National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for direct cost indirect

  1. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  2. Federal Energy Subsidies Direct and Indirect Interventions in Energy Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1992-01-01

    A one-time study defining direct and indirect federal energy subsidies, methods of valuation of such subsidies, and a survey of existing subsidies.

  3. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsIndirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) Campaign Links ISDAC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Parameterization of Extinction...

  5. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  6. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Authors: Zhang, Yi ; Chang, Tay-Rong ; Zhou, Bo ; Cui, Yong-Tao ; Yan, Hao ; Liu, Zhongkai ; Schmitt, Felix ; Lee, James ; Moore, Rob ; Chen, Yulin ; Lin, Hsin ; Jeng, Horng-Tay

  7. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and

  8. (In)direct detection of boosted dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Cui, Yanou; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse E-mail: cuiyo@umd.edu E-mail: jthaler@mit.edu

    2014-10-01

    We initiate the study of novel thermal dark matter (DM) scenarios where present-day annihilation of DM in the galactic center produces boosted stable particles in the dark sector. These stable particles are typically a subdominant DM component, but because they are produced with a large Lorentz boost in this process, they can be detected in large volume terrestrial experiments via neutral-current-like interactions with electrons or nuclei. This novel DM signal thus combines the production mechanism associated with indirect detection experiments (i.e. galactic DM annihilation) with the detection mechanism associated with direct detection experiments (i.e. DM scattering off terrestrial targets). Such processes are generically present in multi-component DM scenarios or those with non-minimal DM stabilization symmetries. As a proof of concept, we present a model of two-component thermal relic DM, where the dominant heavy DM species has no tree-level interactions with the standard model and thus largely evades direct and indirect DM bounds. Instead, its thermal relic abundance is set by annihilation into a subdominant lighter DM species, and the latter can be detected in the boosted channel via the same annihilation process occurring today. Especially for dark sector masses in the 10 MeV10 GeV range, the most promising signals are electron scattering events pointing toward the galactic center. These can be detected in experiments designed for neutrino physics or proton decay, in particular Super-K and its upgrade Hyper-K, as well as the PINGU/MICA extensions of IceCube. This boosted DM phenomenon highlights the distinctive signatures possible from non-minimal dark sectors.

  9. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Shelton, Jessie E-mail: katz.andrey@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  10. The Measure of Human Error: Direct and Indirect Performance Shaping Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Candice D. Griffith; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2007-08-01

    The goal of performance shaping factors (PSFs) is to provide measures to account for human performance. PSFs fall into two categoriesdirect and indirect measures of human performance. While some PSFs such as time to complete a task are directly measurable, other PSFs, such as fitness for duty, can only be measured indirectly through other measures and PSFs, such as through fatigue measures. This paper explores the role of direct and indirect measures in human reliability analysis (HRA) and the implications that measurement theory has on analyses and applications using PSFs. The paper concludes with suggestions for maximizing the reliability and validity of PSFs.

  11. FY 2011 Third Quarter Report Estimate of Historical Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-06-22

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects estimated from Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations are -0.06 W m-2 and -1.39 W m-2, respectively.

  12. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  13. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  14. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

  15. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The direct supercritical CO2 cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

  16. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation...

  17. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review | Department of Energy Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review This presentation reports on direct hydrogen PEMFC manufacturing cost estimation for automotive applications. PDF icon Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech

  18. Progress in indirect and direct-drive planar experiments on hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casner, A. Masse, L.; Huser, G.; Galmiche, D.; Liberatore, S.; Riazuelo, G.; Delorme, B.; Martinez, D.; Remington, B.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Igumenshchev, I.; Michel, D. T.; Froula, D.; Seka, W.; Goncharov, V. N.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Fujioka, S.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and the fuel mix are the key elements for achieving ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Cryogenic indirect-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility have evidenced that the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is a driver of the hot spot mix. This motivates the switch to a more flexible higher adiabat implosion design [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056313 (2014)]. The shell instability is also the main candidate for performance degradation in low-adiabat direct drive cryogenic implosions [Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014)]. This paper reviews recent results acquired in planar experiments performed on the OMEGA laser facility and devoted to the modeling and mitigation of hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front. In application to the indirect-drive scheme, we describe results obtained with a specific ablator composition such as the laminated ablator or a graded-dopant emulator. In application to the direct drive scheme, we discuss experiments devoted to the study of laser imprinted perturbations with special phase plates. The simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase reversal during the shock transit phase are challenging, and of crucial interest because this phase sets the seed of the RTI growth. Recent works were dedicated to increasing the accuracy of measurements of the phase inversion. We conclude by presenting a novel imprint mitigation mechanism based on the use of underdense foams. The foams induce laser smoothing by parametric instabilities thus reducing the laser imprint on the CH foil.

  19. Complementarity of direct dark matter detection and indirect detection through gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstroem, Lars; Bringmann, Torsten; Edsjoe, Joakim

    2011-02-15

    We show, by using an extensive sample of viable supersymmetric models as templates, that indirect detection of dark matter through gamma rays may have a large potential for identifying the nature of dark matter. This is, in particular, true also for models that give too weak dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections to be probed by present and planned direct detection experiments. Also models with a mass scale too high to be accessible at CERN's LHC accelerator may show up in next-generation imaging Cherenkov telescope arrays. Based on our findings, we therefore suggest to view indirect searches as genuine particle physics experiments, complementing other strategies to probe so far unknown regions in the parameter space of e.g. supersymmetric models, and propose a new approach that would make use of telescopes dedicated for dark matter searches. As a concrete example for the potential of such an approach, we consider an array of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes, the Dark Matter Array (DMA), and show that such an experiment could extend present-day limits by several orders of magnitude, reaching a large class of models that would remain undetected in both direct detection experiments and searches at the LHC. In addition, in a sizable part of the parameter space, signals from more than one type of dark matter detection experiment would be possible, something that may eventually be necessary in order to identify the dark matter candidate.

  20. Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Senaratne, C. L.; Sims, P.; Kouvetakis, J.; Aoki, T.

    2015-03-02

    The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration y{sub c} where the Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

  1. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

  2. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SJ Ghan; B Schmid; JM Hubbe; CJ Flynn; A Laskin; AA Zelenyuk; DJ Czizco; CN Long; G McFarquhar; J Verlinde; J Harrington; JW Strapp; P Liu; A Korolev; A McDonald; M Wolde; A Fridlind; T Garrett; G Mace; G Kok; S Brooks; D Collins; D Lubin; P Lawson; M Dubey; C Mazzoleni; M Shupe; S Xie; DD Turner; Q Min; EJ Mlawer; D Mitchell

    2007-11-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facilitys (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) during period 29 March through 30 April 2008. The deployment period is within the International Polar Year, thus contributing to and benefiting from the many ancillary observing systems collecting data synergistically. We will deploy the Canadian National Research Council Convair 580 aircraft to measure temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, single particle composition, concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, ISDAC will deploy two instruments at the ARM site in Barrow: a spectroradiometer to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius, and a tandem differential mobility analyzer to measure the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity. By using many of the same instruments used during Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during the fall and spring transitions. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary conditions are likely to be very different because of the much more extensive ocean water during M-PACE. The uniformity of the surface conditions during ISDAC greatly simplifies the objective analysis (surface fluxes and precipitation are very weak), so that it can largely rely on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis. The aerosol measurements can also be used as input to the cloud models and to evaluate the aerosol retrievals. By running the cloud models with and without solar absorption by the aerosols, we can determine the semidirect effect of the aerosol on the clouds.

  3. Direct and indirect capture of carriers into the lasing ground state and the light-current characteristic of quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuchang Asryan, Levon V.

    2014-03-14

    We calculate the light-current characteristic (LCC) of a quantum dot (QD) laser under the conditions of both direct and indirect capture of carriers from the optical confinement layer into the lasing ground state in QDs. We show that direct capture is a dominant process determining the ground-state LCC. Only when direct capture is slow, the role of indirect capture (capture into the QD excited state and subsequent intradot relaxation to the ground state) becomes important.

  4. P417755_IndirectDirectDrivePlatforms_NUG14_v8

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why Implosions? Direct Drive Platforms Cryogenic Targets Nuclear Physics at the NIF Symmetry capsules or "Symcaps" * Identical to ignition capsules except they do not...

  5. Impact of nucleon matrix element uncertainties on the interpretation of direct and indirect dark matter search results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austri, R. Ruiz de

    2013-11-01

    We study in detail the impact of the current uncertainty in nucleon matrix elements on the sensitivity of direct and indirect experimental techniques for dark matter detection. We perform two scans in the framework of the cMSSM: one using recent values of the pion-sigma term obtained from Lattice QCD, and the other using values derived from experimental measurements. The two choices correspond to extreme values quoted in the literature and reflect the current tension between different ways of obtaining information about the structure of the nucleon. All other inputs in the scans, astrophysical and from particle physics, are kept unchanged. We use two experiments, XENON100 and IceCube, as benchmark cases to illustrate our case. We find that the interpretation of dark matter search results from direct detection experiments is more sensitive to the choice of the central values of the hadronic inputs than the results of indirect search experiments. The allowed regions of cMSSM parameter space after including XENON100 constraints strongly differ depending on the assumptions on the hadronic matrix elements used. On the other hand, the constraining potential of IceCube is almost independent of the choice of these values.

  6. 1366 Direct Wafer: Demolishing the Cost Barrier for Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Adam

    2013-08-30

    The goal of 1366 Direct Wafer™ is to drastically reduce the cost of silicon-based PV by eliminating the cost barrier imposed by sawn wafers. The key characteristics of Direct Wafer are 1) kerf-free, 156-mm standard silicon wafers 2) high throughput for very low CAPEX and rapid scale up. Together, these characteristics will allow Direct Wafer™ to become the new standard for silicon PV wafers and will enable terawatt-scale PV – a prospect that may not be possible with sawn wafers. Our single, high-throughput step will replace the expensive and rate-limiting process steps of ingot casting and sawing, thereby enabling drastically lower wafer cost. This High-Impact PV Supply Chain project addressed the challenges of scaling Direct Wafer technology for cost-effective, high-throughput production of commercially viable 156 mm wafers. The Direct Wafer process is inherently simple and offers the potential for very low production cost, but to realize this, it is necessary to demonstrate production of wafers at high-throughput that meet customer specifications. At the start of the program, 1366 had demonstrated (with ARPA-E funding) increases in solar cell efficiency from 10% to 15.9% on small area (20cm2), scaling wafer size up to the industry standard 156mm, and demonstrated initial cell efficiency on larger wafers of 13.5%. During this program, the throughput of the Direct Wafer furnace was increased by more than 10X, simultaneous with quality improvements to meet early customer specifications. Dedicated equipment for laser trimming of wafers and measurement methods were developed to feedback key quality metrics to improve the process and equipment. Subsequent operations served both to determine key operating metrics affecting cost, as well as generating sample product that was used for developing downstream processing including texture and interaction with standard cell processing. Dramatic price drops for silicon wafers raised the bar significantly, but the developments made under this program have increased 1366 confidence that Direct Wafers can be produced for ~$0.10/W, still nearly 50% lower than current industry best practice. Wafer quality also steadily improved throughout the program, both in electrical performance and geometry. The improvements to electrical performance were achieved through a combination of optimized heat transfer during growth, reduction of metallic impurities to below 10 ppbw total metals, and lowering oxygen content to below 2e17 atoms/cc. Wafer average thickness has been reduced below 200µm with standard deviation less than 20µm. Measurement of spatially varying thickness shortly after wafer growth is being used to continually improve uniformity by adjusting thermal conditions. At the conclusion of the program, 1366 has developed strong relationships with four leading Tier1 cell manufactures and several have demonstrated 17% cell efficiency on Direct Wafer. Sample volumes were limited, with the largest trial consisting of 300 Direct Wafers, and there remains strong pull for larger quantities necessary for qualification before sales contracts can be signed. This will be the focus of our pilot manufacturing scale up in 2014.

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost...

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost...

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2008 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost...

  10. Indirect and direct signatures of Higgs portal decaying vector dark matter for positron excess in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Seungwon; Ko, P.; Park, Wan-Il; Tang, Yong E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr E-mail: ytang@kias.re.kr

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the indirect signatures of the Higgs portal U(1){sub X} vector dark matter (VDM) X{sub ?} from both its pair annihilation and decay. The VDM is stable at renormalizable level by Z{sub 2} symmetry, and thermalized by Higgs-portal interactions. It can also decay by some nonrenormalizable operators with very long lifetime at cosmological time scale. If dim-6 operators for VDM decays are suppressed by 10{sup 16} GeV scale, the lifetime of VDM with mass ? 2 TeV is just right for explaining the positron excess in cosmic ray observed by PAMELA and AMS02 Collaborations. The VDM decaying into ?{sup +}?{sup ?} can fit the data, evading various constraints on cosmic rays. We give one UV-complete model as an example. This scenario for Higgs portal decaying VDM with mass around ? 2 TeV can be tested by DM direct search at XENON1T, and also at the future colliders by measuring the Higgs self-couplings.

