS owners and manufacturers, as well as recently developed siting techniques. The user needs no technical background in meteorology or engineering to understand and apply the siting principles discussed; he needs only a knowledge of basic arithmetic and the ability to understand simple graphs and tables. By properly using the siting techniques, an owner can select a site that will yield the most power at the least installation cost, the least maintenance cost, and the least risk of damage or accidental injury.

Wegley, H.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Orgill, M.M.; Drake, R.L.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Review of pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting and new MEMs based resonant energy conversion techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Harvesting electrical energy from thermal energy sources using pyroelectric conversion techniques has been under investigation for over 50 years, but it has not received the attention that thermoelectric energy harvesting techniques have during this time period. This lack of interest stems from early studies which found that the energy conversion efficiencies achievable using pyroelectric materials were several times less than those potentially achievable with thermoelectrics. More recent modeling and experimental studies have shown that pyroelectric techniques can be cost competitive with thermoelectrics and, using new temperature cycling techniques, has the potential to be several times as efficient as thermoelectrics under comparable operating conditions. This paper will review the recent history in this field and describe the techniques that are being developed to increase the opportunities for pyroelectric energy harvesting. The development of a new thermal energy harvester concept, based on temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, are also outlined. The approach uses a resonantly driven, pyroelectric capacitive bimorph cantilever structure that can be used to rapidly cycle the temperature in the energy harvester. The device has been modeled using a finite element multi-physics based method, where the effect of the structure material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling, and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure, have been modeled. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature differences play key roles in dominating the cantilever resonant frequency and efficiency of the energy conversion technique. This paper outlines the modeling, fabrication and testing of cantilever and pyroelectric structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-to-electrical energy conversion devices.

Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Mostafa, Salwa [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fabrication of ceramic membrane tubes for direct conversion of natural gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several perovskite-type oxides that contain transition metals on the B-site show mixed (electronic/ionic) conductivity. These mixed conducting oxides are promising materials for oxygen permeating membranes that can operate without the need of electrodes or external electrical circuitry. SrCo{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub x} perovskite is known to exhibit very high oxygen permeabilities and one could use this material for producing value added products by direct conversion of methane, the most abundant component of natural gas. This paper deals with the processing and fabrication by plastic extrusion of long lengths ({approx}30 cm) of hollow SrCo{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub x} ceramic tubes. These tubes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their thermodynamic stability is evaluated using room temperature XRD on samples equilibrated at high temperatures in different gas environment.

Balachandran, U.; Morissette, S.L.; Picciolo, J.J.; Dusek, J.T.; Poeppel, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Pei, S.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Mieville, R.L.; Kobylinski, T.P.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactor September through November 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK - B135 The initial kickoff meeting/brainstorming session was held as Albuquerque with the other participants in this study. The prompt critical pulse reactor was proposed at the brainstorming session. The other participants in this study, Sandia National Laboratories (lead), Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Florida and Texas A and M University are separately funded and their work is separately reported. The combined reporting is done by Sandia.

Brown, Lloyd C.

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Engineering directed excitonic energy transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide an intuitive platform for engineering exciton transfer dynamics. We show that careful consideration of the spectral density, which describes the system-bath interaction, leads to opportunities to engineer the transfer of an exciton. Since excitons in nanostructures are proposed for use in quantum information processing and artificial photosynthetic designs, our approach paves the way for engineering a wide range of desired exciton dynamics. We carefully describe the validity of the model and use experimentally relevant material parameters to show counter-intuitive examples of a directed exciton transfer in a linear chain of quantum dots.

Perdomo, Alejandro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

M13 bacteriophage-enabled assembly of nanocomposites : synthesis and application in energy conversion devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lack of energy supply and non-uniform distribution of traditional energy sources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, have brought up tremendous social issues. To solve these issues, highly efficient energy conversion ...

Dang, Xiangnan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion Steven J. Konezny and SnO2 play a central role in solar energy conversion applications.1­7 In fact, the discovery of low-cost high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) (i.e., exceeding 10% solar-to-electric energy

296

Modeling and controller design of a wind energy conversion system with matrix converter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to meet increasing power demand, taking into account economical and environmental factors, wind energy conversion is gradually gaining interest as a suitable source of renewable energy. In this paper, The modeling of the Wind Energy Conversion ... Keywords: FCC, PWM, SPVM, WECS, induction generator, matrix converter CSCF, power control, variable speed, wind turbine

Y. S. Rao; A. J. laxmi; K. M. S. N. Krishna

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems B. Beltran, T. Ahmed power generation in variable speed wind energy conversion systems (VS-WECS). These systems have two (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) wind turbine simulator FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures

Brest, Université de

298

Characterization and Modeling of Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems by Impedance Techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis introduces (i) amendments to basic electrochemical measurement techniques in the time and frequency domain suitable for electrochemical energy conversion systems like fuel cells… (more)

Klotz, Dino

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Dynamic average-value modeling of doubly-fed induction generator wind energy conversion systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system, the rotor of a wound rotor induction generator is connected to the grid via a… (more)

Shahab, Azin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Corrosion and biofouling on the non-heat-exchanger surfaces of an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant: a survey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Of the many foreseeable problems confronting economical ocean thermal energy conversion operation, two major items are the deterioration of the structural and functional components, which prevents efficient operation, and the biofouling of the surfaces, which adds excess weight to the floating ocean platform. The techniques required for effective long-term control of deterioration and corrosion have been investigated actively for many years, and successful solutions for most situations have been developed. For the most part, these solutions can be directly transferred to the ocean thermal energy conversion plant. The majority of problems in these areas are expected to be associated with scale-up and will require some advanced development due to the immensity of the ocean thermal energy conversion platform. Current antifouling control systems are not effective for long-term fouling prevention. Commercially available antifouling coatings are limited to a 3-year service life in temperate waters, and even shorter in tropical waters. However, underwater cleaning techniques and some fouling-control systems presently being used by conventional power plants may find utility on an ocean thermal energy conversion plant. In addition, some recent major advances in long-term antifouling coatings sponsored by the Navy may be applicable to ocean thermal energy conversion. 132 references.

Castelli, V.J. (ed.)

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

"Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications Contact BES Home 06.02.10 "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page July 7, 2010 :: The Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion EFRC at the California Institute of Technology will host a one day "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop for faculty, staff, postdoctoral, and graduate researchers from EFRCs focused on solar energy conversion. More information can be found here .pdf file (553KB

302

Modeling the Q-cycle mechanism of transmembrane energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Q-cycle mechanism plays an important role in the conversion of the redox energy into the energy of the proton electrochemical gradient across the biomembrane. The bifurcated electron transfer reaction, which is built into this mechanism, recycles one electron, thus, allowing to translocate two protons per one electron moving to the high-potential redox chain. We study a kinetic model of the Q-cycle mechanism in an artificial system which mimics the bf complex of plants and cyanobacteria in the regime of ferredoxin-dependent cyclic electron flow. Using methods of condensed matter physics, we derive a set of master equations and describe a time sequence of electron and proton transfer reactions in the complex. We find energetic conditions when the bifurcation of the electron pathways at the positive side of the membrane occurs naturally, without any additional gates. For reasonable parameter values, we show that this system is able to translocate more than 1.8 protons, on average, per one electron, with a thermodynamic efficiency of the order of 32% or higher.

Anatoly Yu. Smirnov; Franco Nori

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

303

Modeling the Q-cycle mechanism of transmembrane energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Q-cycle mechanism plays an important role in the conversion of the redox energy into the energy of the proton electrochemical gradient across the biomembrane. The bifurcated electron transfer reaction, which is built into this mechanism, recycles one electron, thus, allowing to translocate two protons per one electron moving to the high-potential redox chain. We study a kinetic model of the Q-cycle mechanism in an artificial system which mimics the bf complex of plants and cyanobacteria in the regime of ferredoxin-dependent cyclic electron flow. Using methods of condensed matter physics, we derive a set of master equations and describe a time sequence of electron and proton transfer reactions in the complex. We find energetic conditions when the bifurcation of the electron pathways at the positive side of the membrane occurs naturally, without any additional gates. For reasonable parameter values, we show that this system is able to translocate more than 1.8 protons, on average, per one electron, with a t...

Smirnov, Anatoly Yu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Environmental programs for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The environmental research effort in support of the US Department of Energy's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program has the goal of providing documented information on the effect of proposed operations on the ocean and the effect of oceanic conditions on the plant. The associated environment program consists of archival studies in potential areas serial oceanographic cruises to sites or regions of interest, studies from various fixed platforms at sites, and compilation of such information for appropriate legal compliance and permit requirements and for use in progressive design of OTEC plants. Site/regions investigated are south of Mobile and west of Tampa, Gulf of Mexico; Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico; St. Croix, Virgin Islands; Kahe Point, Oahu and Keahole Point, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands; and off the Brazilian south Equatorial Coast. Four classes of environmental concerns identified are: redistribution of oceanic properties (ocean water mixing, impingement/entrainment etc.); chemical pollution (biocides, working fluid leaks, etc.); structural effects (artificial reef, aggregation, nesting/migration, etc.); socio-legal-economic (worker safety, enviromaritime law, etc.).

Wilde, P.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Definition: Geothermal Direct Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Direct Use Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Geothermal Direct Use Low- to moderate-temperature water from geothermal reservoirs can be used to provide heat directly to buildings, or other applications that require heat. Generally, the water in the geothermal reservoirs withdrawn for direct use is between 68° F to 302° F. In addition to residential, commercial and industrial buildings, homes, pools and spas, greenhouses, fish farms, and even mining operations utilize direct use of geothermal resources for heat[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal energy for heating applications. Humans have taken advantage of geothermal heat this way since the Paleolithic era. Approximately seventy countries made direct

306

Power conversion effectiveness and generation | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Linked Data Page Edit History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Power conversion effectiveness and generation Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from...

