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1

Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000  

SciTech Connect

California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility.

Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

electric load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

4

OpenEI Community - electric load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

5

Direct participation of electrical loads in the Californnia independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

element of customer electricity bills which was recoveringthe annual total of all electricity bills of all the state’s15% discount on their electricity bills by volunteering to

Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Automatic Electric Load Identification in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — A microgrid is the power system of choice for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. It should be able to adapt to changing load situations without the need for specialists to change the configuration of the microgrid controller. This paper proposes a self-configuring microgrid management system that is able to adjust both generation and demand of the system, so that also in case of growing electricity demand the grid can still be operable by disconnecting unessential loads. A crucial task for the microgrid controller is to automatically identify the connected loads on the basis of their consumption behaviors. For this, a template-matching algorithm is proposed that is based on Dynamic Time Warping, which is primarily used in speech recognition. It has been found that for load profile analysis, simple signal features such as the number of rising edges or the aggregated energy consumption in a given time window is sufficient to describe the signal. In contrast to speech recognition, frequency domain analysis is not necessary.

Self-configuring Microgrids; Friederich Kupzog; Tehseen Zia; Adeel Abbas Zaidi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Electrical and Production Load Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector. The operating hours of small and medium sized manufacturing facilities are analyzed to identify the most common operating hour or shift work patterns. About 75% of manufacturing facilities fall into expected operating hour patterns with operating hours near 40, 80, 120 and 168 hours/week. Two types of load factors, electrical and production are computed for each shift classification within major industry categories in the U.S. The load factor based on monthly billing hours (ELF) increases with operating hours from about 0.4 for a nominal one shift operation, to about 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. On the other hand, the load factor based on production hours (PLF) shows an inverse trend, varying from about 1.4 for one shift operation to 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. When used as a diagnostic tool, if the PLF exceeds unity, then unnecessary energy consumption may be taking place. For plants operating at 40 hours per week, the ELF value was found to greater than the theoretical maximum, while the PLF value was greater than one, suggesting that these facilities may have significant energy usage outside production hours. The data for the PLF however, is more scattered for plants operating less than 80 hours per week, indicating that grouping PLF data based on operating hours may not be a reasonable approach to benchmarking energy use in industries. This analysis uses annual electricity consumption and demand along with operating hour data of manufacturing plants available in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database. The annual values are used because more desirable monthly data are not available. Monthly data are preferred as they capture the load profile of the facility more accurately. The data there come from Industrial Assessment Centers which employ university engineering students, faculty and staff to perform energy assessments for small to medium-sized manufacturing plants. The nation-wide IAC program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Sen, Tapajyoti

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Testing a new direct load control power line communication system  

SciTech Connect

South Carolina Electric and Gas is currently performing direct load control communications over power lines without using a power line carrier. This is the result of testing a load management system that combines the existing substation solid-state recording with voltage regulation capability. Using the solid-state recorder's extended control functions, the existing substation tap changer, a new patent-pending power line communications technique, and a patented voltage-step load control receiver, the system extends normal two-way communication between the utility operations and the substation with a one-way power line link to virtually any load. By varying the voltage level slightly, the system digitizes up to 32 different load control messages. The new voltage-step communication technique uses the substation's load tap changer to communicate one-way with the receivers over existing power lines. South Carolina Electric and Gas and the manufacturers have been performing a two-phase test of the load control system. Phase one testing showed that the percentage of successful load control message reception was 98%. Phase two testing is still in progress. Results to date show no deterioration of reception or equipment. Conclusions thus far are that the load management system is compatible with all installed utility equipment, and offers reliable direct load control.

Weers, D.D.; Shamsedin, M.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

2012 CERTS LAAR Program Peer Review - Integration and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads - Anna Scaglioni, UC Davis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Integration and Extension of Direct Integration and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads Anna Scaglione, UC Davis GRA: Mahnoosh Alizadeh Project objective  Invent methods to "store" load demand for * Real-time "generation following" * Integration of load reserves as dispatchable assets in the Energy Market  Architecture for virtual "reserves" (queues) of electrical load demand * Watts to Job mapping (analysis)  Captures digitally the service requirements - Equal service type = Equal queue * Job to Watts mapping (synthesis)  Allows to optimally schedule the load profile Major technical accomplishments  Centralized model: Digital Direct Load Scheduling (DDLS) - Year 1-Year 2

10

Trends in electric utility load duration curves  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and analysis of annual and quarterly load duration curves for each of the 10 Federal regions. The report describes analyses performed to test for changes in load duration curve shapes over time. These analyses are intended to aid the electric utility analyses and modeling activities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) by expanding the understanding of current and expected load duration curve shapes. 7 figs., 13 tabs.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

ELECTRICAL LOAD ANTICIPATOR AND RECORDER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is described in which an indication of the prevailing energy consumption in an electrical power metering system and a projected power demand for one demand in terval is provided at selected increments of time within the demand interval. Each watt-hour meter in the system is provided with an impulse generator that generates two impulses for each revolution of the meter disc. In each demand interval, for example, one half-hour, of the metering system, the total impulses received from all of the meters are continuously totaled for each 5-minute interval and multiplied by a number from 6 to 1 depending upon which 5- minute interval the impulses were received. This value is added to the total pulses received in the intervals preceding the current 5-minute interval within the half-hour demand interval tc thereby provide an indication of the projected power demand every 5 minutes in the demand interval.

Werme, J.E.

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

ELECTRICAL LOAD ANTICIPATOR AND RECORDER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is descrbied in which an indication of the prevailing energy consumption in an electrical power metering system and a projected Power demand for one demand interval is provided at selected increments of time withm the demand interval. Each watthour meter in the system is provided with an impulse generator that generates two impulses for each revolution of the meter disc. The total pulses received frorn all the meters are continuously totaled and are fed to a plurality of parallel connected gated counters. Each counter has its gate opened at different sub-time intervals during the demand interval. A multiplier is connected to each of the gated counters except the last one and each multiplier is provided with a different multiplier constant so as to provide an estimate of the power to be drawn over the entire demand interval at the end of each of the different sub-time intervals. Means are provided for recording the ontputs from the different circuits in synchronism with the actuation oi each gate circuit.

Russell, J.B.; Thomas, R.J.

1961-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

13

Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Definition: Direct Control Load Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Control Load Management Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct Control Load Management Demand-Side Management that is under the direct control of the system operator....

15

Load as a reliability resource in restructured electricity markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent electricity price spikes demonstrate the value that demand-side responses could bring to a restructured US electricity system. This report considers how even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. The report provides a three-part assessment addressing the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets and the current and potential future role of customer loads as system reliability resources. The study begins by evaluating the extent to which customer loads might be able to provide electricity reliability or ancillary services and reviewing aspects of a large utility's direct load control program. The second phase of the assessment contains a survey of ways in which load has been used as a system reliability resource focusing on programs triggered by system conditions and a real-time price signal. It reviews the experience of: (1) the California ISO's Demand Relief and Participating Load programs; (2) Interruptible load programs in California; (3) the New England ISO's Load Management program; and (4) a ''mature'' program in New Zealand. The third phase of the assessment examines the status of the underlying metering, communication, and control technologies used to effect customer responses. The final section of the report provides a vision of how the future might look and uses it to outline a program of needed R&D to increase the role of customer loads as system reliability resources. Key elements of this research program include: addressing the needs of system operators, making effective use of load management assets, making use of new program design concepts, the design of end-use technologies, and benefiting from program experiences.

Kueck, J.D.; Kirby, B.J.; Eto, J.; Staunton, R.H.; Marnay, C.; Martinez, A.; Goldman, C.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Variable Selection for Five-Minute Ahead Electricity Load Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use autocorrelation analysis to extract 6 nested feature sets of previous electricity loads for 5-minite ahead electricity load forecasting. We evaluate their predictive power using Australian electricity data. Our results show that the most important ... Keywords: very short-term electricity load forecasting, prediction, variable selection, autocorrelation analysis

Irena Koprinska; Rohen Sood; Vassilios Agelidis

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Demand response can lower electric power load when needed - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

February 15, 2011 Demand response can lower electric power load when needed . Consumers can play a major role in ensuring reliable electricity supply by reducing ...

18

Power load forecasting Organization: Huizhou Electric Power, P. R. China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting are essential to the operation and planning of a utility company. Load forecasting helps an electric utility as electric load forecasting. In particular, ARMA (autoregressive moving average), ARIMA (autore- gressive

19

Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

DIRECTING THE MOVEMENT OF FISH WITH ELECTRICITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRECTING THE MOVEMENT OF FISH WITH ELECTRICITY Marine Biological Laboratory APR 21 1953 WOODS HOLE, Albert M. Day, Director DIRECTING THE MOVH-IENT OF FISH WITH ELECTRICITY by Alberton L. McLain Fishery of an electrical leading device 21 Literature cited. ..,...,..,..........·· 2k ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Diagram

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Definition: Direct Load Control Device | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Load Control Device Load Control Device Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct Load Control Device A remotely controllable switch that can turn power to a load or appliance on or off. Such a device could also be used to regulate the amount of power that a load can consume. Direct load control devices can be operated by a utility or third party energy provider to reduce a customer's energy demand at certain times.[1] Related Terms power, load References ↑ https://www.smartgrid.gov/category/technology/direct_load_control_device [[Ca LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. tegory: Smart Grid Definitionssmart grid,smart grid, |Template:BASEPAGENAME]]smart grid,smart grid, Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_Load_Control_Device&oldid=502631

22

From Packet to Power Switching: Digital Direct Load Scheduling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, the power grid has tight control over its dispatchable generation capacity but a very coarse control on the demand. Energy consumers are shielded from making price-aware decisions, which degrades the efficiency of the market. This state of affairs tends to favor fossil fuel generation over renewable sources. Because of the technological difficulties of storing electric energy, the quest for mechanisms that would make the demand for electricity controllable on a day-to-day basis is gaining prominence. The goal of this paper is to provide one such mechanisms, which we call Digital Direct Load Scheduling (DDLS). DDLS is a direct load control mechanism in which we unbundle individual requests for energy and digitize them so that they can be automatically scheduled in a cellular architecture. Specifically, rather than storing energy or interrupting the job of appliances, we choose to hold requests for energy in queues and optimize the service time of individual appliances belonging to a broad class whi...

Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; Thomas, Robert J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging  

SciTech Connect

Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

Rauch, Emily M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conservation of electrical energy and load management can reduce industry's electric bills, conserves natural resources and reduces the need for new generating plants. In recent years, industry has implemented extensive conservation programs. Some load management has been implemented already. Additional load management is possible; however, optimizing it will require close industry and electric utility company cooperation to develop new incentives and rate structures to make it economically attractive. The limitations of existing rate structures and needed improvements are presented.

Jackson, C. E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California...

26

A fuzzy logic based approach to direct load control  

SciTech Connect

Demand side management programs are strategies designed to alter the shape of the load curve. In order to successfully implement such a strategy, customer acceptance of the program is vital. It is thus desirable to design a model for direct load control which may accommodate customer preferences. This paper presents a methodology for optimizing both customer satisfaction and utility unit commitment savings, based on a fuzzy load model for the direct load control of appliances.

Bhattacharyya, K.; Crow, M.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Temperature Effects on the Winter Daily Electric Load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Here we describe the relationship between average daily temperature and winter-daily electric load, as ascertained on the largest electric district in Italy. In particular, it is shown that a sudden 6°C temperature decrease (not a rare event) ...

Paolo Bolzern; Giorgio Fronza; Giuseppe Brusasca

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

SciTech Connect

Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

29

Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forecast Update As part of the Mid Term Assessment, staff is preparing a long term wholesale electricity 29, 2012 Preliminary Results of the Electricity Price Forecast Update As part of the Mid Term Assessment, staff is preparing a long term wholesale electricity market price forecast. A summary of the work

Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

30

Protecting consumer privacy from electric load monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The smart grid introduces concerns for the loss of consumer privacy; recently deployed smart meters retain and distribute highly accurate profiles of home energy use. These profiles can be mined by Non Intrusive Load Monitors (NILMs) to expose much of ... Keywords: load monitor, privacy, smart meter

Stephen McLaughlin; Patrick McDaniel; William Aiello

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Load management strategies for electric utilities: a production cost simulation  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the development and application of a simulation model for analyzing strategies for managing the residential loads of electric utilities. The basic components of the model are (1) a production-cost model, which simulates daily operation of an electric power system; (2) a load model, which disaggregates system loads into appliance loads and other loads; and (3) a comparison model, which compares the production costs and energy consumption needed to meet a particular load profile to the corresponding costs and energy consumption required for another load profile. The profiles in each pair define alternative ways of meeting the same demand. A method for disaggregating load profiles into appliance components is discussed and several alternative strategies for residential load management for a typical northeastern electric utility are formulated. The method is based on an analysis of the composition of electric loads for a number of classes of residential customers in the model utility system. The effect of alternative load management strategies on the entire residential loadcurve is determined by predicting the effects of these strategies on the specific appliance components of the loadcurve. The results of using the model to analyze alternative strategies for residential load management suggest that load management strategies in the residential sector, if adopted by utilities whose operating and load characteristics are similar to those of the system modeled here, must take into account a wide variety of appliances to achieve significant changes in the total load profile. Moreover, the results also suggest that it is not easy to reduce costs significantly through new strategies for managing residential loads only and that, to be worthwhile, cost-reducing strategies will have to encompass many kinds of appliances.

Blair, P.D.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

Price, Philip

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nance logging, inventory control, energy and dollar savings tracking, and life cycle cost analysis. MotorMaster+ is available at no cost to Motor Challenge Partners. 10 Electrical...

35

Conditional model of peak and minimum loads and the load duration curve for electricity  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a model that extends the traditional model of electricity demand to account for intra-period load variation, the kind of variation that is important for evaluating marginal-cost-reflecting price structures. The time-of-day rate is one such price structure. The traditional model of electricity demand explains inter-period demand variation. It says nothing about load variation. The report explains how a model that integrates with previous studies of electricity demand might be formulated. It specifies two concrete models within this framework and estimates them for a number of different utility companies. The model's within-sample-period performance in predicting peak loads is presented for one version of the model extension along with estimations for other variations. In addition a number of plots of actual load distributions, a summation of load variation information, against the actual load distributions, are presented and used to evaluate the performance of specific models.

Trimble, J.L.; Stallings, D.E.; Thomas, B.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A practical approach for electricity load forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—This paper is a continuation of our daily energy peak load forecasting approach using our modified network which is part of the recurrent networks family and is called feed forward and feed back multi context artificial neural network (FFFB-MCANN). The inputs to the network were exogenous variables such as the previous and current change in the weather components, the previous and current status of the day and endogenous variables such as the past change in the loads. Endogenous variable such as the current change in the loads were used on the network output. Experiment shows that using endogenous and exogenous variables as inputs to the FFFB-MCANN rather than either exogenous or endogenous variables as inputs to the same network produces better results. Experiments show that using the change in variables such as weather components and the change in the past load as inputs to the FFFB-MCANN rather than the absolute values for the weather components and past load as inputs to the same network has a dramatic impact and produce better accuracy.

T. Rashid; T. Kechadi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Electric Load vs Time: Complicated World, Complicated Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric Load vs Time: Complicated World, Complicated Model Electric Load vs Time: Complicated World, Complicated Model Speaker(s): Phillip Price Date: March 7, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Phillip Price "How much energy did I save by changing the operation of my building yesterday?" That turns out to be a very hard question to answer: you need to know how much energy you would have used under normal operations (the "baseline"), a number you can predict but not measure. In this talk we focus specifically on electrical energy ("electric load") in commercial buildings. Often the load can be broken down into several components that are superimposed on each other: a recurring weekly pattern, an effect of outdoor air temperature, and so on. Some buildings have patterns that are

38

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Socio-Economic Website: eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/49733.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/california-customer-load-reductions-d Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Mandates/Targets This report details the predicted electricity shortages and blackouts in California (summer 2001) that never occured, in part due to energy conservation measures taken on by the people of California. Intense media coverage and information campaigns about energy efficiency as well as

39

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Speaker(s): Bernard Aebischer Date: February 6, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact:...

40

Application of Learning Fuzzy Inference Systems in Electricity Load Forecast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper highlights the results and applied techniques for the electricity load forecast competition organised by the European Network on Intelligent Technologies for Smart Adaptive Systems (www.eunite.org). The electricity load forecast problem is tackled in two di#erent stages by creating two di#erent models. The first model will predict the temperature and the second model uses the predicted temperature to forecast the maximum electricity load. For both model, learning fuzzy inference systems are applied. Initial fuzzy rules are generated and then the numerical data provided by Eastern Slovakian Electricity Corporation are used to learn the parameters of the learning fuzzy inference systems. The learning technique is applied for both temperature and load forecast.

Ahamd Lotfi

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Direct methanol fuel cells at reduced catalyst loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup -2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

Zelenay, P. (Piotr); Guyon, F. (Francois); Gottesfeld, Shimshon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS AT REDUCED CATALYST LOADINGS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup {minus}2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

P. ZELENAY; F. GUYON; SM. GOTTESFELD

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Electric Load Prediction Using a Bilinear Recurrent Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prediction scheme of electric load using a Bilinear Recurrent Neural Network (BRNN) is proposed in this paper. Since the BRNN is based on the bilinear polynomial, BRNN has been successfully used in modeling highly nonlinear systems with time-series ... Keywords: recurrent, neural network, forecasting, electricity

Jae-Young Kim; Dong-Chul Park; Dong-Min Woo

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

EPRI/GRI Load Shape Workshop: Load Data Analysis for Gas and Electric Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load shapes, representing usage patterns in the electric and gas industry, are a key factor in energy company operations and management. In the emerging restructured energy market, retail energy suppliers market energy to final customers and must arrange for electricity generation or gas delivery to meet their customers' needs. EPRI and GRI sponsored a two-day workshop in June, 1999 that addressed a range of issues associated with load shapes, including modeling, profiling for retail market settlement, r...

1999-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

46

A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity end-uses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity and the way electrical devices are used will evolve significantly. The energy consumption is likely of electrical devices; · integration of decentralized energy production and stocking (PV modules with battery

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Using Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous orRetro...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous or Retro-Commissioning Title Using Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous or Retro-Commissioning Publication Type...

48

Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence, attributable to direct gain passive heating systems. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

Sullivan, P.W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Andersson, B.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in NEMS -  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in NEMS Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in NEMS Release date: January 6, 2014 Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) comprise a growing portion of delivered energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings. Recently, the growth of MELs has offset some of the efficiency gains made through technology improvements and standards in major end uses such as space conditioning, lighting, and water heating. Miscellaneous end uses, including televisions, personal computers, security systems, data center servers, and many other devices, have continued to penetrate into building-related market segments. Part of this proliferation of devices and equipment can be attributed to increased service demand for entertainment, computing, and convenience appliances.

50

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Speaker(s): Bernard Aebischer Date: February 6, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indictor for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed. Prerequisites in order to be able to use these indicators in energy efficiency programmes are discussed. The opportunity of an internationally coordinated research activity is also presented. Since 1999, Dr. Bernard Aebischer has served as a senior scientist at CEPE (Centre for Energy Policy and Economics) of the Swiss Federal Institutes of

51

Electric field directed self assembly of nanoparticle structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Heller, M.J. (2007) Electric-field-directed assembly ofOF THE DISSERTATION Electric Field Directed Self Assembly ofof colloidal particles by electric fields. Soft Matter, 2,

Dehlinger, Dietrich Alexander

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A.: Modeling and forecasting electricity loads: A comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study two statistical approaches to load forecasting. Both of them model electricity load as a sum of two components – a deterministic (representing seasonalities) and a stochastic (representing noise). They differ in the choice of the seasonality reduction method. Model A utilizes differencing, while Model B uses a recently developed seasonal volatility technique. In both models the stochastic component is described by an ARMA time series. Models are tested on a time series of system-wide loads from the California power market and compared with the official forecast of the California System Operator (CAISO). 1.

Rafa? Weron

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Electrical load management for the California water system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To meet its water needs California has developed an extensive system for transporting water from areas with high water runoff to areas with high water demand. This system annually consumes more than 6 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity for pumping water and produces more than 12 billion kWh/year of hydroelectric power. From the point of view of energy conservation, the optimum operation of the California water supply system would require that pumping be done at night and generation be done during the day. Night pumping would reduce electric power peak load demand and permit the pumps to be supplied with electricity from ''base load'' generating plants. Daytime hydro power generation would augment peak load power generation by fossil-fuel power plants and save fuel. The technical and institutional aspects of this type of electric power load management for water projects are examined for the purpose of explaining some of the actions which might be pursued and to develop recommendations for the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (ERCDC). The California water supply system is described. A brief description is given of various energy conservation methods, other than load management, that can be used in the management of water resources. An analysis of load management is presented. Three actions for the ERCDC are recommended: the Commission should monitor upcoming power contract negotiations between the utilities and the water projects; it should determine the applicability of the power-pooling provisions of the proposed National Energy Act to water systems; and it should encourage and support detailed studies of load management methods for specific water projects.

Krieg, B.; Lasater, I.; Blumstein, C.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.

Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

Rauch, Emily M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission ...  

An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode ...

57

Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

Drost, M.K.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Low-cost load research for electric utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) developed two pragmatic approaches to meet most load-research objectives at a substantially lower cost than would be incurred with traditional techniques. GVEA serves three customer classes, with most of its load in the Fairbanks area. GVEA's new approaches simulate load curves for individual customer classes to the degree necessary to meet most load-research objectives for the utility, including applications to cost-of-service analysis, rate design, demand-side management, and load forecasting. These approaches make class load-shape information available to utilities that cannot otherwise afford to develop such data. Although the two approaches were developed for a small utility, they are likely to work at least as well for medium and large utilities. The first approach simulates class curves by combining load data from system feeders with information on customer mix and energy usage. GVEA's supervisory control and data acquisition system gives hourly data on feeder loads, and its billing database provides the number of customers and kilowatt-hour usage by customer class on each feeder. The second approach enhances load-research results by redefining target parameters. Data from several like-hours are used to calculate substitutes for the parameters traditionally defined from single-hour data points. The precision of peak responsibility estimates, for example, can be improved if several of the highest hourly demands in a given time period are used rather than the single highest hourly demand. Arguably, use of several highest hourly demands can also improve the reliability of the allocation of responsibility.