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Application | Department of Energy Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems. PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application More Documents & Publications Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive

  12. Cost Estimating Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, Cost Estimating Guide by Ruben Sanchez Functional areas: Budget and Financial Management, Financial Management This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that...

  13. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for mass production and that produces high adhesive strength of the ceramic-metal interfaces. Consider the fabrication and use of low-cost AlN as a potential (and...

  14. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A. (Schenectady, NY)

    1992-01-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  15. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.

    1992-09-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

  16. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications: 2007 Update | Department of Energy Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007

  17. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications: 2008 Update | Department of Energy Applications: 2008 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty ...

  19. DIRECT COSTS OF DISABLING WORKPLACE INJURIES GROW 2.5 PERCENT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    April 7, 2003 Annual Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index Shows Direct Costs of the Three Leading Causes of Workplace Incidents Grew Significantly Faster...

  20. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Material Handling Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen ...

  1. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon pm036_lin_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual Progress Report

  2. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon pm036_lin_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Application: 2009 Update | Department of Energy Application: 2009 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009 Update This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles. PDF icon Mass Production

  4. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications: 2010 Update | Department of Energy Applications: 2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles. PDF icon Mass

  5. Quantum-Size Effects on the Pressure-Induced Direct-to-Indirect Band-Gap Transition in InP Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, H.; Zunger, A.

    1998-06-01

    We predict that the difference in quantum confinement energies of {Gamma} -like and X -like conduction states in a covalent quantum dot will cause the direct-to-indirect transition to occur at substantially lower pressure than in the bulk material. Furthermore, the first-order transition in the bulk is predicted to become, for certain dot sizes, a second-order transition. Measurements of the {open_quotes}anticrossing gap{close_quotes} could thus be used to obtain unique information on the {Gamma}-X- L intervalley coupling, predicted here to be surprisingly large (50{endash}100thinspthinspmeV). {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In this multi-year project, SA estimates the material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems suitable for ...

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty ...

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Applications: 2013 Update | Department of Energy of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update This report is the seventh annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. In this multi-year project, SA estimates the material and

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update | Department of Energy of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update This report is the sixth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. This 2012 update will cover current status

  10. Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with todays state-of-the-art technologies. 1366s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch

  12. Where do the default values for the cost of system breakdowns...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Where do the default values for the cost of system breakdowns come from in SAM, for direct and indirect costs, such as 0.63 per DC watt for panels. 0.18 for inverters. Are these...

  13. Direct Thin Film Path to Low Cost, Large Area III-V Photovoltaics - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Direct Thin Film Path to Low Cost, Large Area III-V Photovoltaics Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Kapadia, R., Yu, Z., Wang, H-H H., Zheng, M., Battaglia, C., Hettick, M., Kiriya, D., Takei, K., Lobaccaro, P., Beeman, J.W., Ager, J.W., Maboudian, R., Chrzan, D.C., Javey, A. "A

  14. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  15. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  16. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-09-30

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  17. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  18. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  19. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign For the month of April, researchers are descending on and above Barrow, Alaska, to obtain data from the atmosphere that will help them understand the impacts that aerosols have on Arctic clouds and climate. Scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are using a heavily instrumented aircraft to collect data from the sky, while instruments based at surface sites in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, are obtaining

  20. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign (ISDAC) The Influence of Arctic Aerosol on Clouds PIs: Steve Ghan, Greg McFarquhar, Hans Verlinde ARM AVP: Beat Schmid, Greg McFarquhar, John Hubbe, Debbie Ronfeld In situ measurements: Sarah Brooks, Don Collins, Dan Cziczo, Manvendra Dubey, Greg Kok, Alexei Korolev, Alex Laskin, Paul Lawson, Peter Liu, Claudio Mazzoleni, Ann-Marie McDonald, Greg McFarquhar, Walter Strapp, Alla Zelenyuk Retrievals: Connor Flynn, Dan Lubin, Mengistu Wolde, David Mitchell, Matthew Shupe, David Turner

  1. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connor Flynn, Dan Lubin, Mengistu Wolde, David Mitchell, Matthew Shupe, David Turner Modeling: Ann Fridlind , Xiaohong Liu, Shaocheng Xie Barrow, Alaska April 2008 http:...

  2. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Directions to HAZMAT Challenge LANL's HAZMAT Reesponse Ready Room and Training Facility are ready to welcome this year's Challengers Technical Area 64 - HAZMAT Response...

  3. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Directions Call Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder at (505) 455-5555 for shuttle information from the airport and downtown Santa Fe. Driving Directions to Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder is located 15 minutes north of Santa Fe. Directions from Albuquerque (bypassing downtown Santa Fe) Take Interstate 25 north towards Santa Fe for approximately 50 miles. From Interstate 25, exit right onto the 599 Northbound Bypass for approximately 14 miles and continue to

  4. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  5. Measuring the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump Deployment and The Potential Employment, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of Direct Use Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To measure the costs and economic; social; and environmental benefits of nationwide geothermal heat pump (GHP) deployment; and To survey selected states as to their potential employment; energy use and savings; and environmental impact for direct use applications.

  6. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Zhang, Yi ; Chang, Tay-Rong ; Zhou, Bo ; Cui, Yong-Tao ; Yan, Hao ; Liu, Zhongkai ; Schmitt, Felix ; Lee, James ; Moore, Rob ; Chen, Yulin ; Lin, Hsin ; Jeng, Horng-Tay ; ...

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct‐hydrogen proton ex

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.

    2008-02-29

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  10. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2008 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.

    2009-03-26

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  11. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct removal of edge-localized pollutant emission in a near-infrared bremsstrahlung measurement J. K. Anderson, a) P. L. Andrew, b) B. E. Chapman, D. Craig, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Presented on 10 July 2002͒ Visible and near-infrared electron-ion bremsstrahlung measurements in fusion research devices, used to determine the effective ionic charge (Z eff ), are often plagued by pollutant emission

  12. DOE indirect liquefaction program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schehl, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Processes for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide have had commercial importance since about 1920, when the commercial production of methanol and higher alcohols on oxide catalysts began. Soon thereafter Fischer and Tropsch discovered that liquid hydrocarbons could be synthesized from carbon monoxide and hydrogen over Group VIII metal catalysts. Following extensive catalyst and process development efforts, this technology provided Germany with a source of liquid fuels during World War II. The period following the war saw an acceleration in research and development on the Fischer-Tropsch process, but the only commercial application that was to emerge was the SASOL process in the Union of South Africa. The oil crises of the 1970s have rekindled worldwide interest in indirect liquefaction technologies for the production of clean, high-quality motor fuels from coal. The development of more efficient coal gasification processes and the advent of molecular sieve catalysts that allow tailoring of product distributions have set the stage for revolutionary improvements in process designs over state-of-the-art technology. This paper reviews, in brief, the research and development projects that the Department of Energy is sponsoring in the area of synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels. These projects range from pilot-plant-scale operations, such as the fluidized-bed MTG plant in Wesseling, FRG, to basic research into reaction mechanisms at universities and government laboratories. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's...

  14. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect ...

  15. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization Does the excitation of ultrafast ...

  16. Development of a New Class of Low Cost, High Frequency Link Direct DC to AC Converters for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad Enjeti; J.W. Howze

    2003-12-01

    This project proposes to design and develop a new class of power converters (direct DC to AC) to drastically improve performance and optimize the cost, size, weight and volume of the DC to AC converter in SOFC systems. The proposed topologies employ a high frequency link; direct DC to AC conversion approach. The direct DC to AC conversion approach is more efficient and operates without an intermediate dc-link stage. The absence of the dc-link, results in the elimination of bulky, aluminum electrolytic capacitors, which in turn leads to a reduction in the cost, volume, size and weight of the power electronic converter. The feasibility of two direct DC to AC converter topologies and their suitability to meet SECA objectives will be investigated. Laboratory proto-type converters (3-5kW) will be designed and tested in Phase-1. A detailed design trade-off study along with the test results will be available in the form of a report for the evaluation of SECA Industrial partners. This project proposes to develop a new and innovative power converter technology suitable for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power systems in accordance with SECA objectives. The proposed fuel cell inverter (FCI) employs state of the art power electronic devices configured in two unique topologies to achieve direct conversion of DC power (24-48V) available from a SOFC to AC power (120/240V, 60Hz) suitable for utility interface and powering stand alone loads. The primary objective is to realize cost effective fuel cell converter, which operates under a wide input voltage range, and output load swings with high efficiency and improved reliability.

  17. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were observed. The spatial and energy distributions of optically active excitons were used as thermodynamic quantities to construct a phase diagram of the exciton system, demonstrating the existence of distinct phases. Optical and electrical properties of the CQW sample were examined thoroughly to provide deeper understanding of the formation mechanisms of these cold exciton systems. These insights offer new strategies for producing cold exciton systems, which may lead to opportunities for the realization of BEC in solid-state systems.

  18. Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study examines a succesful process heating technology improvement implemented by Wabash Alloys at its East Syracuse, New York, facility. A demonstration project conducted at this plant by Energy Research Company (ERCo), of Staten Island, New York, involves a new energy-efficient kiln that heats scrap aluminum for reuse. This kiln has enabled Wabash to reduce metal loss and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and, in addition, has reduced kiln energy use by more than half.

  19. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  20. The cost effectiveness of NEPA: Are the benefits worth the costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangi, J.I. )

    1993-01-01

    NEPA is much loved, and much hated; too often ignored, and even more often ill-used. NEPA's framers intended the Act to have some substantive effects on Government actions, but they did not foresee the regulatory process and organizational structures that have accreted around the Act. Compliance with NEPA and its regulations may cost the US taxpayer, directly and indirectly, on the order of $1 billion a year. The benefits of NEPA compliance are obvious in some cases, not so in others. NEPA has success stories, but also boondoggles in its current and recent practice. Yet the taxpayer is entitled to know whether NEPA's non-trivial costs yield sufficient benefit to make compliance efforts a worthwhile investment. This paper will analyze the issue of the costs of NEPA compliance, and the issue of its benefits, and will suggest an answer as to the question of NEPA's cost effectiveness.

  1. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization Boris Vodungbo1,2, Bahrati Tudu1,2, Jonathan Perron1,2, Renaud Delaunay1,2, Leonard Muller3, Magnus H. Berntsen3, Gerhard Grubel3,4, Gregory Malinowski5, Christian Weier6, Recelved: 03 September 2015 Julien Gautier7, Guillaume Lambert7, Philippe Zeitoun7, Christian Gutt8, Emmanuelle Jal9, Acce ted: 01 December 2015 Alexander H. Reid9, Patrick W. Granitzka9,10, Nicolas Jaouen11, Georgi L. Dakovski12, CCeP e : eCem er Stefan Moeller12, Michael P.

  2. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Biorefinery for the Direct Production of Synthetic Fuel from Waste Carbonaceous Feedstocks

  3. ARM - Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign (ISDAC) Related Links ISDAC Home AAF Home AVP Aircraft Instrumentation, October 14-16, 2008 ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Campaign Data Sets Flight Summary Table (PDF, 440K) ISDAC Wiki Mission Summary Journal Deployment Resources NSA Site ARM Data Plots Quick Links Experiment Planning ISDAC Proposal Abstract Full Proposal (pdf, 1,735K) Science Questions Science Overview Document for ISDAC (pdf, 525K) ISDAC Flight Planning Document (PDF, 216K) Collaborations Logistics Measurements

  4. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop To support research and development (R&D) planning efforts within the Thermochemical Conversion Program, the Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted the Biomass Indirect Liquefaction (IDL) Workshop. This workshop discussed and detailed the R&D needs for biomass IDL. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols

  5. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation TRI Technology Update & IDL R&D Needs PDF icon burciaga_tri.pdf More Documents & Publications ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation Range Fuels Commercial-Scale Biorefinery

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Johnson Controls at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about significant cost improvement...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Significant Cost Improvement of Li-ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Johnson Controls at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about significant cost improvement...

  8. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Material Handling Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides cost estimates for the manufacture of 10 kW and 25 kW PEM fuel cells designed for material handling applications.

  9. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  10. Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile...

  11. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Strategy Workshop: Summary Report Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. PDF icon idl_workshop_summary_report_july_2014 More Documents & Publications Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels ITP Chemicals: Industrial Feedstock Flexibility Workshop

  12. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; et al

    2016-01-06

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset andmore » at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. As a result, our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.« less

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about cost-competitive advanced...

  14. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and...

  15. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ...

  16. Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be implosions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be...

  17. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Parsons, Edward L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  18. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  19. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 2021, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  20. Quantification of progress in indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; ElSawy, A.; Tomlinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the economic and technical impact of incorporating various advanced technologies into the indirect coal liquefaction system. These advanced technologies include entrained flow Shell gasification and slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. This objective was accomplished by substituting the Shell entrained goal gasifier system for the Lurgi and the advanced slurry F-T reactor for the Synthol and ARGE F-T systems in a SASOL-type indirect liquefaction facility. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Indirect Sensing Techniques for Performance Based Verification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Sensing techniques for performance based verification * Concept * Advantages/Dis-advantages * Current status of technology * Summary Concept Inline hydrogen analyzer to continuously monitor impurities and alert the user to any fuel quality issues, both on-board in the fuel stream and at the nozzle. Concept: Use a fuel cell type device to measure impurities in the fuel stream. The device should be: * Sensitive to the same impurities that would poison a fuel cell stack  Use same

  2. The First Aerosol Indirect Effect: Beyond Twomey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Dunn, M.; Daum, P.