307

Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

Not Available

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

MHK Technologies/Direct Drive Power Generation Buoy | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Power Generation Buoy Power Generation Buoy < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Direct Drive Power Generation Buoy.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Columbia Power Technologies Inc Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Floating Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 4 Proof of Concept Technology Description Direct drive point absorber In 2005 Oregon State University entered into an exclusive license agreement with Columbia Power Technologies to jointly develop a direct drive wave energy conversion device Designed to be anchored 2 5 miles off the Oregon coast in 130 feet of water it uses the rise and fall of ocean waves to generate electricity Mooring Configuration Anchored

309

Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Photovoltaic effect in InSe Application to Solar Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

253 Photovoltaic effect in InSe Application to Solar Energy Conversion A. Segura, J. P. Guesdon, J are reported. Photovoltaic spectra are fitted with measured values oftransport and optical parameters. InSe is shown to be a new material with attractive characteristics for solar energy conversion. Performance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Author's personal copy Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency of outdoor, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin ­ Austin, TX 78712, USA b Mechanical t A numerical study is presented aiming to maximize the solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency

Pilon, Laurent

312

Reliability analysis of fault tolerant wind energy conversion system with doubly fed induction generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the design of a reliable fault tolerant converter topology for grid connected Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) with Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based on functional redundancy. The main contribution of the developed ... Keywords: Markov chain model, fault tolerant system, reliability analysis, wind energy conversion system

Philippe Weber; Florent Becker; Antoine Mathias; Didier Theilliol; Youmin M. Zhang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Direct Use of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PV-DC refers to the direct use of photovoltaic (PV) energy in an appliance or other equipment without a grid connection. Most (over 90) of the new deployments of PV solar panels connect to the ac electric grid and do not use dc energy directly. These grid-connected PV systems use an electronic inverter to convert the dc array output to ac power for interfacing with the grid. However, with double-digit growth in all types of PV applications, the direct use of solar for powering end-use loads needs to be m...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Estimation of wind characteristics at potential wind energy conversion sites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A practical method has been developed and applied to the problem of determining wind characteristics at candidate wind energy conversion sites where there are no available historical data. The method uses a mass consistent wind flow model (called COMPLEX) to interpolate between stations where wind data are available. The COMPLEX model incorporates the effects of terrain features and airflow. The key to the practical application of COMPLEX to the derivation of wind statistics is the model's linearity. This allows the input data sets to be resolved into orthogonal components along the set of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The solution for each eigenvector is determined with COMPLEX; the hourly interpolated winds are then formed from linear combinations of these solutions. The procedure requires: acquisition and merger of wind data from three to five stations, application of COMPLEX to each of the seven to 11 (depending on the number of stations for which wind data are available) eigenvectors, reconstruction of the hourly interpolated winds at the site from the eigenvector solutions, and finally, estimating the wind characteristics from the simulated hourly values. The report describes the methodology and the underlying theory. Possible improvements to the procedure are also discussed.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

Authors, Various

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Estimation of wind characteristics at potential wind energy conversion sites  

SciTech Connect

A practical method has been developed and applied to the problem of determining wind characteristics at candidate wind energy conversion sites where there are no available historical data. The method uses a mass consistent wind flow model (called COMPLEX) to interpolate between stations where wind data are available. The COMPLEX model incorporates the effects of terrain features and airflow. The key to the practical application of COMPLEX to the derivation of wind statistics is the model's linearity. This allows the input data sets to be resolved into orthogonal components along the set of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The solution for each eigenvector is determined with COMPLEX; the hourly interpolated winds are then formed from linear combinations of these solutions. The procedure requires: acquisition and merger of wind data from three to five stations, application of COMPLEX to each of the seven to 11 (depending on the number of stations for which wind data are available) eigenvectors, reconstruction of the hourly interpolated winds at the site from the eigenvector solutions, and finally, estimating the wind characteristics from the simulated hourly values. The report describes the methodology and the underlying theory. Possible improvements to the procedure are also discussed.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Overview of biomass thermochemical conversion activities funded by the biomass energy systems branch of DOE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively involved in the development of renewable energy sources through research and development programs sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch. The overall objective of the thermochemical conversion element of the Biomass Energy Systems Program is to develop competitive processes for the conversion of renewable biomass resources into clean fuels and chemical feedstocks which can supplement fuels from conventional sources. An overview of biomass thermochemical conversion projects sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch is presented in this paper.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Ergun, S.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Federal Energy Subsidies Direct and Indirect Interventions in Energy Markets  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A one-time study defining direct and indirect Federal energy subsidies, methods of valuation of such subsidies, and a survey of existing subsidies.

Information Center

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

European energy policy: directives and action plans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The European secondary legislation sets a legislative framework for the internal Energy market. Moreover different papers are adopted to supplement the directives. The goal of the EU policy is to assure the security of supply; additionally, Europe deals ... Keywords: EU energy policy, internal market, security of supply, sustainability

V. Pozeb; D. Gori?anec; J. Krope

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ocean thermal energy conversion plants : experimental and analytical study of mixing and recirculation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a method of generating power using the vertical temperature gradient of the tropical ocean as an energy source. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to determine ...

Jirka, Gerhard H.

322

Modeling and analysis of hybrid geothermal-solar thermal energy conversion systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Innovative solar-geothermal hybrid energy conversion systems were developed for low enthalpy geothermal resources augmented with solar energy. The goal is to find cost-effective hybrid power cycles that take advantage of ...

Greenhut, Andrew David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Geothermal Energy: National Estimate for Direct Use  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present the first national estimate of direct geothermal energy use based upon an aggregation of site-specific analyses of all known geothermal resources. The conclusions are: (1) Geothermal energy can make a significant contribution can to the nation's low temperature energy needs and lessen dependence on foreign energy sources. (2) Federal tax incentives and regulatory easement will enhance the development of geothermal energy in the U.S. (3) District heating applications will constitute the major portion of geothermal market penetration. (4) Most development will occur in the western U.S.

None

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Geothermal Energy: National Estimate for Direct Use  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the first national estimate of direct geothermal energy use based upon an aggregation of site-specific analyses of all known geothermal resources. The conclusions are: (1) Geothermal energy can make a significant contribution can to the nation's low temperature energy needs and lessen dependence on foreign energy sources. (2) Federal tax incentives and regulatory easement will enhance the development of geothermal energy in the U.S. (3) District heating applications will constitute the major portion of geothermal market penetration. (4) Most development will occur in the western U.S.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Methane Gas Conversion Property Tax Exemption | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Methane Gas Conversion Property Tax Exemption Methane Gas Conversion Property Tax Exemption Methane Gas Conversion Property Tax Exemption < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Program Info Start Date 01/01/2008 (retroactive) State Iowa Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% exemption for 10 years Provider Iowa Economic Development Authority '''''Note: This exemption is only available to facilities operated in connection or conjunction with a publicly-owned sanitary landfill. The exemption was available to other entities only for systems placed in service by December 31, 2012. Systems in place before this date are eligible to receive the property tax exemption for 10 years.''''' Under Iowa's methane gas conversion property tax exemption, real and

326

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Fuels and Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

would have been evaluated for suitability as a pyrolysis feedstock using benchmark-scale pyrolysis tests. The conversion of the residual biomass to bio-oil and char would then...

327

Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

ME 599-001: Fundamentals of Energy Conversion Professor Angela Violi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ME 599-001: Fundamentals of Energy Conversion Professor Angela Violi Department of Mechanical: This class is a journey on energy. The goal is to provide information and analysis tools on the development of energy technology, energy resources and energy technologies available today. After an overview

Violi, Angel

329

Advanced thermionic energy conversion. Joint highlights and status report, April-June 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DOE portion of the effort at Rasor Associates is directed primarily toward terrestrial applications of thermionic energy conversion. It focuses on the development of converters suitable for use with fossil fueled heat sources in power plants. The NASA program is directed at establishing the technical feasibility of an advanced light-weight long-life thermionic conversion system compatible with a remote nuclear or solar heat source. The principal application forseen at this time is in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions in the mid-1990's. Significant accomplishments for the three month period include: (1) devised a blade-type distributed lead design with many advantages compared to the stud-type distributed lead; (2) completed design of Marchuk tube test apparatus; (3) concluded, based on current understanding, that residual hydrogen should not contribute to a negative space charge barrier at the collector; (4) modified THX design program to include series-coupled designs as well as inductively-coupled designs; (5) initiated work on the heat transfer technology, THX test module, output power transfer system, heat transfer system, and conceptual plant design tasks; and (6) reached 2200 hours of operation in JPL-5 cylindrical converter envelope test. (WHK)

Not Available

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

NREL: Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Chapter 12. Conversion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Databook Home More Search Options Search Site Map Featured Links Biomass Energy Data Book Buildings Energy Data Book Hydrogen Energy Data Book Transportation Energy Data Book...

331

Rankine cycle energy conversion system design considerations for low and intermediate temperature sensible heat sources. Geothermal, waste heat, and solar thermal conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design considerations are described for energy conversion systems for low and intermediate temperature sensible heat sources such as found in geothermal, waste heat, and solar-thermal applications. It is concluded that the most cost effective designs for the applications studied did not require the most efficient thermodynamic cycle, but that the efficiency of the energy conversion hardware can be a key factor.

Abbin, J.P. Jr.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

SYNFORMPeople, Trends and Views in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Direct Conversion of Arylamines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the organic molecules which are essential components of drugs, materials, agrochemicals, and all the organic SYNSTORY, Jianbo Wang (P. R. of China) elaborates on his recent metal-free conversion of arylamines

Wang, Jianbo

333

Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alternative energy sources. Hydrogen has been investigated to become a major component of world energy solutions

Duffin, Andrew Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Biomass Conversion Task IV 1987 program of work: International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a major, renewable energy resource through out the world, and extensive research is being conducted by many countries on bioenergy technologies. In an effort to improve communications and cooperation in the area of biomass energy, several nations have agreed to a cooperative program of work under the International Energy Agency's Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA). Three areas of major importance have been identified including Short Rotation Forestry, Conventional Forestry, and Biomass Conversion. This document describes the 1987 Program of Work for cooperative activities in the area of Biomass Conversion. The background of the cooperation and descriptions of specific conversion projects are presented. Details of activity funding are also provided. 3 tabs.

Stevens, D.J.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

A Conversation With Tribal Leaders in Denver | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Conversation With Tribal Leaders in Denver A Conversation With Tribal Leaders in Denver A Conversation With Tribal Leaders in Denver June 27, 2012 - 2:29pm Addthis Senior Advisor for Environmental Management David Huizenga, fifth from left, and EM Office of External Affairs Director Paul Seider, first from left, stand for a photo with leaders and staff members of the Tribal Nations while on a tour of the Rocky Flats site following the Tribal Leader Dialogue in Denver on Tuesday. Senior Advisor for Environmental Management David Huizenga, fifth from left, and EM Office of External Affairs Director Paul Seider, first from left, stand for a photo with leaders and staff members of the Tribal Nations while on a tour of the Rocky Flats site following the Tribal Leader Dialogue in Denver on Tuesday.

336

Efficient energy conversion from laser to proton beam in a laser-foil interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demonstrated is a remarkable improvement on the energy conversion efficiency from laser to protons in a laser-foil interaction by particle simulations. The total laser-proton energy conversion efficiency becomes 16.7%, although a conventional plane foil target serves a rather low efficiency. In our previous study we found that Al multihole thin-foil target was efficient for the energy conversion from laser to protons [Y. Nodera and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. E 78, 046401 (2008)], and the energy conversion efficiency was 9.3%. In our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the Al multihole structure is also employed, and the parameters of the Al multihole wing width and length are optimized in the paper. The present results clarify the roles of the target Al hole width and depth in the laser-proton energy conversion. The main physical reason for the enhancement of the conversion efficiency is a reduction of the laser reflection at the target surface area. The optimized multihole foil target provides a remarkable increase in the laser-proton energy conversion efficiency as shown above.

Takahashi, K.; Kawata, S.; Satoh, D.; Barada, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yohtoh, 321-8585 Utsunomiya (Japan); Ma, Y. Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yohtoh, 321-8585 Utsunomiya (Japan); Department of Physics, College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Validation of MPPT strategy for a wind energy conversion system using a hardware-in-the-loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Validation of MPPT strategy for a wind energy conversion system using a hardware - A hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a wind energy conversion system is used to assess a MPPT strategy of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) have been studied [1, 2]. In most of case, simulation has been

Hansen, René Rydhof

338

EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation...