Gray, D.A.; Butcher, M.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Forecasting electricity load demand: analysis of the 2001 rationing period  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEPEL e UENF. Abstract. This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energetic crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza (2003), making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The forecast errors from this model also permit verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis.

Leonardo Rocha Souza; Lacir Jorge Soares; Leonardo Rocha Souza; Epge Fundação; Getúlio Vargas; Lacir Jorge Soares

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Additional solar/load ratio correlations for direct gain buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar/load ratio (SLR) correlations have been developed for two new reference direct gain designs. The new reference designs are identical to the originals except that the glazing air gap has been increased from 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. and a vector average of the local hourly windspeed was used in the thermal network calculations rather than an assumed average value of 15 m.p.h. Both of these modifications are realistic and enhance the predicted performance of direct gain buildings. A comprehensive set of mass sensitivity calculations has been performed in order to provide information needed to select an appropriate set of parameters for new lightweight direct gain designs for which additional SLR correlations will be developed. Representative results are reported.

Wray, W.O.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Pacific Northwest Economic and Electricity Use Forecast, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This publication documents the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used to prepare BPA`s Whitebook. It is divided into: intoduction, summary of 1993 Whitebook electricity demand forecast, conservation in the load forecast, projection of medium case electricity sales and underlying drivers, residential sector forecast, commercial sector forecast, industrial sector forecast, non-DSI industrial forecast, direct service industry forecast, and irrigation forecast. Four appendices are included: long-term forecasts, LTOUT forecast, rates and fuel price forecasts, and forecast ranges-calculations.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effects of pulsed-power loads upon an electric power grid  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Certain proposed particle-accelerator and laser experiments, and other devices related to fusion research, require multi-megawatt, repetitive power pulses, often at low (subsynchronous) frequency. While some power-delivery technologies call for a certain degree of buffering of the utility demand using capacitive, inductive, or inertial energy storage, considerations have also been made for serving such loads directly from the line. In either case, such pulsed loads represent non-traditional applications from the utility's perspective which, in certain cases, can have significant design and operational implications. This paper outlines an approach to the analysis of the effects of such loads upon the electric power grid using existing analysis techniques. The impacts studied include busvoltage flicker, transient and dynamic stability, and torsional excitation. The impact of a particular pulsed load is examined and illustrated for the power network serving the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 19 refs., 13 figs.

Smolleck, H.A.; Ranade, S.J.; Prasad, N.R. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Velasco, R.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

1993-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

65

An analysis of the potential for shifting electric power demand within daily load requirement  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the potential for shifting the electric power demand within the daily load requirements for large industrial and commercial customers of the Philadelphia Electric Company. This shifting of electric power demand would tend to flatten the daily load curve of electricity demand, benefitting both the power industry and the consumer. Data on estimated summer load curves of large commercial and industrial customers are analyzed for load flattening potential. Cost savings to the customers are determined. (GRA)

Lamb, P.G.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

To forecast short-term load in electric power system based on FNN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric power system load forecasting plays an important part in the Energy Management System (EMS), which has a great effect on the operating, controlling and planning of power system. Accurate load forecasting, especially short-term load forecasting, ...

Yueli Hu; Huijie Ji; Xiaolong Song

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

ANN-based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANN-based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets Hong Chen Claudio A. Ca~nizares Ajit forecasting technique that considers electricity price as one of the main characteristics of the system load. B. Makram, "A Hybrid Wavelet- Kalman Filter Method for Load Forecasting," Electric Power Systems

Cañizares, Claudio A.

68

HTGR-GT and electrical load integrated control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion of the control and operation of the HTGR-GT power plant is presented in terms of its closely coupled electrical load and core cooling functions. The system and its controls are briefly described and comparisons are made with more conventional plants. The results of analyses of selected transients are presented to illustrate the operation and control of the HTGR-GT. The events presented were specifically chosen to show the controllability of the plant and to highlight some of the unique characteristics inherent in this multiloop closed-cycle plant.

Chan, T.; Openshaw, F.; Pfremmer, D.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

actions to influence load profiles of their customers atISO needs to influence the load profile of a Facility arebe a specific target load profile to be achieved while in

Piette, Mary Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Investigation of Stress Indices and Directional Loading of Eccentric Reducers  

SciTech Connect

OAK- B135 Engineering for fatigue is an essential concern in piping systems. Addressing this concern, the ASME Section III and ANSI B31.1 Codes provide stress indices and stress intensification factors (SIFs) to be used in the design and evaluation of Class 1, 2 and 3 systems. In recent research cosponsored by EPRI and the U.S. DOE, new test data have been developed for comparison with the ASME stress indices and SIFs. This report presents the results of fatigue tests on eccentric reducers, taking into account the directionality of the loading. As detailed in the report, the results can help to improve the evaluation of reducers and can help to reduce unnecessary conservatism in piping system design.

R. Carter,E.A. Wais, E.C. Rodabaugh

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

15 Figure 12: Load profile by day of week, averaged over thebetween the average load profile and the profile of a givenfrom the average load profile. Figure 12: Load profile by

Price, Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the applicability of alternative systems for electric vehicle (EV) heating and air conditioning (HVAC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. These systems are ranked according to their overall weight The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best, because minimum vehicle weight decreases the energy required for propulsion, and therefore increases the vehicle range. Three systems are considered as the best choices for EV HVAC. These are, vapor compression, ice storage and adsorption systems. These systems are evaluated, including calculations of system weight, system volume, and COP. The paper also includes a calculation on how the battery energy storage capacity affects the overall system weights and the selection of the optimum system. The results indicate that, at the conditions analyzed in this paper, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor compression air conditioners become the system with the minimum weight for battery storage capacities above 230 kJ/kg.

Aceves, S.M.; Comfort, W.J. III

1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

73

Direct Conversion of Radioisotope Energy to Electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new chemical reactor has been tested for Field Enhanced Diffusion by Optical Activation doping and purification of SiC, GaN and AlN films. Different conditions have been used on SiC, GaN and AlN samples including temperature variation, electrical field variation, variations in electrical current and optical activation. A 5mW (630-680) nm laser was used for optical activation. It was observed that optical activation has a major effect on ion drift rates. It was also observed that the magnitude of the electrical current also enhanced ion drift rates by a postulated current drag mechanism. I-V characteristic curves were measured to verify changes in the electrical properties of the samples SIMS was used to analyze the concentrations of impurities in the film samples before and after treatment. It has been demonstrated that the field-enhanced diffusion by optical activation method can dope and purify the films. As a result, the electrical properties of the wafers have been significantly improved during treatment especially in cases where a laser is used.

Marks Prelas; Alexey Spitsyn; Alejandro Suarez; Eric Stienfelds; Dickerson Moreno; Bia-Ling Hsu; Tushar Ghosh; Robert Tompson; Sudarshan Loyalka; Dabir Viswanath

2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

MHD: direct channel from heat to electricity  

SciTech Connect

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combined with conventional power generation is promising, but several engineering and technological problems must be solved before it can compete in the electric utility market. A combined MHD topping cycle and steam-electric bottoming cycle would raise the efficiency of a coal-fired plant from 35 to as high as 50 percent. Coal requirements would be lowered and internal sulfur oxide control is possible. Some of the components for MHD generation can be adapted from industrial applications and are already available, but many new components must be designed. Schematic drawings illustrate the engineering complexities of an MHD plant. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Zygielbaum, P.; Lowenstein, A.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

ANN-Based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—This paper proposes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based short-term load forecasting technique that considers electricity price as one of the main characteristics of the system load, demonstrating the importance of considering pricing when predicting loading in today’s electricity markets. Historical load data from the Ontario Hydro system as well as pricing information from the neighboring system are used for testing, showing the good performance of the proposed method. Keywords: Short-term load forecasting, electricity markets, spot prices, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

Hong Chen; Claudio A. Cañizares; Ajit Singh

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator ich provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal.

Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Building America System Research Plan for Reduction of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in Zero Energy Homes  

SciTech Connect

This research plan describes the overall scope of system research that is needed to reduce miscellaneous electrical loads (MEL) in future net zero energy homes.

Barley, C. D.; Haley, C.; Anderson, R.; Pratsch, L.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Load Leveling Approach to Removing Appliance Features from Home Electricity Usage Profiles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For the past twenty years, researchers have developed a class of algorithms that are capable of disaggregating a residential electric load into its set of… (more)

McLaughlin, Stephen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Commercial and Industrial Conservation and Load Management Programs at New England Electric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New England Electric has initiated, through its three retail subsidiaries, an ambitious load management and conservation program designed to reduce its projected 1991 summer peak by 230 megawatts and save 335,000 megawatthours per year. The effort is directed mainly toward the commercial and industrial classes, which make up 62% of sales. The overall program, called Partners In Energy Planning, includes a performance contracting or modified shared savings program, a lighting subsidy program, a storage cooling program, a standby generation program, residential programs and rate programs. This paper discusses the details of the commercial and industrial programs and why they are being implemented.

Gibson, P. H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Load Scheduling and Dispatch for Aggregators of Plug-In Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and environmental problems worldwide [2], [3]. PEVs--either plug-in hybrid electric vehicles or pure electric1 Load Scheduling and Dispatch for Aggregators of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Di Wu, Student Member proposes an operating framework for aggregators of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). First, a minimum- cost

Tesfatsion, Leigh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

An intelligent ACO-SA approach for short term electricity load prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intelligent solutions, based on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, to solve complicated practical problems in various sectors are becoming more and more widespread nowadays. On the other hand, electrical load prediction is one of the important ... Keywords: ant colony optimization, artificial neural networks, intelligent prediction, short-term electricity load prediction, simulated annealing, time series modeling

Arash Ghanbari; Esmaeil Hadavandi; Salman Abbasian-Naghneh

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cointegration of the Daily Electric Power System Load and the Weather  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper examines the cointegration of the daily electric power system load and the weather by a field intelligent system. The daily load has been modelled by dynamic regressions. A "Daily Artificial Dispather" thermal intelligent system has been costructed. Time and energy tests have been obtained for this intelligent system. The improvement in the daily load forecast, achieved by this intelligent system, has been obtained. The predicted daily electricity price has been found.

Stefanov, Stefan Z

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Changes in the real price of electricity: implications for higher load growth  

SciTech Connect

While real electricity prices have increased over the last decade, they have declined relative to oil and natural gas. As a result, electricity has increased its share of the total energy market. Many believe these price trends will not continue as new base-load plants come on line. They state that the real price of electricity will increase disproportionately with respect to other energy forms, resulting in reduced levels of load growth and a loss of market share. The authors of this article disagree, and instead argue that: (1) the real price of electricity will decline over the 1980s; (2) electricity prices will not lose recent competitive gains relative to oil and natural gas; and (3) electricity's market share will continue to increase, and load growth will exceed the 3% average of the 1970s. They conclude that the potential exists for a 4 to 5% load growth scenario for the balance of the 1980s. 5 references, 2 tables.

Siegel, J.R.; Sillin, J.O.

1983-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Water Resources. Water Conservation in California. DWRUse ENERGY CONSERVATION Water Conservation Pump Efficienciescussion of load Water Conservation some of these measures in

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Abstract--We present new approaches for building yearly and seasonal models for 5-minute ahead electricity load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity load forecasting. They are evaluated using two full years of Australian electricity load data. We first analyze the cyclic nature of the electricity load and show that the autocorrelation function to building a single yearly model. I. INTRODUCTION PREDICTING the future electricity demand, also called

Koprinska, Irena

86

Portland General Electric Company Pilot Evaluation and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the billing software were omitted, and there is no factor for free riders. The analysis assumed that all, 2004 DIRECT LOAD CONTROL PILOT FOR ELECTRIC WATER HEAT #12;1 PGE Direct Load Control Pilot for Electric direct load control pilot for electric water heat, called "Direct Load Control Pilot for Electric Water

87

Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Edison is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about 50 buildings, distributed among these five types. The buildings selected have average demands of 100 to 300 kW. The metered end-uses vary among building types and include HVAC, lighting, refrigeration. plug loads, and cooking. Procedures have been custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. For example, the Load Profile Viewer is a PC-based software program for reviewing and validating the end-use load data.

Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dam and the Thermalito pumped storage units in the north,This generation pumped storage, and recovery generation, (electricity demand. In a pumped-storage system, water is

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Review of Techniques for Non-Intrusive Electrical Load Monitoring  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of individual electrical devices in buildings. It generally relies on aggregate power metering (at the whole-building or branch circuit level) and special signal processing...

92

Monitoring of electrical end-use loads in commercial buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A California utility is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about 50 buildings selected have average demands of 100kW to 300 kW. The metered end-uses vary among building types and include HVAC, lighting, refrigeration, plug loads, and cooking. Procedures have been custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. PC-based software programs have been developed for reviewing and validating the end-sue load data and for generating reports.

Martinez, M. (Southern California Edison, CA (US)); Alereza, T.; Mort, D. (ADM Associates, Sacramento, CA (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Load Profile Forecasts for the Salt River Project Service Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) enter the marketplace, it is important to understand the impacts of the potentially significant new load caused by PEV charging. Time-of-use (TOU) electricity pricing will help shift PEV charging loads to off-peak hours, mitigating the potential problem of raising the system peak load. However, there is a potential for a secondary peak to develop if the TOU plan causes a large PEV load to appear on the grid at a specific time in the evening. So-called smart chargingbid...

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

NSTAR (Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NSTAR (Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program NSTAR (Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program NSTAR (Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Other Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Up to 70% of the total project cost Provider NSTAR The NSTAR Small Business Solutions Program offers incentives for business customers whose average monthly demand is 300 kW or less. The first step of the program is a free energy audit to identify potential energy saving

95

Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the ...

Enric Valor; Vicente Meneu; Vicente Caselles

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox.

Tankersley, Jerome B. (Fredericksburg, VA); Boothe, Richard W. (Roanoke, VA); Konrad, Charles E. (Roanoke, VA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox. 6 figures.

Tankersley, J.B.; Boothe, R.W.; Konrad, C.E.

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

98

Utility-aware deferred load balancing in the cloud driven by dynamic pricing of electricity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed computing resources in a cloud computing environment provides an opportunity to reduce energy and its cost by shifting loads in response to dynamically varying availability of energy. This variation in electrical power availability is represented ...

Muhammad Abdullah Adnan, Rajesh Gupta

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator which provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal. 8 figs.

Osher, J.E.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

Climatic-related Evaluations of the Summer Peak-Hours' Electric Load in Israel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interrelationship between the Summer peak electric load in Israel and pertinent meteorological parameters, including the commonly used outdoor biometeorological comfort index, is evaluated conceptually and statistically. Linear regression ...

M. Segal; H. Shafir; M. Mandel; P. Alpert; Y. Balmor

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

FUTURA: Hybrid System for Electric Load Forecasting by Using Case-Based Reasoning and Expert System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of combining a numeric extrapolation of data with the methodology of case-based reasoning and expert systems in order to improve the electric load forecasting are presented in this contribution. Registers of power consumption are stored as ...

Raúl Vilcahuamán; Joaquim Meléndez; Josep Lluis de la Rosa

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Combined cycle electric power plant with coordinated steam load distribution control  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle electric power plant includes gas and steam turbines and a steam generator for recovering the heat in the exhaust gases exited from the gas turbine and for using the recovered heat to produce and supply steam to the steam turbine. The steam generator includes a superheater tube through which a fluid, e.g., water, is directed to be additionally heated into superheated steam by the exhaust gas turbine gases. An afterburner further heats the exhaust gas turbine gases passed to the superheater tube. The temperature of the gas turbine exhaust gases is sensed for varying the fuel flow to the afterburner by a fuel valve, whereby the temperatures of the gas turbine exhaust gases and therefore of the superheated steam, are controlled. Loading and unloading of the steam turbine is accomplished automatically in coordinated plant control as a function of steam throttle pressure.

Uram, R.

1979-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

Using Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous or Retro-Commissioning  

SciTech Connect

Whole-building electric load data can often reveal problems with building equipment or operations. In this paper, we present methods for analyzing 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building operators, energy managers, and commissioning agents to better understand a building's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to 'ask the right questions' to discover opportunities for electricity waste elimination, energy efficiency, peak load management, and demand response. For example: Does the building use too much energy at night, or on hot days, or in the early evening? Knowing the answer to questions like these can help with retro-commissioning or continuous commissioning. The methods discussed here can also be used to assess how building energy performance varies with time. Comparing electric load before and after fixing equipment or changing operations can help verify that the fixes have the intended effect on energy consumption. Analysis methods discussed in this paper include: ways to graphically represent electric load data; the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads; and a regression-based electricity load model that accounts for both time of week and outdoor air temperature. The methods are illustrated by applying them to data from commercial buildings. We demonstrate the ability to recognize changes in building operation, and to quantify changes in energy performance. Some key findings are: 1) Plotting time series electric load data is useful for understanding electricity consumption patterns and changes to those patterns, but results may be misleading if data from different time intervals are not weather-normalized. 2) Parameter plots can highlight key features of electric load data and may be easier to interpret than plots of time series data themselves. 3) A time-of-week indicator variable (as compared to time-of-day and day-of-week indicator variables) improves the accuracy of regression models of electric load. 4) A piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence can be derived without the use of a change-point model (which would add complexity to the modeling algorithm) or assumptions about when structural changes occur (which could introduce inaccuracy). 5) A model that includes time-of-week and temperature dependence can be used for weather normalization and can determine whether the building is unusually temperature-sensitive, which can indicate problems with HVAC operation.

Price, Phillip N.; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Short Term Electric Load Forecasting Using an Adaptively Trained Layered Perceptron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper addresses electric load forecasting using artificial Neural Network (NN) technology. The paper summarizes research for Puget Sound Power and Light Company. in this study, several strnctures for NN's are propored and tested. Features extraction is implemented to captug strongly corrclatel variables to electric loads. The NN is compared to several forccting models. Mot of them arc commercial codes. The NN parformed as well as the beat and moat sophisticated commercial forecasting systems.

M. A. EI-Sharkawi; S. Oh; R. J. Marks; M. J. Damborg; C. M. Brace

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Foreign direct investment in the electricity sector: the Indian perspective  

SciTech Connect

So far, India is losing out in the competition against other emerging economies to attract more foreign direct investment to its electricity sector. This is in large part because the Indian approach towards power sector reforms is more haphazard than the more orderly and sensitive growth model of Singapore and Latin American economies. (author)

Sharma, A.K.; Vohra, Ekta

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

The dynamic character curve adjusting model of electric load based on data mining theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are a number of dirty data in the load database produced by SCADA system. Consequently, the data must be adjusted carefully and reasonably before being used for electric load forecasting or power system analysis. This paper proposes a dynamic and ...

Xiaoxing Zhang; Haijun Ren; Yuming Liu; Qiyun Cheng; Caixin Sun

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Adoption and Load Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a status update on the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) ongoing research into the market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The PEV market currently includes 13 passenger vehicle models, with 5 more expected by the end of 2013. More than 58,000 PEVs were sold during the 23 months since vehicles became available from major manufacturers, and cumulative sales are expected to surpass 500,000 vehicles by 2015.To help utility planners ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Energy Technologies Division May 2002 http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/EMS_pubs.html Work reported here was funded by the Electricity Restructuring and Transmission Reliability Programs of the Assistant Secretary of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Power Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy

109

Non-Intrusive Electric Load Monitoring in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased interest in optimal control, energy scorekeeping and fault detection for HVAC equipment in commercial buildings has focused attention on instrumentation required to obtain the desired data. In this paper we investigate what can be learned from measurements of electrical power at a single point, that of the electrical service for the entire HVAC system. This low-cost measurement has proved in field tests to be capable of detecting the power change when a piece of equipment turns on or off; detecting oscillating equipment power caused by poorly tuned controllers; and detecting suboptimal staging of multiple chillers. Detection of equipment start and stop transitions was strengthened by application of a nonlinear filter that determines the point of median power from a filtering window of user-selected width. A review of electric motor literature indicated that samples of electrical current taken at slightly faster than twice the 60 Hz fundamental can be used to detect several indicators of incipient motor failure. Tests were initiated to determine whether this technique can be applied to a number of motors on the same circuit.

Norford, L. K.; Mabey, N.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets  

SciTech Connect

Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

Weller, G.H.

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

PRE-SW Plug-in Electric Vehicle Load Estimator 0.81 BETA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plug-in Electric Vehicle Load Estimator generates forecasts of new plug-in vehicle sales in a specific geographical area and calculates relevant data including cumulative PEV market penetration, electricity demand of PEVs, and gasoline saved. The software calculates results for any time period from calendar year 2010 through 2050 based on a user-defined list of counties and a set of assumptions such as electricity and gasoline price forecasts. The county list may optionally include fractions that def...

2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

112

Direct coupling of solar cell arrays to electric power networks  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation of the performance of solar cells when directly coupled to a conventional three-phase power network are presented. This approach dissociates the electricity production problem from the electric energy storage problem. Extensive studies of the required power inverter are performed. Preliminary simulation results indicate that a.c. power outputs of better than 90 percent of the optimum cell power output can be easily achieved by means of a suitably controlled inverter. It is also shown that the controlling policy for the inverter must depend on the operating conditions of the system.