    2008-03-10

    The traditional first aerosol indirect effect or the Twomey effect involves several fundamental assumptions. Some of the assumptions (e.g., constant liquid water content) are explicitly stated in studies of the Twomey effect whereas others are only implicitly embedded in the quantitative formulation. This work focuses on examining the implicit assumptions. In particular, we will show that anthropogenic pollution not only increases aerosol loading and droplet concentrations but also alters the relative dispersions of both the aerosol and subsequent droplet size distributions. The indirect effects resulting from the two altered relative dispersions (aerosol dispersion effect and droplet dispersion effect) are likely opposite in sign and proportional in magnitude to the conventional Twomey effect. This result suggests that the outstanding problems of the Twomey effect (i.e., large uncertainty and overestimation reported in literature) may lie with violation of the constant spectral shapes of aerosol and droplet size distributions implicitly assumed in evaluation of the Twomey effect, and therefore, further progress in understanding and quantification of the first aerosol indirect effect demands moving beyond the traditional paradigm originally conceived by Twomey.

  3. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Dppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  4. Performance of a High Speed Indirect Injection Diesel Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a High Speed Indirect Injection Diesel Engine with Poultry Fat Bio-Diesel Performance of a High Speed Indirect Injection Diesel Engine with Poultry Fat Bio-Diesel Poster presented ...

  5. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  6. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  7. Performance of a High Speed Indirect Injection Diesel Engine with Poultry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fat Bio-Diesel | Department of Energy a High Speed Indirect Injection Diesel Engine with Poultry Fat Bio-Diesel Performance of a High Speed Indirect Injection Diesel Engine with Poultry Fat Bio-Diesel Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-12_covington.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies The

  8. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called integrated or combination water and space heating systems. How They Work A tankless coil water heater provides hot water on demand without a tank. When a hot water faucet is turned on, water is heated as it flows through a heating coil or heat exchanger

  9. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  10. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, Robert . E-mail: rgale@web.net; Gale, Fred . E-mail: fred.gale@utas.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures.

  11. BPA's Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  12. A New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect Shao, Hongfei Florida State University Liu, Guosheng Florida State University Category: Aerosols The aerosol first indirect effect is known to cool the Earth radiatively. However, its magnitude is very uncertain; large discrepancies exist among the observed values published in the literature. In this study, we first survey the published values of those parameters used for describing the first indirect effect. By analyzing the discrepancies

  13. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a decision on the PV installation, the Department of Energy Tiger Team has investigated potential indirect benefits of installing a solar PV system on the Convention Center roof. ...

  14. Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of...

  15. Directives Tools

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

  16. Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric...

  17. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications (Technical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology.

  18. Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Energy Storage System | Department of Energy Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to design and validate a prototype and demonstrate a full-size (800 MWth) thermal energy storage (TES) system based on phase change materials (PCMs). Approach Acciona is using a test loop to

  19. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass | Department of Energy Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012. PDF icon Thermochemical Ethanol via

  20. U.S. Geographic Analysis of the Cost of Hydrogen from Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes U.S. geographic analysis of the cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. Wind-based water electrolysis represents a viable path to renewably-produced hydrogen production. It might be used for hydrogen-based transportation fuels, energy storage to augment electricity grid services, or as a supplement for other industrial hydrogen uses. This analysis focuses on the levelized production, costs of producing green hydrogen, rather than market prices which would require more extensive knowledge of an hourly or daily hydrogen market. However, the costs of hydrogen presented here do include a small profit from an internal rate of return on the system. The cost of renewable wind-based hydrogen production is very sensitive to the cost of the wind electricity. Using differently priced grid electricity to supplement the system had only a small effect on the cost of hydrogen; because wind electricity was always used either directly or indirectly to fully generate the hydrogen. Wind classes 3-6 across the U.S. were examined and the costs of hydrogen ranged from $3.74kg to $5.86/kg. These costs do not quite meet the 2015 DOE targets for central or distributed hydrogen production ($3.10/kg and $3.70/kg, respectively), so more work is needed on reducing the cost of wind electricity and the electrolyzers. If the PTC and ITC are claimed, however, many of the sites will meet both targets. For a subset of distributed refueling stations where there is also inexpensive, open space nearby this could be an alternative to central hydrogen production and distribution.

  1. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  2. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  3. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  4. Preventing the self-destruction of the indirect coal firing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, C.W.; Rayner, C.C.

    1983-07-01

    The most widely used fuel in the cement industry is pulverized coal. The current trend is to burn coal through the use of an indirect firing system, as opposed to direct firing which was formerly standard for cement kilns. Indirect firing is favored for precalciners and to improve thermal efficiency, but the benefits are sometimes overshadowed by increased hazard potential. Thoughtful design and careful operating practices are essential for safe operation. The hazards are primarily a result of the explosive mixture of coal and air which can be formed in various parts of the system and the tendency for coal to self-heat and undergo spontaneous combustion. The systems for indirect coal firing are reviewed, with emphasis on the potential fire and explosion hazards. The effectiveness of various methods to extinguish a fire or suppress an explosion is discussed, together with their applicability and related operating problems. The available alarm systems are evaluated according to their ability to signal impending danger in time for corrective action. Some parameters of safe design and operating practices are outlined as a guide to avoiding the types of problems that have been experienced at some existing installations.

  5. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPCs initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPCs next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPCs $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  6. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  7. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  8. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is box-shaped, and has two pipes sticking out one end: one a cold water inlet, and one a hot water outlet. These pipes lead into the heater to a cylindrical coil called a heat exchanger. Long tubes surrounding the heat exchanger are labeled the heated water jacket. At the bottom of the box is a row of small flames, called

  9. Price/Cost Proposal Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PRICE/COST PROPOSAL FORM Page No. of NREL Solicitation Document Number: Offeror's Name and Address: Title of Proposed Effort and Task No., Phase No., or Project Total, As Applicable: Telephone Number: Total Amount of Task/Phase No. ___________ $ _______________________ Proposal Summary Total $ ________________________ DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF COST ELEMENTS 1. DIRECT MATERIALS (Attach Itemized Listing for all Purchased Parts, Purchased Items or Services, Raw Materials, Standard Commercial Items, or

  10. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  11. Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

  12. Estimates of the Global Indirect Energy-Use Emission Impacts of USA Biofuel Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the indirect energy-use emission implications of increases in the use of biofuels in the USA between 2001 and 2010 as mandates within a dynamic global computable general equilibrium model. The study incorporates explicit markets for biofuels, petroleum and other fossil fuels, and accounts for interactions among all sectors of an 18-region global economy. It considers bilateral trade, as well as the dynamics of capital allocation and investment. Simulation results show that the biofuel mandates in the USA generate an overall reduction in global energy use and emissions over the simulation period from 2001 to 2030. Consequently, the indirect energy-use emission change or emission leakage under the mandate is negative. That is, global emission reductions are larger than the direct emission savings from replacing petroleum with biofuels under the USA RFS2 over the last decade. Under our principal scenario this enhanced the direct emission reduction from biofuels by about 66%. The global change in lifecycle energy-use emissions for this scenario was estimated to be about 93 million tons of CO2e in 2010, 45 million tons of CO2e in 2020, and an increase of 5 million tons of CO2e in 2030, relative to the baseline scenario. Sensitivity results of six alternative scenarios provided additional insights into the pattern of the regional and global effects of biofuel mandates on energy-use emissions.

  13. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  14. Development of a new technique to assess susceptibility to predation resulting from sublethal stresses (indirect mortality)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ada, Glenn F.; Ryon, Michael G.; Wolf, Dennis A.; Smith, Brennan T.

    2003-08-01

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. This study evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The study compared this technique to the standard predator preference test. To do this, the study first subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Second, a standard predator preference test was conducted with largemouth bass as the predators and fathead minnows as prey. In this test design, groups of 10 unstressed fish (controls) and 10 stressed fish were put in a tank with a predator. The stressed fathead minnows were exposed to turbulence or fish anesthetic. This pattern was the same as seen in fathead minnows using the startle response (escape behavior) test. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape.

  15. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  16. Using Direct Metal Deposition to Fabricate Mold Plates for an Injection Mold Machine Allowing for the Evaluation of Cost Effective Near-Sourcing Opportunities in Larger, High Volume Consumer Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E; Groh, Bill

    2014-10-31

    ORNL collaborated with Radio Systems Corporation to investigate additive manufacturing (AM) of mold plates for plastic injection molding by direct metal deposition. The team s modelling effort identified a 100% improvement in heat transfer through use of conformal cooling lines that could be built into the mold using a revolutionary design enabled by additive manufacturing. Using the newly installed laser deposition system at the ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) a stainless steel mold core was printed.

  17. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bins). Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions (containing 33 bins). Droplet nucleation (activation) is derived from the analytical calculation of super-saturation, which is used to determine the sizes of aerosol particles to be activated and the corresponding sizes of nucleated droplets. Primary nucleation of each type of ice crystal takes place within certain temperature ranges. A detailed description of these explicitly parameterized processes can be found in Khain and Sednev (1996) and Khain et al. (1999, 2001). 2.3 Case Studies Three cases, a tropical oceanic squall system observed during TOGA COARE (Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment, which occurred over the Pacific Ocean warm pool from November 1992 to February 1993), a midlatitude continental squall system observed during PRESTORM (Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central, which occurred in Kansas and Oklahoma during May-June 1985), and mid-afternoon convection observed during CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers – Florida Area Cumulus Experiment, which occurred in Florida during July 2002), will be used to examine the impact of aerosols on deep, precipitating systems. 3. SUMMARY of RESULTS • For all three cases, higher CCN produces smaller cloud droplets and a narrower spectrum. Dirty conditions delay rain formation, increase latent heat release above the freezing level, and enhance vertical velocities at higher altitude for all cases. Stronger updrafts, deeper mixed-phase regions, and more ice particles are simulated with higher CCN in good agreement with observations. • In all cases, rain reaches the ground early with lower CCN. Rain suppression is also evident in all three cases with high CCN in good agreement with observations (Rosenfeld, 1999, 2000 and others). Rain suppression, however, only occurs during the first hour of simulation. This result suggests that microphysical processes dominate the impact of aerosols on precipitation in the early stage of precipitation development. • During the mature stage of the simulations, the effect of increasing aerosol concentration ranges from rain suppression in the PRESTORM case to little effect on surface rainfall in the CRYSTAL-FACE case to rain enhancement in the TOGA COARE case. • The model results suggest that evaporative cooling is a key process in determining whether higher CCN reduces or enhances precipitation. Cold pool strength can be enhanced by stronger evaporation. When cold pool interacts with the near surface wind shear, the low-level convergence can be stronger, facilitating secondary cloud formation and more vigorous precipitation processes. Evaporative cooling is more than two times stronger at low levels with higher CCN for the TOGA COARE case during the early stages of precipitation development. However, evaporative cooling is slightly stronger at lower levels with lower CCN for the PRESTORM case. The early formation of rain in the clean environment could allow for the formation of an earlier and stronger cold pool compared to a dirty environment. PRESTORM has a very dry environment and both large and small rain droplets can evaporate. Consequently, the cold pool is relatively weaker, and the system is relatively less intense with higher CCN. • Sensitivity tests are conducted to determine the impact of ice processes on aerosol-precipitation interaction. The results suggested that ice processes are crucial for suppressing precipitation due to high CCN for the PRESTORM case. More and smaller ice particles are generated in the dirty case and transported to the trailing stratiform region. This reduces the heavy convective rain and contributes to the weakening of the cold pool. Warm rain processes dominate the TOGA COARE case. Therefore, ice processes only play a secondary role in terms of aerosol-precipitation interaction. • Two of the three cloud systems presented in this paper formed a line structure (squall system). A 2D simulation, therefore, gives a good approximation to such a line of convective clouds. Since the real atmosphere is 3D, further 3D cloud-resolving simulations are needed to address aerosol-precipitation interactions. 4. REFERENCES Tao, W.-K., X. Li, A. Khain, T. Matsui, S. Lang, and J. Simpson, 2007: The role of atmospheric aerosol concentration on deep convective precipitation: Cloud-resolving model simulations. J. Geophy. Res., 112, D24S18, doi:10.1029/2007JD008728. All other references can be found in above paper. 5. Acknowledgements The GCE model is mainly supported by the NASA Headquarters Atmospheric Dynamics and Thermodynamics Program and the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The research was also supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE/ARM) Interagency. The authors acknowledge NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for computer time used in this research.

  18. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  19. Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A. (Oak Forest, IL); Saucedo, Victor M. (Willowbrook, IL)

    2005-02-22

    A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

  20. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the scope and magnitude of the cost-overrun problem, the benefits are likely to be significant.