339

HPBA Comments NOPR on Energy Conservation Standards for Direct...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HPBA Comments NOPR on Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment HPBA Comments NOPR on Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment The Hearth, Patio...

340

Energy Conversion Facilities Sales Tax Exemption (Ohio) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Process Heat, Solar Water Heat, Wind Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy Category Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs, Renewable Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Experimental and Analytical Studies on Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Harvesting Using Heat4 Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Harvesting Using RelaxorWaste heat Pyroelectric energy

Lee, Felix

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen. Energy storage via molecular hydrogen is, ofhydrogen storage. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,hydrogen storage. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,

Duffin, Andrew Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as energy/hydrogen carrier, its history. Comptes Rendusas energy/hydrogen carrier, its history. Comptes Rendus

Duffin, Andrew Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

DemandDirect | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DemandDirect DemandDirect Jump to: navigation, search Name DemandDirect Place Woodbury, Connecticut Zip 6798 Sector Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load management, and distributed generation services to end-use electricity customers in order to reduce electricity consumption, improve grid reliability, and promote renewable energy. Coordinates 44.440496°, -72.414991° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.440496,"lon":-72.414991,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

345

Recent developments in high-temperature photonic crystals for energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After decades of intense studies focused on cryogenic and room temperature nanophotonics, scientific interest is also growing in high-temperature nanophotonics aimed at solid-state energy conversion. These latest extensive ...

Rinnerbauer, Veronika

346

Contributions of Barotropic Energy Conversion to Northwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Activity during ENSO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contribution of barotropic energy conversion to tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) during warm and cold phases of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated by separating TC vortices from reanalysis ...

Yao Ha; Zhong Zhong; Yimin Zhu; Yijia Hu

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Cascade-Type Global Energy Conversion Diagram Based on Wave–Mean Flow Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cascade-type energy conversion diagram is proposed for the purpose of diagnosing the atmospheric general circulation based on wave–mean flow interactions. Mass-weighted isentropic zonal means facilitate the expression of nongeostrophic wave ...

Sachiyo Uno; Toshiki Iwasaki

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Technology of direct conversion for mirror reactor end-loss plasma  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design concepts are presented for plasma direct convertors (PDC) intended primarily for use on the end-loss plasma from tandem-mirror reactors. Recent experimental results confirm most of these design concepts. Both a one-stage and a two-stage PDC were tested in reactor-like conditions using a 100-kV, 6-kW ion beam. In a separate test on the end of the TMX machine, a single stage PDC recovered 79 W for a net efficiency of 50%. Tandem mirror devices are well suited to PDC. The high minimum energy of the end-loss ions, the magnetic expansion outside the mirrors, and the vacuum conditions in the end tanks required by the confined plasma, all preexist. The inclusion of a PDC is therefore a rather small addition. These facts and the scale parameters for a PDC are discussed.

Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

1980-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

349

Energy Basics: Direct-Use of Geothermal Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Direct Use Electricity Production Geothermal Resources Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean...

350

Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system having a heavily doped n-type region  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion semiconductor device is provided which incorporates a heavily doped n-type region and which, as a consequence, has improved TPV conversion efficiency. The thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes an emitter layer having first and second opposed sides and a base layer in contact with the first side of the emitter layer. A highly doped n-type cap layer is formed on the second side of the emitter layer or, in another embodiment, a heavily doped n-type emitter layer takes the place of the cap layer.

DePoy, David M. (Clifton Park, NY); Charache, Greg W. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Geopressured-Geothermal Program: Energy conversion status and future possibilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) began in 1976 with the Wells of Opportunity. This early research concentrated on resource characterization at several locations in Texas and Louisiana. More recently, the program has included well operations and supporting university research in geoscience and engineering. Long term flow testing, reinjection of brine, and scale prevention were accomplished at the Gladys McCall Well. The Pleasant Bayou Well provided additional data for modeling and predicting geopressured reservoir behavior. This year a hybrid power system (HPS) was constructed at Pleasant Bayou in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This is the first conversion of the geopressured-geothermal resource to electricity. An economic review of geopressured-geothermal resource development concludes that using off-the-shelf technology, electricity can be produced for $0.125/kWh from a Gladys McCall type resource (40,000 bpd brine production, 27 scf methane/bbl, 288{degree}F brine, and 10-year resource life). The Pleasant Bayou type resource can produce electricity for $0.32/kWh. Advanced technology could reduce the cost to $0.16/kWh. A review and status of the HPS is presented with future possibilities for the program, including (1) recovery of medium and heavy oil with hot geopressured brine, (2) direct use, especially aquaculture, and (3) development and use of advanced technology for conversion at the Hulin Well, the deepest, hottest well in the program. The estimated improvement in efficiencies with advanced conversion technology range from 100 to 160%. This would greatly reduce the cost to produce electricity. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Negus-de Wys, J.; Lawford, T.W.; Faulder, D.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Photobiological production of hydrogen: a solar energy conversion option  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This literature survey of photobiological hydrogen production covers the period from its discovery in relatively pure cultures during the early 1930s to the present. The focus is hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms (and their components) which occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. The survey covers the major contributions in the area; however, in many cases, space has limited the degree of detail provided. Among the topics included is a brief historical overview of hydrogen metabolism in photosynthetic bacteria, eucaryotic algae, and cyanobacteria (blue--green algae). The primary enzyme systems, including hydrogenase and nitrogenase, are discussed along with the manner in which they are coupled to electron transport and the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis. A number of in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen evolving schemes including photosynthetic bacterial, green algal, cyanobacterial, two-stage, and cell-free systems are examined in some detail. The remainder of the review discusses specific technical problem areas that currently limit the yield and duration of many of the systems and research that might lead to progress in these specific areas. The final section outlines, in broadest terms, future research directions necessary to develop practical photobiological hydrogen-producing systems. Both whole cell (near- to mid-term) and cell-free (long-term) systems should be emphasized. Photosynthetic bacteria currently show the most promise for near-term applied systems.

Weaver, P.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Performance Improvement of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-based Wind Energy Conversion System during Various Internal Converter Faults.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system (WECS) currently dominates the wind energy market due to its advantages over other WECSs. In… (more)

Abdou, Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electric resonance-rectifier circuit for renewable energy conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable speed generators are used more frequently for converting the energy from renewable energy sources to electric energy. The power production form a variable speed generator is dependent on the electrical damping of the generator. In this paper

C. Boström; B. Ekergård; M. Leijon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Western Gulf of Mexico. Energy Research and Developmentfor central Gulf of Mexico. Energy Research and DevelopmentGulf of Mexico, - IV-34 in Proc. Fourth Ocean Thermal Energy

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Abstract--This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS) which involve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion systems (WECS-inverter. The goal of control is to maximize wind energy extraction and this needs letting the wind turbine rotor wind energy extraction) only for one wind speed value depending on the considered value of turbine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

HEDP and new directions for fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

The Quest for fusion energy has a long history and the demonstration of thermonuclear energy release in 1951 represented a record achievement for high energy density. While this first demonstration was in response to the extreme fears of mankind, it also marked the beginning of a great hope that it would usher in an era of boundless cheap energy. In fact, fusion still promises to be an enabling technology that can be compared to the prehistoric utilization of fire. Why has the quest for fusion energy been so long on promises and so short in fulfillment? This paper briefly reviews past approaches to fusion energy and suggests new directions. By putting aside the old thinking and vigorously applying our experimental, computational and theoretical tools developed over the past decades we should be able to make rapid progress toward satisfying an urgent need. Fusion not only holds the key to abundant green energy, but also promises to enable deep space missions and the creation of rare elements and isotopes for wide-ranging industrial applications and medical diagnostics.

Kirkpatrick, Ronald C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center...

359

Organic Membranes for Energy Conversion and "Green" Manufacturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Membranes for Energy Conversion and "Green" Manufacturing Organic Membranes for Energy Conversion and "Green" Manufacturing Speaker(s): John Kerr Date: January 17, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Cynthia Tast Organic materials are central to the operation of energy conversion devices such as lithium batteries and fuel cells. Use of organic polymer membranes has been well established in the chlor-alkali and separations industries for several decades now. New applications such as light emitting diodes for displays and area lighting, organic photovoltaics for solar conversion and electrochromics illustrate the growing importance of organic materials in energetic applications. Understanding the operation of these materials, their limitations and advantages is of major importance to the successful

360

An Assessment of Solar Energy Conversion Technologies and Research Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(25%). The energy quality of diffused radiation is lower (75.2% of exergy content instead of 93 for the production of electricity and hot water. Similar estimates are shown for wind energy (0.06TW), ocean thermal of Solar Energy Deployment The global solar energy potential ranges from 2.5 to 80TW (see Appendix

Nur, Amos

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT FOR THE NOVEMBER 1977 GOTEC-02 CRUISE TO THE GULF OF MEXICO MOBILE SITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites in the Gulf of Mexico. TheENERGY CONVERSION PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT FOR THE NOVEMBER 1977 GOTEC-02 CRUISE TO THE GULF OF MEXICOEnergy Conversion (OTEC) Sites: Puerto Rico, St. Croix and Northern Gulf of Mexico.

Commins, M.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Wind Direct Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Direct Ltd Wind Direct Ltd Place Solihull, United Kingdom Zip B91 2PQ Sector Wind energy Product Develops small wind farms (1-5MW) particularly for industrial customers. HgCapital provides working capital to the company and holds majority ownership of the wind assets. Coordinates 52.415065°, -1.777849° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":52.415065,"lon":-1.777849,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

364

OPTIMAL POWER DISPATCH AND CONVERSION IN SYSTEMS WITH MULTIPLE ENERGY CARRIERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces a general optimization approach for power dispatch and conversion in power systems that include multiple energy carriers such as electricity, natural gas, and district heating. The classical Economic Dispatch method is modified in order to account for certain system properties, such as the possibility of conversion between the different energy carriers, or local overproduction and power feedback to the grid. In this work both a system model as well as an optimization approach are developed which are suitable for the integration of an arbitrary number of energy carriers. Analytical results show how the optimal conversion of power affects the marginal prices related to the different energy carriers. Finally the proposed optimization procedure is demonstrated in numerical examples.

Martin Geidl; Göran Andersson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Advanced thermionic energy conversion. Joint highlights and status report, July-September 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DOE portion of the effort is directed primarily toward terrestrial applications of thermionic energy converters suitable for use with fossil fueled heat sources in power plants. The NASA program is directed at establishing the technical feasibility of an advanced, light-weight, long-life thermionic conversion system compatible with a remote nuclear or solar heat source. The principal application foreseen at this time is in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions in the mid-1990's. Significant accomplishments for the DOE program include: (1) successfully operating a thermionic converter using a cold insulator seal (Plexiglass and Viton); (2) completed fabrication and testing of SPC-9, a reference planar converter with smooth molybdenum electrodes; (3) created a shooting type analytical ignited mode converter computer model; (4) projected the operating conditions needed to achieve advanced converter performance with a thick cesium oxide collector; and (5) invented a cellular ceramic heat exchanger for obtaining high radiant heat flux from a hot gas. Accomplishments for the NASA program include: (1) achieved over 3100 hours of operation with the cylindrical converter JPL-5 (STR/STR); (2) provided guidelines for definition of optimum lead characteristics in the JPL NEP computer program; and (3) performed a preliminary NEP optimization study which suggests a 400 kWe system with a specific mass of 26 kg/kWe is possible with present converter performance (V/sub B/ = 2.0). Details are presented. (WHK)

Not Available

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Improvement of Energy Conversion Efficiency on Pulsed Wire ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, several studies were carried out to the improvement of the energy ... Geopolymer Products from Jordan for Sustainability of the Environment.