Alvarado, F.L.; Eltimsahy, A.H.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Improved Electrical Load Match In California By Combining Solar Thermal Power Plants with Wind Farms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

California with its hydro, geothermal, wind, and solar energy is the second largest producer of renewable electricity in the United States (Washington state is the largest producer of renewable energy electricity due to high level of hydro power). Replacing fossil fuel electrical generation with renewable energy electrical generation will decrease the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which will slow down the rapid increase in global warming (a goal of the California state government). However, in order for a much larger percentage of the total electrical generation in California to be from renewable energies like wind and solar, a better match between renewable energy generation and utility electrical load is required. Using wind farm production data and predicted production from a solar thermal power plant (with and without six hours of storage), a comparison was made between the renewable energy generation and the current utility load in California. On a monthly basis, wind farm generated electricity at the three major wind farm areas in California (Altamont Pass, east of San Francisco Bay area; Tehachapi Pass in the high desert between Tehachapi and Mojave; and San Gorgonio Pass in the low desert near Palm Springs) matches the utility load well during the highest electrical load months (May through September). Prediction of solar thermal power plant output also indicates a good match with utility load during these same high load months. Unfortunately, the hourly wind farm output during the day is not a very good match to the utility electrical load (i.e. in spring and summer the lowest wind speed generally occurs during mid-day when utility load is highest). If parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are installed in the Mojave Desert (similar to the 354 MW of plants that have been operating in Mojave Desert since 1990) then the solar electrical generation will help balance out the wind farm generation since highest solar generated electricity will be during mid-day. Adding six hours of solar thermal storage improved the utility load match significantly in the evening and reliability was also improved. Storage improves reliability because electrical production can remain at a high level even when there are lulls in the wind or clouds decrease the solar energy striking the parabolic trough mirrors. The solar energy from Mojave Desert and wind energy in the major wind farm areas are not a good match to utility load during the winter in California, but if the number of wind farms were increased east of San Diego, then the utility renewable energy match would be improved (this is because the wind energy is highest during the winter in this area). Currently in California, wind electrical generation only contributes 1.8% of total electricity and solar electrical generation only contributes 0.2%. Combining wind farms and solar thermal power plants with storage would allow a large percentage of the electrical load in California to be met by wind and solar energy due to a better match with utility load than by either renewable resource separately.

Vick, B. D.; Clark, R. N.; Mehos, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Wavelet-Based Nonlinear Multiscale Decomposition Model for Electricity Load Forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: We propose a wavelet multiscale decomposition based autoregressive approach for the prediction of one-hour ahead ahead load based on historical electricity load data. This approach is based on a multiple resolution decomposition of the signal using the non-decimated or redundant Haar à trous wavelet transform whose advantage is taking into account the asymmetric nature of the time-varying data. There is an additional computational advantage in that there is no need to recompute the wavelet transform (wavelet coefficients) of the full signal if the electricity data (time series) is regularly updated. We assess results produced by this multiscale autoregressive (MAR) method, in both linear and non-linear variants, with single resolution autoregression (AR), multilayer perceptron (MLP), Elman recurrent neural network (ERN) and the general regression neural network (GRNN) models. Results are based on the New South Wales (Australia) electricity load data that is provided by the National Electricity Market

D. Benaouda; F. Murtagh; J. L. Starck; O. Renaud; Universiti Tenaga Nasional; Jalan Kajang-puchong

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Method for exciting inductive-resistive loads with high and controllable direct current  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for transmitting dc power to a load circuit by applying a dc voltage from a standard waveform synthesizer to duration modulate a bipolar rectangular wave generator. As the amplitude of the dc voltage increases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses increase, and as the amplitude of the dc voltage decreases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses decrease. Thus, the waveform synthesizer selectively changes the durations of the rectangular wave generator bipolar output pulses so as to produce a rectangular wave ac carrier that is duration modulated in accordance with and in direct proportion to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. Thereupon, by transferring the carrier to the load circuit through an amplifier and a rectifier, the load current also corresponds directly to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. To this end, the rectified wave at less than 100% duty factor, amounts to a doubled frequency direct voltage pulse train for applying a direct current to the load, while the current ripple is minimized by a high L/R in the load circuit. In one embodiment, a power transmitting power amplifier means having a dc power supply is matched to the load circuit through a transformer for current magnification without sacrificing load current duration capability, while negative voltage and current feedback are provided in order to insure good output fidelity.

Hill, Jr., Homer M. (Princeton Junction, NJ)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Students' Understanding of Direct Current Resistive Electrical Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research has shown that both high school and university students' reasoning patterns regarding direct current resistive electric circuits often differ from the currently accepted explanations. At present, there are no standard diagnostic examinations in electric circuits. Two versions of a diagnostic instrument called Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric circuits Concepts Tests (DIRECT) were developed, each consisting of 29 questions. The information provided by the exam provides classroom instructors a means with which to evaluate the progress and conceptual difficulties of their students and their instructional methods. It can be used to evaluate curricular packages and/or other supplemental materials for their effectiveness in overcoming students' conceptual difficulties. The analyses indicate that students, especially females, tend to hold multiple misconceptions, even after instruction. During interviews, the idea that the battery is a constant source of current was used most often in answering the questions. Students tended to focus on current in solving the problems and to confuse terms, often assigning the properties of current to voltage and/or resistance. Results indicated that students do not have a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electric circuit phenomena. On the other hand, students were able to translate easily from a "realistic" representation of a circuit to the corresponding schematic diagram.

Paula V. Engelhardt; Robert J. Beichner

2003-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Relationships between the Irrigation-Pumping Electrical Loads and the Local Climate in Climate Division 9, Idaho  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrical load from irrigation pumps is an important part of the overall electricity demand in many agricultural areas of the U.S. west. The date the pumps turn on and the total electrical load they present over the summer varies from year ...

Eric J. Alfaro; David W. Pierce; Anne C. Steinemann; Alexander Gershunov

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Direct Lamination Cooling of Motors For Electric Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current designs for electric motors use a housing that acts as both a structural support and as a method of cooling the stator and rotor. This approach to cooling is not as effective as possible because heat must flow from the rotor and stator through the housing to the cooling media. Because the housing must contain the coolant, it is also larger, heavier, and more expensive than necessary. This project develops a motor that uses a direct lamination cooling (DLC) system, passing coolant directly through the stator and eliminating the need for bulky housing, thereby improving heat transfer. Motor size could be reduced by up to 30-40%, mass by up to 20-30%, and cost by up to 30%. Phase I demonstrated that reliable lamination-to-lamination seals and reliable stack-to-manifold seals can be achieved using the methods identified. The addition of the selected sealants adds only slightly to the thermal resistance and pressure drop compared with unsealed counterparts. Phase II builds electric motors and inductors using the DLC method, obtain comparative performance data on the effectiveness of the method, and then obtain operational use data on these components through long term testing in a representative environment. The long-term testing will ensure that real world aspects of motor and inductor operation (including vibration, temperature cycling, and the presence of electrical and magnetic fields) do not degrade the seals such that leaking occurs or that the thermal performance degrades.

Rippel, Wally; Kobayashi, Drayll

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Impacts of time-of-day on average electricity prices and utility load factors  

SciTech Connect

A degree of rationalism is brought to the rate debate between marginalist time of day advocates and embedded cost traditionalists by an empirical analysis. Studies show that neither side can claim victory. The results show that blanket statements cannot be made concerning the impacts of TOD in demand and load factor, and that rates reduce only slightly. This paper summarizes the impacts of marginal cost TOD rates on peak demand, generation, load factor, and the average price of electricity. The methodology includes calculation of marginal cost, prediction of effect of TOD on load shapes by means of a Load Curve Forecasting model, and a production costing model. A matrix shows that impacts of TOD rates on individual utilities will depend on the specific utility customer mix, load shape, and generation mix.

Chamberlin, J.H.; Dickson, C.T.; Spann, R.M.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The application of load models of electric appliances to distribution system analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a methodology to apply the load models of key electric appliances in residential area for distribution system analysis. According to the load models, the transformer hourly loading is estimated during simulation iteration by the bus voltage and ambient temperature. A three phase load flow program is then executed to find the feeder daily profile of power consumption and system loss with the transformer hourly loading derived. Besides, the daily power consumption by each type of key appliances can also be solved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a distribution feeder of Taipower system is selected for computer simulation to find the potential of energy conservation by controlling the feeder service voltage at substation. Moreover, the load model of air conditioners, which are temperature sensitive appliances, is also considered in the program to find the impact of ambient temperature change to the power consumption of residential distribution feeders. It is concluded that the load models of key electric appliances can provide a useful tool for distribution engineers to enhance the accuracy of system analysis to estimate the operation efficiency of distribution system in a more effective manner.

Chen, C.S.; Wu, T.H.; Lee, C.C.; Tzeng, Y.M. [National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Transmission and Distribution Benefits of Direct Load Control: Seattle City Light and Snohomish Public Utility District Pilot Project Evaluations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two residential direct load control programs in the Puget Sound region have reduced peak loads at both the system as well as the local transmission and distribution levels. This report presents program load impact results estimated using metered and disaggregated end-use load data. Included is a detailed description of participants' attitudes toward the programs and their experiences with program implementation.

1994-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

122

Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Demand Response-Enabled Model Predictive HVAC Load Control in Buildings using Real-Time Electricity Pricing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A practical cost and energy efficient model predictive control (MPC) strategy is proposed for HVAC load control under dynamic real-time electricity pricing. The MPC strategy… (more)

Avci, Mesut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

California customer load reductions during the electricity crisis: Did they help to keep the lights on?  

SciTech Connect

During summer 2001, Californians reduced electricity usage by 6 percent and average monthly peak demand by 8 percent, compared to summer 2000. These load reductions played an important role in avoiding the hundreds of hours of rotating power outages predicted several months prior. Many factors affected electricity use and peak demand in summer 2001, including weather, changes in the State's economy, and deliberate consumer responses to a variety of stimuli associated with the crisis. This paper assesses the roles played by these contributing factors, with a special focus on the extraordinary efforts made by Californians to reduce electricity consumption. We review the role of media coverage and informational campaigns on public awareness and the impact of rate increases and a variety of publicly funded programs in reducing electricity consumption. We also draw lessons for other regions that may be faced with the prospect of electricity shortages.

Goldman, Charles A.; Barbose Galen L.; Eto, Joseph H.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method of and apparatus for controlling loads on an electrical power supply  

SciTech Connect

To enable a consumer of electrical energy to effect control of total energy consumption by various individual appliances and loads, each individual load has a control unit, conveniently in a plug top, which responds to pulses broadcast on the power supply wiring in the form of short duration interruptions of the waveform. At each appliance a microprocessor unit counts the number of successive pulses in a predetermined time interval and operates an electronic switch if the received count reaches a predetermined number, which may be different for different loads thereby enabling selective control of the loads. Provision is made for automatic restoration of supply if the overall energy consumption falls. Provision can also be made for automatic resumption of supp

Peddie, R.A.; Fielden, J.S.

1984-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

126

Regional load-curve models: scenario and forecast using the DRI model. Final report. [Forecasts of electric power loads in 32 US regions  

SciTech Connect

Regional load curve models were constructed for 32 regions that have been created by aggregating hourly load data from 146 electric utilities. These utilities supply approximately 95% of the electricity consumed in the continental US. The 32 models forecast electricity demands by hour, 8784 regional load forecasts per year. Because projections are made for each hour in the year, contemporaneous forecasts are available for peak demands, megawatt hour demands, load factors, load duration curves, and typical load shapes. The forecast scenario is described and documented in this volume and the forecast resulting from the use of this scenario is presented. The highlights of this forecast are two observations: (1) peak demands will once again become winter phenomena. By the year 2000, 18 of the 32 regions peak in a winter month as compared with the 8 winter peaking regions in 1977. In the heating season, the model is responsive to the number of heating degree-hours, the penetration rate of electric heating equipment, and the rate at which this space conditioning equipment is utilized, which itself is functionally dependent on the level of real electricity prices and real incomes. Thus, as the penetration rate of electric heating equipment increases, winter season demands grow more rapidly than demands in other seasons and peaks begin to appear in winter months; and (2) load factors begin to increase in the forecast, reversing the trend which began in the early 1960s. Nationally, load factors do not leap upwards, instead they increase gradually from .609 in 1977 to .629 in the year 2000. The improvement is more consequential in some regions, with load factors increasing, at times, by .10 or more. In some regions, load factors continue to decline.

Platt, H.D.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

California customer load reductions during the electricity crisis: Did they help to keep the lights on?  

SciTech Connect

Recurring electricity shortages and rolling blackouts were widely forecasted for summer 2001 in California. Despite these predictions, blackouts were never ordered - in large part, due to the dramatic reductions in electricity use throughout the state. Compared to summer 2000, Californians reduced electricity usage by 6 percent and average monthly peak demand by 8 percent. Our analysis suggests that these reductions were not caused by either the weather or the downturn in the state's economy; rather, they were the result of extraordinary efforts by Californians to reduce electricity consumption. Based on the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) available operating reserve margin during summer 2001, we estimate that the peak load reductions, which ranged between 3,200 and 5,600 MW in the four summer months, potentially avoided between 50 and 160 hours of rolling blackouts. This extraordinary response by Californians can be attributed to several factors including media coverage and informational campaigns that affected public awareness and understanding, real and/or perceived increases in electricity rates, and various policies and programs deployed by state policymakers and regulators to facilitate customer load reductions. Among these programs, we review the state's 20/20 rebate program, the utilities' energy efficiency programs, programs or initiatives implemented by the California Energy Commission and other state agencies, and load management and demand response programs offered by the state's investor-owned electric utilities and the CAISO. We estimate that energy efficiency and onsite generation projects that were initiated in 2001 will account for about 1,100 MW of customer load reductions, once all projects are installed. These savings represent about 25-30 percent of the observed load reductions and are likely to persist for many years. The persistence of the remaining savings, which were due to changes that customers made in their conservation behavior and energy management operations, will be heavily influenced by customers' perception of continuing electricity crises or significant energy problems and price sensitivity to retail rate trends. The State's current demand response (DR) capability enrolled in utility or CAISO programs is somewhat lower than prior to the crisis. However, in the long run, enabling technologies for demand response deployed through the CEC's Demand Responsive Buildings and Real-time Metering programs have the potential to significantly increase demand response capability. While unique factors led to the electricity crisis in California, we believe the lessons learned from electricity customers' response may be useful for other regions faced with the prospect of electricity shortages. During a short-term crisis, a comprehensive set of load reduction programs and policies can make a significant contribution towards maintaining electric system reliability and can be an effective alternative to strategies that rely solely on rationing demand (e.g. rolling blackouts) or dramatic price increases. Information from various media sources contributed to very high customer awareness of the electricity crisis and helped spur customers to take actions to reduce their electricity usage. Customers viewed the media as an important, and in many cases, trusted information source, which appears to have increased their receptivity to participating in various State and utility initiatives. A commitment to ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs and energy efficiency standards for appliances and buildings are critical elements of a long-term strategy to dampen growth in electricity demand. California's energy efficiency services delivery infrastructure, which was strengthened by years of ratepayer and State-funded programs, represents a significant resource that was ramped up quickly to respond to a short-term energy emergency.

Goldman, Charles A.; Eto, Joseph H.; Barbose, Galen L.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Hydrothermal electric and direct heat. Commercialization Phase III planning  

SciTech Connect

Nine environmental concerns have been identified: airborne effluents, waterborne effluents, noise, subsidence, enhanced seismicity, water use conflicts, land use, socioeconomic impacts, and system safety and occupational health. Resolution of these issues is expected to occur at staggered intervals over the next 8 to 10 years. Of these concerns, airborne emissions and water use conflicts are judged to have a medium likelihood of having research findings adverse to commercialization. Waterborne effluents and subsidence are also judged to have a medium likelihood. The other concerns--noise, enhanced seismicity, land use, socioeconomic impacts and system safety and occupational health--are judged to have a low likelihood of adverse findings. The overall environmental research and development plan related to hydrothermal electric and direct heat includes funds to assess the adequacy of candidate control technology options. However, it does not include the resource requirements to fully develop and demonstrate commercial control hardware, process modifications, and for strategies. The conclusions, stated as probabilities, are given.

Clusen, R.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Regional load curve models: specification and estimation of the DRI Model. Final report. [Forecasts of electric loads in 32 US regions  

SciTech Connect

The DRI Model of hourly load curves is developed in this report. The model is capable of producing long-term forecasts for 32 US regions. These regions were created by aggregating hourly system load data from 146 electric utilities. These utilities supply approximately 95% of all electricity consumed in the continental US. The model forecasts electricity demands for each hour of the year for each of the 32 regions. Model output includes forecasts of peak demands, megawatt hour demands, load factors, and load duration curves. The DRI Model is estimated in two stages. In the first stage, for each region and month, hourly electricity demands are parameterized into load components representing the effects of lifestyles and weather on regional loads through a time-series model. In the second stage, the variation in these parameterized load components across months and regions is modeled econometrically in terms of energy prices, income levels, appliance saturation rates, and other variables. The second-stage models are essentially models of electricity demand which are estimated using estimated first-stage parameters as dependent variables, instead of observed demands. Regional price and income demand elasticities are implied by the second-stage models. Moreover, since the dependent variables refer to particular hours of the day, these estimated elasticities are hour-specific. (Since prices did not vary over the day in years when hourly load data were available, hour-to-hour, cross-price elasticities were not estimated.) Integrated system hourly load forecasts are obtained combining the influences of individual customer classes. Finally, approximate customer class hourly load shapes can be produced for each region, though these series may be useful only in research endeavors since they lack the precision available through survey methods.

Platt, H.D.; Einhorn, M.A.; Ignelzi, P.C.; Poirier, D.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nuclear power: least cost option for base-load electricity in Finland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a result of the outstanding operating experience and the low electricity production costs of the existing Finnish nuclear power plants, energy-intensive process industries in particular have a strong belief in nuclear power. There is a potential interest in building more nuclear capacity, the fifth unit, in order to guarantee for Finnish industry the availability of cheap electrical energy in the future. In any case more baseload generation capacity will be needed by 2010 to meet the future growth of electricity consumption in Finland. Nuclear power generation matches excellently with the long-duration load profile of the Finnish power system. The good performance of Finnish nuclear power has yielded benefits also to consumers through its contribution to decreasing the electricity price. Furthermore, the introduction of nuclear power has resulted in a clear drop in the carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation during the 1970s and 1980s, as shown in Figure 1. In 1999 the four Finnish nuclear power units at Loviisa and Olkiluoto generated 22.1 TWh of electricity, roughly equivalent to one third of the total

Risto Tarjanne; Sauli Rissanen

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Electric Power Systems Research 81 (2011) 20992107 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity usage. It is estimated that by 2020, about 12% of the world's electricity will be supplied by windElectric Power Systems Research 81 (2011) 2099­2107 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Electric Power Systems Research journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr Short-term wind power

132

A bio-inspired multi-agent system framework for real-time load management in all-electric ship power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All-electric ship power systems have limited generation capacity and finite rotating inertia compared with large power systems. Moreover, all-electric ship power systems include large portions of nonlinear loads and dynamic loads relative to the total ...

Xianyong Feng / Karen L. Butler-Purry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load-management programs designed to reduce demand for electricity during peak periods are becoming increasingly important to electric utilities. For a growing number of utilities, however, such peak-reduction programs don't go far enough in the face of new problems and challenges, and hence are proving ineffective or counterproductive. For example, many of a utility's largest customers--especially industrial customers who may be "locked into" seemingly inflexible process activities--have limited ability to respond to load-management programs that employ price signals as a central peak-reduction tool. Moreover, utilities in general are finding that vigorous efforts to reduce electric load can result in underutilization of base-load generating facilities. In these and other instances, "load-shaping," which emphasizes a shift of electric load or demand from peak to off-peak periods and provides for greater customer flexibility, may be a more effective strategy. This paper explains the need for and presents the components of a load-shaping program, and describes Pacific Gas and Electric Company's (PGandE) recent experience in designing and pursuing an industrial-load-shaping program. The paper also outlines important obstacles and opportunities likely to confront other utilities and industrial customers interested in working together to develop such programs.

Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

HEURISTIC APPROACH FOR OPTIMAL PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF ELECTRIC LOAD FORECAST MODEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load forecasting is a crucial aspect of electric power system planning and operation. This paper presents a heuristic approach for optimal parameter estimation of long term load forecast models. The problem is viewed as an optimization one in which the goal is to minimize the total estimation error by properly adjusting the model coefficients. A particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to minimize the error associated with the estimated model parameters. Real data of Egyptian network is used to perform this study. Results are reported and compared to those obtained using the well known least error squares estimation technique. Comparison results are in favor of the proposed approach which signifies its potential as a promising estimation tool.

M. R. AlRashidi; K. M. EL?Naggar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Construction of an informative hierarchical prior distribution. Application to electricity load forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we are interested in the estimation and prediction of a parametric model on a short dataset upon which it is expected to overfit and perform badly. To overcome the lack of data (relatively to the dimension of the model) we propose the construction of a hierarchical informative Bayesian prior based upon another longer dataset which is assumed to share some similarities with the original, short dataset. We apply the methodology to a basic model for the electricity load forecasting on both simulated and real datasets, where it leads to a substantial improvement of the quality of the predictions.

Launay, Tristan; Lamarche, Sophie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

SciTech Connect

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Abstract--We present new approaches for 5-minute ahead electricity load forecasting. They were evaluated on data from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in deregulated and competitive energy markets, such as the Australian national electricity market. Market. Agelidis is with the Centre for Energy Research and Policy Analysis, University of New South Wales, Sydney evaluated on data from the Australian electricity market operator for 2006-2008. After examining the load

Koprinska, Irena

139

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Load Management - A Utility Viewpoint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A few years ago our response to an inquiry regarding availability of electric service for a large industrial load was something like: 'Let us put this into our production model to determine whether we will have adequate generating capacity to commit to your needs plus load increases under contract and anticipated residential and commercial load growth. If our studies show that we will have generating capacity available, then we should allow a minimum of two years for design and construction. Of course, you will need to plan to build and maintain your substation.' Today our response would be more like 'How soon can you be ready? Can we build and/or maintain your substation for you? Perhaps we can locate a transformer for you to use until permanent facilities are in place?' What has happened to utilities such as GSU to change our perspective so quickly? The turn around began around New Years of 82 with the realization by industry that the recession which had been developing for some 6 months in retail and construction areas was now affecting basic industry. Later we learned that this recession was the most severe and long lasting in this country since the great depression of the 1930's and that fundamental changes would be required by basic industry if it were to survive. Resulting plant reductions and closings severely impacted utilities heavily dependent on industrial business.