  1. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Hydrogen Program Record number11007, Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation, documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost.

  2. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. ... Calculation Methodology and Results: The consumer's cost per mile for the FCEV is set to ...

  3. Effect of product upgrading on Fischer-Tropsch indirect coal liquefaction economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.; Tam, S.S.; Fox, J.M. III

    1995-12-31

    Conceptual plant designs with cost estimates for indirect coal liquefaction technology to produce environmentally acceptable transportation liquid fuels meeting the Clear Air Act requirements were developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The designs incorporate the latest development in coal gasification technology and advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) slurry reactor design. ASPEN process simulation models were developed to provide detailed plant material and energy balances, utility requirements, operating and capital costs. A linear programming model based on a typical PADD II refinery was developed to assess the values of the produced F-T products. The results then were used in a discounted cash flow spreadsheet model to examine the effect of key process variables on the overall F-T economics. Different models were developed to investigate the various routes of upgrading the F-T products. The effects of incorporating a close-coupled ZSM-5 reactor to upgrade the vapor stream leaving the Fischer-Tropsch reactor have been reported previously. This paper compares two different schemes of F-T was upgrading, namely fluidized bed catalytic cracking verse mild hydrocracking.

  4. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  5. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  6. Wind turbine reliability : understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. Cost of energy (COE) is a key project evaluation metric, both in commercial applications and in the U.S. federal wind energy program. To reflect this commercial reality, the wind energy research community has adopted COE as a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The COE metric accounts for the effects of reliability through levelized replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. However, unlike the other cost contributors, such as initial capital investment and scheduled maintenance and operating expenses, costs associated with component failures are necessarily speculative. They are based on assumptions about the reliability of components that in many cases have not been operated for a complete life cycle. Due to the logistical and practical difficulty of replacing major components in a wind turbine, unanticipated failures (especially serial failures) can have a large impact on the economics of a project. The uncertainty associated with long-term component reliability has direct bearing on the confidence level associated with COE projections. In addition, wind turbine technology is evolving. New materials and designs are being incorporated in contemporary wind turbines with the ultimate goal of reducing weight, controlling loads, and improving energy capture. While the goal of these innovations is reduction in the COE, there is a potential impact on reliability whenever new technologies are introduced. While some of these innovations may ultimately improve reliability, in the short term, the technology risks and the perception of risk will increase. The COE metric used by researchers to evaluate technologies does not address this issue. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce COE.

  7. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  8. AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.

    1991-01-09

    AISI with co-funding from DOE has initiated a research and development program aimed at the development of a new process for direct steelmaking, and the program is discussed in this document. The project is expected to cost about $30 million over a three-year period, with the government providing approximately 77 percent of the funds and AISI the balance. In contrast to current steelmaking processes which are largely open and batch, the direct steelmaking process would be closed and continuous. Further, it would use coal directly, thereby avoiding the need for coke ovens. The second year of the Direct Steelmaking Program (November 29, 1989, through November 28, 1990) was a year of significant accomplishment. The various research programs proceeded essentially on schedule and the pilot plant, the centerpiece of the program, was completed about three months behind schedule but began operation in almost a picture-perfect manner. This report presents the last years accomplishments.

  9. Strategic Direction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  10. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  11. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  12. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  13. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

  14. Direct measure of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Chang-shui [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Zhao, Haiqing [School of Science, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.

  15. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  16. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  17. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    September 2014 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | September 2014 Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs | Page ii Acknowledgments This report was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) and drafted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The effort was directed and supported by DOE program manager Joseph Paladino. The lead authors are Marcus Young of ORNL and Alison Silverstein

  18. Novel geminate recombination channel after indirect photoionization of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Martin K.; Rossmadl, Hubert; Iglev, Hristo

    2011-06-07

    We studied the photolysis of neat protonated and heavy water using pump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopy. A novel recombination channel is reported leading to ultrafast quenching (0.7 {+-} 0.1 ps) of almost one third of the initial number of photo-generated electrons. The efficiency and the recombination rate of this channel are lower in heavy water, 27 {+-} 5% and (0.9 {+-} 0.1 ps){sup -1}, respectively. Comparison with similar data measured after photodetachment of aqueous hydroxide provides evidence for the formation of short-lived OH:e{sup -} (OD:e{sup -}) pairs after indirect photoionization of water at 9.2 eV.

  19. Thermal modeling of an indirectly heated E-beam gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jallouk, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium atomic vapor for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process is produced by magnetically steering a high-power electron beam to the surface of the uranium melt. The electron beam is produced by a Pierce-type axial E-beam gun with an indirectly heated emitter (IDHE)-the industry standard for high-power melting and vaporization. AVLIS process design requirements for the E-beam gun are stringent, particularly in the areas of modularity, compactness, and lifetime. The gun assembly details are complex, geometric clearances are tight, and operating temperatures and stress levels are at the upper limits of acceptability. Detailed three-dimensional finite-element thermal models of the E-beam gun have been developed to address this challenging thermal packaging issue. These models are used in conjunction with design and testing activities to develop a gun exhibiting a high level of reliability for acceptable operation in a plant environment.

  20. Directives Help

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

  1. DRIVING DIRECTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRIVING DIRECTIONS HILTON PALACIO DEL RIO 200 South Alamo Street San Antonio, Texas 78205 (210) 222-1400 San Antonio International Airport DIRECTIONS Take Interstate 281 south to Commerce Street. Continue west on Commerce Street to Losoya Street, turn left. Losoya becomes Alamo. The Hilton Palacio del Rio is located at 200 South Alamo Street. Distance from Hotel: 8 mi. Drive Time: 20 min. From the South: -I 37 North and take Commerce Street exit -Turn left at Commerce Street -Follow Commerce

  2. SF6432-CR (02-01-13) Cost Reimbursement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    labor are authorized as direct charges Control : SF 6432-CR Title: Standard Terms & Conditions for Cost Reimbursement Owner: Procurement Policy Department Release Date: 11...

  3. SF6432-CR (02-01-12) Cost Reimbursement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as direct charges to this contract Control : SF 6432-CR Title: Standard Terms & Conditions for Cost Reimbursement Owner: Procurement Policy & Quality Dept Release Date:...

  4. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of {tau}{sub a}, and parameterization assumptions such as a lower bound on N{sub d}. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}. In an alternative approach, the radiative flux perturbation due to anthropogenic aerosols can be broken down into a component over the cloud-free portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol direct effect) and a component over the cloudy portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol indirect effect). An estimate obtained by scaling these simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic {tau}{sub a} and satellite-retrieved Nd - {tau}{sub a} regression slopes, respectively, yields a global, annual-mean aerosol direct effect estimate of -0.4 {+-} 0.2 Wm{sup -2} and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, with a total estimate of -1.2 {+-} 0.4 Wm{sup -2}.

  5. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.

  6. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  7. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  8. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  9. Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guides (Text version available here) Cancelling a Directive New Canceling a Directive The process for canceling directives (Text version available here) Directives Templates...

  10. Capital Projects Estimated >$7 Million in Direct Costs Business

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformer Replacement G1, G3,G5-8 Federal Hydro *-- Sustain Replace the existing transformers. Black Canyon Units 1 & 2 Upgrades Federal Hydro *-- Sustain Upgrades to increase...

  11. High Energy Cost Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Energy Cost Grant Program provides financial assistance for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities servicing eligible rural communities with home...

  12. Workplace Charging Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Installation costs and services vary considerably, so employers are encouraged to obtain a number of quotes before moving forward with any installation. An initial site investigation should include:

  13. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  14. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Propane (LPG) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator Vehicle 0 City 0 Hwy (mi/gal) 0 City 0 Hwy (kWh/100m) Gasoline Vehicle 0 City 0 Hwy (mi/gal) Normal Daily Use 30.5 Total miles/day City 55 % Hwy 45 % Other Trips 3484 Total miles/year City 20 % Hwy 80 % Fuel Cost Emissions Annual Fuel Cost $ $/gal Annual

  15. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Kuhr, Werner G. (Riverside, CA)

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  16. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edwards (Ames, IA); Kuhr, Werner G. (Riverside, CA)

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  17. Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 1_arkema.pdf More Documents & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

  18. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  19. COST BREAKDOWN AWARD NO: START DATE: EXPIRATION DATE: FISCAL YEAR BREAKDOWN OF FUNDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COST BREAKDOWN AWARD NO: START DATE: EXPIRATION DATE: FISCAL YEAR BREAKDOWN OF FUNDS ELEMENTS FY FY FY FY FY TOTAL Direct Labor Overhead Materials Supplies Travel Other Direct Costs Subcontractors Total Direct Costs G&A Expense Total All Costs DOE Share* Awardee Share* Overhead Rate G&A Rate 1. The cost elements indicated are provided as an example only. Your firm should indicate the costs elements you have used on your invoices. 2. You should indicate the cost incurred for each of your

  20. NIPSCO Small Business Direct Install Electric and Natural Gas Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NIPSCO's Small Business Direct Install Program is designed to help small businesses minimize energy costs, and provides energy-saving CFL lighting, showerheads and faucet aerators at no added cost.

  1. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  2. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  3. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the industry’s first single-stage multi-port hybrid power converter. This unique low cost approach eliminates the hybrid power conversion bottlenecks when integrating batteries into PV systems. As result this product will significantly accelerate market adoption of these systems.

  4. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  5. Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power | Department of Energy Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon

  6. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Get Widget Code...

  7. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  8. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  9. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Report SOP Standard Operating Procedure TEC Total Estimated Cost TIPR Technical ... FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total PED Construction TEC OPC TPC Note: above values include MR...

  10. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  11. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  12. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  13. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator Update Your Widget Code This widget version will stop working on March 31. Update your widget code. × Widget Code Select All Close U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  14. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  15. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-028 Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15_Liu_ARM_STM_indirect.ppt [Compatibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    i di t ff t ld l d Aerosol indirect effect on cold clouds Xiaohong Liu (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) Paul DeMott (Colorado State University) Some evidence for alteration...

  17. Evidence for a Bubble-Competition Regime in Indirectly Driven Ablative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Experiments on the NIF (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Evidence for a Bubble-Competition Regime in Indirectly Driven Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Experiments on the NIF Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 28, 2016 Title: Evidence for a Bubble-Competition Regime in Indirectly Driven Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Experiments on the NIF Authors: Martinez, D. A. ; Smalyuk, V. A. ;

  18. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass S. Phillips, A. Aden, J. Jechura, and D. Dayton National Renewable Energy Laboratory T. Eggeman Neoterics International, Inc. Technical Report NREL/TP-510-41168 April 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass S. Phillips, A. Aden, J.

  19. Effect of Subgrid Cloud Variability on Parameterization of Indirect Aerosol Effect in Large-Scale Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of Subgrid Cloud Variability on Parameterization of Indirect Aerosol Effect in Large-Scale Models M. Ovtchinnikov and S. J. Ghan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington X. Dong University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah M. H. Zhang State University of New York Stony Brook, New York Introduction An adequate parameterization of cloud microphysics is essential for estimating the indirect aerosol effect in large-scale models. Such a parameterization must rely on a physically

  20. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  1. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  2. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  3. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  4. Directives Templates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and format Directives Templates Justification Memoranda Per Secretarial Memo, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Framework for Directives, dated July 9, 2012, by September 1, 2012,...