367

Doubly fed induction machine control for wind energy conversion .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to increasing concerns about CO2 emissions and the shortage of fossil fuels, renewable energy has become a major topic in economic discussions. One renewable… (more)

Massey, Jason G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

February 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem (2005) 138 Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report Michael Schuller; Frank...

369

Advanced Materials for Energy Conversion III TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Program: The Grand Challenge of Vehicular Hydrogen Storage [pp. 25] C. Read, J. Petrovic, G. Ordaz, and ...

370

Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas - Energy ...  

Production of synthesis gas or hydrogen by gasification or pyrolysis of biological feedstocks using solar-thermal energy. The invention provides processes that ...

371

Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion Riccardo Messina to a photovoltaic cell can be largely enhanced because of the contribution of evanescent photons, in particular important source of energy. By approaching a photovoltaic (PV) cell3 in proximity of a thermal emitter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

Evaluation of Power Extraction to Linear Gain Scheduling Controllers in a Small Wind Energy Conversion System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Renewable energy sources have focused a special attention in wind energy conversion systems, where the goal is maximal power extraction. This paper presents an evaluation of the linear controllers eigen structure assingment, linear quadratic regulator, ... Keywords: Wind turbines, permanent magnet synchronous generator, eigenstructure assingment, linear quadratic regulator, loop shaping design procedure

Santiago Sanchez Acevedo; Eduardo Giraldo; Edilson Delgado Trejos

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Turbine speed control for an ocean wave energy conversion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a hydraulic turbine speed governor is proposed in view of its application in an isolated electric generation system based on an ocean wave energy converter (WEC). The proposed strategy is based on cascade closed-loop control combined with ... Keywords: Pelton turbine, cascade control, feedforward control, ocean wave energy, speed governor

Paula B. Garcia-Rosa; José Paulo V. S. Cunha; Fernando Lizarralde

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 11 for thrid quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 15 fourth quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 23 for second quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 19 for first quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

Thermochemical conversion of biomass: an overview of R and D activities sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch of DOE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively developing renewable energy sources through research and development programs sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch. The mission of the thermochemical conversion element of the Biomass Energy Systems Program is to develop competitive processes for the conversion of renewable biomass resources into clean fuels and chemical feedstocks which can supplement those produced from conventional sources. A description of thermochemical conversion program areas and an overview of specific thermochemical conversion projects sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch are presented in this paper.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Ergun, S.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Biomass Conversion Task IV 1986-1988 Program of Work. International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a major, renewable energy resource throughout much of the world, and extensive research is being conducted on bioenergy technologies. In an effort to improve communications and cooperation in the area of biomass energy, several countries have agreed to a cooperative program of work under the International Energy Agency's Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA). Three areas of major importance have been identified including Short Rotation Forestry, Conventional Forestry, and Biomass Conversion. This document describes a Program of Work for cooperative activities in the area of Biomass Conversion. The background of the cooperation and general descriptions of specific conversion projects are presented. Details of activity funding are also provided. Finally, individual Activity Plans for specific cooperative activities are attached for reference. These plans describe projected work for the period 1986 to 1988.

Stevens, D.J.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

A Legacy of Energy Evaluation: A Conversation with Ed Vine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or invest in energy efficiency technology; and the administration and analysis of household surveys. Q: I know a recent focus of your work has been on climate change. Tell us...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NETL: Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and are capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels, from coal and natural gas to landfill waste and hydrogen. 01.31.2013 News Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell...

382

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research on promoted metal oxide catalysts has continued with the study of alkaline earth/metal oxide halide catalysts. A barium bromide/alumina catalyst was comparable in methane conversion and selectivity to C{sub 2}'s to barium chloride/alumina catalysts. The effects of varying methane to oxygen feed ratios were explored for one of the best alkaline earth catalysts and one of the best literature catalysts (Li/MgO). A significant decrease in the selectivity to C{sub 2}'s is observed upon addition of ethane to the feed gas (feed gas methane/ethane ratio of 3). This observation demonstrates that a significant amount of ethane should not be recycled during methane oxidation over these types of catalysts under process conditions used. Methane oxidation over barium carbonate alone results in high enough selectivities and methane conversions to suggest an oxidized barium species may be responsible for methane oxidation on barium/metal oxide catalysts. Methane coupling studies have continued using layered perovskite catalysts in the cofeed mode and double perovskite catalysts in the sequential mode. Addition of sodium to the double perovskite LaCaMnCoO{sub 6} resulted in a catalyst with improved selectivity over the one without sodium. A reactor system containing two reactors in under construction. These reactors will be used to study different feed diluents, including steam. One reactor will be used to study the effects of pressure on the reaction. Process economics were explored for a hypothetical methane coupling scheme employing a feed mixture of 7/2/1 nitrogen/methane/oxygen. Economic evaluations of the first two of a series of cases based on extrapolations of Union Carbide methane coupling results have been completed. 33 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.; Matherne, J.L.

1990-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fundamental Principle of Information-to-Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equivalence of 1 bit of information to entropy was given by Landauer in 1961 as kln2, k the Boltzmann constant. Erasing information implies heat dissipation and the energy of 1 bit would then be (the Landauers limit) kT ln 2, T being the ambient temperature. From a quantum-cosmological point of view the minimum quantum of energy in the universe corresponds today to a temperature of 10^(-29) degrees K, probably forming a cosmic background of a Bose condensate [1]. Then, the bit with minimum energy today in the Universe is a quantum of energy 10^(-45)ergs, with an equivalent mass of 10^(-66)g. Low temperature implies low energy per bit and, of course, this is the way for faster and less energy dissipating computing devices. Our conjecture is this: the possibility of a future access to the CBBC (a coupling/channeling?) would mean a huge jump in the performance of these devices.

Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Fundamental Principle of Information-to-Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equivalence of 1 bit of information to entropy was given by Landauer in 1961 as kln2, k the Boltzmann constant. Erasing information implies heat dissipation and the energy of 1 bit would then be (the Landauers limit) kT ln 2, T being the ambient temperature. From a quantum-cosmological point of view the minimum quantum of energy in the universe corresponds today to a temperature of 10^(-29) degrees K, probably forming a cosmic background of a Bose condensate [1]. Then, the bit with minimum energy today in the Universe is a quantum of energy 10^(-45)ergs, with an equivalent mass of 10^(-66)g. Low temperature implies low energy per bit and, of course, this is the way for faster and less energy dissipating computing devices. Our conjecture is this: the possibility of a future access to the CBBC (a coupling/channeling?) would mean a huge jump in the performance of these devices.

Antonio Alfonso-Faus

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

385

Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile devices. These new approaches to scaled voltage regulation for computing devices also promise significant impact on electricity consumption in the United States and abroad by improving the efficiency of all computational platforms. In 2006, servers and datacenters in the United States consumed an estimated 61 billion kWh or about 1.5% of the nation's total energy consumption. Federal Government servers and data centers alone accounted for about 10 billion kWh, for a total annual energy cost of about $450 million. Based upon market growth and efficiency trends, estimates place current server and datacenter power consumption at nearly 85 billion kWh in the US and at almost 280 billion kWh worldwide. Similar estimates place national desktop, mobile and portable computing at 80 billion kWh combined. While national electricity utilization for computation amounts to only 4% of current usage, it is growing at a rate of about 10% a year with volume servers representing one of the largest growth segments due to the increasing utilization of cloud-based services. The percentage of power that is consumed by the processor in a server varies but can be as much as 30% of the total power utilization, with an additional 50% associated with heat removal. The approaches considered here should allow energy efficiency gains as high as 30% in processors for all computing platforms, from high-end servers to smart phones, resulting in a direct annual energy savings of almost 15 billion kWh nationally, and 50 billion kWh globally. The work developed here is being commercialized by the start-up venture, Ferric Semiconductor, which has already secured two Phase I SBIR grants to bring these technologies to the marketplace.

Shepard, Kenneth L

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Turbostar: An ICF Reactor using Both Direct and Thermal Power Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fusion Reactor Design—I / Proceedings of the Seveth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Reno, Nevada, June 15–19, 1986)

John H. Pitts

387

Maximally concentrating optics for photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of a two-stage concentrator with a fresnel lens primary and a non-imaging dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary, has unique advantages for photovoltaic concentration. This new design has a much larger acceptance angle than the conventional lens-cell concentrating system. In the continuation of this research, an optimally designed prototype which employs a 13.6-cm diameter flat fresnel tons as the primary focusing device, a dielectric compound hyperbolic concentrator (DCHC) as secondary and a 1-cm diameter high-concentration cell for electricity conversion has been built, tested and analyzed. Measurements under sunlight show that it has an angular acceptance of [plus minus]3.6 degrees, which is dramatically better than the [plus minus]0.5 degree achievable without a secondary concentrator. This performance agrees well with theoretical ray-tracing predictions. The secondary shows an optical efficiency of (91[plus minus]2)% at normal incidence. Combining with the primary fresnel tens which has an optical efficiency of (82[plus minus]2)%, tho two-stage system yields a total optical efficiency of (7l[plus minus]2)%. The measurement of the system electrical performance yielded a net electrical efficiency of 11.9%. No problems associated with non-uniform cell illumination were found, as evidenced by the excellent fill factor of (79[plus minus]2)% measured under concentration. The secondary geometrical properties and the optimal two-stage design procedures for various primary- cell combinations were systematical studied. A general design principle has been developed.

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.; Ning, X.

1986-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

388

Thermo-chemical energy conversion and storage. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research support for the cyclohexane/benzene heat pipe development program at Sandia Laboratories is reported. The apparent kinetics of the gas-phase catalytic dehydrogenation of cyclohexane to benzene in an internally recirculated (gradientless) reactor over the temperature range from 500 to 800/sup 0/F at 1 atm at various space velocities was studied. A kinetic model was developed based on a reversible mass-action rate expression and a catalyst effectiveness factor which is able to correlate both the conversion and reaction rate data very well over the temperature range 500 to 750/sup 0/F. The data taken at 800/sup 0/F appear to be qualitatively and quantitatively different than the data taken at the lower temperatures. It is not as yet clear, whether this can be attributed to a change in kinetic mechanism or some reversible alteration of the catalyst surface at the higher temperature. The formation of side products in this system over the same temperature range was also studied. Both the number and amount of side product(s) formed increases with increasing temperature and residence time. Over the temperature range from 500 to 600/sup 0/F the side products produced appear to be strongly related to the presence of low molecular weight unsaturated hydrocarbon impurities in the (reagent grade) cyclohexane feed and it is possible that no side products would be formed were it not for the presence of these impurities. At temperatures above 600/sup 0/F, both the number and amount of side product(s) produced increases markedly. A test loop was designed and partially fabricated which will permit the study of the effects of long term continuous cycling of the system on catalyst activity and side product formation.