Richardson, J. A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Students' understanding of direct current resistive electrical circuits Paula Vetter Engelhardta)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the answer key as well as for the objectives. Both open- ended questions during the early development stagesStudents' understanding of direct current resistive electrical circuits Paula Vetter Engelhardta regarding direct current resistive electric circuits often differ from the accepted explanations. At present

Zollman, Dean

142

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 8: Direct Use of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 8: Direct Use of Natural Gas....................................................................... 1 Analysis of the Direct Use of Natural Gas for the Sixth Power Plan electricity to natural gas for residential space and water heating a lower-cost and lower-risk alternative

143

Increased precision in sampling using regression modeling, with an application to electric load research  

SciTech Connect

A model is given for situations in survey sampling in which the characteristic of interest is an expected value of the dependent variable in a regression. For each sample unit, a regression can be used to estimate the expected value of the characteristic of interest for a given set of values of the explanatory variables. The model can be used to calculate the expected value and variance of an estimator of the population total of the expected value of the characteristic of interest, for a given set of values of the explanatory variables. The application involves the estimation of a class-load curve on the system peak day of an electric utility. The conventional method uses, for each customer in the sample, the customer's actual demand on the system peak day to estimate the customer's expected demand under the conditions of the peak day. The proposed method uses, for each customer in the sample, a model to estimate the customer's expected demand under the conditions of the peak day. The conditions are variables such as the time-of-day and weather. The variance of an estimator of a class expected load curve under the conditions of the peak day may be reduced by using the proposed method instead of the conventional method.

Oberg, K.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Quantitative comparison between the degree of domain orientation and nonlinear properties of a PZT ceramic during electrical and mechanical loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The macroscopic electromechanical coupling properties of ferroelectric polycrystals are composed of linear and nonlinear contributions. The nonlinear contribution is typically associated with the extrinsic effects related to the creation and motion of domain walls. To quantitatively compare the macroscopic nonlinear properties of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic and the degree of domain orientation, in-situ neutron and high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments are performed and they provide the domain orientation density as a function of the external electric field and mechanical compression. Furthermore, the macroscopic strain under the application of external electrical and mechanical loads is measured and the nonlinear strain is calculated by means of the linear intrinsic piezoelectric effect and the linear intrinsic elasticity. The domain orientation density and the nonlinear strain show the same dependence on the external load. The scaling factor that relates to the two values is constant and is the same for both electrical and mechanical loadings.

Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L. (Florida); (Darmstadt)

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

145

Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.  

SciTech Connect

Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power.

Fox, E. C.; Fuller, L. C.; Silverman, M. D.

1977-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

147

Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ConEd (Gas and Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ConEd (Gas and Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program (New York) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts....

149

Regulatory Commission (Commission) directs the North American Electric Reliability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

submit to the Commission for approval proposed Reliability Standards that address the impact of geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) on the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System. The Commission directs NERC to implement the directive in two stages. In the first stage, NERC must submit, within six months of the effective date of this Final Rule, one or more Reliability Standards that require owners and operators of the Bulk-Power System to develop and implement operational procedures to mitigate the effects of GMDs consistent with the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System. In the second stage, NERC must submit, within 18 months of the effective date of this Final Rule, one or more Reliability Standards that require owners and operators of the Bulk-Power System to conduct initial and on-going assessments of the potential impact of benchmark GMDDocket No. RM12-22-000- 2-events on Bulk-Power System equipment and the Bulk-Power System as a whole. The Second Stage GMD Reliability Standards must identify benchmark GMD events that specify what severity GMD events a responsible entity must assess for potential impacts on the Bulk-Power System. If the assessments identify potential impacts from benchmark GMD events, the Reliability Standards should require owners and operators

Cfr Part

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

LOADED WAVEGUIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by heat activated absorption cooling, direct-fired naturalsince electric cooling loads can be offset by the absorptioncooling loads: utility purchases of electricity, on-site generation of electricity, absorption

Stadler, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region  

SciTech Connect

During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

Goldman, Charles

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

ConEd (Gas and Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program (New York)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ConEd (Gas and Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program ConEd (Gas and Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program (New York) ConEd (Gas and Electric) - Small Business Direct Install Program (New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Program Info State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Survey: Free Programmable Thermostat: Free Equipment Upgrades Identified in Energy Survey: Con Edison will pay up to 70% of the remaining cost directly to the contractor ConEd is providing free energy surveys to its small business customers. The survey will take 30 to 90 minutes and efficiency opportunities and associated costs will be presented on the spot. If the customer agrees to

154

California customer load reductions during the electricity crisis: Did they help to keep the lights on?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar PV systems or virtually eliminating their electricity usage through dramatic changes in their energy-

Goldman, Charles A.; Eto, Joseph H.; Barbose, Galen L.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Electrical engineering Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation Transmission Distribution · Electrical generators · Electric motors · High voltage engineering associated with the systems Electrical engineering · Electric power generation Transmission Distribution The electricity transported to load locations from a power station transmission subsystem The transmission system

Ã?nay, Devrim

156

Kinetics of the direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Direct electric heating by passing an electrical current directly through a bed of adsorbent may prove to be an efficient means of regenerating activated charcoal in continuous and batch adsorption processes. Obvious advantages of this type of regeneration are its almost complete lack of inertia, which makes it possible to reduce the number and dimensions of the adsorbers, and its highly efficient use of energy due to the small number of steps in the conversion of the energy, as well as the reduction of heat losses involved in warming the structure and making up for losses to the surroundings. The authors consider the kinetics of direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal not containing adsorbed substances.

Marfin, M.N.; Shumyatskii, Yu.I.

1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

157

Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

Cantin, Luc (Baie Comeau, CA); Deschenes, Mario (Baie Comeau, CA); D' Amours, Mario (Sept Iles, CA)

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Hardware model of a shipboard zonal electrical distribution system (ZEDS) : alternating current/direct current (AC/DC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hardware model of a shipboard electrical distribution system based on aspects of the DDG 51 Flight IIA, Arleigh Burke class, 60Hz Alternating Current (AC) and the future direct current (DC), zonal electrical distribution ...

Tidd, Chad N. (Chad Norman)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Optimization of direct drive induction motors for electric ship propulsion with high speed propellers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct drive electric ship propulsion can offer increased flexibility and reduced overall fuel consumption compared to geared mechanical systems [Davis 1987, Doerry 2007]. As a well-established technology, induction motors are a dependable and economical ... Keywords: AC motors, induction motor drives, induction motors, thermal analysis

S. C. Englebretson; J. L. Kirtley, Jr; C. Chryssostomidis

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

California load management research 1977: a first year report to the Federal Energy Administration on the FEA/California Electric Utilities Demonstration Project. Annual report for 1977  

SciTech Connect

The California Electric Utilities Demonstration Project (EUDP) seeks to identify cost effective ways to implement load management. The three-year, six-million-dollar project will involve 24 field experiments, four electric utilities, and 7000 residential, commercial and industrial utility customers. Each experiment tries to measure how the tested management measure reduces system peak demand and shifts kilowatt-hour use in both customer and system load curves. Results of three experiments are given. The four participating utilities (Southern California Edison, Pacific Gas and Electric, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and San Diego Gas and Electric) are described. A load curve data catalog is discussed. An appendix to the report shows how to select load management equipment. Another discusses both United States and European load management experiences.

Hairston, R.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

California customer load reductions during the electricity crisis: Did they help to keep the lights on?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Residential Electricity Residential Gas Rate ($/therm)Residential customers were on an inverted block rate for electricityelectricity rates by customer (CPUC, 2001a). For residential

Goldman, Charles A.; Eto, Joseph H.; Barbose, Galen L.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effect of increased electric loads on primary substation equipment in 100-B, C, D, DR, F, and H areas  

SciTech Connect

The loading on the primary transformers which step down the 230 kv transmission voltage to a distribution voltage of 13.8 kv, at 100-B-C, 100-D-DR, 100-F, and 100-H Areas will be increased by the synchronous motors now being installed in those areas under Project CG-558. This report summarizes: The changes in electric loads (both kv and power factor) which will result when the new motors are placed in service and certain older motors are withdrawn from service. Electric loads are tabulated in section 4.0 for each area for present conditions, the planned changes and the post-CG-558 conditions. The reduction of distribution voltage during the starting of individual 4500 hp synchronous motors. Since the synchronous motors will be started across the line as induction motors, the starting current will be high, and at a low power factor. Voltage drops are calculated for the starting of a synchronous motor, with one and then with two transformer banks paralleled. The current-interrupting capacity of switchgear vs. the maximum short-circuit current which could occur with separate transformers and with two primary transformers in parallel.

Baker, D.S.; McLenegan, D.W.

1956-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

165

Effects of electric utility residential conservation programs on hourly load profiles  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the potential of using hourly energy simulation models to determine load shape changes resulting from energy conservation activities. It is determined that shifts in the time and the day of the monthly peak demand may occur as the level of conservation increases. The shifting of the peak was from weather-sensitive periods to less-weather-sensitive periods. Seasonal load profile changes resulting from energy conservation were demonstrated. A statistically significant quadratic relationship was identified between the annual percent reduction and annual percent energy conserved for the different distribution systems examined. The relationships are examined between different levels of residential energy conservation from weatherization and heat pumps on the hourly load profiles of different power distribution systems within the TVA power service area.

Harper, J.P.; Sieber, R.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Electric load information system based on non-intrusive power monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Obtaining high quality information economically and reliably is always a difficult objective to achieve. The electric power industry and consumers recently face many challenges, such as deregulation, autonomous power systems ...

Lee, Kwangduk Douglas, 1970-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

California customer load reductions during the electricity crisis: Did they help to keep the lights on?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

state-led initiatives, such as updating appliance and building energy efficiency standards and financial incentivesState agencies, especially the California Energy Commission, also undertook initiatives designed to reduce electricity demand over the longer term, which included financial incentives

Goldman, Charles A.; Eto, Joseph H.; Barbose, Galen L.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Inertial confinement fusion with direct electric generation by magnetic flux comparession  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A high-power-density laser-fusion-reactor concept in investigated in which directed kinetic enery imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium--in which the fusion target is centrally located--is maximized. In turn, this kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with, potentially, very high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the concept maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall can be many orders of magnitude less than is typical of D-T fusion reactor concepts.

Lasche, G.P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Standby Generators for North Portal Electrical Loads (SCPB:N/A)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose and objective of this design analysis is to establish the best and most economical way to provide standby power generation required for the North Portal loads. This analysis calculates the size and number of the new standby generators that will supplement the already-specified four 500 kW diesel generator units (7007-GN-401, -402, -403, and -404).

Y.D. Shane

1995-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Direct optoelectronic generation and detection of sub-ps-electrical pulses on sub-mm-coaxial transmission lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-mm-coaxial transmission lines Tae-In Jeona) and D. Grischkowskyb) School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, OklahomaDirect optoelectronic generation and detection of sub-ps-electrical pulses on sub efficient direct optoelectronic generation of sub-ps-THz pulses on 50 coaxial transmission lines with a 330

Oklahoma State University

171

Longitudinal Load and Cascading Failure Risk Assessment (CASE): Central Louisiana Electric Cooperative's 500-kV Toledo-Coushatta Transmission Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's Cascading Failure Risk Assessment (CASE) methodology was used to determine extreme event, unbalanced loads on Central Louisiana Electric Company's (CLECO) 500-kV, single circuit, Toledo-Coushatta transmission line. The methodology also identified the line's cascading potential under different loading conditions.

1998-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

DIRECT DECOMPOSITION OF METHANE TO HYDROGEN ON METAL LOADED ZEOLITE CATALYST  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The manufacture of hydrogen from natural gas is essential for the production of ultra clean transportation fuels. Not only is hydrogen necessary to upgrade low quality crude oils to high-quality, low sulfur ultra clean transportation fuels, hydrogen could eventually replace gasoline and diesel as the ultra clean transportation fuel of the future. Currently, refinery hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming of natural gas. Although efficient, the process is responsible for a significant portion of refinery CO2 emissions. This project is examining the direct catalytic decomposition of methane as an alternative to steam reforming. The energy required to produce one mole of hydrogen is slightly lower and the process does not require water-gas-shift or pressure-swing adsorption units. The decomposition process does not produce CO2 emissions and the product is not contaminated with CO -- a poison for PEM fuel cells. In this work we examined the direct catalytic decomposition of methane over a metal modified zeolite catalyst and the recovery of catalyst activity by calcination. A favorable production of hydrogen was obtained, when compared with previously reported nickel-zeolite supported catalysts. Reaction temperature had a strong influence on catalyst activity and on the type of carbon deposits. The catalyst utilized at 873 and 973 K could be regenerated without any significant loss of activity, however the catalyst utilized at 1073 K showed some loss of activity after regeneration.

Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch; Harry W. Rollins

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Electricity Load and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Effects of a Carbon Price in the Short Term  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

acceptable levels will require a dramatic de-carbonization of the electric generation sector in the U.S. One increasingly discussed way to meet this policy goal is to put an explicit price on carbon emissions, either through a tax or a trading scheme. ...

Adam Newcomer; Seth Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Implementation of relaxed ACID properties for distributed load management in the electrical power industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The consistency of data in central databases is normally implemented by using the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability) properties of a DBMS (Data Base Management System). Distributed databases with high performance and availability ... Keywords: ACID properties, automatic process control, distributed systems, electrical power industry, relaxed atomicity property, smart grid conceptual model

Lars Frank; Rasmus Ulslev Pedersen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

Lasche, G.P.

1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

176

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

SciTech Connect

A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

Lasche, George P. (Arlington, VA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A Bio-Inspired Multi-Agent System Framework for Real-Time Load Management in All-Electric Ship Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All-electric ship power systems have limited generation capacity and finite rotating inertia compared with large power systems. Moreover, all-electric ship power systems include large portions of nonlinear loads and dynamic loads relative to the total power capacity, which may significantly reduce the stability margin. Pulse loads and other high-energy weapon loads in the system draw a large amount of power intermittently, which may cause significant frequency and voltage oscillations in the system. Thus, an effective real-time load management technique is needed to dynamically balance the load and generation to operate the system normally. Multi-agent systems, inspired by biological phenomena, aim to cooperatively achieve system objectives that are difficult to reach by a single agent or centralized controller. Since power systems include various electrical components with different dynamical systems, conventional homogeneous multi-agent system cooperative controllers have difficulties solving the real-time load management problem with heterogeneous agents. In this dissertation, a novel heterogeneous multi-agent system cooperative control methodology is presented based on artificial potential functions and reduced-order agent models to cooperatively achieve real-time load management for all-electric ship power systems. The technique integrates high-order system dynamics and various kinds of operational constraints into the multi-agent system, which improves the accuracy of the cooperative controller. The multi-agent system includes a MVAC multiagent system and a DC zone multi-agent, which are coordinated by an AC-DC communication agent. The developed multi-agent system framework and the notional all-electric ship power system model were simulated in PSCAD software. Case studies and performance analysis of the MVAC multi-agent system and the DC zone multi-agent system were performed. The simulation results indicated that propulsion loads and pulse loads can be successfully coordinated to reduce the impact of pulse loads on the power quality of all-electric ship power systems. Further, the switch status or power set-point of loads in DC zones can be optimally determined to dynamically balance the generation and load while satisfying the operational constraints of the system and considering load priorities. The method has great potential to be extended to other isolated power systems, such as microgrids.

Feng, Xianyong

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The geothermal analog of pumped storage for electrical demand load following  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 6 day cycle Load-Following Experiment, conducted in July 1995 at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site in New Mexico, has verified that an HDR geothermal reservoir has the capability for a significant, rapid increase in thermal power output upon demand. The objective was to study the behavior of the HDR reservoir in a high-production- backpressure (2200 psi) baseload operating condition when there was superimposed a demand for significantly increased power production for a 4 hour period each day. In practice, this enhanced production, an increase of 65%, was accomplished by a programmed decrease in the production well backpressure over 4 hours, from an initial 2200 psi down to 500 psi. The rapid depressurization of the wellbore during the period of enhanced production resulted in the draining of a portion of the fluid stored in the pressure dilated joints surrounding the production well. These joints were then gradually reinflated during the following 20-hour period of high backpressure baseload operation. In essence, the HDR reservoir was acting as a fluid capacitor, being discharged for 4 hours and then slowly recharged during the subsequent 20 hours of baseload operation. In this mode, there would be no increase in the reservoir size of number of wells (the {ital in situ} capital investment) for a significant amount of peaking power production for a few hours each day. Thus, one of the advantages of geothermal load following over utility options such as pumped storage or compressed air storage is that the HDR power plant would be operated during off-peak hours in a baseline mode, with an augmented return on investment compared to these other peaking systems which would normally not be operated during off-peak periods. The surface power plant and the geofluid reinjection pumps would need to be sized for the peak rate of thermal energy production, adding somewhat to the overall HDR system capital costs when compared to a simple baseload power plant design.

Brown, D.W.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

An omni-directional design tool for series hybrid electric vehicle design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System level parametric design of hybrid electric vehicles involves estimation of the power ratings as well as the values of certain parameters of the components, given the values of the performance parameters. The design is based on certain mathematical equations or ?design rules?, which relate the component parameters and the performance parameters. The flow of the design algorithm is uni-directional and fixed, and cannot be altered. This thesis proposes a new method for such parametric design, called omni- directional design, which does not have a fixed sequence like the conventional design, but can start with any parameters of the designer?s choice. The designer is also able to specify the input parameters over a range, instead of a point (one, fixed value) input. Scenarios having a point input, but values of an output which can vary over a range for the point input, can also be studied.

Shidore, Neeraj Shripad

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Converting 15-Minute Interval Electricity Load Data into Reduced Demand, Energy Reduction and Cash Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whole-building-electric (WBE) 15-minute interval data is an extremely low-cost, easy approach to reap an immediate reduction in energy consumption. With the advance of lower cost Internet based metering technology integrated with TCP/IP Internet communications, equipment costs and installation issues are not the issues as were in the past. The challenge is to be able to interpret the data and then implement actions to correct operational and equipment problems and anomalies. This paper will address the types of data acquisition equipment and systems available and the different components of a data. Lastly, actual graphs of data will be presented to demonstrate how to dissect and analyze a data set and then implement measures that will optimize operations and maintenance of which will effect a reduction in energy costs.

Herrin, D. G.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Electrical Power Savings in Pump and Compressor Networks via Load Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large industrial plants commonly use multiple parallel units in pump and compressor networks for improved reliability. Sometimes, installed equipment capacity can far exceed actual requirements. This excess capacity can be translated into energy cost savings through “optimum load management”. A key decision parameter in determining the operating policy is the Trigger Point at which to switch from N units to N+1, and vice versa. The Trigger Point is defined as the actual flow rate at which the switching is made to the “ideal” (generally maximum) flow rate at which the switching should be made. At the plant under study, the implicit Trigger Point was generally found to be around 85%, probably because this made it easy to have a smooth transition during the switching operation. A number of pumping and compression networks were analyzed to determine what the potential savings would be if this trigger point were increased to 90 or 95%. The savings potential was found to range from 0 to 23%, with an average of 4.4%. Our study demonstrated that by tightening up operating policies to make sure that the minimum number of machines is being run, significant cost savings are possible with zero capital investment, and negligible sacrifice in operating flexibility or reliability. This paper describes the methodology used, as well as representative results from our study.

Kumana, J. D.; Aseeri, A. S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Parametric analysis of the electric utility market for advanced load-leveling batteries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This task examines the market for batteries in utility load-leveling service as a function of the Battery System Cost characteristics in order to give DOE a method of assessing the results of various program alternatives. The sensitivity of the benefits (barrels of oil saved) that might be derived to the timing of the market (i.e. when it begins) is also investigated. (The real cost of fuel is to be assumed to increase 2.4% per year.) How large is the total market for a new technology; how is the relative effectiveness of Battery Storage Systems related to the cost of fuel, the capital cost of the battery, and the perception of the credits associated with batery systems; and how do these vary with time required answers in order to estimate how the market for battery systems might develop. Most of the answers were obtained by studying the data developed by MITRE/METREK for a market assessment of battery systems using lead/acid batteries. MITRE's market analysis considered a large variety of variables; since the resources and time available for the present task were limited, it was not possible to either duplicate or confirm their work in detail. The initial results of this study depend on the assumptions used by MITRE. However, where these assumptions were incomplete, the results are adjusted. The supplementary information was obtained from studies performed by Arthur D. Little, Inc. and by PSE and G.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

building load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

184

commercial load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

185

residential load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

186

Energy conversion apparatus for supplying variable voltage direct current power to an electrically propelled vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A synchronous machine, operable as both a motor and a generator, is mounted on an electrically powered vehicle, such as a mine shuttle car, and includes a plurality of conductors having connections that are detachably engagable with receptacles of a stationary power bank. Engagement of the conductors with the receptacles supplies variable voltage alternating current power to the machine. The machine is drivingly connected to a flywheel on the vehicle and, operating as a motor, energizes the flywheel to store a preselected amount of mechanical energy. The electrical connection between the vehicle and the power bank is opened after the flywheel has been sufficiently charged. The stored energy in the flywheel is then available to drive the machine as a generator and produce high frequency, three phase, alternating current power. The generated power is transmitted to a full wave silicon controlled rectifier that converts the alternating current power to direct current for powering the traction motors of the vehicle. A variable voltage controller is connected to the rectifier and actuates the rectifier to supply direct current at a selected voltage level. The controller is responsive to an operator foot pedal. By manually depressing the foot pedal to a selected position, the voltage level of the rectified current is controlled. Thus, the speed of the traction motors is adjustable topropel the vehicle at a speed within a given range. After a portion of the energy stored by the flywheel is consumed, the vehicle is returned to the power bank to replenish the energy supply.

Jamison, W.B.; Burr, J.F.

1976-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric Load Reduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak Pricing Tariff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes to retail electricity rates on an hourly or dailyweekdays 2004 [6] Most electricity rates in use today arerates with control technologies use 30- 40% less electricity

Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Atomistic modeling of metal surfaces under electric fields: direct coupling of electric fields to a molecular dynamics algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of electric fields on metal surfaces is fairly well studied, resulting in numerous analytical models developed to understand the mechanisms of ionization of surface atoms observed at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this condition. However, the derivation of analytical models does not include explicitly the structural properties of metals, missing the link between the instantaneous effects owing to the applied field and the consequent response observed in the metal surface as a result of an extended application of an electric field. In the present work, we have developed a concurrent electrodynamic–molecular dynamic model for the dynamical simulation of an electric-field effect and subsequent modification of a metal surface in the framework of an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The partial charge induced on the surface atoms by the electric field is assessed by applying the classical Gauss law. The electric forces acting on the partially...