  5. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operating Procedures | Department of Energy INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures PDF icon ICR_ICE SOP_Sep 2013_Final.pdf More Documents & Publications ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) Contractor SOW Template - ICR Contractor SOW Template - ICE

  6. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different from controls at 1-min post-exposure and for fathead minnows at 1- and 5-min post-exposure. The greatest effects occurred with exposure to the fish anesthetic; in fathead minnows all of the recorded measures were significantly different from controls at 1-min and 5-min post-exposure at the 100 mg/L dose. For striped shiners all recorded behavioral measures were significantly different from controls at 1-min at the 200 and 100 mg/L doses and for selected behavioral measures at 5-min. Turbulence also had significant effects on striped shiner startle responses following 20- and 30-min exposures for all behavioral measures at 1-min. The patterns suggest that any effects on startle response due to turbulence or low doses of anesthetic are short-lived, but can be evaluated using the escape behavior technique. The most useful indication of changes in escape behavior in these tests was the simple reaction/no reaction to the startle stimulus. The startle response occurred reliably among unstressed fish, and was frequently reduced or eliminated in fish exposed to turbulence or anesthesia. The other behavioral parameters observed were often altered by the sublethal stresses as well. A standard predator preference test was also conducted with largemouth bass as the predators and fathead minnows as prey. In this test design, groups of 10 unstressed fish (controls) and 10 stressed fish were put in a tank with a predator. The stressed fathead minnows were exposed to turbulence or fish anesthetic. The predator was allowed to eat half of the prey, and the data were evaluated to determine whether predators consumed greater proportions of stressed minnows than control minnows. The predation test indicated that exposure to MS-222 resulted in significant predation in fathead minnows, but exposure to turbulence did not. This pattern was the same as seen in fathead minnows using the startle response (escape behavior) test. For the sublethal stresses we applied, evaluation of changes in fish escape behavior yielded results comparable to traditional predator preference tests. Because t

  7. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, M.; Ghan, S. J.; Ding, A.; Wang, H.; Zhang, K.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.; Ferrachat, S.; Takeamura, T.; et al

    2015-09-02

    Aerosol-cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (?500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascendmore(?500 ?1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is as large as that in stratocumulus regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascend are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm d?1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes than that globally, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.less

  8. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell membranes, was given by Michel Foure of Arkema at a meeting on new fuel cell projects in February 2007. PDF icon new_fc_foure_arkema.pdf More Documents & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells High Temperature Membrane Workin

  9. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  10. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  11. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  12. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  13. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  14. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge you an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribu- tion capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. REDUCING POWER FACTOR COST To understand power factor, visualize a

  15. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  16. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at the cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards $1 / Watt SunShot: towards $1 / Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated assuming 5.75kWh/m 2 /day (17% capacity factor), a 7% discount rate, and a 30-year project life. Solar at the cost of coal 0 8 Half of PV manufacturing cost is making wafers, but currently wasteful and slow 40% 50% uring 0.6 0.7 0.8 $0.73/W Saw wafer 3x wafers per kg Si 20% 30% 40% Global Manufactu Direct Wafer Locate

  17. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  18. Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be implosions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be implosions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be implosions Authors: Casey, D T ; Woods, T ; Smalyuk, V A ; Hurricane, O A ; Glebov, V Y ; Stoeckl, C ; Theobald, W ; Wallace, R ; Nikroo, A ; Shuldberg, C ; Wu, K J ; Frenje, J A ; Perez, F ; Landen, O L ; Remington, B ; Glendinning, G Publication Date: 2014-09-18 OSTI

  19. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System at the San José Convention Center | Department of Energy Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center The City of San José is considering the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system on the roof of the San José Convention Center. The installation would be on a lower section of the roof

  20. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-08-16

    The Order is the primary directive for administering the Department's directives Program. Cancels: DOE O 251.1A

  1. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  2. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Beshouri; Kirby S. Chapman; Jim McCarthy; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Mike Whelan

    2006-03-01

    This quarterly report re-evaluates current market objectives in the exploration and production industry, discusses continuing progress in testing that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine, and presents a scheme for enacting remote monitoring and control of engines during upcoming field tests. The examination of current market objectives takes into account technological developments and changing expectations for environmental permitting which may have occurred over the last year. This demonstrates that the continuing work in controlled testing and toward field testing is on track Market pressures currently affecting the gas exploration and production industry are shown to include a push for increased production, as well as an increasing cost for environmental compliance. This cost includes the direct cost of adding control technologies to field engines as well as the indirect cost of difficulty obtaining permits. Environmental regulations continue to require lower emissions targets, and some groups of engines which had not previously been regulated will be required to obtain permits in the future. While the focus remains on NOx and CO, some permits require reporting of additional emissions chemicals. Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOx emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a sketch of the first planned field test is presented. While early field tests will be completed using 4-stroke cycle rich-burn engines, later tests will be conducted on 2- and 4-stroke cycle lean-burn engines. The advantages of beginning with the rich-burn engine are summarized.

  3. Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis," held April 16, 2013. Slides include presentations by Battelle and Strategic Analysis. PDF icon Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen Polymer

  4. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 The importance of the factors varies among the technologies. For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively small variable O&M costs,...

  5. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  6. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply to the system, was demonstrated. System analyses of 40 MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, were carried out using CHEMCAD simulation software. The analyses included systems for near-term and long-term deployment. A new concept was developed that was based on clusters of one-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant, including the key equipment layout and the site plan, was completed. The process information and operational data from the proof-of-concept tests were used in the design of 40 MW high efficiency DFC/T power plants. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant was also prepared. Pilot-scale tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were conducted. The tests demonstrated that the concept has the potential to offer higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output and fuel utilization capabilities were also evaluated. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW DFC/T Alpha Unit was completed, including equipment and piping layouts, instrumentation, electrical, and structural drawings. The lessons learned from the proof-of-concept tests were incorporated in the design of the Alpha Unit. The sub-MW packaged unit was fabricated, including integration of the Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) stack module with the mechanical balance-of-plant and electrical balance-of-plant. Factory acceptance tests of the Alpha DFC/T power plant were conducted at Danbury, CT. The Alpha Unit achieved an unsurpassed electrical efficiency of 58% (LHV natural gas) during the factory tests. The resulting high efficiency in conversion of chemical energy to electricity far exceeded any sub-MW class power generation equipment presently in the market. After successful completion of the factory tests, the unit was shipped to the Billings Clinic in Billings, MT, for field demonstration tests. The DFC/T unit accomplished a major achievement by successfully completing 8000 hours of operation at the Billings site. The Alpha sub-MW DF

  7. WhiteOptics' Low-Cost Reflector Composite Boosts LED Fixture Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, WhiteOptics has developed a composite coating that can be used to improve efficiency in backlit, indirect, and cavity-mixing LED luminaire designs by maximizing light reflection and output. The highly diffuse coating, which is based on a novel high-reflectance particle technology, allows for uniform distribution of light without exaggerating the point-source nature of the LEDs, and is intended to offer an overall system cost-improving solution for LED optics.

  8. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To...

  9. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  10. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  11. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  12. Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-09-01

    The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary J.; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  14. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2C, Laboratory Directed Research and Development by Russell Ames Functional areas: Energy Research & Technology To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory...

  16. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the years the industry has shown a good deal of ingenuity and, as a result, has developed several cost effective methods of processing and handling wood. SMB systems usually cannot afford to perform much onsite processing and therefore usually purchase fuels processed to specification. Owners of larger systems try to minimize onsite processing to minimize processing costs. Whole truck dumpers are expensive, but allow for faster and easier unloading, which reduces labor costs and charges by the haulers. Storage costs are a major factor in overall costs, thus the amount of fuel reserve is an important consideration. Silos and bins are relatively expensive compared to open piles used for larger facilities, but may be required depending on space available, wood characteristics, and amount of wood to be stored. For larger systems, a front-end loader has a lot of flexibility in use and is an essential piece of equipment for moving material. Few opportunities appear to exist for improving the cost effectiveness of these systems.

  17. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  18. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directives at https:www.directives.doe.govdirectives APRIL 2015 DOE O 325.2, Position Management and Classification The order establishes departmental requirements and...

  19. Directives Quarterly Updates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

  20. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  4. Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations, and Indirect Aerosol Effects P. H. Daum and Y. Liu Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction Most studies of the effect of aerosols on cloud radiative properties have considered only changes in the cloud droplet concentration, neglecting changes in the spectral shape of the cloud droplet size distribution. However, it has been shown that that the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution

  5. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  6. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs Soft Costs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative accelerates the adoption of solar energy technologies in the marketplace. In support of SunShot Initiative goals, the solar office partners with manufacturers, communities, universities, utilities, and other stakeholders to: Reduce non-hardware costs Lower barriers Foster growth. These focus areas ensure that solar energy systems continue to become more affordable and accessible for Americans. Current Efforts DOE issues

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle Systems Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle Systems Explores the economics of CO2 emission reductions by added engine technology to determine if there is an overall positive or negative benefit. PDF icon deer08_ryan.pdf More Documents & Publications European Diesel Engine Technology: An Overview 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI

  8. Making Carbon Capture and Storage Efficient and Cost Competitive |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Storage Efficient and Cost Competitive Making Carbon Capture and Storage Efficient and Cost Competitive July 26, 2012 - 6:32pm Addthis Ohio State University (OSU) Professor Liang-Shih Fan shows Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Charles McConnell OSU's coal direct chemical looping reactor. | Photo by Niranjani Deshpande Ohio State University (OSU) Professor Liang-Shih Fan shows Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Charles McConnell OSU's coal

  9. PSE&G- Government and Non-Profit Facility Direct Install Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The PSE&G Direct Install Program provides an energy audit and recommended efficiency upgrades at 100% at up front costs, while requiring the participants to repay 20% of the covered cost over...

  10. direct_deposit_111609

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby

  11. Buckman Direct Diversion Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buckman Direct Diversion Project Buckman Direct Diversion Project This project takes surface water from the Rio Grande, and then treats and distributes these waters to the city and county of Santa Fe through their drinking water distribution systems. August 1, 2013 Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project The City of Santa Fe and Santa Fe County completed the construction of the Buckman Direct Diversion (BDD) Project in December 2010. The

  12. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  13. COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH WHISTLEBLOWER ACTIONS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A (May, 2014) COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH WHISTLEBLOWER ACTIONS Applicability: This section is applicable to all elements of the Department of Energy including the National Nuclear Security Administration. References: * Section 627 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, codified at 42 U.S.C. 5853 * DEAR 931.205-47(h), Costs related to legal and other proceedings * DEAR 952.216-7, Allowable cost and payment * DEAR 970.3102-05-47(h), Costs related to legal and other proceedings * DEAR 970.5232-2, Payments

  14. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet File Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template ...

  15. Departmental Directives Program Manual - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M 251.1-1B, Departmental Directives Program Manual by Website Administrator Functional areas: Information Technology, The Manual supplements DOE O 251.1B. Cancels DOE M 251.1-1A....

  16. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2014 | Department of Energy 4014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014 Program record 14014 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program provides information about fuel cell system costs in 2014. PDF icon DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record # 14014 More Documents & Publications Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013

  17. Renewable Energy Cost Optimization Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    The Software allow users to determine the optimum combination of renewable energy technologies to minimize life cycle cost for a facility by employing various algorithms which calculate initial and operating cost, energy delivery, and other attributes associated with each technology as a function of size.

  18. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  19. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  20. Directional recoil rates for WIMP direct detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alenazi, Moqbil S.; Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E Rm 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    New techniques for the laboratory direct detection of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are sensitive to the recoil direction of the struck nuclei. We compute and compare the directional recoil rates dR/dcos{theta} (where {theta} is the angle measured from a reference direction in the sky) for several WIMP velocity distributions including the standard dark halo and anisotropic models such as Sikivie's late-infall halo model and logarithmic-ellipsoidal models. Since some detectors may be unable to distinguish the beginning of the recoil track from its end (lack of head-tail discrimination), we introduce a folded directional recoil rate dR/d|cos{theta}|, where |cos{theta}| does not distinguish the head from the tail of the track. We compute the CS{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} exposures required to distinguish a signal from an isotropic background noise, and find that dR/d|cos{theta}| is effective for the standard dark halo and some but not all anisotropic models.

  1. Unreasonable Cost Waivers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Unreasonable Cost Waivers Unreasonable Cost Waivers unreasonablecost10-03-2012.pdf cnmidecision.pdf eaglepassdecision.pdf...

  2. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... cooling application tests * Complete high pressure application integrity and performance tests * Define performance and cost advantages over conventional approach Cost ...

  3. Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities ...

  4. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    home page for Directives at: https:www.directives.doe.govdirectives- browsec8-operatoror&c10&c12&bstart0 October 2014 DOE O 475.2B, Identifying Classified Information -...

  5. Directives System Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

  6. Direct process for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1982-10-12

    A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

  7. Indirect searches for dark matter with the Fermi large area telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-03-24

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce ? rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for ?-ray spectral lines and ?-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  8. Observations and Modeling of Shallow Convective Clouds: Implications for the Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Modeling of Shallow Convective Clouds: Implications for the Indirect Aerosol Effects Sylwester Arabas 1 , Joanna Slawinska 1 , Wojciech Grabowski 2 , Hugh Morrison 2 , Hanna Pawlowska 1 1 : Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Poland 2 : National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA 348 constants for reference state and lateral boundary conditions 349 ibcx=icyx 350 ibcy=icyy*j3 351 ibcz=icyz 352 irlx=irelx 353 irly=irely*j3 354 irdbc=0 355 fcr0=fcr0*icorio 356

  9. Indirect measurement of diluents in a multi-component natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Owen, Thomas E.

    2006-03-07

    A method of indirectly measuring the diluent (nitrogen and carbon dioxide) concentrations in a natural gas mixture. The molecular weight of the gas is modeled as a function of the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. A set of reference gas mixtures with known molecular weights and diluent concentrations is used to calculate the constant values. For the gas in question, if the speed of sound in the gas is measured at three states, the three resulting expressions of molecular weight can be solved for the nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the gas mixture.

  10. Indirect searches for dark matter with the Fermi large area telescope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-03-24

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce γ rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for γ-ray spectral lines and γ-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  11. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost.