Ritter, A.B.; DeLancey, G.B.; Schneider, J.; Silla, H.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device are disclosed. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E{sub g}) of 0.4 eV < E{sub g} < 0.7 eV and an emitter fabricated on the substrate formed from one of a p-type and an n-type material. Another thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Nichols, G.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device are disclosed. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E{sub g}) of 0.4 eV < E{sub g} < 0.7 eV and an emitter fabricated on the substrate formed from one of a p-type or an n-type material. Another thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers. 12 figs.

Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Nichols, G.J.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

391

Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVenergy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

Charache, Greg W. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); Nichols, Greg J. (Burnt Hills, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Property:Wave Direction | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direction Direction Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Wave Direction Property Type String Pages using the property "Wave Direction" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alden Small Flume + Uni-Directional + Alden Wave Basin + Both + C Carderock Maneuvering & Seakeeping Basin + Both + Carderock Tow Tank 2 + Uni-Directional + Carderock Tow Tank 3 + Uni-Directional + Chase Tow Tank + Uni-Directional + Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility + Uni-Directional + Coastal Inlet Model Facility + Uni-Directional + Coastal Structures Modeling Complex + Both + D Davidson Laboratory Tow Tank + Uni-Directional + DeFrees Large Wave Basin + Uni-Directional + DeFrees Small Wave Basin + Uni-Directional + H Haynes Wave Basin + Both +

394

Application of genetic algorithm to improve voltage regulation of self-excited induction generator in a wind energy conversion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-excited induction generators have been found to be most suitable for wind energy conversion in remote locations. In this paper, an attempt has been made to improve the voltage regulation of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) using series compensation. ... Keywords: genetic algorithms, intelligent systems, modelling, renewable energy, self-excited induction generators, simulation, voltage regulation, wind energy conversion systems, wind power

Dheeraj Joshi; K. S. Sandhu; M. K. Soni

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating support vessel.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Author Directional Surveying Specialists Published Publisher Not Provided, 2012 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Citation Directional Surveying Specialists. Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists [Internet]. 2012. [cited 2013/10/08]. Available from: http://www.digitalsurveying.co.za/services/geophysical-borehole-surveying/overview/optical-televiewer/ Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Digital_Surveying_Directional_Surveying_Specialists&oldid=690244"

397

Biogas Direct LCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Biogas Direct LCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Biogas Direct LCC Place Spring Green,...

398

Direct Detector for Terahertz Radiation - Energy ...  

Patent 7,420,225: Direct detector for terahertz radiation A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor ...

399

Geothermal Direct Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct Use Direct Use Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF [edit] Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Direct Use Links Related documents and websites EERE's Direct Use Report National Institute of Building Science's Whole Building Design Guide Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Dictionary.png Geothermal Direct Use: Low- to moderate-temperature water from geothermal reservoirs can be used to provide heat directly to buildings, or other applications that require

400

Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device  

SciTech Connect

The project conducted under DOE contract DE?EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven?stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy? technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling?up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke? unlimited Power Take?Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator] [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager] [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact] [Business Point of Contact

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MAY 01 2007 11:22 FR IPL DOE CH 630 252 2779 TO AGCP-HQ P.02/04 MAY 01 2007 11:22 FR IPL DOE CH 630 252 2779 TO AGCP-HQ P.02/04 * * STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-06NT43026; W(A)-06-034; CH-1392 The Petitioner, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) was awarded this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs)." The purpose of the cooperative agreement is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (<25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the performance and durability equivalent to, or superior to, the unmodified gasoline engine. The advanced hydrogen engines developed in this program will

402

Energy Efficiency -- Chapter 8: Future Directions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

First attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in the United ... of energy efficiency and on the development of energy-intensity indicators that ...

403

Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured piezoelectric arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal expansion in a stress transfer zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or substantially vertically aligned on a substrate. The resulting nanoforest is then embedded with the polymer layer, which transfers stress to the nanostructures in the stress transfer zone, thereby creating a nanostructure voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect acting on the nanostructure. Electrodes attached at both ends of the nanostructures generate output power at densities of .about.20 nW/cm.sup.2 with heating temperatures of .about.65.degree. C. Nanoconverters arrayed in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries.

Sirbuly, Donald J.; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Yinmin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Photovoltaic engineering services pertinent to solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

The application of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) for use with solar cells has been investigated. Experiments with state-of-the-art Si cells in a CPC and under solar concentration were performed. A theoretical model for calculating the behavior of Si solar cells with concentration was developed. Detailed calculations of the energy distribution in the CPC were made. Finally a cost effectiveness analysis shows that the CPC system will produce power at very much lower cost than will flat panel solar cell arrays. (auth)

Bell, R O; Ho, J C.T.; Kurth, W; Surek, T

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

Seawater pump study: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program. Final report. [For ocean thermal power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The pumping power required to move cold seawater and warm seawater through an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant is a significant portion of the plant power output; therefore, seawater pump performance, sizing, and cost information are very influential inputs into any power plant system design optimizations. The analysis and evaluation of large seawater pumping systems selected specifically for the OTEC application are provided with a view toward judging the impact of pump selection on overall OTEC power plant performance. A self-contained bulb, direct drive, axial flow pump was found to have a distinct advantage in performance and arrangement flexibility. A design of a pump operating at a net total head rise of 3.5 meters and a flow capacity of 100 m/sup 3//s is presented including pump blade geometry (profiles), pump diffuser geometry, and pump/diffuser configuration and performance. Results are presented in terms of the geometric and power requirements of several related pump designs over a range of seawater capacity from 25 m/sup 3//s to 100 m/sup 3//s. Summary analysis and evaluations include pump design weights and cost estimates.

Little, T.E.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solar-MHD energy conversion system. [tower focus collector with closed-cycle MHD generator  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy conversion system includes a centrally positioned tower supporting a solar receiver, and an array of pivotally mounted reflectors disposed circumferentially therearound which reflect earth incident solar radiation onto the receiver which thermally excites and photo-ionizes a working fluid to form a plasma. The plasma is accelerated and further heated through a ceramic turbo-compressor into a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator to produce direct current. The working fluid is then passed through a heat exchanger channel where the waste heat is removed by another working fluid which drives a vapor turbine connected to the ceramic turbo-compressor and an AC generator. Seed may then be removed and the working fluid is recycled in the closed cycle MHD system. The electrical power is distributed, part of it being used to electrolyze water into hydrogen and oxygen which are stored and allowed to exothermally recombine to drive the system during low solar radiation intervals. In a further embodiment the MHD working fluid receives its velocity from an external turbo-compressor drivem by the second working fluid, and an alternative thermal and photo-ionization chamber is employed. 16 claims, 10 figures.

Rathbun, K.R.

1978-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

408

Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

1979-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

409

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2009 Meeting (10th annual SECA Workshop): Scientific Poster Presentations  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

SECA, founded in 1999, is a collaboration between the federal government, private industry, academic institutions and national laboratories devoted to the development of low-cost, modular, and fuel-flexible solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology suitable for a variety of power generation applications. The 2009 annual meeting, the tenth workshop in the annual SECA series, was held in Pittsburgh, PA in July of 2009. Scientific and technical poster presentations from the poster session are made available online by DOE’s National Energy and Technology Laboratory (NETL). Titles include: 1) X-Ray, AFM, and Electrochemical Studies of Cation Segregation in Thin-Film Perovskite Cathode Materials for SOFC; 2) Effect of SOFC Interconnect-Coating Interactions on Coating Properties and Performance; 3) Epitaxial Cathode Thin-films to explore the fundamental science of Cathode interfaces in SOFCs; 4) Synthesis of High Surface Area Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells; 5) Effect of Sheet Resistance on Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Thin Film Mixed-Conducting Cathodes; 6) Role of Volatile Glass Species on Cathode Performance; 7) Develop Novel Coating for SOFC Interconnect; 8) Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications; 9) Proton Conductors Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells; 10) Oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects: Thermodynamic Assessment and Experimental Validation; 11) Cathode/Electrolyte Interface Material Studies; 12) Water Neutral Diesel Reforming; 13) Stationary Fuel Cell Installation Codes and Standards; 14) Conceptual Direct Coal Conversion Using Liquid Tin Anode Fuel Cell - Alternative System Configurations; 15) SOFC Stack Operating Strategies; 16) NexTech's FlexCell Planar SOFC Cell Technology; 17) SOFC Materials and Components Technologies; 18) Fuel Cells in Locomotive Applications; 19) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design Guide; 20) Recent Advances in Coal Gas Impurity Interactions with SOFC Anodes at PNNL; 21) Coal Conversion in a Fluidized Bed Direct Carbon Fuel Cell; 22) Hybrid Ceramic/ Metallic Recuperator for SOFC Generators; 23) Green Blowers for Green Technology; 24) Evaluation of Ag-Perovskite Composites as SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact; 25) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System for Air-Independent Applications; 26) Simplified Modeling for SOFC Integration into IGFC Systems; 27) Power Conditioning Systems for High-Megawatt Fuel Cell Plants.

410

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Catalysis & Energy Conversion -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) can be used to make hydrogen for use in automotive fuel cells or other portable applications. HTSE takes advantage of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to split steam into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. This process can use the waste heat from high-temperature industrial processes to lower the need for electrical energy to split water, which gives it an advantage over conventional water electrolysis. Also, unlike steam methane reforming, the current state-of-the-art method for making hydrogen, HTSE does not release any greenhouse gases. As part of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, Argonne has conducted studies of the causes of HTSE component degradation over extended operation time periods. We have developed methods for determining areas where degradation has occurred using X-ray fluorescence mapping, and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopic techniques at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). APS results were complimented by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, as shown in the figure.

411

Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Robert C. Motta Kenneth J. Kelly William W. Warnock Executive Summary The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited

412

Compilation of Failure Data and Fault Tree Analysis for Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The failure data for geothermal energy conversion facilities collected to date are compiled and tabled. These facilities have not accumulated sufficient production history to reliably estimated component failure rates. In addition, the improvements made in drilling technology in recent years may have made less pertinent the accumulation of data on well failures.

Miller, F.L., Jr.; Zimmerman, D.E.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Heat exchanger cleaning in support of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) - electronics subsystems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electronics systems supporting the development of biofouling countermeasures for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) are described. Discussed are the thermistor/thermopile amplifiers, heaters, flowmeters, temperature measurement, control systems for chlorination, flow driven brushes, and recirculating sponge rubber balls. The operation and troubleshooting of each electronic subsystem is documented.

Lott, D.F.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The integrated design of a permanent-magnet generator for small wind energy conversion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the integrated design, analysis and performance test of a 1.4 kW, radial-flux, permanent-magnet generator applied to small wind energy conversion system (WECS). In a small WECS, the three major components, i.e., turbine, generator ...