Djurabekova, Flyura; Pohjonen, Aarne; Nordlund, Kai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Abstract--Load serving entities (LSE) and holders of default service obligations, in restructured electricity markets, provide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, in restructured electricity markets, provide electricity service at regulated or contracted fixed prices while standard forward contracts and commodity derivatives. Keywords: Electricity Markets, Risk Management, Volumetric hedging, I. INTRODUCTION The introduction of competitive wholesale markets in the electricity

Oren, Shmuel S.

190

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a laser or particle-beam-driven fusion reactor system which takes maximum advantage of both the very short pulsed nature of the energy release of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the very small volumes within which the thermonuclear burn takes place. The pulsed nature of ICF permits dynamic direct energy conversion schemes such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation and magnetic flux compression; the small volumes permit very compact blanket geometries. By fully exploiting these characteristics of ICF, it is possible to design a fusion reactor with exceptionally high power density, high net electric efficiency, and low neutron-induced radioactivity. The invention includes a compact blanket design and method and apparatus for obtaining energy utilizing the compact blanket.

Lasche, G.P.

1983-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

192

Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article shows WEEE plastics characterization from a recycling unit in Portugal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recycling unit has low machinery, with hand sorting of plastics elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most common polymers are PS, ABS, PC/ABS, HIPS and PP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most plastics found have no identification of plastic type or flame retardants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ecodesign is still not practiced for EEE, with repercussions in end of life stage. - Abstract: This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production.

Martinho, Graca [Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Pires, Ana, E-mail: ana.lourenco.pires@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita [Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The objectives associated with this goal were to (a) generate a solid base of technical, marketing, economic, and policy data, (b) develop energy, environmental, and economic targets, (c) more definitively assess opportunities and barriers, (d) accumulate knowledge and experience for defining direction for the next phase of development, and (e) promote learning and training of students.

Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

OpenEI Community - load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

195

OpenEI Community - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

196

OpenEI Community - residential load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

197

OpenEI Community - commercial load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

198

OpenEI Community - building load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

199

Impact of motion along the field direction on geometric-phase-induced false electric dipole moment signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geometric-phase-induced false electric dipole moment (EDM) signals, resulting from interference between magnetic field gradients and particle motion in electric fields, have been studied extensively in the literature, especially for neutron EDM experiments utilizing stored ultracold neutrons and co-magnetometer atoms. Previous studies have considered particle motion in the transverse plane perpendicular to the direction of the applied electric and magnetic fields. We show, via Monte Carlo studies, that motion along the field direction can impact the magnitude of this false EDM signal if the wall surfaces are rough such that the wall collisions can be modeled as diffuse, with the results dependent on the size of the storage cell's dimension along the field direction.

H. Yan; B. Plaster

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Deployment of CCS Technologies across the Load Curve for a Competitive Electricity Market as a Function of CO2 Emissions Permit Prices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consistent with other published studies, the modelling presented here reveals that baseload power plants are the first aspects of the electricity sector to decarbonize and are essentially decarbonized once CO2 permit prices exceed a certain threshold ($90/ton CO2 in this study). The decarbonization of baseload electricity is met by significant expansions of nuclear power and renewable energy generation technologies as well as the application of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies applied to both coal and natural gas fired power plants. Relatively little attention has been paid thus far to whether intermediate and peaking units would respond the same way to a climate policy given the very different operational and economic context that these kinds of electricity generation units operate under. In this paper, the authors discuss key aspects of the load segmentation methodology used to imbed a varying electricity demand within the GCAM (a state-of-the-art Integrated Assessment Model) energy and economic modelling framework and present key results on the role CCS technologies could play in decarbonizng subpeak and peak generation (encompassing only the top 10% of the load) and under what conditions. To do this, the authors have modelled two hypothetical climate policies that require 50% and 80% reductions in US emissions from business as usual by the middle of this century. Intermediate electricity generation is virtually decarbonized once carbon prices exceed approximately $150/tonCO2. When CO2 permit prices exceed $160/tonCO2, natural gas power plants with CCS have roughly the same marketshare as conventional gas plants in serving subpeak loads. The penetration of CCS into peak load (upper 6% here) is minimal under the scenarios modeled here suggesting that CO2 emissions from this aspect of the U.S. electricity sector would persist well into the future even with stringent CO2 emission control policies in place.

Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Converting a commercial electric direct-drive robot to operate from joint torque commands  

SciTech Connect

Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage, current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, an methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree of freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The commercial robot controller is replaced by a VME-based system incorporating special purpose hardware and firmware programmed from experimental data. The performance improvement is experimentally measured and graphically displayed using three-dimensional plots of torque vs command vs position. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. Further, the torque deviation of the direct-drive joints drops below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

Muir, P.F.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Current Status and Future Directions: A Matrix that Outlines the Direction of Incentive Regulation for US Electrics: An Approach to Recognizing Value in Retail Energy Businesses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research into the current status and direction of incentive regulation for electric distribution companies across the United States. Researchers included interviews with the staff of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), as well as reviews of the NARUC database and other databases. The report explores where states are in their current implementation of performance-based regulation (PBR) / incentive regulation, and the extent to which states are aggres...

2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

204

Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge against generation shortfalls throughout the U.S.A. Demand Response Programs include ''traditional'' capacity reservation and interruptible/curtailable rates programs as well as voluntary demand bidding programs offered by either Load Serving Entities (LSEs) or regional Independent System Operators (ISOs). The Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) has been monitoring the development of new types of Demand Response Programs both in the U.S. and around the world. This paper provides a survey and overview of the technologies and program designs that make up these emerging and important new programs.

Heffner, Grayson C.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

NONE

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References  

SciTech Connect

This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.

Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.

1962-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

207

Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that although higher CN does not significantly alter ignition delay at moderate to high loads it has a dominant influence on the acceptable injection timing range. Apart from CN effects, fuel oxygen content plays an independent role in reducing some emissions. It is therefore recommended that compensation for fuel ignitability and oxygen content be included in combustion control strategies to optimize emissions and performance of future diesel engines.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Szymkowicz, Patrick G. [General Motors Corporation; Northrop, William F [General Motors Corporation

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Electric  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Retail Price of Electricity to ... Period Residential Commercial Industrial ... or usage falling within specified limits by rate ...

209

Comparative Global Warming Impacts of Electric Vapor-Compression and Direct-fired Absorption Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compares the global warming impacts of electric vapor-compression and gas-fired absorption-cycle equipment for commercial cooling applications. Absorption chillers do not use ozone depleting refrigerants but substitution of alternative refrigerants in electrically driven vapor-compression cycle equipment also offers radically reduced or eliminated potential for stratospheric ozone depletion. Therefore, when comparing absorption-cycle and vapor-compression equipment, net global warming impacts...

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's electricity price forecasting model, produces forecast of gas demand consistent with electric load. #12Gas demand Council's Market Price of Electricity Forecast Natural GasDemand Electric Load Aggregating Natural between the natural gas and electricity and new uses of natural gas emerge. T natural gas forecasts

Feinberg, Eugene A.

211

Direct Participation of Electrical Loads in the California Independent System Operator Markets During the Summer of 2000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...................................9 Figure 6. Auction Prices of RECLAIM Trading Credits for NOx.S. RECLAIM: program of emissions trading in the Los Angeles area RTC: RECLAIM Trading Credit, pollution in Figure 6. These credits are know as RECLAIM Trading Credits (RTC's), RECLAIM being the name

212

Direct participation of electrical loads in the Californnia independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5. PG&E Citygate Natural Gas Price and Estimated Generationcombined with stable natural gas prices and expanded accessfall of 2000. U.S. natural gas prices were deregulated in

Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Popping the CO{sub 2}RC: an alternative Load-Based CO{sub 2} Cap-and-Trade instrument for the electricity Sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CO{sub 2}RC method proposed by the authors can effectively reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in electricity markets in a way that is easy to administer, avoids difficult allowance distribution issues, and eliminates leakage because it involves all generators. It provides strong and direct incentives for renewables and efficiency, and promises to work well in markets with incomplete participation. (author)

Michel, Steven; Nielsen, John

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Integrating demand into the U.S. electric power system : technical, economic, and regulatory frameworks for responsive load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric power system in the US developed with the assumption of exogenous, inelastic demand. The resulting evolution of the power system reinforced this assumption as nearly all controls, monitors, and feedbacks were ...

Black, Jason W. (Jason Wayne)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Electricity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Electricity is an essential part of modern life. The Energy Department is working to create technology solutions that will reduce our energy use and save Americans money.

216

In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Middle-term electrical load forecasting by time series decomposition. Report for EUNITE 2001 Competition, 2001. Available at http://neuron.tuke.sk/competition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We present the results of our work in the frame of World-Wide Competition organized within the EUNITE network. For the middle-term electric load forecasting task with prediction horizon 1-31 days ahead we decided to develop a simple model based on decomposition of analyzed time series. The additive components were estimated using the training data collected by the Eastern Slovakian Electricity Corporation during the period 1997-1998. The model was validated by using of the real data from the first 20 days in December 1998. For final application the model was retrained and the requested forecasts were performed. The temperatures in January 1999, which form the inputs to the model, were estimated by moving average methods applied on historical data sets. 1

Emil Pelikán

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Analysis of industrial load management  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Load Management, ILM, has increased the possibilities of changing load profiles and raising load factors. This paper reports on load profile measurements and feasible load management applications that could be implemented in industry e.g. bivalent systems for heating of premises and processes, load priority systems, energy storage and rescheduling processes or parts of processes due to differential electricity rates. Industrial load variations on hourly, daily and seasonal basis are treated as well as the impact by load management on load curves e g peak clipping, valley filling and increased off-peak electricity usage.

Bjork, C.O.; Karlsson, B.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Load forecasting framework of electricity consumptions for an Intelligent Energy Management System in the user-side  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents an electricity consumption-forecasting framework configured automatically and based on an Adaptative Neural Network Inference System (ANFIS). This framework is aimed to be implemented in industrial plants, such as automotive factories, ... Keywords: ANFIS, Forecasting, Genetic algorithm, Intelligent EMS, Modelling

Juan J. Cárdenas; Luis Romeral; Antonio Garcia; Fabio Andrade

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

government incentives or subsidies in the near future. Companies active in the electric automobile area There are no companies directly active in the electric automobile...

222

ELECTRIC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ELECTRIC cdrtrokArJclaeT 3 I+ &i, y I &OF I*- j< t j,fci..- ir )(yiT E-li, ( -,v? Cl -p4.4 RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 8ay 22, 1947 Mr. J. Carrel Vrilson...

223

Battery loading device  

SciTech Connect

A battery loading device for loading a power source battery, built in small appliances having a battery loading chamber for selectively loading a number of cylindrical unit batteries or a one body type battery having the same voltage as a number of cylindrical unit batteries, whereby the one body type battery and the battery loading chamber are shaped similarly and asymmetrically in order to prevent the one body type battery from being inserted in the wrong direction.

Phara, T.; Suzuki, M.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

A comparison of spanwise aerodynamic loads estimated from measured bending moments versus direct pressure measurements on horizontal axis wind turbine blades  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two methods can be used to determine aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade. The first is to make direct pressure measurements on the blade surface. This is a difficult process requiring costly pressure instrumentation. The second method uses measured flap bending moments in conjunction with analytical techniques to estimate airloads. This method, called ALEST, was originally developed for use on helicopter rotors and was modified for use on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. Estimating airloads using flap bending moments in much simpler and less costly because measurements can be made with conventional strain gages and equipment. This paper presents results of airload estimates obtained using both methods under a variety of operating conditions. Insights on the limitations and usefulness of the ALEST bending moment technique are also included. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon: systems for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct electrochemical conversion of carbon involves discharge of suspensions of reactive carbon particles in a molten salt electrolyte against an oxygen (air) cathode. (Figure 1). The free energy and the enthalpy of the oxidation reaction are nearly identical. This allows theoretical efficiencies ({Delta}G(T)/{Delta}H) to approach 100% at temperatures from 500 to 800 C. Entropy heat losses are therefore negligible. The activities of the elemental carbon and of the carbon dioxide product are uniform throughout the fuel cell and constant over discharge time. This stabilizes cell EMF and allows full utilization of the carbon fuel in a single pass. Finally, the energy cost for pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is generally very low compared with that of steam reforming or water gas reactions. Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon might be compared with molten carbonate fuel cell using carbon rather than hydrogen. However, there are important differences. There is no hydrogen involved (except from trace water contamination). The mixture of molten carbonate and carbon is not highly flammable. The carbon is introduced in as a particulate, rather than as a high volume flow of hydrogen. At the relatively low rates of discharge (about 1 kA/m{sup 2}), the stoichiometric requirements for carbon dioxide by the cathodic reaction may be met by diffusion across the thin electrolyte gap. We report recent experimental work at LLNL using melt slurries of reactive carbons produced by the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. We have found that anodic reactivity of carbon in mixed carbonate melts depends strongly on form, structure and nano-scale disorder of the materials, which are fixed by the hydrocarbon starting material and the conditions of pyrolysis. Thus otherwise chemically pure carbons made by hydrocarbon pyrolysis show rates at fixed potentials that span an order of magnitude, while this range lies 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the current density of graphite plate electrodes. One carbon materials was identified which delivered anode current densities of 1 kA/m{sup 2} at 0.8 V (i.e., 80% efficiency, based on the standard enthalpy of carbon/oxygen reaction, and assuming full conversion), which we believe to be sufficiently great to allow practical application in fuel cell arrays. Since the hydrocarbon starting materials are ''ash free,'' entrainment of ash into the melt is not limiting. Finally, the use of fine carbon particulates in slurries avoids cost and logistics of carbon electrode manufacture and distribution.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Krueger, R

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

226

ELECTRIC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ELECTRIC ELECTRIC cdrtrokArJclaeT 3 I+ &i, y$ \I &OF I*- j< t j,fci..- ir )(yiT !E-li, ( \-,v? Cl -p/4.4 RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 8ay 22, 1947 Mr. J. Carrel Vrilson General ?!!mager Atomic Qxzgy Commission 1901 Constitution Avenue Kashington, D. C. Dear Sir: In the course of OUT nuclenr research we are planning to study the enc:ri;y threshold anti cross section for fission. For thib program we require a s<>piAroted sample of metallic Uranium 258 of high purity. A quantity of at lezst 5 grams would probably be sufficient for our purpose, and this was included in our 3@icntion for license to the Atonic Energy Coskqission.. This license has been approved, 2nd rre would Llp!Jreciate informztion as to how to ?r*oceed to obtain thit: m2teria.l.

227

A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a control scheme which utilizes the enhanced instantaneous cooling load measurements to improve the reliability of chiller sequencing control. The enhanced measurement is obtained by merging two different measurements of building cooling load using data fusion technique. One is the direct cooling load measurement, which is obtained directly using the differential water temperature and water flow rate measurements. The other is the indirect cooling load measurement, which estimates the cooling load using chiller models based on the instantaneous chiller electrical power input and condition measured variables. The control performance of the proposed scheme is validated in this paper.

Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The European Electricity Grid System and Winter Peak Load Stress: For how long can the european grid system survive the ever increasing demand during cold winter days?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rich countries of Western Europe and its citizens benefited during at least the last 30 years from an extraordinary stable electricity grid. This stability was achieved by the european grid system and a large flexible and reliable spare power plant capacity. This system allowed a continuous demand growth during the past 10-20 years of up to a few % per year. However, partially due to this overcapacity, no new large power plants have been completed during the past 10-15 years. The obvious consequence is that the reliable spare capacity has been reduced and that a further yearly demand growth of 1-2% for electric energy can only be achieved if new power plants will be constructed soon. Data from various European countries, provided by the UCTE, indicate that the system stress during peak load times and especially during particular cold winter days is much larger than generally assumed. In fact, the latest UCTE data on reliable power capacity indicate that already during the Winter 2007/8 only a few very col...

Dittmar, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Dynamic model of power system operation incorporating load control  

SciTech Connect

Load management has been proposed as a means whereby an electric utility can reduce its requirements for additional generation, transmission, and distribution investments, shift fuel dependency from limited to more abundant energy resources, and improve the efficiency of the electric energy system. There exist, however, serious technological and economic questions which must be answered to define the cost trade-offs between initiating a load management strategy or adding additional capacity to meet the load. One aspect of this complex problem is to determine how the load profile might be modified by the load management option being considered. Towards this end, a model has been developed to determine how a power system with an active load control system should be operated to make the best use of its available resources. The model is capable of handling all types of conventional generating sources including thermal, hydro, and pumped storage units, and most appliances being considered for direct control including those with inherent or designed storage characteristics. The model uses a dynamic programming technique to determine the optimal operating strategy for a given set of conditions. The use of the model is demonstrated. Case study results indicate that the production cost savings that can be achieved through the use of direct load control are highly dependent on utility characteristics, load characteristics, storage capacity, and penetration. The load characteristics that produce the greatest savings are: large storage capacity; high coincidence with the system peak; large connected load per point; and moderately high diversity fraction.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

231

Demand or Request: Will Load Behave?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power planning engineers are trained to design an electric system that satisfies predicted electrical demand under stringent conditions of availability and power quality. Like responsible custodians, we plan for the provision of electrical sustenance and shelter to those in whose care regulators have given us the responsibility to serve. Though most customers accept this nurturing gladly, a growing number are concerned with the economic costs and environmental impacts of service at a time when technology (particularly distributed generation, storage, automation, and information networks) offers alternatives for localized control and competitive service. As customers’ and their systems mature, a new relationship with the electricity provider is emerging. Demand response is perhaps the first unsteady step where the customer participates as a partner in system operations. This paper explores issues system planners need to consider as demand response matures to significant levels beyond direct load control and toward a situation where service is requested and bargains are reached with the electricity provider based on desired load behavior. On one hand, predicting load growth and behavior appears more daunting than ever. On the other, for the first time load becomes a new resource whose behavior can be influenced during system operations to balance system conditions.

Widergren, Steven E.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

Direct observation of crack opening as a function of applied load in the interior of a notched tensile sample of Al-Li 2090  

SciTech Connect

Results of in situ high resolution X-ray computed tomography are reported for a notched tensile sample of Al-Li 2090 T841. The fatigue crack within the interior of the sample is imaged with 6 {micro}m voxels as a function of applied load, and the crack face morphology is found to be similar to that observed in compact tension samples of this alloy. The loads and approximate stress intensities at which the tomography data were obtained were 82, 50, 25 and 5 kg and 7.1, 4.3, 2.2 and 0.4 MPa{radical}m, respectively. Crack openings measured during unloading as a function of position show that physical closure at portions of the crack tip and at positions behind the crack tip precedes (during unloading) the bend in the sample`s load-displacement curve. The three-dimensional pattern of crack opening shows substantial mixed mode I-III contact on the faces of asperities behind the crack tip, even at the maximum load of the fatigue cycle. Mixed mode I-II contact is also observed at loads above the bend in the load-displacement curve. The fraction of voxels open remains nearly constant for the loads immediately above and below the nominal closure load, as determined from the load-displacement curve, of 41 kg; and this suggests that these mixed mode I-III surfaces begin to carry significant load at the point where the load-displacement curve starts to deflect, and is the source of the apparent stiffening of the sample at loads below the nominal closure load.

Guvenilir, A.; Breunig, T.M.; Stock, S.R. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Kinney, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

High temperature thermal conductivity measurements of UO/sub 2/ by Direct Electrical Heating. Final report. [MANTRA-III  

SciTech Connect

High temperature properties of reactor type UO/sub 2/ pellets were measured using a Direct Electrical Heating (DEH) Facility. Modifications to the experimental apparatus have been made so that successful and reproducible DEH runs may be carried out while protecting the pellets from oxidation at high temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements on the UO/sub 2/ pellets have been made before and after runs to assure that sample oxidation has not occurred. A computer code has been developed that will model the experiment using equations that describe physical properties of the material. This code allows these equations to be checked by comparing the model results to collected data. The thermal conductivity equation for UO/sub 2/ proposed by Weilbacher has been used for this analysis. By adjusting the empirical parameters in Weilbacher's equation, experimental data can be matched by the code. From the several runs analyzed, the resulting thermal conductivity equation is lambda = 1/4.79 + 0.0247T/ + 1.06 x 10/sup -3/ exp(-1.62/kT/) - 4410. exp(-3.71/kT/) where lambda is in w/cm K, k is the Boltzman constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

Bassett, B

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

DE-AC03-76SF00098. CONFIGURING LOAD AS A RESOURCE FOR COMPETITIVE ELECTRICITY MARKETS – REVIEW OF DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS IN THE U.S. AND AROUND THE WORLD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge

Grayson C. Heffner; Grayson C. Heffner

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Rapid load following of an SOFC power system via stable fuzzy predictive tracking controller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is widely accepted for clean and distributed power generation use, but critical operation problems often occur when the stand-alone fuel cell is directly connected to the electricity grid or the dc electric user. In order ... Keywords: fuel cell, fuzzy systems, identification, input-tostate stability, load following, output tracking, predictive control

Tiejun Zhang; Gang Feng

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Safety Criteria for Isolated Direct Current Systems in Electric Vehicles: Traction Motor and Control Circuitry Under Charging and Driving Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains some of the background of the requirements for isolated DC systems covered by the standard for personnel protection devices for electric vehicle charging circuits (UL2231). The report provides insight that is intended to help achieve better designs of electric vehicles and chargers.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Towards a common European Electricity Market – Paths in the right direction … still far from an effective design 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyses the future organization of cross border trade in the European electricity market. The draft Regulation “on Conditions for Access to the Network for Cross-Border Exchanges in Electricity ” issued in March 2001 by the European Commission together with related documents produced by the European association of Transmission System Operators (ETSO) and the Council of European Electricity Regulators (CEER) constitute the backbone of this analysis. The paper examines whether the economic principles contained in these documents suffice to design a working European electricity market and if not, what is missing. It concludes that these principles need to be completed by harder measures in order to induce the “real integrated single market ” of electricity claimed by the Commission. In short, the principles may be necessary, but they are unlikely to be sufficient.