  12. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies | Department of Energy Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon

  13. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energys Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  14. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Oblique incidence effects in direct x-ray detectors: A first-order approximation using a physics-based analytical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badano, Aldo; Freed, Melanie; Fang Yuan

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the modifications to a previously developed analytical model of indirect CsI:Tl-based detector response required for studying oblique x-ray incidence effects in direct semiconductor-based detectors. This first-order approximation analysis allows the authors to describe the associated degradation in resolution in direct detectors and compare the predictions to the published data for indirect detectors. Methods: The proposed model is based on a physics-based analytical description developed by Freed et al. [''A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems,'' Med. Phys. 37(6), 2593-2605 (2010)] that describes detector response functions for indirect detectors and oblique incident x rays. The model, modified in this work to address direct detector response, describes the dependence of the response with x-ray energy, thickness of the transducer layer, and the depth-dependent blur and collection efficiency. Results: The authors report the detector response functions for indirect and direct detector models for typical thicknesses utilized in clinical systems for full-field digital mammography (150 {mu}m for indirect CsI:Tl and 200 {mu}m for a-Se direct detectors). The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in a semiconductor detector differs from that in indirect detectors in two ways: The direct detector model produces a sharper overall PRF compared to the response corresponding to the indirect detector model for normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction compared to that found in indirect detectors with respect to the response at normal incidence angles. Conclusions: Compared to the effect seen in indirect detectors, the direct detector model exhibits a sharper response at normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction with respect to the blur in the orthogonal direction. The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in direct detectors can be considered to be caused mostly by the geometry of the path where the x-ray beam and its secondary particles deposit energy in the semiconductor layer.

  16. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  17. Yearly Energy Costs for Buildings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-03-20

    COSTSAFR3.0 generates a set of compliance forms which will be attached to housing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) issued by Departments or Agencies of the Federal Government. The compliance forms provide a uniform method for estimating the total yearly energy cost for each proposal. COSTSAFR3.0 analyzes specific housing projects at a given site, using alternative fuel types, and considering alternative housing types. The program is designed around the concept of minimizing overall costs through energy conservationmore » design, including first cost and future utility costs, and estabilishes a standard design to which proposed housing designs are compared. It provides a point table for each housing type that can be used to determine whether a proposed design meets the standard and how a design can be modified to meet the standard.« less

  18. Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  19. Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Restrepo, Diego; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Zapata, Oscar E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co E-mail: pfozapata@eia.edu.co

    2010-10-01

    It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below M{sub W} typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W*l and Z*?. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into ?? and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas the antiproton one can be significant.

  20. Web-based, GPU-accelerated, Monte Carlo simulation and visualization of indirect radiation imaging detector performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Han; Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo simulations play a vital role in the understanding of the fundamental limitations, design, and optimization of existing and emerging medical imaging systems. Efforts in this area have resulted in the development of a wide variety of open-source software packages. One such package, hybridMANTIS, uses a novel hybrid concept to model indirect scintillator detectors by balancing the computational load using dual CPU and graphics processing unit (GPU) processors, obtaining computational efficiency with reasonable accuracy. In this work, the authors describe two open-source visualization interfaces, webMANTIS and visualMANTIS to facilitate the setup of computational experiments via hybridMANTIS. Methods: The visualization tools visualMANTIS and webMANTIS enable the user to control simulation properties through a user interface. In the case of webMANTIS, control via a web browser allows access through mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets. webMANTIS acts as a server back-end and communicates with an NVIDIA GPU computing cluster that can support multiuser environments where users can execute different experiments in parallel. Results: The output consists of point response and pulse-height spectrum, and optical transport statistics generated by hybridMANTIS. The users can download the output images and statistics through a zip file for future reference. In addition, webMANTIS provides a visualization window that displays a few selected optical photon path as they get transported through the detector columns and allows the user to trace the history of the optical photons. Conclusions: The visualization tools visualMANTIS and webMANTIS provide features such as on the fly generation of pulse-height spectra and response functions for microcolumnar x-ray imagers while allowing users to save simulation parameters and results from prior experiments. The graphical interfaces simplify the simulation setup and allow the user to go directly from specifying input parameters to receiving visual feedback for the model predictions.

  1. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization Genevieve Saur and Todd Ramsden Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-50408 May 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization Genevieve Saur, Todd

  2. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit of 1.8 cents/kwhr.« less

  3. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  4. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared: 10/28/09 Low Cost Non-Reactive Coating for Refractory Metals A non-reactive coating for refractory metals has been developed at The Ames Laboratory. Contamination of rare earth and reactive metals and their alloys has been a chronic problem that results from their interaction with the crucibles or other vessels used in high temperature processing or during other applications. As a consequence, processing and other costs are high due to the need to replace equipment or containers, or

  5. Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office: Project Peer Review Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation Abhijit Dutta, NREL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Enable research and development of cost-competitive biomass to liquid fuels by providing: - Techno-economic analysis (TEA) - Feedback to the research efforts Specific objective in 2012: Provide TEA and validate DOE BETO's goal to demonstrate technologies capable

  6. Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Revised and posted 2/10/2011 *Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain $50,000 FONSI: uncertain Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain FONSI: uncertain Total Estimated Cost $70,000 Attachment: Memo, Moody to Marcinowski, III, SUBJECT: NEPA 2011 APS for DOE-SRS, Dated: Annual NEPA Planning Summary Environmental Assessments (EAs) Expected to be Initiated in the Next

  7. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economicmore » analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.« less

  8. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economic analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  10. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  11. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-10-16

    To establish directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors.

  12. Directives System Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-10-16

    This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1, which establishes requirements for the development, coordination, and sunset review of DOE directives.

  13. Cancellation of Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26

    Effective immediately the following Department of Energy directive is canceled. DOE M 452.2-2, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes, dated 04-14-2009.

  14. Direct-fired biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The direct-fired biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  15. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.directives.doe.govdirectivesdirectives October 2013 DOE O 472.2 Admin Chg 1, Personnel Security - The order establishes requirements that will enable DOE to operate...

  16. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative Island approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this islands used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an islands cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  17. Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs » LDRD /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg Laboratory Directed Research & Development National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Gang Wu, left, and Piotr Zelenay examine a new non-precious-metal catalyst that can significantly reduce the cost of hydrogen fuel cells while maintaining performance.

  18. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulationif its not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GEs low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  19. Departmental Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-04-07

    The order establishes the directives system to be used for publishing permanent and temporary directives issued by DOE Headquarters and addressed to Headquarters and/or field elements. Chg 1 dated 3-14-85. Cancels DOE 1321.1A.

  20. An indirect measurement of the width of the w boson at the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telford, Paul; /Manchester U.

    2006-08-01

    This thesis presents an indirect measurement of the width of the W boson using data collected at the D0 experiment, a multipurpose particle detector utilizing the Fermilab Tevatron. The W width was determined from the ratio of W {yields} {mu}{nu} to Z {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} cross sections to be {Gamma}{sub W} = 2168 {+-} 22(stat) {+-} 62(syst){sub -16}{sup +24}(pdf) {+-} 4(other) MeV, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction and other experimental measurements. In addition there is a description of how work made towards this measurement has been used to improve the parameterized detector simulation, a vital tool in the obtention of physics results from signals observed in the detector, and in estimating the uncertainty due to choice of PDF, which is of interest for all measurements made at hadron colliders.

  1. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  2. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  3. A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razavipour, S. G. Xu, C.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Ban, D.; Dupont, E.; Laframboise, S. R.; Chan, C. W. I.; Hu, Q.

    2014-01-27

    A Terahertz quantum cascade laser with a rather high injection coupling strength based on an indirectly pumped scheme is designed and experimentally implemented. To effectively suppress leakage current, the chosen quantum cascade module of the device is based on a five-well GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As structure. The device lases up to 151?K with a lasing frequency of 2.67 THz. This study shows that the effect of higher energy states in carrier transport and the long-range tunnel coupling between states that belong to non-neighbouring modules have to be considered in quantum design of structures with a narrow injector barrier. Moreover, the effect of interface roughness scattering between the lasing states on threshold current is crucial.

  4. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  5. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  6. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process, from the first step of defining the estimate's purpose to the last step of updating the estimate to reflect actual costs and changes.

  7. Microsoft Word - Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It takes into account all costs of generating electricity, including capital costs, ... - see OK wind capacity factor above o Capital cost - 1.75 mmMW (includes regional ...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on

  9. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article, which is based on a longer report from Berkeley Lab, examines how twelve western utilities - Avista, Idaho Power, NorthWestern Energy (NorthWestern or NWE), Portland General Electric (PGE), Puget Sound Energy (PSE), PacifiCorp, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), Nevada Power, Sierra Pacific, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) - treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. In reviewing these plans, our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. This article begins with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities in our sample, followed by an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  10. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain???????¢????????????????s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

  11. California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators AgencyCompany...

  12. Property:Cost | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:Cost&oldid285418...

  13. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the ...

  15. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  16. Reducing Photovoltaic Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. The development of more ...

  17. Final Report, DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER45780, "Indirect Excitons in Coupled Quantum Wells"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snoke, david W.

    2014-07-21

    The is the final technical report for this project, which was funded by the DOE from 1999 to 2012. The project focused on experimental studies of spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells, with the aim of understanding the quantum physics of these particles, including such effects as pattern formation due to electron-hole charge separation, the Mott plasma-insulator transition, luminescence up-conversion through field-assisted tunneling, luminescence line shifts due to many-body renormalization and magnetic field effects on tunneling, and proposed effects such as Bose-Einstein condensation of indirect excitons and phase separation of bright and dark indirect excitons. Significant results are summarized here and the relation to other work is discussed.

  18. Quantifying the Uncertainties of Aerosol Indirect Effects and Impacts on Decadal-Scale Climate Variability in NCAR CAM5 and CESM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sungsu

    2014-12-12

    The main goal of this project is to systematically quantify the major uncertainties of aerosol indirect effects due to the treatment of moist turbulent processes that drive aerosol activation, cloud macrophysics and microphysics in response to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations using the CAM5/CESM1. To achieve this goal, the P.I. hired a postdoctoral research scientist (Dr. Anna Fitch) who started her work from the Nov.1st.2012. In order to achieve the project goal, the first task that the Postdoc. and the P.I. did was to quantify the role of subgrid vertical velocity variance on the activation and nucleation of cloud liquid droplets and ice crystals and its impact on the aerosol indirect effect in CAM5. First, we analyzed various LES cases (from dry stable to cloud-topped PBL) to check whether this isotropic turbulence assumption used in CAM5 is really valid. It turned out that this isotropic turbulence assumption is not universally valid. Consequently, from the analysis of LES, we derived an empirical formulation relaxing the isotropic turbulence assumption used for the CAM5 aerosol activation and ice nucleation, and implemented the empirical formulation into CAM5/CESM1, and tested in the single-column and global simulation modes, and examined how it changed aerosol indirect effects in the CAM5/CESM1. These results were reported in the poster section in the 18th Annual CESM workshop held in Breckenridge, CO during Jun.17-20.2013. While we derived an empirical formulation from the analysis of couple of LES from the first task, the general applicability of that empirical formulation was questionable, because it was obtained from the limited number of LES simulations. The second task we did was to derive a more fundamental analytical formulation relating vertical velocity variance to TKE using other information starting from basic physical principles. This was a somewhat challenging subject, but if this could be done in a successful way, it could be directly implemented into the CAM5 as a practical parameterization, and substantially contributes to achieving the project goal. Through an intensive research for about one year, we found appropriate mathematical formulation and tried to implement it into the CAM5 PBL and activation routine as a practical parameterized numerical code. During these processes, however, the Postdoc applied for another position in Sweden, Europe, and accepted a job offer there, and left NCAR in August 2014. In Sweden, Dr. Anna Fitch is still working on this subject in a part time, planning to finalize the research and to write the paper in a near future.

  19. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miley, George H. (Champagne, IL); Wells, William E. (Urbana, IL); DeYoung, Russell J. (Hampton, VA)

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  20. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-08-13

    The order establishes directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. The second draft is being submitted for review owing to extensive revisions to the first draft.

  1. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  2. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  3. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  4. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  5. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  6. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  7. Directions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions The Laboratory is on the hillside directly above the campus of the University of California at Berkeley. Our address is 1 Cyclotron Rd. Bldg. 88, Berkeley, CA 94720. To make the Lab easily accessible, the Lab has its own shuttle service that takes people around the site, to downtown Berkeley, and to the BART station. Parking spaces can sometimes be difficult to find at the 88-Inch Cyclotron, so make sure to prearrange for a parking permit with our Administrative Office. Further

  8. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System | Department of Energy Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-01_stephenson.pdf More Documents & Publications Design, Modeling, and

  9. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Material Handling ...

  10. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP ...