Min-Fu Hsieh; Yu-Han Yeh

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Dynamic characteristics and graphic monitoring design of photovoltaic energy conversion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study explored the dynamic characteristics and monitoring design of the photovoltaic energy conversion system, which is a system model of an independent power supply. This study first established the non-linear differential equation of the system ... Keywords: dynamic characteristics, eigenvalue, monitoring system, photovoltaic, programmable logic controller, solar cell

Kuo-Hua Liu

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

19th International Conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IPS-19 19th International Conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy 29@caltech.edu Prof. Harry Gray hbg@caltech.edu Prof. Jonas Peters jpeters@caltech.edu Dye-Sensitized & Polymer Solar Cells Advanced Photovoltaics Photocatalysis Solar Fuels Production Photoelectrochemistry

Goddard III, William A.

417

January 2011: ME 533-Energy Conversion Dr. William M. Carey, Professor of Mechanical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Vapor Power Systems, Gas Power Systems, Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems 2. Thermodynamic Relations and Ideal Gas Mixtures. 3) Energy Conversion systems-Coal-Oil-Nuclear, Oceanic, Solar, Geothermal and Wind and Heat Pump Systems-using solar, geothermal, and/or conventiaonal methods. 4.) Combined and flexible fuel

418

2012: ME 533-Energy Conversion Dr. William M. Carey, Professor of Mechanical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Vapor Power Systems, Gas Power Systems, Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems 2. Thermodynamic Relations and Ideal Gas Mixtures. 3) Energy Conversion systems-Coal-Oil-Nuclear, Oceanic, Solar, Geothermal and Wind and Heat Pump Systems-using solar, geothermal, and/or conventiaonal methods. 4.) Combined and flexible fuel

419

Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis in Wind Energy Conversion Systems: A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and it is expected to remain so for some time. At the end of 2003 the installed wind capacity stands at over 40000 MW the need for future research, this paper is intended as a tutorial overview based on a review of the state. INTRODUCTION Wind energy conversion is the fastest-growing source of new electric generation in the world

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Coal Energy Conversion with Aquifer-Based Carbon Sequestration: An Approach to Electric Power Generation with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Energy Conversion with Aquifer-Based Carbon Sequestration: An Approach to Electric Power an impermeable seal to prevent it from escaping the aquifer. The proposed alternative technology processes coal carbon and non-mineral coal combustion products in the process. This stream is denser than the aquifer

Nur, Amos

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct energy conversion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Energy Conversion of Fully Random Thermal Relaxation Times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamic random processes in thermal systems are generally associated with one or several relaxation times, the inverse of which are formally homogeneous with energy. Here, we show in a precise way that the periodic modification of relaxation times during temperature-constant thermodynamic cycles can be thermodynamically beneficiary to the operator. This result holds as long as the operator who adjusts relaxation times does not attempt to control the randomness associated with relaxation times itself as a Maxwell 'demon' would do. Indirectly, our result also shows that thermal randomness appears satisfactorily described within a conventional quantum-statistical framework, and that the attempts advocated notably by Ilya Prigogine to go beyond a Hilbert space description of quantum statistics do not seem justified - at least according to the present state of our knowledge. Fundamental interpretation of randomness, either thermal or quantum mechanical, is briefly discussed.

François Barriquand

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

422

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Catalysis & Energy Conversion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Scott Kirklin, a co-op student researcher, closely examines a polymer sample before characterizing its surface structure. The capacity of on-board hydrogen storage is critical to the development of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. To be practical, the 2010 performance targets of the hydrogen storage system set by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include a gravimetric capacity of at least 0.06 kg H2/kg and a volumetric capacity of 0.045 kg H2/L at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the adsorbent cost must be less than $4/kWh. These requirements pose significant challenges to the storage material development. Argonne, in collaboration with the University of Chicago (U of C), is addressing these challenges by exploring a new class of hydrogen adsorbent,

423

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Catalysis & Energy Conversion -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production of Hydrogen using Copper-Chlorine Cycle Production of Hydrogen using Copper-Chlorine Cycle In view of the upcoming hydrogen economy, Argonne researchers are studying thermochemical cycles to determine their potential to produce hydrogen effectively with respect to energy usage and cost. Most emphasis has been placed on baseline sulfur cycles, though a small effort is currently ongoing for alternative cycles, one of which is the copper chloride (Cu-Cl) cycle. The chemistry of this cycle is illustrated in the figure below. Heat/electricity and water are the only inputs, while oxygen and hydrogen are the only products. All of the chemicals are recycled. Production of hydrogen using copper-chlorine cycle diagram The Copper Chloride Cycle Researcher Magali Ferrandon sets up a copper-chloride cycle experiment

424

Energy conversion device and method of reducing friction therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device configured for converting energy includes a first surface, a second surface configured for moving with respect to the first surface during operation of the device, and a coating disposed on at least one of the first surface and the second surface. The coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy represented by the general formula AlMgB.sub.14--X, wherein X is present in an amount of from 0 to 70 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the ceramic alloy and is a doping agent selected from the group of Group IV elements and borides and nitrides thereof, and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon in a gradient concentration. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12.

Solovyeva, Lyudmila Mikhaylovna; Jansson, Kyle S; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim; Zhu, Dong; Milner, Robert; Daughterty, Early Eugene; Higdon, Clifton Baxter; Elagamy, Kamel Abdel-Khalik; Hicks, Aaron Michael

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

425

Hierarchical electrode architectures for electrical energy storage & conversion.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The integration and stability of electrocatalytic nanostructures, which represent one level of porosity in a hierarchical structural scheme when combined with a three-dimensional support scaffold, has been studied using a combination of synthetic processes, characterization techniques, and computational methods. Dendritic platinum nanostructures have been covalently linked to common electrode surfaces using a newly developed chemical route; a chemical route equally applicable to a range of metals, oxides, and semiconductive materials. Characterization of the resulting bound nanostructure system confirms successful binding, while electrochemistry and microscopy demonstrate the viability of these electroactive particles. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to image and validate the short-term stability of several electrode-bound platinum dendritic sheet structures toward Oswald ripening. Kinetic Monte Carlo methods have been applied to develop an understanding of the stability of the basic nano-scale porous platinum sheets as they transform from an initial dendrite to hole containing sheets. Alternate synthetic strategies were pursued to grow dendritic platinum structures directly onto subunits (graphitic particles) of the electrode scaffold. A two-step photocatalytic seeding process proved successful at generating desirable nano-scale porous structures. Growth in-place is an alternate strategy to the covalent linking of the electrocatalytic nanostructures.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Missert, Nancy A.; Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Helical-rotor expander applications for geothermal energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The helical-rotor expander is one of numerous candidates for the direct ''total flow'' expansion of geothermal fluids. The potential exists for expansion efficiencies as high as 70 percent. Engine efficiencies will generally be below 70 percent because of an expansion-ratio limitation of 15 and a maximum pressure differential of 110 psi. Single-stage expansion of self-pumped geothermal fluids from reservoirs at 350 to 752/sup 0/F gives engine efficiencies in the range from 57.3 to 43.1 percent. Calculated rotor diameters range from 10.5 to 41.6 ft for a range of outputs of 5 to 40 MW. Two-stage expansion of fluid from the 572/sup 0/F reservoir gives an engine efficiency of 62.3 percent and a 21 percent reduction in the diameter of the larger rotor. Rotor diameters can be held to more reasonable sizes by using the expander in combination with a vapor turbine.

House, P.A.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Recovery of Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor Ashok S. Damle * Research Triangle Institute P.O. Box 12194 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Phone: (919) 541-6146 Fax: (919) 541-6965 E-mail: adamle@rti.org Thomas P. Dorchak National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, Mail Stop C04 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Phone: (304) 285-4305 E-mail: tdorch@netl.doe.gov Abstract Increased awareness of the global warming trend has led to worldwide concerns regarding "greenhouse gas" emissions, with CO 2 being the single greatest contributor to global warming. Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) currently supply over 85% of the world's energy needs, and their utilization is the major source of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of

428

Low energy conversion electron detection in superfluid He3 at ultra-low temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the first results of the MACHe3 (MAtrix of Cells of Helium 3) prototype experiment concerning the measurement of low energy conversion electrons at ultra-low temperature. For the first time, the feasibility of the detection of low energy electrons is demonstrated in superfluid He3-B cooled down to 100 microK. Low energy electrons at 7.3 keV coming from the K shell conversion of the 14.4 keV nuclear transition of a low activity Co57 source are detected, opening the possibility to use a He3-based detector for the detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) which are expected to release an amount of energy higher-bounded by 5.6 keV.

E. Moulin; C. Winkelmann; J. F. Macias-Perez; Yu. M. Bunkov; H. Godfrin; D. Santos

2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

429

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 5, November 16, 1987--January 15, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that later can be converted to either liquid fuels or value-added chemicals, as economics dictate. During this reporting period, we have synthesized and tested several novel catalysts for methane reforming (Tasks 1 and 2) and for partial oxidation of methane (Tasks 3 and 4). We started to test a mixed metal system, an FeRu{sub 3} cluster. This catalyst was supported both on zeolite and on magnesium oxide and the systems were tested for methane reforming at various reaction temperatures. We also prepared and tested a monomeric ruthenium catalyst supported on magnesium oxide. We found that methane is activated at a lower temperature with the basic magnesium oxide support than with acidic supports such as zeolite or alumina. Methane conversions increased with temperature, but the production of coke also increased. We prepared a sterically hindered ruthenium porphyrin encapsulated in a zeolite supercage for catalysis of methane oxidation. The results showed that only carbon dioxide was produced. Addition of axial base to this catalyst gave similar results. Another type of catalyst, cobalt Schiff base complexes, was also prepared and tested for methane oxidation. In this case, no methane conversion was observed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 450{degrees}C. These complexes do not appear to be stable under the reaction conditions.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Chan Yee Wai

1988-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

430

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

431

Maximal spin and energy conversion efficiency in a symbiotic system of black hole, disk and jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the mass and spin evolution in a symbiotic system consisting of a black hole with magnetosphere and jets, surrounded by a steady-state, thin accretion disk. We analyze how the limiting value of the spin parameter and the conversion efficiency of accreted mass into radiation depend on the interplay of electromagnetic radiation reaction, magnetosphere characteristics and jet cross-section. As a main result, we find that the presence of the jets increases the spin limit (basically obstructing the reverse effect of radiation in the innermost region of the accretion disk) and enhances the energy conversion efficiency.