Jacqueline Boucher; Yves Smeers

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Aerothermodynamics, Comprehensive Technical Report, Direct Air Cycle, General Electric's Air Craft Nuclear Propulsion Program  

SciTech Connect

This is one of twenty-one volumes summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume summarizes the methods and techquies developed for use in the thermal design of nuclear reactors associated with that program.

Noyes, R.N.

1961-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

240

REACTOR AND SHIELD PHYSICS. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle, Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program.  

SciTech Connect

This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume describes the experimental and theoretical work accomplished in the areas of reactor and shield physics.

Edwards, W.E.; Simpson, J.D.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electricity Market Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

Jeff Jones

2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emergencies (see Table 2). Xcel’s Electric Reduction Savingsinstead, operated so that Xcel could avoid exceeding MAPPElectricity Cooperative Xcel Energy Investor-Owned Utility

Heffner, Grayson C.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Option Value of Electricity Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Customers Respond to Electricity Price Variability: A Studyand lower average electricity prices paid by consumers. Inperiods with high electricity prices; (2) load displacement,

Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, Charles; Krishnarao, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Direct measurement of the cross-shock electric potential at low plasma $?$, quasi-perpendicular bow shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the Cluster EFW experiment to measure the cross-shock electric field at ten low $\\beta$, quasi-perpendicular supercritical bow shock crossings on March 31, 2001. The electric field data are Lorentz-tranformed to a Normal Incidence frame (NIF), in which the incoming solar wind velocity is aligned with the shock normal. In a boundary normal coordinate system, the cross-shock (normal) electric field is integrated to obtain the cross shock potential. Using this technique, we measure the cross-shock potential at each of the four Cluster satellites and using an electric field profile averaged between the four satellites. Typical values are in the range 500-2500 volts. The cross-shock potential measurements are compared with the ion kinetic energy change across the shock. The cross-shock potential is measured to be from 23 to 236% of the ion energy change, with large variations between the four Cluster spacecraft at the same shock. These results indicate that solar wind flow through the shock is likely to be variable in time and space and resulting structure of the shock is therefore nonstationary.

S. D. Bale; F. S. Mozer; V. V. Krasnoselskikh

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program; Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Application Studies  

SciTech Connect

This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This portion describes the studies of advanced applications of nuclear reactors that were performed, including various types of aircraft, missiles, space vehicles, ships, and portable power plants.

Comassar, S.

1962-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

247

Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved ETA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques" Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: Date:...

248

Domestic load scheduling using genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach using a genetic algorithm to optimize the scheduling of domestic electric loads, according to technical and user-defined constraints and input signals, is presented and illustrative results are shown. The aim is minimizing the end-user's ... Keywords: automated energy management, domestic load scheduling, electric loads, genetic algorithms

Ana Soares; Állvaro Gomes; Carlos Henggeler Antunes; Hugo Cardoso

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling alternative residential peak-load electricity rateKeywords: electricity rates, residential electricity, demandrates be targeted to the largest residential users of electricity,

Herter, Karen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Bi-Directional Fast Charging Study Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the hardware and software infrastructure needed to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing battery power in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) with a bi directional fast charger to support/offset peak building loads. This document fulfills deliverable requirements for Tasks 1.2.1.2, 1.2.1.3, and 1.2.1.4 of Statement of Work (SOW) No.5799 for Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, now ECOtality North America (NA) support for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

Tyler Gray

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51 51 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234851 Varnish cache server load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: application/zip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data

252

Load Forecasting for Modern Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load forecasting is a fundamental activity for numerous organizations and activities within a utility, including planning, operations, and control. Transmission and Distribution (T&D) planning and design engineers use the load forecast to determine whether any changes and additions are needed to the electric system to satisfy the anticipated load. Other load forecast users include system operations, financial ...

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

253

Building load control and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

The Distributional and Environmental Effects of Time-Varying Prices in Competitive Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Source: EPA’s CEMS. Electricity Load Distribution 2.0e-04 NoLoad Figure 2a: Electricity load distribution (in MWh) withreal-time pricing Electricity Load Distribution 2.0e-04 All

Holland, Stephen P.; MANSUR, ERIN T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Load-management decision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities require baseload, intermediate, and peaking plants to meet fluctuating customer demand. These can be supplemented with off-peak generation and storage and load management, which can take the form of direct utility control over interruptible and deferrable customers or customer incentives that require off-peak demand. Utilities should make a careful analysis of their load profile, their generation mix, their ability to shift loads, and customer attitudes before deciding on a load-management program that fits their individual needs. They should also be aware that load management is only a limited resource with a number of uncertainties. Research programs into customer relations, system reliability, communications devices, and special control switches and meters will help to relieve some of the uncertainties. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Gupta, P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After the change in the economics of generating electricity which took place in 1973, many utilities are examining options to hold down their costs. One fact which is clear is that the difference between peak and off peak generating costs is much larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces during peak periods are both examples of load control which lower the costs borne by the utility. The other option is the use of seasonal surcharges or time-of-day rates to induce customers to alter their usage patterns. Both these load management options focus on reducing utility costs overall without regard to the cost to the consumers affected by the load management options. The issue, then, is whether industrial customers can find opportunities to lower their costs under load management.

Males, R.; Hassig, N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Electric Power Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

for Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2011 Actual, 2012-2016 Projected Net Energy (Thousands of Megawatthours) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT...

258

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on electricity demand control by applying some strategies in existing building to reduce it during the extreme climate period. The first part of this paper presents the objectives of the study: ? to restrict the startup polluting manufacturing units (power station), ? to limit the environmental impacts (greenhouse emission), ? to reduce the transport and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing models of tertiary buildings stocks (Schools, offices, Shops, hotels); ? Making simulations for different load shedding strategies to calculate potential peak power saving. The third part is dedicated to the description of the developed models: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts.

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service. Second topical report  

SciTech Connect

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled ``An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems`` [Ref.1.1], identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

Thomas, R.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service  

SciTech Connect

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems'' (Ref.1.1), identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

Thomas, R.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

Hill, L.J.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Load-shape development aids planning  

SciTech Connect

The concept that provides capable, load-shape development, is being adopted by several utilities and power pools. Public Service Electric and Gas Company has developed a computer simulation model that can predict a utility's load shape for up to a 30-year period. The objective of the PSE and G model, known as EICS (Electric Load-Curve Synthesis) is to provide a demand profile, to examine the impact of load mangement and other activities upon a system's load shape, and to apply appropriate forecast non-load-management and load-management impacts before finally examining the resulting revised load-shape. Other models dealing with load-shape are discussed. Specifically, the Systems Control Inc. model for EPRI (SCI/EPRI), useful in performing accurate simulations of various load-control strategies involving customer appliance control is mentioned.

Gellings, C.W.

1979-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Division Building / tariffs electricity and gas loads for afeed-in tariff -ZNEB Storage and DR constraints -electricity

Stadler, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Direct Use of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PV-DC refers to the direct use of photovoltaic (PV) energy in an appliance or other equipment without a grid connection. Most (over 90) of the new deployments of PV solar panels connect to the ac electric grid and do not use dc energy directly. These grid-connected PV systems use an electronic inverter to convert the dc array output to ac power for interfacing with the grid. However, with double-digit growth in all types of PV applications, the direct use of solar for powering end-use loads needs to be m...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Load Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

267

The Potential for Supply-Following Loads to Enable Deep Renewables  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potential for Supply-Following Loads to Enable Deep Renewables Potential for Supply-Following Loads to Enable Deep Renewables Penetration in Electricity Grids Speaker(s): Jay Taneja Date: February 27, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-1099 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Rich Brown Driven by renewables portfolio standards and other high-level policy directives, renewable electricity generation is being phased in to the electrical grid at an unprecedented rate, and primarily displacing traditional fossil fuel-powered sources. Most electricity generation by renewables is non-dispatchable, meaning that it often fluctuates unpredictably and cannot be scheduled or shifted. This makes matching supply and demand to ensure electrical reliability a fundamentally new challenge as the proportion of renewable sources increases. To overcome

268

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the ULBNL-63728 Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non .............................................................................................................. 9 4. Baseline Profile (BLP) Models

269

University of Ljubljana Faculty of Electrical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

calculation for different criteria. Ancillary service management: load forecast, power system reserve forecast#12;2 3 University of Ljubljana Faculty of Electrical Engineering University of Ljubljana Faculty of Electrical Engineering Doctoral Programme Electrical Engineering Doctoral Programme Electrical Engineering

Â?umer, Slobodan

270

LOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Glossary of terms related to load management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part I of the Glossary of Terms related to Load Management has been prepared by the Terminology Task Force of the Load Management Subcommittee. The glossary contains many definitions of terms used by the electric utility industry concerning the subject of Load Management. The terms are listed in alphabetical order and cross-referenced where necessary.

Gellings, C.W.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Properly Evaluating load-following products  

SciTech Connect

The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

West River Electric Assn Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

River Electric Assn Inc River Electric Assn Inc Place South Dakota Utility Id 20401 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Electric Heat - Residential Direct Wired Residential Electric Heat - Residential Submetered Residential Electric Heat- Commercial Direct Wired Commercial Electric Heat- Commercial Submetered Heat Credit Commercial Large Commercial > 250 kVA Commercial Large Commercial 51-250 kW Commercial Range Wells and Rural Load Ceters Commercial

274

Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to time-of-day electricity pricing: first empirical results.S. The trouble with electricity markets: understandingresidential peak-load electricity rate structures. Journal

Herter, Karen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

residential peak-load electricity rate structures. Journalefficiency efforts. Keywords: electricity rates, residentialmust suffer higher electricity rates to pay for the bill

Herter, Karen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

High payload six-axis load sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Peak Load Shifting by Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reviews the technology of storing energy in hot water and explores the potential for implementing this form of thermal energy storagethrough means of smart electric water heatersas a way to shift peak load on the electric grid. The report presents conceptual background, discusses strategies for peak load shifting and demand response, documents a series of laboratory tests conducted on a representative model of smart water heater, and...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly influenced by climate. While direct-DC for residential applications will most likely arise as a spin-off of developments in the commercial sector—because of lower barriers to market entry and larger energy benefits resulting from the higher coincidence between load and insolation—this paper demonstrates that there are substantial benefits in the residential sector as well. Among residential applications, space cooling derives the largest energy savings from being delivered by a direct-DC system. It is the largest load for the average residence on a national basis and is particularly so in high-load regions. It is also the load with highest solar coincidence.

Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

279

Electric Power Annual - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 8.6.A. Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2001 - 2011, Actual

280

Monitoring of the electrical distribution network operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distribution network operation is determined by the behaviour of the load. To plan and analyse the electrical network operation, precise modelling of load is substantial. The adequate approach to understand the electrical distribution network operation ... Keywords: SCADA, busloads, distribution network, load monitoring, mathematical model of load, network operation monitoring, state estimation

Jako Kilter; Mati Meldorf

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical ...  

A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft.

282

High Temperature and Electrical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013... and Nanomaterials: High Temperature and Electrical Properties ... thermomechanical (or in cyclic power) loading of electronic devices is an ...

283

Buying Clean Electricity | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buying Clean Electricity Buying Clean Electricity July 2, 2012 - 8:21pm Addthis You have the option to purchase renewable electricity, either directly from your power supplier,...

284

Directed reflectivity, long life AMTEC condenser (DRC). Final report of Phase II SBIR program[Alkali Metal ThermoElectric Converter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a static energy conversion device that operates at high thermal to electric conversion efficiencies that are essentially independent of size, have reached 19% and are expected to reach 25% to 30% in 1997. AMTEC systems have been chosen by NASA and DOE for spacecraft applications and have considerable promise for a wide variety of terrestrial applications. Reduction of parasitic heat losses in AMTEC systems related to radiative heat transfer from the hot side to the condenser can make a substantial contribution to system efficiency. Through design, analysis and the fabrication and testing of cells and systems, the proposed program to develop a Directed Reflectivity Condenser (DRC) has investigated the feasibility of an improved AMTEC condenser component. Phase 1 work showed the potential for adding from 4% to 7% to overall system efficiency for identical operating conditions using the concept. A detailed thermal analysis of several DRC capped cell designs was carried out and some of the conditions under which a DRC, used as the condenser at an end cap of a cylindrical converter, can reduce thermal radiation related losses were determined. A model experimental converter was built and tested to compare DRC and planar condenser surfaces. The results of both analysis and experiment indicate that for moderate aspect ratios of a cylindrical, end condensed converter, the DRC can reduce overall thermal losses by up to 4%. The initial effort in Phase 2 extended the analysis to a novel 150 watt radial AMTEC cell design. This analysis indicated that for the effective aspect ratio of this new converter design, the system performance at the 100+ watt level was not significantly improved by use of a DRC type condenser surface. Further analyses however showed that for cylindrical, end-condensed converters, optimized for use with internal radiation shields, the use of DRC surfaces on the side walls of the converter could be more effective than on the condenser end surface itself. The experimental work in Phase 2 was intended to incorporate a DRC into this cell design and use its measured performance to refine the state-of-the-art AMTEC analytical models. Because the analysis had indicated that the new radial converter design, which may be useful for systems at the {approx} 100 watt level was not much assisted by the DRC properties, this program was redirected toward the simpler cylindrical converter design with the corner cube surfaces on the side walls. The Phase II program was proposed and planned with a funding level substantially below the maximum potentially available for Phase II programs at that time. At the time, there were two other funded government sponsored programs at AMPS for which positive results of the analyses described in this report were expected to lead to incorporation of the DRC concept into converters scheduled to be built for these programs. The programs of interest were the Air Force program titled ''Radiation Tolerant, Eclipse Compatible, Solar AMTEC System'' (F29601-99-C-0132) and the DOE/NASA Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) program. Shortly after its start, the Air Force program was canceled due to elimination of AF SBIR funds at AFRL and the ARPS program was reduced to a level that could not support introduction of novel concept testing. As a result of these two circumstances, the direct testing of the DRC concept in a full up converter was not completed in the Phase II period.

Hunt, Thomas K.

2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

285

Application of direct-fitting, mass-integral, and multi-ratemethods to analysis of flowing fluid electric conductivity logs fromHoronobe, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) loggingmethod is an efficient way to provide information on the depths,salinities, and transmissivities of individual conductive featuresintercepted by a borehole, without the use of specialized probes. Usingit in a multiple-flow-rate mode allows, in addition, an estimate of theinherent "far-field" pressure heads in each of the conductive features.The multi-rate method was successfully applied to a 500-m borehole in agranitic formation and reported recently. The present paper presents theapplication of the method to two zones within a 1000-m borehole insedimentary rock, which produced, for each zone, three sets of logs atdifferent pumping rates, each set measured over a period of about oneday. The data sets involve a number of complications, such as variablewell diameter, free water table decline in the well, and effects ofdrilling mud. To analyze data from this borehole, we apply varioustechniques that have been developed for analyzing FFEC logs:direct-fitting, mass-integral, and the multi-rate method mentioned above.In spite of complications associated with the tests, analysis of the datais able to identify 44 hydraulically conducting fractures distributedover the depth interval 150-775 meters below ground surface. Thesalinities (in FEC), and transmissivities and pressure heads (indimensionless form) of these 44 features are obtained and found to varysignificantly among one another. These results are compared with datafrom eight packer tests with packer intervals of 10-80 m, which wereconducted in this borehole over the same depth interval. They are foundto be consistent with these independent packer-test data, thusdemonstrating the robustness of the FFEC logging method under non-idealconditions.

Doughty, C.; Tsang, C.-F.; Hatanaka, K.; Yabuuchi, S.; Kurikami, H.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conference on Clean Electrical Power, Capri, Italy, 9 - 10and regulatory issues in the electrical power sector.loads, other electrical power generation, electrical

Momber, Ilan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on up to stabilisation of the clusters. Finally, the load profiles are predicted by covariance analysis of electricity customer uses. This load curve is only available for customers with automated meter readingClassification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet Abstract The load curve, which gives

Cuesta, Juan Antonio

288

Electricity Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank 95 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Electricity Market Module The NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM) represents the capacity planning, dispatching, and pricing of electricity. It is composed of four submodules-electricity capacity planning, electricity fuel dispatching, electricity load and demand, and electricity finance and pricing. It includes nonutility capacity and generation, and electricity transmission and trade. A detailed description of the EMM is provided in the EIA publication, Electricity Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M068(2011). Based on fuel prices and electricity demands provided by the other modules of the NEMS, the EMM determines the most

289

Electricity Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page inTenTionally lefT blank 91 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Electricity Market Module The NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM) represents the capacity planning, dispatching, and pricing of electricity. It is composed of four submodules-electricity capacity planning, electricity fuel dispatching, electricity load and demand, and electricity finance and pricing. It includes nonutility capacity and generation, and electricity transmission and trade. A detailed description of the EMM is provided in the EIA publication, Electricity Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M068(2012). Based on fuel prices and electricity demands provided by the other modules of the NEMS, the EMM determines the most

290

Electricity Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Market Module Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 101 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Electricity Market Module The NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM) represents the capacity planning, dispatching, and pricing of electricity. It is composed of four submodules-electricity capacity planning, electricity fuel dispatching, electricity load and demand, and electricity finance and pricing. It includes nonutility capacity and generation, and electricity transmission and trade. A detailed description of the EMM is provided in the EIA publication, Electricity Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2013, DOE/EIA-M068(2013). Based on fuel prices and electricity demands provided by the other modules of the NEMS, the EMM determines the most

291

Retail electricity competition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze a number of unstudied aspects of retail electricity competition. We first explore the implications of load profiling of consumers whose traditional meters do not allow for measurement of their real time consumption, ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Load Data Analysis and PowerShape Training: Strategic Load Research and Advanced Topics in Load Profiling for Settlements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load shapes, representing usage patterns in the electric and gas industry, are a key factor in energy company operations and management. In the emerging restructured energy market, retail energy suppliers market energy to final customers and must arrange for electricity generation or gas delivery to meet their customers' needs. EPRI and Primen sponsored a workshop in September 2000 that addressed a range of issues associated with load shapes, including modeling, profiling for retail market settlement, re...

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

Exploiting home automation protocols for load monitoring in smart buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring and controlling electrical loads is crucial for demand-side energy management in smart grids. Home automation (HA) protocols, such as X10 and Insteon, have provided programmatic load control for many years, and are being widely deployed in ...

David Irwin; Sean Barker; Aditya Mishra; Prashant Shenoy; Anthony Wu; Jeannie Albrecht

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Measuring Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

leading the effort to decipher MELs impacts on buildings Understanding and reducing the energy use of MELs is a significant problem. The buildings industry is working towards...

295

Designing electricity transmission auctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

296

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

297

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

298

Interruptible load control for Taiwan Power Company  

SciTech Connect

Load management is the planning and implementation of those utility activities designed to influence customer use of electricity in ways that will produce desired changes in the utility's load shape. Interruptible load program is an option of load management which provides incentive rate to customers to interrupt or reduce the power demand during the system peak period or emergency condition. Therefore, how to design a proper incentive rate is the most important issue in implementing this program. This paper describes three alternatives designed for the interruptible load program, one of which was activated by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) and some preliminary results were obtained. The effect of the interruptible load to the system peak demand reduction and the change of daily load curve for large industrial customers were analyzed. This paper estimates the avoided cost and design more appropriate incentive rate structure for interruptible load program.

Chen, C.S.; Leu, J.T. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (TW))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

DemandDirect | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DemandDirect DemandDirect Jump to: navigation, search Name DemandDirect Place Woodbury, Connecticut Zip 6798 Sector Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load management, and distributed generation services to end-use electricity customers in order to reduce electricity consumption, improve grid reliability, and promote renewable energy. Coordinates 44.440496°, -72.414991° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.440496,"lon":-72.414991,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Load Profiling and Settlement for Retail Markets Methods Assessment Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retail electric competition requires estimation of hourly loads for each retail supplier. Load profiling is the means by which loads for customers who do not have hourly metering are accounted for. This report presents an assessment of alternative load profiling and settlement methods for retail electric markets and provides a framework for evaluating costs and benefits of potential improvements to profiling and settlement systems. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Fund...

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

The Potential for Supply-Following Loads to Enable Deep Renewables...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrical loads that are responsive to grid conditions such as energy availability or electricity price. This talk presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of three...

304

Peak load control energy saving and cycling system  

SciTech Connect

A control system for limiting peak load demand and/or saving electrical energy by cycling the individual loads within an electrical distribution system is described. Electrical power usage in a distribution system is continuously monitored and compared to a pre-set limit. Loads can be added and cycled according to a limit set by the operator. Loads can also be dropped in response to a signal proportional to the electrical power usage in a distribution system within limits defined by the operator.

Burch, J.

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

305

Decentralized agent-based underfrequency load shedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the transition to a smart grid efforts are being made to decentralize control of electric power systems and modernize protection schemes that are currently in use. One specific application of distributed control is underfrequency load shedding ... Keywords: UFLS, Underfrequency load shedding, intelligent agents

Sara Mullen; Getiria Onsongo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Does EIA publish data on peak or hourly electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Financial market analysis and financial ... load (or demand) data in our Electric Power Annual ... hourly load/demand profiles for some Independent ...

307

Electric Power Annual 2004  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2004 iii Contacts Questions regarding this report may be directed to: Energy Information Administration, EI-53

308

Market Driven Distributed Energy Storage Requirements for Load Management Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric energy storage systems are an enabling technology that could help meet the needs of electric utility by managing peak energy demands, helping shift the peak loads to off peak hours and improving the load factor of the electric distribution system. Applications of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) could also provide power quality and reliability benefits to customers and to the electric system. EPRI collaborated with several investor owned utilities to conduct a study to understand the te...

2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

309

1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Energy Basics: Geothermal Electricity Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Direct Use Electricity Production Geothermal Resources Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean...