  11. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  12. Low Cost, Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost, Durable Seal Low Cost, Durable Seal This presentation, which focuses on low cost, durable seals, was given by George Roberts of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. PDF icon new_fc_roberts_utc.pdf More Documents & Publications Improved AST's Based on Real World FCV Data Low Cost Durable Seal Breakout Group 3: Water Management

  13. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshp_storage_uihlein.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Pathway and Resource Overview HyPro: Modeling the Hydrogen Transition

  14. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  15. Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 6/29/12. PDF icon Memo regarding Cost Study Manual PDF icon Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources Management QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 7 QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 6

  16. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  17. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  18. Water Availability, Cost, and Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Availability, Cost, and Use - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  19. 1998 Cost and Quality Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1998 Tables June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of

  20. COST AND QUALITY TABLES 95

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts The annual publication Cost

  1. Directed Quantum Chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efetov, K.B. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russia)

    1997-07-01

    Quantum disordered problems with a direction (imaginary vector potential) are discussed and mapped onto a supermatrix {sigma} model. It is argued that the 0D version of the {sigma} model may describe a broad class of phenomena that can be called directed quantum chaos. It is demonstrated by explicit calculations that these problems are equivalent to those of random asymmetric or non-Hermitian matrices. A joint probability of complex eigenvalues is obtained. The fraction of states with real eigenvalues proves to be always finite for time reversal invariant systems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  3. Directions & Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions & Maps Directions & Maps The Bradbury Science Museum is located in downtown Los Alamos at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street. Contact Us thumbnail of Bradbury Science Museum 505 667-4444 Email Where we're located Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the Pajarito Plateau in the Jemez Mountains, 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe. The Bradbury Science Museum is located in downtown Los Alamos at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street. If you're

  4. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  5. Directional gamma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  6. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  7. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-02-12

    The following directives are extended until 8-12-04. DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, dated 11/1/99. DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99.

  8. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-02-24

    This Notice extends the following directives until 2/16/04: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99-7/1/00.

  9. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-08-12

    The following directives are extended until 8-12-05: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Security Systems, dated 11-1-99 and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11-23-99. No cancellations.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

    2005-03-18

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  11. Innovation in Nuclear Technology for the Least Product Price and Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, Romney

    2003-09-01

    In energy markets, costs dominate for all new technology introductions (pressure valves, gas turbines, reactors) both now and far into the future. Technology improves, and costs are reduced as markets are penetrated with the trend following a learning/experience curve (MCE) based on classic economic forces. The curve followed is governed by development costs and market targets, and nuclear systems follow such a curve in order to compete with other technologies and projected future cost for alternate energy initiatives. Funding impacts directly on market penetration and on the ''learning rate.'' The CANDU/AECL development path (experience curve) is a chosen balance between evolution and revolution for a competitive advantage.

  12. Fact #791: August 5, 2013 Comparative Costs to Drive an Electric Vehicle |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1: August 5, 2013 Comparative Costs to Drive an Electric Vehicle Fact #791: August 5, 2013 Comparative Costs to Drive an Electric Vehicle On average, it costs about three times less to drive an electric vehicle than a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle. The Department of Energy has created a new term, called the eGallon, to allow for a more direct comparison of the fueling costs from conventional vehicles to electric vehicles. Many consumers know the price for a

  13. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

  14. Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: 2010 LCLS Undulator 2 is envisioned to be a 0.2 - 2keV FEL x-ray source, capable of delivering x-rays to End Station A (ESA), located in the existing Research Yard at SLAC. It will also be configurable as a non- FEL hard x-ray source capable of delivering a chirped x-ray pulse for single-shot broad-spectrum measurements. The project would entail reconstruction of the electron beam transport to End Station A, construction and

  15. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PPPO/03-0145&D2 Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Group 1 Buildings X-103, X-334, and X-344B at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio This document has been approved for public release: Henry H. Thomas (signature on file) 10/29/10 Classification & Information Control Officer Date Restoration Services, Inc. (RSI) contributed to the preparation of this document and should not be considered an eligible contractor for its review DOE/PPPO/03-0145&D2 Engineering

  16. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  17. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  18. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  19. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  20. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  1. Energy savings from indirect evaporative pre-cooling: Control strategies and commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felts, D.; Jump, D.A.

    1998-07-01

    Package rooftop air conditioning units (RTU) with evaporative pre-cooling systems were installed at an Agricultural History Museum and conference center in the northern Sacramento Valley in California, a hot and dry summer climate region. The evaporative pre-coolers serve to extend the economizer range of the RTU's. A commissioning team monitored the performance of the RTU evaporative pre-coolers. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine if changes were warranted to optimize the system's energy efficiency. The commissioning process revealed that the RTU evaporative pre-coolers were being controlled by the economizer control cycle. With this control cycle, the evaporative pre-cooler operates when the outdoor air temperature is falling below the space return air temperature. This means that the pre-cooler will never operate at peak load conditions. The conference center is an assembly occupancy. Building codes require significant levels of outdoor air for ventilation. The evaporative pre-cooler system provides the means to significantly offset the energy requirements for cooling down and heating up this ventilation air. A DOE2 energy simulation analysis indicated that the evaporative pre-cooler could cut energy use by over 50% if it were working correctly. Investigation concludes that in buildings with high outdoor air requirements, evaporative pre-cooling, using building exhaust air as the indirect evaporative cooling source, significantly reduce building energy consumption. This evaporative pre-cooling technology works in any climate, regardless of outdoor conditions, since the return air stream exhausted from the building provides a relatively constant temperature and humidity source for evaporative cooling. An added benefit is that the evaporative pre-cooler heat exchanger recovers heat from the exhausted air stream in cold weather.

  2. Experimental demonstration of early time, hohlraum radiation symmetry tuning for indirect drive ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J.; Thomas, C.; Sorce, C.; Glenn, S.; Landen, O. L.; Kline, J.

    2011-09-15

    Early time radiation symmetry at the capsule for indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] will be inferred from the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern of a high-Z sphere replacing the ignition capsule. This technique was tested on the OMEGA laser facility [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, T. Boehly et al., Laser Part. Beams 11, 317 (1991)] in near full ignition scale vacuum hohlraums using an equivalent experimental setup to the one planned for NIF. Two laser cones entering each laser entrance hole heat the hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 100 eV, mimicking the NIF ignition pulse foot drive. The experiments have demonstrated accuracies of {+-}1.5% ({+-}2%) in inferred P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} (P{sub 4}/P{sub 0}) Legendre mode incident flux asymmetry and consistency between 900 eV and 1200 eV re-emission patterns. We have also demonstrated the expected tuning capability of P{sub 2}/P{sub 0}, from positive (pole hot) to negative (waist hot), decreasing linearly with the inner/outer beams power fraction. P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} on the other hand shows very little variation with power fraction. We developed a simple analytical viewfactor model that is in good agreement with both measured P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} and P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} and their dependence on inner beam power fraction.

  3. NERSC_FutureDirections_SPXXLCanHelp.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Directions and How SPXXL Can Help May 2 1, 2 015 Storage workloads at a user facility Centerwide S torage Petascale fi le s ystems ( NGF), a nd archival s torage ( HPSS) Data I ntensive Experiments a nd SimulaDons High B andwidth Capability S imulaDons High D emand Job T hroughput Data Explosion is Occurring Everywhere in DOE Genomics * Sequencer data volume increasing 12x over the next 3 years * Sequencer cost decreasing by 10x over same time period High Energy Physics * LHC experiments

  4. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  5. Material forming apparatus using a directed droplet stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Viswanathan, Srinath (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN); Wilgen, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for rapidly forming precision metallic and intermetallic alloy net shape parts directly from liquid metal droplets. A directed droplet deposition apparatus includes a crucible with an orifice for producing a jet of material, a jet destabilizer, a charging structure, a deflector system, and an impact zone. The systems and methods provide advantages in that fully dense, microstructurally controlled parts can be fabricated at moderate cost.

  6. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The US | Department of Energy Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers double digit fuel economy benefits, much lower cost than diesel or hybrid. PDF icon deer09_whitaker.pdf More Documents & Publications E85 Optimized Engine

  7. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  8. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  9. WIPP - Cost of a FOIA request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost of a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request The FOIA generally requires that requestors pay fees for processing their requests. If costs associated with the processing of a...

  10. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  11. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  12. NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost December 2, 2013 Two detailed reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) find that solar financing and other non-hardware costs - often referred to as "soft costs" - now comprise up to 64% of the total price of residential solar energy systems, reflecting how soft costs are becoming an increasingly larger fraction of the cost of installing solar.

  13. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  14. Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentbiotrans-cost-optimization-model,http Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration &...

  15. Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Technology to Market » Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty As a basis for strategic planning, competitiveness analysis, funding metrics and targets, SunShot supports analysis teams at national laboratories to assess technology costs, location-specific competitive advantages, policy impacts on system financing, and to perform detailed levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses. This shows the

  16. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-03-18

    The following directives are extended until 3-18-06: DOE N 205.8, Cyber Security Requirements for Wireless Devices and Information Systems, dated 2-11-04; DOE N 205.9, Certification and Accreditation Process for Information Systems Including National Security Systems, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.10, Cyber Security Requirements for Risk Management, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.11, Security Requirements for Remote Access to DOE and Applicable Contractor Information Technology Systems, dated 2-19-04. DOE N 205.12, Clearing, Sanitizing, and Destroying Information System Storage Media, Memory Devices, and Other Related Hardware, dated 2-19-04.

  17. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (9521 Avenida Del Oso NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1995-01-01

    A device for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

  18. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-07-25

    A device is disclosed for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire. 4 figs.

  19. Directions | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area Map Jefferson Lab is located in Newport News, VA, in the Hampton Roads area. A D D I T I O N A L L I N K S: Visiting JLab Transportation Driving in Virginia Accomodations Schedule A Tour International Visitors top-right bottom-left-corner bottom-right-corner DIRECTIONS Important Note: Effective Feb. 15, 2016, Jefferson Lab's main entrance is closed to all traffic. Excavation work is underway at the main entrance - at the intersection of Jefferson Ave. and Lawrence Drive. Please follow the

  20. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  1. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Tuesday, November 27, 2012 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. National Renewable Energy Lab Offices - Suite 930 901 D Street, SW, Washington, DC 20585 AGENDA 9:00 a.m.-9:15 a.m. Introduction 9:15 a.m.-9:45 a.m. Participant Introductions 9:45 a.m.-10:15 a.m. New Pathways - Alicia Lindauer, DOE 10:15 a.m.-10:45 a.m. Biochemical Conversion Processes - Mary Biddy, NREL 10:45 a.m.-11:15 a.m. Thermochemical Conversion Processes - Johnathan Holladay, PNNL 11:15 a.m.-11:45 a.m. Algae

  2. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  3. Remote direct memory access

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  4. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  5. ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  7. H{sub 2} AND HD DIRECT PHOTODISSOCIATION IN THE CHEMISTRY OF THE PRIMORDIAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppola, Carla M.; Diomede, Paola; Longo, Savino; Capitelli, Mario

    2011-01-20

    In this work, we calculate the thermal contribution to the rate coefficients for the processes of photodissociation of H{sub 2} and HD molecules. A comparison between direct and indirect rate coefficients is reported for molecular hydrogen. The rate coefficients are calculated including all vibrational levels of both molecules. Interpolation expressions for all processes are provided as a function of temperature. The resulting total rates for these processes are contextualized by direct numerical calculations based on a standard chemical network for the primordial universe.

  8. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  9. Microsoft Word - cost study manual final 06 25 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8, 2012 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost

  10. Directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, G.K.; Nemec, R.; Milewski, J.; Thoma, D.J.; Cremers, D.; Barbe, M.

    1994-09-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping process being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to fabricate metal components. This is done by fusing gas delivered metal powder particles in the focal zone of a laser beam that is, programmed to move along or across the part cross section. Fully dense metal is built up a layer at a time to form the desired part represented by a 3 dimensional solid model from CAD software. Machine ``tool paths`` are created from the solid model that command the movement and processing parameters specific to the DLF process so that the part can be built one layer at a time. The result is a fully dense, near net shape metal part that solidifies under rapid solidification conditions.

  11. Site directed recombination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jurka, Jerzy W. (Los Altos, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  12. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  13. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug; Goggin, Mr. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  14. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  15. Microsoft Word - CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount Custom Fields

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount Custom Fields Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount Custom Fields Background On August 29 th , 2013 the PSWG approved Change Request 091 which adds two new custom fields to STRIPES. The names of the fields are Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Saving Amount. The purpose of these fields is to allow DOE to capture Cost Savings documented at time of award and the subsequent reporting capability of this data via IDW.

  16. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  17. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define

  18. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  19. Multiple direction vibration fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cericola, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Doggett, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Ernest, Terry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Priddy, Tommy G. (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.

  20. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  1. Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Funding for the EMSSAB | Department of Energy Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB From: Designated Federal Officer, Sandra L. Waisley (EM-11) To: SSAB Members (G. Stegner, J. Reising, G. Bowman, T. Taylor, C. Gertz, B. Murphie, S. McCracken, M. Marvin, J. Rampe, A. Doswell, C. Anderson, B. Wethington, S. Brennan, K. Kozeliski,

  2. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Durable Seal Low Cost Durable Seal Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 4_utc.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost, Durable Seal 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

  3. Low Cost Heliostat Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Heliostat Development Low Cost Heliostat Development This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042513_blackmon.pdf More Documents & Publications Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - FY13 Q1 Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q2

  4. Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah | Department of Energy Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Presentation from the 2015 DOE National Cleanup Workshop by William E. Murphie, Manager, Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (PPPO). PDF icon Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth

  5. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  6. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  7. Clean distributed generation performance and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2004-04-01

    This assessment examined the performance, cost, and timing of ultra-low emissions CHP technologies driven by certain air quality regions in the U.S.