Kovács, Zoltán; Biermann, Peter L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

DIEGO FAZI Mailing address: Solar Energy Conversion Group Chemical Sciences & Engineering Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DIEGO FAZI DIEGO FAZI Mailing address: Solar Energy Conversion Group Chemical Sciences & Engineering Division Bldg 200, Room E105 Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439-4831 E-mail addresses: dfazi@anl.gov Office Number: 630-252-5796 Fax: 630-252-9289 Personal Pages: http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/diego-fazi/ http://www.fazid.org Research Interests Diego Fazi comes from a theoretical Physics background and he performed research in gravitational-wave astronomy within the project LIGO from 2005 to 2012. In October 2012 Dr. Fazi joined the CSE division at Argonne as a postdoctoral appointee in the Solar Conversion

433

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

434

Design of a Power Oscillation Damper for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion System Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to design a Power Oscillation Damper (POD) for Double-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), operating with voltage control loop. Based on eigen values information from Small Signal Stability ... Keywords: Computational Intelligence, double fed induction generator, power oscillation damper, modified particle swarm optimizer, small signal stability analysis, wind energy conversion system

Huazhang Huang; C. Y. Chung

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Reactive Ballistic Deposition of Nanostructured Model Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Finely structured, supported thin films offer a host of opportunities for fundamental and applied research. Nanostructured materials often exhibit physical properties which differ from their bulk counterparts due to the increased importance of the surface in determining the thermodynamics and behavior of the system. Thus, control of the characteristic size, porosity, morphology, and surface area presents opportunities to tailor new materials which are useful platforms for elucidating the fundamental processes related to energy conversion and storage. The ability to produce high purity materials with direct control of relevant film parameters such as porosity, film thickness, and film morphology is of immediate interest in the fields of electrochemistry, photocatalysis, and thermal catalysis. Studies of various photoactive materials have introduced questions concerning the effects of film architecture and surface structure on the performance of the materials, while recent work has demonstrated that nanostructured, mesoporous, or disordered materials often deform plastically, making them robust in applications where volumetric expansion and phase transformations occur, such as in materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, renewed emphasis has been placed on the formation of semi-conductive electrodes with controlled pore-size and large surface areas for the study and application of pseudo-capacitance and cation insertion processes for electrical energy storage. Understanding how the performance of such materials depends on morphology, porosity, and surface structure and area requires a synthesis technique which provides for incremental variations in structure and facilitates assessment of the performance with the appropriate analytical tools, preferably those that provide both structural information and kinetic insight into photoelectrochemical processes.

Flaherty, David W.; Hahn, Nathan T.; May, Robert A.; Berglund, Sean P.; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Mullins, C. Buddie

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

436

Photochemical energy conversion by membrane-bound photoredox systems. Progress report, July 1, 1989--March 1, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of our effort during the past grant period has been directed towards investigating electron transfer processes involving redox proteins at lipid bilayer/aqueous interfaces. This theme, as was noted in our previous three year renewal proposal, is consistent with our goal of developing biomimetic solar energy conversion systems which utilize the unique properties of biological electron transfer molecules. Thus, small redox proteins such as cytochrome c, plastocyanin and ferredoxin function is biological photosynthesis as mediators of electron flow between the photochemical systems localized in the membrane, and more complex soluble or membrane-bound redox proteins which are designed to carry out specific biological tasks such as transbilayer proton gradient formation, dinitrogen fixation, ATP synthesis, dihydrogen synthesis, generation of strong reductants, etc. In these studies, we have utilized two principal experimental techniques, laser flash photolysis and cyclic voltammetry, both of which permit direct measurements of electron transfer processes.

Tollin, G.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Near and far field models of external fluid mechanics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The world is facing the challenge of finding new renewable sources of energy - first, in response to fossil fuel reserve depletion, and second, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) can ...

Rodríguez Buño, Mariana

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

Hasan, Atiya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Effect of Electro-Osmotic Flow on Energy Conversion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been suggested that superhydrophobic surfaces, due to the presence of a no-shear zone, can greatly enhance transport of surface charges, leading to a considerable increase in the streaming potential. This could find potential use in micro-energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we show using analytical and numerical methods, that when a streaming potential is generated in such superhydrophobic geometries, the reverse electro-osmotic flow and hence current generated by this, is significant. A decrease in streaming potential compared to what was earlier predicted is expected. We also show that, due to the electro-osmotic streaming-current, a saturation in both the power extracted and efficiency of energy conversion is achieved in such systems for large values of the free surface charge densities. Nevertheless, under realistic conditions, such microstructured devices with superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to even reach energy conversion efficiencies only achieved in nanostructured devices so ...

Seshadri, Gowrishankar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Definition: Direct current | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Direct current Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct current A type of electricity transmission and distribution by which electricity flows in one direction through the conductor, usually relatively low voltage and high current (such as from a battery). To be used for typical 120 volt or 220 volt household appliances, DC must be converted to alternating current (AC).[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow

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441

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284)Fall 2012 Topics: Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use Problem Set #1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284)Fall 2012 Topics: Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use Problem Set #1 Due September 6, in class, or before 5pm outside 310 Barrows Total Points: 80 For all problem sets in Energy and Society: 1) Please clearly state any assumptions (e.g., the price

Kammen, Daniel M.

442

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays...

443

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal  

Our partners gain access to one of the most advanced and experienced direct methanol fuel cell ... The cured film is then transferred to the SPE ...

444

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Discharge Permit (Vermont) Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont) Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial MunicipalPublic Utility Rural Electric Cooperative...

445

Thermo-chemical conversion of dairy waste based biomass through direct firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growing rates of manure produced from large dairies have increased concern for the environmental quality of nearby streams and watersheds. Typically the manure from the freestalls on these dairies is flushed with water to a mechanical separator. Here, flushed dairy biomass (DB) is parted into separated solids and separated liquid. The separated liquid is discharged into lagoons for treatment and eventual land application. This thesis proposes thermodynamic models for firing DB in small scale boiler systems that would eliminate land application and lagoons, which are being claimed to be the source of nutrient leaching and overloading. Fuel analysis of flushed DB from a dairy in central Texas show that it contains 93%moisture (%M), 3%ash (%A), and 4%combustibles (%Cb), while separated DB solids contain 81%M, 2%A, and 17%Cb. The dry, ash-free higher heating value of DB is approximately 20,000 kJ/kg. Using dry, ash-free results, computations can be made over ranges of %M and %A. For example, DB containing 70%M requires 9.74%Cb to vaporize all moisture and produce gaseous products of combustion at 373 K, but requires 17.82%Cb to burn in a regenerative combustor with a flame temperature of 1200 K. Separated solids that are pressed in an auger to 70%M (3%A and 27%Cb) can burn at 1200 K with exhaust temperatures of up to 1130 K and a minimum required heat exchanger effectiveness of 15%. Pressed solids can thus be fired in a boiler, where the remaining separated liquid can be used as feed water. The pressed solids only can release about 30% of the heat required to vaporize the remaining unclean feed water. However, pressed DB solids can be blended with drier fuels to vaporize almost all the unclean water. The low quality steam produced from the unclean water can be used in thermal processes on the farm. A similar system can be developed for vacuumed DB without the need to vaporize unclean feed water. As for large dairies with anaerobic digester systems already installed, directly firing the produced biogas in a small scale boiler system may be another way to similarly vaporize the remaining effluent.

Carlin, Nicholas Thomas

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Current Research on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermochemical research platform at the National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is primarily focused on conversion of biomass to transportation fuels using non-biological techniques. Research is conducted in three general areas relating to fuels synthesis via thermochemical conversion by gasification: (1) Biomass gasification fundamentals, chemistry and mechanisms of tar formation; (2) Catalytic tar reforming and syngas cleaning; and (3) Syngas conversion to mixed alcohols. In addition, the platform supports activities in both technoeconomic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of thermochemical conversion processes. Results from the TEA and LCA are used to inform and guide laboratory research for alternative biomass-to-fuels strategies. Detailed process models are developed using the best available material and energy balance information and unit operations models created at NREL and elsewhere. These models are used to identify cost drivers which then form the basis for research programs aimed at reducing costs and improving process efficiency while maintaining sustainability and an overall net reduction in greenhouse gases.

Baldwin, R. M.; Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Pepiot, P.; Donohoe, B. S.; Hensley, J. E.; Phillips, S. D.

2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

448

High efficiency vapor-fed AMTEC system for direct conversion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a high temperature, high efficiency system for converting thermal to electrical energy, with no moving parts. It is based on the unique properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which is an excellent conductor of sodium ions, but an extremely poor conductor of electrons. When the inside of the BASE is maintained at a higher temperature and pressure, a concentration gradient is created across the BASE. Electrons and sodium atoms cannot pass through the BASE. However, the sodium atoms are ionized, and the sodium ions move through the BASE to the lower potential (temperature) region. The electrons travel externally to the AMTEC cell, providing power. There are a number of potential advantages to a wick-pumped, vapor-fed AMTEC system when compared with other designs. A wick-pumped system uses capillary forces to passively return liquid to the evaporator, and to distribute the liquid in the evaporator. Since the fluid return is self-regulating, multiple BASE tubes can use a single remote condenser, potentially improving efficiency in advanced AMTEC designs. Since the system is vapor-fed, sodium vapor is supplied at a uniform temperature and flux to the BASE tube, even with non-uniform heat fluxes and temperatures at the evaporator. The primary objective of the Phase 2 program was to develop wick-pumped AMTEC cells. During the program, procedures to fabricate wicks with smaller pore sizes were developed, to allow operation of an AMTEC cell at 800 C. A revised design was made for a High-Temperature, Wick-Fed AMTEC cell. In addition to the smaller wick pore size, several other changes were made to increase the cell efficiency: (1) internal artery return of condensate; (2) high temperature electrical feedthrough; and (3) separate heat pipe for providing heat to the BASE.

Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.

1997-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

449

Energy Basics: Direct-Use of Geothermal Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Direct-Use of Geothermal Technologies Hot water near the surface of the Earth can be used for heat for a variety of commercial and industrial uses. Direct-use...

450

Directed Energy Interactions with Surfaces - Argonne National Laboratories,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Directed Energy Interactions with Directed Energy Interactions with Surfaces > Directed Energy Interactions with Surfaces Directed Energy Interactions with Surfaces Staff Principal Investigator Michael J. Pellin Wallis F. Calaway Dieter M. Gruen Michael R. Savina Igor Veryovkin Visiting Scientist Emil Tripa Bruce V. King Secretary Barbara Hall Theme Using world-class tools, this program seeks to develop a predictive understanding of the effects of directed energy sources (ions, electrons, and photons) on the composition, structure, and material properties of surfaces and other materials whose dimensions are of atomic scale. These tools, based on laser postionization ofatomsandmoleculesdesorbed by directed energy sources have been developed at ANL and provide the program with uniquely sensitive methods for trace analysis of

451

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 2, January 16, 1987--April 15, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that can, as economics dictate, be subsequently converted either to liquid fuels or value-added chemicals. In this program we are exploring two approaches to developing such catalysts. The first approach consists of developing advanced catalysts for reforming methane. We will prepare the catalysts by reacting organometallic complexes of transition metals (Fe, Ru, Rh, and Re) with zeolitic and rare-earth-exchanged zeolitic supports to produce surfaceconfined metal complexes in the zeolite pores. Our second approach entails synthesizing the porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes of Cr, Mn, Ru, Fe, and/or Co within the pores of zeolitic supports for use as selective oxidation catalysts for methane and light hydrocarbons. During the second quarter of this project, we concentrated on methane reforming. Two ruthenium clusters (Ru{sub 4} and Ru{sub 6}) supported on three types of support materials ({beta}-alumina, 5 {Angstrom} molecular sieves, and {gamma}-zeolite) were tested for methane reforming. The effects of cluster size, supporting material, and reaction conditions were evaluated. The methane conversions range from 1.74 to 10.11% at 750{degrees}C. The reaction product contains hydrogen, C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, and C{sub 6} or higher hydrocarbons. Up to 48.34% yield of hydrocarbon (C{sub 2}+) is obtained based on reacted methane. Some of these catalysts show very good coking resistance compared with a commercial ruthenium catalyst. Addition of oxygen to these reactions significantly increases the percent methane conversion at lower reaction temperature. However, carbon dioxide and water are the major products in the presence of oxygen.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Chan, Yee Wai

1987-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Umesh Paliath, GE Global Research; Joe Insley, Argonne National Laboratory Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise Computation PI Name: Umesh Paliath PI...