311

DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

owned integrated hydro electricity utilities prevail,s Loading Order for Electricity Resources”, Staff Report,International Developments in Electricity Demand Management

McNeil, MIchael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Investment under Regulatory Uncertainty: U.S. Electricity Generation Investment Since 1996  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

signi?cant growth in electricity demand. The returns thatmore closely follows electricity demand. Furthermore, whilestate and year where electricity demand (LogLoad) is larger

Ishii, Jun; Yan, Jingming

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Technical Update: Load Modeling in Power System Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been engaged in load modeling research since the 1980’s. In the past, EPRI conducted significant research in the area of load modeling and worked together with the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force in the development of the new composite load model developed and currently to be deployed in WECC. This work included extensive testing of various load components, such as residential air-conditioners, in the EPRI laboratories in Knoxville, TN. In ...

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

314

Analysis Methodology for Industrial Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology is provided for evaluating the impact of various demand-side management (DSM) options on industrial customers. The basic approach uses customer metered load profile data as a basis for the customer load shape. DSM technologies are represented as load shapes and are used as a basis for altering the customers existing measured load shape. The impact of load shape changes on the customer is evaluated in terms of a change in the electric bill by using a software analytical tool called LOADEXPERT™. The software calculates the customer's bill for a particular rate structure and a given load shape. The output data from LOADEXPERT™ are used to calculate the rate of return on the DSM technology investment. Other uses of load profile data are provided.

Reddoch, T. W.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs minimized. Because of the difficulty in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly related. The decrease in motor speed from no load conditions, referred to as slip, can be determined with a non-contact, optical tachometer. Field measurements of motor slip were conducted at a textile plant to quantify motor load conditions. To verify the relationship between operating speed and load, measurements of motor power consumption on a representative number of motors were also conducted. The results of the motor survey, including number of motors, size, and load, are summarized in this paper along with an estimate of the savings from replacing oversized motors.

Brown, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Computer Applications in Directional Solidification Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

load at high temperature were pointed out by. VerSnyder in 1959 .... In the analysis, the temperature profiles on the external mold .... sistances and the electrical.

317

Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

319

Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

Woolley, Robert D. (Belle Mead, NJ)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Method and System to Directly Produce Electrical Power within the Lithium Blanket Region of a Magnetically Confined, Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Fueled, Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

Woolley, Robert D.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Optimal charging scheduling for battery electric vehicles under smart grid.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??M.S. A projected high penetration of battery electric vehicles (BEV s) in the market will introduce an additional load in the electricity grid. Furthermore, uncontrolled… (more)

Abd Rahman, Nur Dayana

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Bi-Directional Fast Charging Study Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and software infrastructure needed to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing battery power in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles with a bi-directional...

324

The added economic and environmental value of plug-in electric vehicles connected to commercial building microgrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity and gas load profiles based on the Californiamatches the building load profile, the shaving potentialclosely follow the load profile, and therefore, PV panels

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Periodic load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiprocessor load balancing aims to improve performance by moving jobs from highly loaded processors to more lightly loaded processors. Some schemes allow only migration of new jobs upon arrival, while other schemes allow migration of ... Keywords: heavy traffic diffusion approximations, load balancing, periodic load balancing, reflected Brownian motion, resource sharing, transient behavior

Gísli Hjálmtýsson; Ward Whitt

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Electricity Restructuring: Deregulation or Reregulation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inside load pockets have much to learn from the U.S. steel industry. Generically, the production;2 Restructuring in the electricity industry is spreading across the United States and around the world. Some industries. THE ORIGIN OF ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY RESTRUCTURING Analysis of the electricity industry begins

California at Berkeley. University of

327

An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Texas Electric Lighting Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electric lighting electric lighting The SNAP House's lighting design aims for elegant simplicity in concept, use, and maintenance. Throughout the house, soft, ambient light is juxtaposed with bright, direct task lighting. All ambient and most task lighting is integrated directly into the architectural design of the house. An accent light wall between the bedroom and bathroom provides a glowing light for nighttime navigation.

329

A three phase load flow algorithm for Shipboard Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load Flow (Power Flow) is the determination of the steady state operating conditions for the system. This is a very important tool utilized by many real time applications in power systems. Traditional load flow methods, which incorporate Gauss-Seidel and/or Newton Raphson techniques, were primarily developed for transmission system analysis. Distribution load flow analysis must incorporate its unique characteristics such as unbalanced loads, distributed loads, radial network structure, and one, two, or three phase lines. Also, there are a variety of components included in distribution systems such as switches, transformers, voltage regulators, and distributed generators. Therefore, the traditional methods cannot be directly applied to distribution systems since the assumptions made for transmission systems are not valid for the unique characteristics of distribution systems. A Shipboard Power System (SPS) is a finite inertia electric power system. The generation, transmission, and distribution systems in SPSs are tightly coupled. In reality, the transmission system consists of the lines that interconnect the generator buses in a ring configuration. The distribution system consists of lines, transformers, and loads connected in a radial configuration. When analyzing a SPS, its distinct characteristics must be taken into consideration. Therefore, just as transmission and distribution systems have unique methods of analysis, SPSs also need a unique method of analysis. A load flow algorithm for a SPS must consider its distribution system characteristics as well as the unique characteristics of SPSs. The work presented in this thesis discussed a load flow algorithm developed for Shipboard Power Systems and terrestrial wye and delta connected radial distribution systems. The issues in developing a load flow algorithm for a SPS are addressed and the solution is presented. This solution combines three methods that addressed the issues of multiple sources, ring configuration, and radial load flow. This algorithm was tested on the IEEE 37 Bus Radial Distribution Test Feeder and a simplified Shipboard Power Test System developed by researchers in the Power System Automation Laboratory. The results produced minimal percent error when compared to the actual output results.

Medina-Calder?on, M?onica M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The impact of electricity pricing schemes on storage adoption in Ontario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ontario electrical grid is sized to meet peak electricity load. If this worst-case load were reduced, the government and Ontario tax-payers could defer large infrastructural costs, reducing the cost of generation and electricity prices. Storage, ...

Tommy Carpenter; Sahil Singla; Parsiad Azimzadeh; S. Keshav

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

A new approach applied to adaptive centralized load shedding scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of major contingencies of an electric power system is due to imbalance between loads and generated power. This leads to instability in the power system and hence to a blackout. A load shedding scheme may be used to avoid such problem by reducing ... Keywords: adaptive load shedding scheme, critical power, power system, threshold power

Hamid Bentarzi; Abderrahmane Ouadi; Nadir Ghout; Farid Maamri; Nikos E. Mastorakis

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Load-shape modeling in southeastern utility systems  

SciTech Connect

Load models are tools which have a wide range of application in the electric-utility industry. Some uses include monitoring load-management policies and helping with on-line commitment problems. The output from a load model can be placed in a suitable software environment where daily load curves are computed and displayed. Also, load models can be extended to perform forecasting functions. A weather sensitive load model that takes into account both weekdays and weekends on an hourly basis has been developed and applied to load shape modeling and short term forecasting on three southeastern electric utilities. A software package associated with the load modeling theory was developed and tested. This load-modeling program computes the daily load curve in terms of identifiable components. The program uses historical hourly load data to compute coefficients related to load components including base, growth, seasonal and weather. These coefficients can be used in a mathematical model to compute an estimate of the daily load curve with load values for each hour of the day. The load-modeling procedure described employs a linear least squares method for computing coefficients in the mathematical model.

Lebby, G.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Project Name GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems Country Spain Coordinates 40.338169, -3.438721 Loading map......

334

On the Dynamic Stability of Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity market models have become an indispensable tool for analyzing and pre- dicting the impact of diverse dynamic drivers (e.g., weather, load, fuel prices  ...

335

Load transfer coupling regression curve fitting for distribution load forecasting  

SciTech Connect

The planning of distribution facilities requires forecasts of future substation and feeder loads. Extrapolation based on a curve fit to past annual peak loads is currently the most popular manner of accomplishing this forecast. Curve fitting suffers badly from data shifts caused by switching as loads are routinely moved from one substation to another during the course of utility operations. This switching contaminates the data, reducing forecast accuracy. A new regression application reduces error due to these transfers by over an order of magnitude. A key to the usefulness of this method is that the amount of the transfer, and its direction (whether it was to or from a substation), is not a required input. The new technique, aspects of computer implementation of it, and a series of tests showing its advantage over normal multiple regression methods are given.

Willis, H.L.; Powell, R.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Definition: Base Load | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Load Load Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Base Load The minimum amount of electric power delivered or required over a given period at a constant rate.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Baseload (also base load, or baseload demand) is the minimum amount of power that a utility or distribution company must make available to its customers, or the amount of power required to meet minimum demands based on reasonable expectations of customer requirements. Baseload values typically vary from hour to hour in most commercial and industrial areas. Related Terms electricity generation, power, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An in Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from

337

Electricity & Energy Reliability (WFP) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electricity & Energy Reliability (WFP) Electricity & Energy Reliability (WFP) The purpose of the workforce Plan is to provide focus and direction to Human Resources (HR) strategy....

338

Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission  

Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission Technology Summary ... The invention can transmit electrical power through the surface of the ...

339

An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

Lu, Ning

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

340

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings Title Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5193E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Garbesi, Karina, Vagelis Vossos, Alan H. Sanstad, and Gabriel Burch Document Number LBNL-5193E Pagination 59 Date Published October Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the 'direct-DC house' with respect to today's typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly influenced by climate. While direct-DC for residential applications will most likely arise as a spin-off of developments in the commercial sector-because of lower barriers to market entry and larger energy benefits resulting from the higher coincidence between load and insolation-this paper demonstrates that there are substantial benefits in the residential sector as well. Among residential applications, space cooling derives the largest energy savings from being delivered by a direct-DC system. It is the largest load for the average residence on a national basis and is particularly so in high-load regions. It is also the load with highest solar coincidence.

343

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition: The total load profile obtained from  load individual load types if  load profiles of individual load composition validation: Load profiles generated by the load 

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

End-use load control for power system dynamic stability enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Faced with the prospect of increasing utilization of the transmission and distribution infrastructure without significant upgrade, the domestic electric power utility industry is investing heavily in technologies to improve network dynamic performance through a program loosely referred to as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). Devices exploiting recent advances in power electronics are being installed in the power system to offset the need to construct new transmission lines. These devices collectively represent investment potential of several billion dollars over the next decade. A similar development, designed to curtail the peak loads and thus defer new transmission, distribution, and generation investment, falls under a category of technologies referred to as demand side management (DSM). A subset of broader conservation measures, DSM acts directly on the load to reduce peak consumption. DSM techniques include direct load control, in which a utility has the ability to curtail specific loads as conditions warrant. A novel approach has been conceived by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to combine the objectives of FACTS and the technologies inherent in DSM to provide a distributed power system dynamic controller. This technology has the potential to dramatically offset major investments in FACTS devices by using direct load control to achieve dynamic stability objectives. The potential value of distributed versus centralized grid modulation has been examined by simulating the western power grid under extreme loading conditions. In these simulations, a scenario is analyzed in which active grid stabilization enables power imports into the southern California region to be increased several hundred megawatts beyond present limitations. Modeling results show distributed load control is up to 30 percent more effective than traditional centralized control schemes in achieving grid stability.

Dagle, J.E.; Winiarski, D.W.; Donnelly, M.K.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Apparatus and method for partial-load operation of a combined gas and steam turbine plant  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method are disclosed for the partial load operation of a combined gas turbine and steam turbine plant, including a shaft being connected to the gas turbine and drivable at a given nominal speed of rotation, a first generator being connected to the shaft and electrically connectible to an electric network, a compressor being connected to the shaft and connected upstream of the gas turbine in gas flow direction, a heat exchanger having an output and a variable heat supply and being connected upstream of the gas turbine in gas flow direction, a steam generator for the steam turbine being connected downstream of the gas turbine in gas flow direction for receiving exhaust gases therefrom, a second generator being connected to the steam turbine and electrically connectible to the electric network for supplying given nominal power thereto along with the first generator, means for giving to the electric network and taking away from the network at least part of the nominal power if the shaft rotates at less than the nominal speed of rotation, and means for reducing the speed of rotation of the gas turbine for preventing a substantial drop in temperature at the output of the heat exchanger if the heat supply of the heat exchanger is reduced.

Becker, B.; Finckh, H.; Meyer-pittroff, R.

1982-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

346

A new approach to estimate commercial sector end-use load shapes and energy use intensities  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the application of an end-use load shape estimation technique to develop annual energy use intensities (EUIs) and hourly end-use load shapes (LSs) for commercial buildings in the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) service territory. Results will update inputs for the commercial sector energy and peak demand forecasting models used by PG&E and the California Energy Commission (CEC). EUIs were estimated for 11 building types, up to 10 end uses, 3 fuel types, 2 building vintages, and up to 5 climate regions. The integrated methodology consists of two major parts. The first part is the reconciliation of initial end-use load-shape estimates with measured whole-building load data to produce intermediate EUIs and load shapes, using LBL`s End-use Disaggregation Algorithm, EDA. EDA is a deterministic hourly algorithm that relies on the observed characteristics of the measured hourly whole-building electricity use and disaggregates it into major end-use components. The end-use EUIs developed through the EDA procedure represent a snap-shot of electricity use by building type and end-use for two regions of the PG&E service territory, for the year that disaggregation is performed. In the second part of the methodology, we adjust the EUIs for direct application to forecasting models based on factors such as climatic impacts on space-conditioning EUIs, fuel saturation effects, building and equipment vintage, and price impacts. Core data for the project are detailed on-site surveys for about 800 buildings, mail surveys ({approximately}6000), load research data for over 1000 accounts, and hourly weather data for five climate regions.

Akbari, H.; Eto, J.; Konopacki, S.; Afzal, A.; Heinemeier, K.; Rainer, L.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Definition: Reduced Electricity Losses | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Losses Losses Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Electricity Losses Functions that provide this benefit could help manage peak feeder loads, reduced electricity throughput, locate electricity production closer to the load and ensure that voltages remain within service tolerances, while minimizing the amount of reactive power provided. These actions can reduce electricity losses by making the system more efficient for a given load served or by actually reducing the overall load on the system.[1] Related Terms load, electricity generation, reactive power, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An inl LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ine Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reduced_Electricity_Losses&oldid=502644

348

EA-278-B Direct Commodities Trading Inc - Recission  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Order rescinding the authorization of Direct Commodities Trading Inc to export electric energy to Canada.

349

Space cooling demands from office plug loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Undersizing space cooling systems for office buildings can result in uncomfortable and angry tenants on peak cooling days. However, oversizing wastes money because more capacity is installed than is needed, and oversized systems have a lower energy efficiency which makes operating costs higher than necessary. Oversizing can adversely affect comfort as well, because oversized systems may provide poor humidity control and large temperature variations. Correct system sizing requires estimating building heat loads accurately. This paper discusses the heat load generated by the plug load, which includes any electrical equipment that is plugged into outlets.

Komor, P.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The model electric restaurant  

SciTech Connect

Restaurants are the most intensive users of energy of all types of commercial buildings. As a result, they have some of the highest energy costs. New and existing restaurants are important customers to electric utilities. Many opportunities exist to use electricity to improve restaurant energy performance. This report discusses a project in which computer simulations were used to investigate restaurant energy subsystem performance and to assess the potential for electric equipment to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak demand improve load factors, and reduce energy cost in new all-electric restaurants. The project investigated typical restaurant designs for all-electric and gas/electric facilities and compared them to high efficiency electric options in all-electric restaurants. This analysis determined which investiments in high-efficiency electric equipment are attractive for restaurant operators. Improved equipment for food preparation, heating and cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and lighting subsystem was studied in cafeteria, full menu, fast food, and pizza restaurants in Atlanta, Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Phoenix. In addition to the actual rate structures, four synthetic rate structures were used to calculate energy costs, so that the results can be applied to other locations. The results indicate that high efficiency and improved all-electric equipment have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption, peak demand, and operating costs in almost all restaurants in all locations. The all-electric restaurants, with a combination of improved equipment, also offer the customer a competitive choice in fuels in most locations. 12 refs., 26 figs., 55 tabs.

Frey, D.J.; Oatman, P.A. (Architectural Energy Corp., Boulder, CO (USA)); Claar, C.N. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads ...  

A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the ...

352

Electric Vehicles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Electricity can be used as a transportation fuel to power battery electric vehicles (EVs). EVs store electricity in an energy storage device, such as a battery.

353

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Discharge circuits and loads  

SciTech Connect

This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

Sarjeant, W.J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and ...  

The vehicle includes an electric motor rotatable in opposite directions corresponding to opposite directions of vehicle movement.

356

New Electric Grid Technologies for Renewable Integration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and changing electric loads that are becoming part of the "orchestra" · Dealing with economic and public policy & Intelligent Agent (temporal power flow control) · Solar and Wind Forecasting Tools · Generator and LoadNew Electric Grid Technologies for Renewable Integration - The Need for Being Smarter - Presented

Islam, M. Saif

357

Flexible loads in future energy networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a vignette of an information-rich energy network with flexible and responsive electrical loads in the form of a domestic refrigerator augmented with a thermal storage system and a supply-following controller that responds to the availability ... Keywords: renewable, supply-following

Jay Taneja, Ken Lutz, David Culler

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Exercising flexible load contracts: Two simple strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flexible load contract is a type of swing option where the holder has the right to receive a given quantity of electricity within a specified period, at a fixed maximum effect (delivery rate). The contract is flexible, in the sense that delivery (the ... Keywords: energy, exercise strategy, flexibility, swing option, uncertainty

Petter Bjerksund; Bjarte Myksvoll; Gunnar Stensland

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Incentivizing Advanced Load Scheduling in Smart Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, researchers have proposed numerous advanced load scheduling algorithms for smart homes with the goal of reducing the grid's peak power usage. In parallel, utilities have introduced variable rate pricing plans to incentivize residential ... Keywords: Battery, Electricity, Energy, Grid

Ye Xu, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Propagation in LHM slab loaded rectangular waveguide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strange properties of Left - Handed Materials (LHM), whose permittivity and permeability are both negative, is briefly introduced. The electric- and magnetic-field components are given in rectangular waveguide loaded with LHM by use of field component ... Keywords: cutoff wavelength, dispersion equation, group velocity, left-handed materials, rectangular waveguide

Rui-Lian Li

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

EFCOG / DOE Electrical Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

&D Decontamination and Decommissioning dc direct current DOE Department of Energy EFCOG Energy Facility Contractors Purpose: This tool is intended to determine the severity of an electrical energy event based reportability. Scope: This tool establishes a standardized approach for tracking and trending electrical energy

363

Power Electronics and Electric Machines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEEM Activities Application Power Electronics Electric Machines Traction Drive System Inverter & Boost Converter (if needed) MotorGenerator Vehicle Power Management Bi-directional...

364

Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Stefan P. Muszala  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Simulation by Stefan P. Muszala B.S., B.A. Rutgers and Computer Engineering 2008 #12;This thesis entitled: Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Engineering) Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Simulation Thesis directed by Dr. Daniel Connors

Colorado at Boulder, University of

365

Load Management - A Better Way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ohio Edison Company serves about 800,000 customers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, making it one of the 20 largest electric utilities in the nation. The 'cost of service' concept has been basic to rate design throughout the history of the company, and is evident today as the demand related charges have escalated in recent rate cases reflecting the higher costs of installing new generating facilities at today's high construction and financing costs. This paper will describe one of the many applications of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows existing plants to be more fully utilized, resulting in lower costs to customers who use their electric service wisely and possibly lower rate increases in the future than would have been required otherwise.

Easley, J. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Assessment of Wind Loads On Power Lines--Methodology and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind load on electrical conductors is one of the most critical design loads for transmission structures, but many methods of determining wind load have only recently been validated experimentally. This document draws on EPRI field research to assist engineers in accurately determining design wind loads for conductors and helping utilities construct new transmission lines and upgrade existing lines at minimum cost while retaining reliability.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

367

The Slope of Moist Symmetric Instability with Water Loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Idealized numerical experiments, supported by analytic considerations, are performed to determine the preferred direction of symmetric instability when water loading is considered. It is concluded that the most unstable direction is tangent to a ...

Maurizio Fantini; Piero Malguzzi

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Improving shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) measures equipment performance by measuring and analyzing the source power to the equipment at a single point in the electrical system. Previous studies have proven the usefulness of ...

Jones, Richard A. (Richard Alan), Nav. E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Analyzing the Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity at Different Sites in California and the Northwest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

17 2.7 Electricity Price and Loadpeaking wholesale electricity prices and loads, while mostload and wholesale electricity price series for California

Fripp, Matthias; Wiser, Ryan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

77 CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY BILL SAVINGS FROM RESIDENTIALresidential load and electricity bill by TOU period. (in the customer’s electricity bills. The second chapter of

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Forecasting Electricity Demand on Short, Medium and Long Time Scales Using Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the modelling and forecasting of electricity demand experienced by an electricity supplier. The data used in the application examples relates to the national electricity demand ... Keywords: Box–Jenkins model, artificial neural networks, electrical load, electricity demand, load forecasting

J. V. Ringwood; D. Bofelli; F. T. Murray

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Adoption Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The imminent introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the automotive marketplace has the potential to dramatically affect electricity service providers. The vehicles will require infrastructure that facilitates recharging, and the resulting electric load could have a combination of positive and negative effects on utility systems. To characterize the effects, it is necessary to forecast the size of the PEV fleet and its electricity consumption. The electricity use must be analyzed over long ...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

374

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data for modeling the 2030 power system. The load forecasts, fuel price forecasts, and generation.37 Electrical Accessory Load (W) 260 260 260 A/C Load (W)8 1088 1088 1344 Engine Specific Power (W/kg) 920 920Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions

Pennycook, Steve

375

C I R E D 22nd International Conference on Electricity Distribution Stockholm, 10-13 June 2013 CIRED2013 Session 5 Paper No 1205  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scheduling for electrical vehicles, thermal load scheduling, optimal utilization of rooftop solar panels

Langseth, Helge

376

A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generate electricity and thermal energy to serve heating andenergy source for thermal energy loads and the generation of2 emissions. Electricity and thermal energy production from

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Measurement and analysis of the standby power of twenty-seven portable electric spas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Portable electric spas are typically the largest electrical load in homes that have one. In recent years, the California Energy Commission’s California code of… (more)

Hamill, Andrew Ian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Annotated compilation of the sources of information related to the usage of electricity in non-industrial applications. [Includes about 400 abstracts and glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a thorough compilation of the sources of information related to the usage of electricity in non-industrial applications, as available in the open literature and from the U.S. electrical power industry. The report's scope encompasses all aspects of: electric load management; end use; and the various methods of acquisition, analysis and implementation of electricity usage data. There are over 400 abstracts; 156 from the Load Research Committee of Association of Edison Illuminating Companies (LRC/AEIC) reports and 264 from the open literature. The abstracts over references containing over 12,000 pages plus about 2,500 references and 6,200 graphs and tables pertinent to electricity usage in non-industrial applications. In addition to the LRC/AEIC abstracts, this document identifies over 100 sources of directly relevant information (in contrast to general interest sources and material of secondary relevance).