453

Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GE propulsion systems Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise Computation PI Name: Umesh Paliath PI Email: paliath@ge.com Institution: GE Global Research...

454

Comments on the DOE Hydrothermal Energy Conversion R&D Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In his closing remarks at last year's program review, Roland Kessler pointed out two critical questions that must be asked with regard to any program funding: (1) What specifically will be accomplished with the funds requested and why does it matter? (2) What important accomplishments have been made with the funds you have spent? These seem to be good questions, whether in times of tight budgets or not. I kept these questions in mind as I reviewed the papers summarizing this year's progress in the Energy Conversion Program. The Materials research effort appears to be accomplishing useful results, some of which are already being tested by industry. In many ways, the past and present achievements of the geothermal industry are a direct result of materials problems overcome. The future growth of this industry will be facilitated by new and improved materials. It often follows from such developments that an industry will leapfrog itself. I therefore support the continuation of this work. The Brine Chemistry research project is of great value. Plant designers and permitting agencies alike benefit from predictive modeling tools which are both accurate and easy to use. I am especially pleased with UCSDs efforts at information transfer. The tutorials and free distribution of source code are to be commended. The preliminary models dealing with H{sub 2}S gas/liquid distributions and acid-base properties should be tested and finished as soon as possible. The work in progress which will allow better prediction of gas-liquid distributions after flashing is valuable and it too should be expedited.

Mendive, David L.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

455

Optimal thermionic energy conversion with established electrodes for high-temperature topping and process heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advantages of thermionic energy conversion (TEC) have been counted and are recounted with emphasis on high-temperature service in coal-combustion products. Efficient, economical, nonpolluting utilization of coal here and now is a critically important national goal. And TEC can augment this capability not only by the often proposed topping of steam power plants but also by higher-temperature topping and process heating. For these applications, applied-research-and-technology (ART) work reveals that optimal TEC with approx. 1000-to approx. 1100 K collectors is possible using well-established tungsten electrodes. Such TEC with 1800 K emitters could approach 26.6% efficiency at 27.4 W/cm/sup 2/ with approx. 1000 K collectors and 21.7% at 22.6 W/cm/sup 2/ with approx. 1100 K collectors. These performances require 1.5- and 1.7-eV collector work functions (not the 1-eV ultimate) with nearly negligible interelectrode losses. Such collectors correspond to tungsten electrode systems in approx. 0.9-to approx. 6-torr cesium pressures with 1600-to-1900 K emitters. Because higher heat-rejection temperatures for TEC allow greater collector work functions, interelectrode-loss reduction becomes an increasingly important target for applications aimed at elevated temperatures. Studies of intragap modifications and new electrodes that will allow better electron emission and collection with lower cesium pressures are among the TEC-ART approaches to reduced interelectrode losses. These solutions will provide very effective TEC to serve directly in coal-combustion products for high-temperature topping and process heating. In turn this will help to use coal-and to use it well.

Morris, J.F.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Comments on the DOE Hydrothermal Energy Conversion R&D Program  

SciTech Connect

In his closing remarks at last year's program review, Roland Kessler pointed out two critical questions that must be asked with regard to any program funding: (1) What specifically will be accomplished with the funds requested and why does it matter? (2) What important accomplishments have been made with the funds you have spent? These seem to be good questions, whether in times of tight budgets or not. I kept these questions in mind as I reviewed the papers summarizing this year's progress in the Energy Conversion Program. The Materials research effort appears to be accomplishing useful results, some of which are already being tested by industry. In many ways, the past and present achievements of the geothermal industry are a direct result of materials problems overcome. The future growth of this industry will be facilitated by new and improved materials. It often follows from such developments that an industry will leapfrog itself. I therefore support the continuation of this work. The Brine Chemistry research project is of great value. Plant designers and permitting agencies alike benefit from predictive modeling tools which are both accurate and easy to use. I am especially pleased with UCSDs efforts at information transfer. The tutorials and free distribution of source code are to be commended. The preliminary models dealing with H{sub 2}S gas/liquid distributions and acid-base properties should be tested and finished as soon as possible. The work in progress which will allow better prediction of gas-liquid distributions after flashing is valuable and it too should be expedited.

Mendive, David L.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

457

Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development-I. Phase I. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Power System Development-I (PSD-I), Phase I, study was to develop conceptual and preliminary designs of closed-cycle ammonia power system modules for the 100-MW(e) OTEC Demonstration Plant, the 400-MW(e) Commercial Size Plant, and Heat Exchanger Test Articles representative of the full-size power system module design. Results are presented.

Not Available

1978-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

458

Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Energy savings from direct-DC in U.S. residential buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

savings from direct-DC in U.S. residential buildings savings from direct-DC in U.S. residential buildings Title Energy savings from direct-DC in U.S. residential buildings Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Vossos, Vagelis, Karina Garbesi, and Hongxia Shen Journal Energy and Buildings Volume Volume 68, Part A Pagination 223-231 Date Published 09/2013 Keywords Direct current (DC), energy conservation, Photovoltaics (PV), residential buildings Abstract An increasing number of energy-efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC directly from renewable energy systems, thereby avoiding the energy losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of a 'direct-DC house' compared to that of a typical net-metered house with AC distribution, assuming identical DC-internal loads. The model comparisons were run for 14 cities in the United States, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The model tested the effects of climate and battery storage. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect potential energy savings. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly influenced by climate.

460

A study of potential high band-gap photovoltaic materials for a two step photon intermediate technique in fission energy conversion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes progress made to develop a high bandgap photovoltaic materials for direct conversion to electricity of excimer radiation produced by fission energy pumped laser. This report summarizes the major achievements in sections. The first section covers n-type diamond. The second section covers forced diffusion. The third section covers radiation effects. The fourth section covers progress in Schottky barrier and heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The fifth section covers cell and reactor development.

Prelas, M.A.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

462

SQA Directives and Guidance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SQA Directives and Guidance SQA Directives and Guidance SQA Directives and Guidance DOE O 414.1D, Quality Assurance DOE G 414.1-4, Software Guide for use with 10 CFR 830 Subpart A, Quality Assurance Requirements, and DOE O 414.1C, Quality Assurance DOE Order O 414.1D, Quality Assurance, includes Attachment 4 addressing SQA requirements for nuclear safety applications at DOE nuclear facilities. The DOE O 414.1D was issued April 25, 2011. This Order and its associated Guide for safety software, DOE G 414.1-4, Safety Software Guide for use with 10 CFR 830 Subpart A, Quality Assurance Requirements. The Order identifies 10 software quality work activities that are to be performed using the graded approach specified in the Order. These 10 work activities are: (1) software project management, (2) software risk

463

Directional Drilling Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Directional Drilling Systems Directional Drilling Systems Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Directional Drilling Systems Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":14,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

464

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

465

New type of thermoelectric conversion of energy by semiconducting liquid anisotropic media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper describes preliminary investigations of a new effect in conducting anisotropic liquids, which leads to thermoelectric conversion of energy. Nematic liquid crystals with semiconducting dopes are used. A thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 0.2 is obtained in experiments. The effect can be explained by assuming that the thermocurrent in semiconducting nematics, in contrast to the Seebeck effect, is a nonlinear function of the temperature gradient and of the temperature itself. Though the discovered effect has to be further investigated, the data obtained suggest that it can be effectively used in alternative energy engineering.

Sergey I. Trashkeev; Alexey N. Kudryavtsev

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

466

Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

Myers, D. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

468

Direct Simulation of Internal Wave Energy Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional nonhydrostatic numerical model is used to calculate nonlinear energy transfers within decaying Garrett–Munk internal wavefields. Inviscid wave interactions are calculated over horizontal scales from about 1 to 80 km and for ...

Kraig B. Winters; Eric A. D’Asaro

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Paducah DUF6 Conversion Final EIS - Appendix G: Responses to U.S. Department of Energy Letters to State Agencies and Native American Groups  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paducah DUF Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS RESPONSES TO U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LETTERS TO STATE AGENCIES AND NATIVE AMERICAN GROUPS Consultation Letters G-32 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-33 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-34 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-35 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-36 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-37 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-38 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-39 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-40 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-41 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters G-42 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Consultation Letters

470

Electron to Muon Conversion in Low-Energy Electron-Nucleus Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an estimate of the electron to muon conversion cross section in fixed-target elastic electron scattering. The matrix element $$ is calculated analytically in two scenarios introducing suitable approximations. We consider on the one hand side the case of three light Dirac neutrinos with CKM-type leptonic mixing and on the other hand a typical see-saw scenario. We evaluate the coulombic contribution to the scattering cross section in the limit of vanishing energy transfer to the nucleus and, thus, obtain a realistic estimate for the total conversion cross section. Although we find that in the see-saw scenario the cross section can be enhanced by as much as twenty orders of magnitude in comparison to the Dirac case, it is still not experimentally accessible.

Kai-Peer O. Diener

2004-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

471

Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Solar Energy and Heat into Electric Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric power may, in principle, be generated in a highly efficient manner from heat created by focused solar irradiation, chemical combustion, or nuclear decay by means of thermionic energy conversion. As the conversion efficiency of the thermionic process tends to be degraded by electron space charges, the efficiencies of thermionic generators have amounted to only a fraction of those fundamentally possible. We show that this space-charge problem can be resolved by shaping the electric potential distribution of the converter such that the static electron space-charge clouds are transformed into an output current. Although the technical development of practical generators will require further substantial efforts, we conclude that a highly efficient transformation of heat to electric power may well be achieved.

Meir, S; Geballe, T H; Mannhart, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy 2002 Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy 2002 December 2004 Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy 2002 The purpose of this foreign direct investment report is to provide an assessment of the extent of foreign ownership of energy assets in the United States. Section 657, Subpart 8 of the U.S. Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91) requires an annual report to Congress which presents: "a summary of activities in the United States by companies which are foreign owned or controlled and which own or control United States energy sources and supplies ...." EIA intends the information in this report for use by the U.S. Congress, Government agencies, industry analysts, and the general public. Introduction

473

Piezoelectric coupling in energy-harvesting fluttering flexible plates : linear stability analysis and conversion efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy harvested from the flutter of a plate in an axial flow by making use of piezoelectric materials. The equations for fully-coupled linear dynamics of the fluid-solid and electrical systems are derived. The continuous limit is then considered, when the characteristic length of the plate's deformations is large compared to the piezoelectric patches' length. The linear stability analysis of the coupled system is addressed from both a local and global point of view. Piezoelectric energy harvesting adds rigidity and damping on the motion of the flexible plate, and destabilization by dissipation is observed for negative energy waves propagating in the medium. This result is confirmed in the global analysis of fluttering modes of a finite-length plate. It is finally observed that waves or modes destabilized by piezoelectric coupling maximize the energy conversion efficiency.

Doare, Olivier

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z