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicle design. Dr.on electric and hybrid vehicle technology and applicationsand performance. Hybrid vehicles utilizing a load leveling

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Gas turbine control and load sharing of a shipboard power system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this research is to design a controller for a gas turbine of an ElectricShipboard Power System (ESPS) and to develop a load… (more)

Fernandes, Anisha M. C., 1980-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Evaluation of Opportunities for Load Shifting With Fast Charging at Del Monte Foods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fast charging of forklift batteries in warehouse facilities may allow companies to benefit from the load-leveling initiatives of electric suppliers.

2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

384

Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis Anthony in order to mitigate the unpredictable and non-controllable fluctuation of renewable power supply. We cast for optimally supplying renewable power to time-flexible electricity loads in the presence of a spot market

Oren, Shmuel S.

385

Enhancements to ANNSTLF, EPRI's Short Term Load Forecaster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable hourly load forecasts are important to electric utilities, power marketers, energy service providers, and independent system operators. To meet this need, EPRI's Artificial Neural Net Short Term Load Forecaster (ANNSTLF), which is already implemented at more than thirty-five utilities, was recently enhanced for greater accuracy and user friendliness.

1997-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

386

STLOAD 1.1 (Substation Terminal Equipment Loading Software)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI’s Substation Terminal Equipment Loading software (STLOAD 1.1) calculates temperatures and thermal ratings for substation equipment based on physical parameters of the equipment, electrical load, air temperature, and, where appropriate, solar heating and wind. This provides a convenient way for substation engineers to maximize the usage of existing substation terminal equipment under a wide variety of operating conditions. STLOAD can perform temperature and rating calculations for a daily load and am...

2009-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

387

Using DER in Transmission-Constrained Urban Load Pockets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban load centers are characterized by their dense population, environmental constraints, as well as transmission-constrained electricity delivery. They also have potentially high infrastructure investment costs for distribution system investments to meet peak load growth. This report looks at seven areas in the United States that have been identified as transmission-constrained load pockets, focusing on opportunities for using distributed energy resources (DER).

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

388

Achieving Controllability of Plug-in Electric Ian Hiskens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aggregator. The aggregator acquires data from plug-in electric vehicle loads in its area, and builds loads are distributed throughout the grid, they provide the opportunity to devise spatially precise reAchieving Controllability of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Ian Hiskens Electrical Engineering

Hiskens, Ian A.

389

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Structural load combinations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ or 1.0 x 10/sup -5/ during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Watershed Mercury Loading Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains and illustrates a simplified stochastic framework, the Watershed Mercury Loading Framework, for organizing and framing site-specific knowledge and information on mercury loading to waterbodies. The framework permits explicit treatment of data uncertainties. This report will be useful to EPRI members, state and federal regulatory agencies, and watershed stakeholders concerned with mercury-related human and ecological health risk.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

392

LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the magnetic field and its effect on moving charges. You also saw how electric currents could create magnetic the magnetic flux through a coil of wire to produce an electric current. You will investigate the current are necessary for a magnetic field to produce an electric current. · Determine the direction of a current

Minnesota, University of

393

The Pricing of Electricity to Aluminum Smelters in the Northwest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal agency marketing electric power in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville sells power from federal hydroelectric projects and two nuclear projects to public and private utilities and directly to several major industrial firms, primarily aluminum companies operating aluminum smelters in the region. These direct service industries (DSIs) have a contractual right to purchase up to 3.500 average megawatts annually from Bonneville. Because the aluminum smelters in the Northwest are generally older and less efficient than plants in other parts of the world and because aluminum companies are facing lower electricity prices in other parts of the world, the Northwest plants have become "swing" plants. That is when the world price of aluminum is high, these plants will run at capacity but they are the first plants to shut down when the world price of aluminum is low. Because of these factors, DSIs have been purchasing only about 2.700 megawatts annually, and annual purchases have been as low as 1.670 megawatts. Sales to the DSIs represent about 45 percent of all industrial uses of electricity or about 18 percent of total electricity loads in the four-state region and about 23 percent of all Bonneville sales. The dramatic fluctuations in Bonnevilles revenue brought on by operating the aluminum plants in the region as swing plants have prompted Bonneville to search for innovative pricing schemes designed to maintain its revenue base. Bonneville's proposed strategy includes tying the price of electricity it sells to the aluminum smelters to the world price of aluminum. This paper will examine Bonneville's proposed pricing strategy; it will also examine other strategies to reduce uncertainty in the region's future electric load.

Foley, T. J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Electricity Consumption Electricity Consumption EIA Electricity Consumption Estimates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Consumption Consumption Electricity Consumption EIA Electricity Consumption Estimates (million kWh) National Petroleum Council Assumption: The definition of electricity con- sumption and sales used in the NPC 1999 study is the equivalent ofwhat EIA calls "sales by utilities" plus "retail wheeling by power marketers." This A nn u al Gro wth total could also be called "sales through the distribution grid," 2o 99 99 to Sales by Utilities -012% #N/A Two other categories of electricity consumption tracked by EIA cover on site Retail Wheeling Sales by generation for host use. The first, "nonutility onsite direct use," covers the Power Marketen 212.25% #N/A traditional generation/cogeneration facilities owned by industrial or large All Sales Through Distribution

395

Automated fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

397

Status of load management storage demonstrations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE is funding a nationwide demonstration of electric load management through the use of utility-controlled, customer-side thermal energy storage for residential space conditioning. The general concept of the projects was developed with the assistance of a broadly based working group drawn from the utility industry. This paper presents the current status of these demonstrations. Ten demonstrations are underway - five heat storage and five cool storage - using between 30 and 50 near-commercial thermal storage devices. The installations and experimental program are designed to: (1) collect reliable load research data for assessing the impact on the utility system; (2) delineate and solve installation problems; (3) establish maintainability; (4) illuminate customer and utility acceptance; and (5) generate cost data. The results obtained are expected to assist utilities in making local load-management decisions, to assist DOE in establishing priorities for R and D efforts in load management, and to provide objective information related to the electric system impact, energy conservation, and cost-effectiveness of this form of load management.

Long, H M; Mohre, D L

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: March 2012 End Use: March 2012 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by State regulators. However, a number of States have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by State Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

399

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: September 2011 End Use: September 2011 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by State regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by State Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

400

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: October 2013 End Use: October 2013 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by state regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by state Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: January 2012 End Use: January 2012 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by state regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by State Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

402

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: December 2011 End Use: December 2011 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by state regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by State Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

403

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: August 2011 End Use: August 2011 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by State regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average revenue per kWh by state Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

404

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: November 2011 End Use: November 2011 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by state regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by State Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

405

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: February 2012 End Use: February 2012 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by State regulators. However, a number of States have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by State Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

406

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

End Use: October 2011 End Use: October 2011 Retail Rates/Prices and Consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by state regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on retail sales revenues and volumes, we calculate average retail revenues per kWh as a proxy for retail rates and prices. Retail sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by State Percent Change ¢ Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent change in average revenue

407

Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

408

JGI - Directions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Map to JGI Directions from Directions from key local start points, public transit Home > About Us > Map to JGI UC logo DOE logo Contact Us Credits Disclaimer Access...

409

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: February 2012 Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: February 2012 Stocks The unseasonably warm temperatures that the continental United States experienced throughout the winter, coupled with low natural gas prices, caused coal stocks at power plants to increase throughout the winter of 2011 - 2012. During this period, coal stocks usually see a seasonal decline due to the added need for electricity generation from coal plants for spacing heating load. However, it was the sixth straight month that coal stocks increased from the previous month, with this trend likely to continue as the country enters into spring. Days of Burn Days of burn Coal capacity The average number of days of burn held at electric power plants is a forward looking estimate of coal supply given a power plant's current

410

Prospects for electric vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the current state-of- the-art of electric vehicles (EVs) with examples of recently developed prototype vehicles - Electric G-Van, Chrysler TEVan, Eaton DSEP and Ford/GE ETX-II. The acceleration, top speed and range of these electric vehicles are delineated to demonstrate their performance capabilities, which are comparable with conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. The prospects for the commercialization of the Electric G-van and the TEVan and the improvements expected from the AC drive systems of the DSEP and ETX-II vehicles are discussed. The impacts of progress being made in the development of a fuel cell/battery hybrid bus and advanced EVs on the competitiveness of EVs with ICE vehicles and their potential for reduction of air pollution and utility load management are postulated.

Patil, P.G. (Research and Development, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Div., U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

413

Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electricity Reliability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lines and bar graph Electricity Reliability The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) conducts research, develops, and disseminates new methods, tools,...

415

Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Interactions with a Sustainable Community Grid in the Azores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

examples of the typical load profiles used in this work.Figure 2. Example daily load profiles based for the healthFigure 5 - Electrical load profile of an August week day for

Mendes, Goncalo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Load management and the La Vereda passive solar community  

SciTech Connect

Reviewed are preliminary data available from some of the passive solar homes now operational at the La Vereda subdivision in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The major emphasis is Load Management - an electric utility term pertaining to when and how much energy is used by the customer. A customer's home is considered to be Load Managed when its major demands for electricity occur at times during the day when the utility has surplus generation capacity. For most utilities this surplus occurs during the night and is referred to as the off-peak period. Compared to conventional electric homes, the La Vereda passive solar homes are Naturally Load Managed because most of their backup heating requirements occur during the utility's off-peak period. Naturally Load Managed homes like these allow the backup heating system to operate freely whenever the space needs heat. Load data from six La Vereda homes are compared to similar data from 1) a group of nonsolar super-insulated total electric homes, and 2) the utility's winter system peak day load profile. The comparison verifies the Natural Load Management characteristics of the well-designed passive solar home. The free operation of the backup heating system, especially during cloudy or severe weather, can reduce the Natural Load Management characteristics of the La Verda homes. Is it possible to Force Load Management on a home, regardless of weather conditions and still guarantee that all space heating requirements are satisfied with off-peak energy. One home at La Vereda is discussed that has an experimental Forced Load Management backup heating system designed to use energy only during the utility's off-peak period. Load data from this home is presented and compared to other homes at La Verda.

Pyde, S.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Demand Dispatch Based on Smart Charging of Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled charging of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) has a negative impact on the peak load and brings potential challenges to electric utility. In this paper, we apply a statistical load model of PEVs charging demand to simulate the driving habits ... Keywords: Plug-in Electric Vehicles, Demand dispatch, Smart charging, Driving habits, Load model

Ting Wu, Gang Wu, Zhejing Bao, Wenjun Yan, Yiyan Zhang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Draft Wholesale Power Price Forecasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANN-based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets Hong Chen Claudio A. Ca~nizares Ajit forecasting technique that considers electricity price as one of the main characteristics of the system load. B. Makram, "A Hybrid Wavelet- Kalman Filter Method for Load Forecasting," Electric Power Systems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Engineering-industry, secondary: Econometrics. 1 Introduction The electric power mid-term loads forecasting: Estimated annual temperature sensitive electricity load components 3 Mid-term load forecasting StatisticalAir-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AMR CSP DOE DR ELRP ETS EWH FERC HV ISO LBNL M&V MV PURPAto participate, consistent with FERC policy direction. PJMLoad Response Program, FERC Electric Tariff First Revised

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! Home > Groups > Utility Rate Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL I am pleased to announce that simulated hourly residential and commercial building load datasets are now available on OpenEI. These datasets are available for all TMY3 locations in the United States. They contain hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). In addition to various

424

Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how an electric utility system is modeled by using load flow techniques to establish a validated power flow case suitable for simulating and evaluating alternative system scenarios. Details of the load flow model are supported by additional technical and descriptive information intended to correlate modeled electrical system parameters with the corresponding physical equipment that makes up the system. Pictures and technical specifications of system equipment from the utility, public, or vendor are provided to support this association for many system components. The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load flow parameters and other electrical system information.

Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Direct conversion technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

427

OpenEI - load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

428

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

429

Coal stockpiles at electric power plants were above average ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... decline during summer and winter as power plants burn through stocks to meet peak electricity demand for heating and cooling, ... overall heating load in ...

430

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - Southwest...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

431

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - Reliability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

432

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - Western...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

433

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - Northeast...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

434

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

435

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - Midwest...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

436

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - Florida...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

437

AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - United States...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

438

ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category.
...

439

Distribution substation load impacts of residential air conditioner load control  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing experiment to monitor the substation level load impacts of end-use load control is described. An overview of the data acquisition system, experimental procedures and analysis techniques are provided. Results of the 1983 and 1984 experiments demonstrate the value of aggregate load impact monitoring as a means of verifying load research results, calculating the diversity of end-use loads, and predicting the impacts of load management on the transmission and distribution systems.

Heffner, G.C.; Kaufman, D.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Discharge Permit (Vermont) Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont) Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial MunicipalPublic Utility Rural Electric Cooperative...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads  

SciTech Connect

Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; /Fermilab; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

442

Combining artificial neural networks and heuristic rules in a hybrid intelligent load forecast system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is combined to Heuristic Rules producing a powerful hybrid intelligent system for short and mid-term electric load forecasting. The Heuristic Rules are used to adjust the ANN output to improve the system ... Keywords: artificial neural networks, electric load forecast, heuristic rules, hybrid system

Ronaldo R. B. de Aquino; Aida A. Ferreira; Manoel A. Carvalho, Jr.; Milde M. S. Lira; Geane B. Silva; Otoni Nóbrega Neto

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

A computational intelligence scheme for the prediction of the daily peak load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasting of future electricity demand is very important for decision making in power system operation and planning. In recent years, due to privatization and deregulation of the power industry, accurate electricity forecasting has become an important ... Keywords: Computational intelligence, Daily peak load, Mid-term load forecasting, Self-organizing map, Support vector machine

Jawad Nagi; Keem Siah Yap; Farrukh Nagi; Sieh Kiong Tiong; Syed Khaleel Ahmed

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins in the Contiguous United States (GW) Net Internal Capacity Capacity Demand (1) Resources (2) Margin (3) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Note(s): Source(s): 778.5 980.3 20.6% 1) Net internal demand represents the system demand that is planned for by the electric power industry`s reliability authority and is equal to internal demand less direct control load management and interruptible demand. Direct control load management: Customer demand that can be interrupted at the time of the seasonal peak by direct control of the system operator by interrupting power supply to individual appliances or equipment on customer premises. This type of control usually reduces the demand of residential customers. Interruptible demand: Customer

445

Load Pocket Forecasting Software E. A. Feinberg, D. Genethliou, J.T. Hajagos, B.G. Irrgang, and R. J. Rossin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity RequirementsElectricity Requirements Council Load Forecast and Portfolio Model Range 10000 15000 and Conservation Council for the Load Forecasting Advisory Committee Friday June 27, 2008 2 Overview Electricity RequirementsElectricity Requirements 5th Plan Non-DSI Price Effects Sales Forecasts 12000 14000

Feinberg, Eugene A.

446

Energy Basics: Direct-Use of Geothermal Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Direct Use Electricity Production Geothermal Resources Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean...

447

Electricity Markets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electricity Markets Electricity Markets Researchers in the electricity markets area conduct technical, economic, and policy analysis of energy topics centered on the U.S. electricity sector. Current research seeks to inform public and private decision-making on public-interest issues related to energy efficiency and demand response, renewable energy, electricity resource and transmission planning, electricity reliability and distributed generation resources. Research is conducted in the following areas: Energy efficiency research focused on portfolio planning and market assessment, design and implementation of a portfolio of energy efficiency programs that achieve various policy objectives, utility sector energy efficiency business models, options for administering energy efficiency

448

Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrialchanges the time of electricity demand to off-peak hours.Load shedding curtails electricity demand during a DR event.

McKane, Aimee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Analysis of Loads and Wind Energy Potential for Remote Power Stations in Alaska University of Massachusetts Amherst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of Loads and Wind Energy Potential for Remote Power Stations in Alaska Mia Devine Electric Use (kWh/year) 2,173,400 1,032,800 2,520,500 Average Load 300 kW 140 kW 280 kW Peak Load 600 k load profile. Villages usuall

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

450

Volumetric Hedging in Electricity Procurement Department of Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Volumetric Hedging in Electricity Procurement Yumi Oum Department of Industrial Engineering electricity service at regulated prices in restructured electricity markets, face price and quantity risk. We in the electricity industry has put high price risk on market partici- pants, particularly on load serving entities

451

A model of the domestic hot water load  

SciTech Connect

The electrical load required to supply domestic hot water is an important load for two reasons: (1) It represents a large portion (30 to 50%) of the domestic load; (2) It is a load which can easily be controlled by the consumer or the supplier, because the use of the hot water need not coincide with the heating of hot water. A model representing the electrical system load due to hot water consumption from storage water heaters is provided. Variable parameters include the average amount of water used, the mean and deviation of distributions of usage times, thermostat settings, inlet water temperature and electrical heating element ratings. These parameters are used to estimate the after diversity electricity demand profile, and were verified for accuracy by comparison with measurements. The model enables this prediction of the effects of load control, examples of which are given in this paper. The model is also useful for evaluation of the response which could be expected from demand-side management options. These include changing the size of heating elements, reduction in water consumption and reduction in thermostat settings.

Lane, I.E. [Energy Efficiency Enterprises, Lynnwood Manor (South Africa); Beute, N. [Cape Technikon, Cape Town (South Africa)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

October 2011 | Release Date: Dec. 21, October 2011 | Release Date: Dec. 21, 2011 | Next Release Date: Jan. 30, 2012 | Re-Release Date: November 28, 2012 (correction) Previous Issues Issue: November 2013 October 2013 September 2013 August 2013 July 2013 June 2013 May 2013 April 2013 March 2013 February 2013 January 2013 December 2012 November 2012 Previous issues Format: html xls Go Highlights: October 2011 Mixed temperatures led to flat retail sales of electricity during October 2011. Coal-fired generation decreased or was flat across the United States except for the Central region when compared to October 2010. October's electric system load remained in the mid-to-low section of the annual range in many electric systems across the United States. Key Indicators Oct. 2011 % Change from Oct. 2010

454

Electricity Monthly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Highlights: October 2011 Highlights: October 2011 Mixed temperatures led to flat retail sales of electricity during October 2011. Coal-fired generation decreased or was flat across the United States except for the Central region when compared to October 2010. October's electric system load remained in the mid-to-low section of the annual range in many electric systems across the United States. Key Indicators Oct. 2011 % Change from Oct. 2010 Total Net Generation (Thousand MWh) 309,400 0.5% Residential Retail Price (cents/kWh) 12.12 2.2% Retail Sales (Thousand MWh) 285,156 -0.9% Heating Degree-Days 259 8.8% Natural Gas Price, Henry Hub ($/MMBtu) 3.68 4.0% Coal Stocks (Thousand Tons) 156,880 -10.7% Coal Consumption (Thousand Tons) 69,627 -1.8% Natural Gas Consumption (Mcf) 603,724 1.6%

455

Lincoln Electric | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lincoln Electric Lincoln Electric Facility Lincoln Electric Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Lincoln Electric Developer Lincoln Electric Energy Purchaser Lincoln Electric Location Euclid OH Coordinates 41.58468216°, -81.52579665° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.58468216,"lon":-81.52579665,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

456

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

457

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure.and Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayand Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

Piette, Mary Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. , 345for Residen- tial Winter and Summer Air Conditioning,Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 1228 17th Street,

Sullivan, Paul W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standards & Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Roadmap there haveinvolved in a number of Smart Grid standardization effortsCommittee, and the NAESB Smart Grid Standards Taskforce.

Piette, Mary Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Investigation of Stress Indices and Directional Loading of Eccentric Reducers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineering for fatigue is an essential concern in piping systems. Addressing this concern, the ASME Section III and ANSI B31.1 Codes provide stress indices and stress intensification factors (SIFs) to be used in the design and evaluation of Class 1, 2, and 3 systems. In recent research cosponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), new test data have been developed for comparison with the ASME stress indices and SIFs. This report presents the results of fatigue tests on eccentric reducers,...

2003-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct electricity load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

networks used in energy management systems to IP networkswith residential energy management systems and is beingequipment (e.g. energy management and control system - EMCS)

Piette, Mary Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the publication Insulation Manual: Homes and Apartments [in Table 2 and thermal insulation values by city are givenArea) WALL AREAS Front e Insulation Area (75% of net wall

Sullivan, Paul W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

Brown, Ralph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Guilford, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stichman, John H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

465

NREL: Energy Analysis: Electric System Flexibility and Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric System Flexibility and Storage Electric System Flexibility and Storage Options for Increasing Electric System Flexibility to Accommodate Higher Levels of Variable Renewable Electricity Increased electric system flexibility, needed to enable electricity supply-demand balance with high levels of renewable generation, can come from a portfolio of supply- and demand-side options, including flexible conventional generation, grid storage, curtailment of some renewable generation, new transmission, and more responsive loads. NREL's electric system flexibility studies investigate the role of various electric system flexibility options on large-scale deployment of renewable energy. NREL's electric system flexibility analyses show that: Key factors in improving grid flexibility include (1) increasing the

466

Electric Power Annual 2011 - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Electricity Sales ; Table 2.1. Number of ultimate customers served by sector, by provider XLS: Table 2.2. Retail sales and direct use of electricity to ultimate ...

467

Direct Conversion Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468