  8. Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fingersh, L.; Hand, M.; Laxson, A.

    2006-12-01

    This model intends to provide projections of the impact on cost from changes in economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product and Producer Price Index.

  9. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  10. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report This report updates the 1999 economic analysis ...

  11. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  12. Cost Recovery | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Recovery Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(150) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations...

  13. Cost Mechanisms | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Mechanisms Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(150) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations...

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs...

  15. Controller (Cost Compliance and Financial Reporting) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GAAP, Cost Accounting Standards and internal controls required. Excellent analytical and problem solving skills Knowledge of DOE reporting requirements and prior Laboratory or...

  16. Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

    1994-10-07

    Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

  17. Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class...

  18. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company

  19. Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are...

  20. Cutting Biofuel Production Costs | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cutting Biofuel Production Costs Working to use sunlight to convert biomass to biofuels, ... bioderived alcohols to benzaldehyde, toluene, and the zero-emission biofuel hydrogen. ...

  1. Watt Does It Cost To Use It?

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students learn how electrical usage is counted and priced. They measure and evaluate energy use and cost of representative household and school electrical items.

  2. Indirect sensing for rotor flux position of permanent magnet AC motors operating over a wide speed range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an indirect sensing, or sensorless, method for rotor flux position for brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motors operating over a wide speed range, while keeping maximum torque per ampere and/or maximum efficiency capabilities. The method described is particularly applicable to trapezoidal back emf type of BPM motors. The typical trapezoidal waveform of the motor internal voltages (or back emf) contains a fundamental and higher order frequency harmonics. In particular, the third harmonic component is extracted from the stator phase voltages while the fundamental and other polyphase components are eliminated via a simple summation of the three phase voltages. The resulting third harmonic signal keeps a constant phase relationship with the rotor flux for any motor speed and load condition, and is practically free of noise that can be introduced by the inverter switching, making this a robust sensing method. In contrast with indirect sensing methods based on detection of the back-emf signal that require heavy filtering, the third harmonic signal needs only a small amount of filtering to eliminate the switching frequency and its side bands. As a result, the method described here is not sensitive to filtering delays, allowing the motor to achieve a good performance over a wide speed range. Motor starting is also superior with this method since the third harmonic signal can be detected and processed at lower speeds than for the conventional method of back-emf sensing. Moreover, an alternative way to acquire the third harmonic signal without the need to access the stator neutral terminal is discussed. This is particularly interesting with the motor neutral connection is not available or expensive to have access. The third harmonic indirect sensing scheme is implemented in the laboratory and compared to a conventional back-emf sensing method.

  3. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison This cost of ownership...

  4. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  5. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland {number_sign}70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line.

  6. DOE Directives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Directives DOE Directives Directives are the Department of Energy's primary means to communicate and institutionalize directives and policies and to establish requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. DOE O 413.3A - Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets DOE G 413.3-1 - Managing Design and Construction Using Systems Engineering for Use with DOE O 413.3A DOE G 413.3-2 - Quality Assurance Guide for Project Management DOE

  7. Bioenergy Technologies Office New Directions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Directions and New Business Opportunities for BETO Valerie Reed, Acting Director, BETO, U.S. Department of Energy

  8. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4014 Date: September 25, 2014 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014 Update to: Record 14012 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: October 6, 2014 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on next-generation laboratory technology 1 and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $55/kW net when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. The expected cost of automotive PEM fuel cell

  9. EATON PURSUES PRINT-BASED MANUFACTURING OF INTEGRATED, LOW-COST,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HIGH-PERFORMANCE SSL LUMINAIRES | Department of Energy EATON PURSUES PRINT-BASED MANUFACTURING OF INTEGRATED, LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE SSL LUMINAIRES EATON PURSUES PRINT-BASED MANUFACTURING OF INTEGRATED, LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE SSL LUMINAIRES Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated Low Cost High Performance SSL Lu....jpg With the help of DOE funding, Eaton is using manufacturing process innovation to develop a way to place the LED package, chip, or chip array directly on a fixture or

  10. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report surveys and summarizes existing state-level RPS cost and benefit estimates and examines the various methods used to calculate such estimates. The report relies largely upon data or results reported directly by electric utilities and state regulators. As such, the estimated costs and benefits itemized in this document do not result from the application of a standardized approach or the use of a consistent set of underlying assumptions. Because the reported values may differ from those derived through a more consistent analytical treatment, we do not provide an aggregate national estimate of RPS costs and benefits, nor do we attempt to quantify net RPS benefits at national or state levels.

  11. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  12. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  13. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  14. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  15. PAFC Cost Challenges | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Challenges PAFC Cost Challenges Presentation at the MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop held Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon mcfc_pafc_workshop_kanuri.pdf More Documents & Publications MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop Summary Report High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D PAFC History and Successes

  16. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es111_gallagher_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Promises and Challenges of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition-Metal Layered-Oxide Cathodes PHEV Battery Cost Assessment EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

  17. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es001_barnett_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment PHEV

  18. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  19. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

  20. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to DME, which is subsequently converted via homologation reactions to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon products.

  2. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  3. Dissecting the Cost of the Smart Grid | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentdissecting-cost-smart-grid Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Resource Integration Planning,Cost...

  4. Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, B.

    2012-04-01

    Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at about 700 C - a much lower temperature than needed to make the wafer. The hot filament dec

  5. Unconventional Staging Package Selection Leads to Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    2012-06-07

    In late 2010, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Secretary of Energy, Daniel Poneman, directed that an analysis be conducted on the U-233 steel-clad, Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) fuel plates that were stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), focusing on cost savings and any potential DOE programmatic needs for the special nuclear material (SNM). The NA-162 Nuclear Criticality Safety Program requested retention of these fuel plates for use in experiments at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). A Secretarial Initiative challenged ORNL to make the first shipment to the NNSS by the end of the 2011 calendar year, and this effort became known as the U-233 Project Accelerated Shipping Campaign. To meet the Secretarial Initiative, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), the NNSS Management and Operations contractor, was asked to facilitate the receipt and staging of the U-233 fuel plates in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF). Because there were insufficient staging containers available for the fuel plates, NSTec conducted an analysis of alternatives. The project required a staging method that would reduce the staging footprint while addressing nuclear criticality safety and radiation exposure concerns. To accommodate an intermediate staging method of approximately five years, the NSTec project team determined that a unique and unconventional staging package, the AT-400R, was available to meet the project requirements. By using the AT-400R containers, NSTec was able to realize a cost savings of approximately $10K per container, a total cost savings of nearly $450K.

  6. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai’i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  7. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  8. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  9. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  10. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  11. Pressure monitoring technique provides cost-savings solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, J.O.

    1994-05-01

    EnergyNorth Natural Gas, Inc. solved its concern over cost-effectively retrieving various amounts of data over an extensive geographical area with a smart pressure transmitter. Much of the company's existing technology was either old, or required a substantial degree of manual intervention. It was determined that the age along with manual requirements would have an adverse effect on future management operations. The company explored the market for alternative solutions and the search led to the Rosemount Model 1151 Smart Pressure Transmitter. The transmitter was particularly appealing because it allowed direct communication with the transmitter through a modem without additional peripheral devices. The supplier was contacted directly regarding the interest in using the devices for monitoring the ENGI system pressures. Specifications for the HART protocol was provided which was used to determine how to utilize the transmitters to obtain cost-effective pressure readings. The smart transmitters proved to be the driving force behind the entire SCADA system installation. The use of these transmitters will pay for SCADA installation over a 5-year period.

  12. Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacey, Ph.D, P.E., Ronald E.

    2012-07-16

    Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

  13. Payroll Check Direct Deposit Authorization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Payroll Check Direct Deposit Authorization (for LANS non-craft salary & wage payments only) Note: Direct Deposit authorizations are available through Oracle LANL Worker Self Service with A-Level access. Limit 5 Direct Deposit authorization accounts per employee Financial Institution Name: Routing/Transit Number: (requires nine digits) Account Number: Type of Account (check one): Checking Savings A separate form is required for each account transaction. Type of Transacton Deposit Type (check

  14. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7, 2003 Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 For Immediate Release Office of the Press Secretary December 17, 2003 December 17, 2003 Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 Subject: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection Purpose (1) This directive establishes a national policy for Federal departments and agencies to identify and prioritize United States critical infrastructure and key resources and to protect them from terrorist attacks.

  15. DOE Directives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Directives DOE Directives DOE Directives Initiated by the IG DOE O 221.3A, Establishment of Management Decisions on Office of Inspector General Reports - April 19, 2008 DOE O 221.1A, Reporting Fraud, Waste and Abuse to the Office of Inspector General - April 19, 2008 DOE O 221.2A, Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General - February 25, 2008 DOE O 224.2A, Auditing of Programs and Operations - November 9, 2007

  16. NREL-Developed Software Tackles Building Efficiency and Offers Cost Savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL NREL-Developed Software Tackles Building Efficiency and Offers Cost Savings November 20, 2013 A unique software application created by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) could improve the efficiency of commercial buildings by allowing occupants to interact with buildings more directly. The new Building Agent (BA) application allows facility managers to quickly diagnose and adjust for problems based on direct occupant comfort feedback.

  17. Sunlight Direct | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Developed a system that tracks and concentrates solar energy for distributed power generation Website: www.sunlight-direct.com Coordinates: 33.0013938,...

  18. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phone Book Jobs Laboratory Directorate - Strategic Planning Office Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) LBNL LDRD Program Guidelines LDRD FY 2017 Call for...

  19. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  20. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation.

  1. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-04-30

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation

  2. DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Item Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest https:www.directives.doe.govinformational-purposes-only...

  3. Program Direction and Analysis Jobs

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    sc-4organizationprogram-direction-and-analysis Below is a list of currently open federal employment opportunities in the Office of Science. Prospective applicants should follow...

  4. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  5. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  6. INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE ''BURINGIN'' AND DIRECT DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney C. Ewing; Lumin Wang

    2002-10-30

    Excess actinides result from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons (Pu) and the reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (mainly 241 Am, 244 Cm and 237 Np). In Europe, Canada and Japan studies have determined much improved efficiencies for burnup of actinides using inert-matrix fuels. This innovative approach also considers the properties of the inert-matrix fuel as a nuclear waste form for direct disposal after one-cycle of burn-up. Direct disposal can considerably reduce cost, processing requirements, and radiation exposure to workers.

  7. Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle Receiver

  8. Decommissioning Cost Estimating Factors And Earned Value Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Cimmarron, E.

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Flats 771 Project progressed from the planning stage of decommissioning a plutonium facility, through the strip-out of highly-contaminated equipment, removal of utilities and structural decontamination, and building demolition. Actual cost data was collected from the strip-out activities and compared to original estimates, allowing the development of cost by equipment groupings and types and over time. Separate data was developed from the project control earned value reporting and compared with the equipment data. The paper discusses the analysis to develop the detailed factors for the different equipment types, and the items that need to be considered during characterization of a similar facility when preparing an estimate. The factors are presented based on direct labor requirements by equipment type. The paper also includes actual support costs, and examples of fixed or one-time start-up costs. The integration of the estimate and the earned value system used for the 771 Project is also discussed. The paper covers the development of the earned value system as well as its application to a facility to be decommissioned and an existing work breakdown structure. Lessons learned are provided, including integration with scheduling and craft supervision, measurement approaches, and verification of scope completion. In summary: The work of decommissioning the Rocky Flats 771 Project process equipment was completed in 2003. Early in the planning process, we had difficulty in identifying credible data and implementing processes for estimating and controlling this work. As the project progressed, we were able to collect actual data on the costs of removing plutonium contaminated equipment from various areas over the life of this work and associate those costs with individual pieces of equipment. We also were able to develop and test out a system for measuring the earned value of a decommissioning project based on an evolving estimate. These were elements that would have been useful to us in our early planning process, and we would expect that they would find application elsewhere as the DOE weapons complex and some commercial nuclear facilities move towards closure. (authors)

  9. USDA High Energy Cost Grant Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is accepting applications for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities serving rural communities with home energy costs that are over 275% of the national average.

  10. Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2012 Fee Information Minimum Fee Maximum Fee September 2015 Contract Number: Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contractor: 3,264,909,094 Contract Period: EM Contractor Fee s Idaho...

  11. Cost of Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as well as projections for the future. Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P. (March 2013). 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review. National Renewable...

  12. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  13. SEP 2015 Cost Benefit Analysis Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Superior Energy Performance® (SEP™) paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification.

  14. Top Low- or No-Cost Improvements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation describes the top low- or no-cost projects to improve energy efficiency as identified in energy assessments performed by DOE and by the Industrial Assessment Centers.

  15. Energy Cost Control: How the Money Works

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Christopher Russell Energy PathFINDER www.energypathfinder.com crussell@energypathfinder.com Energy Cost Control: How the Money Works (Copies of these slides to be provided by ...

  16. New developments in capital cost estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Zocher, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the ability to capture information that in the past could not be automated. The purpose of automation is not to eliminate the expert cost engineer. The goal is to use available technology to have more information available to the professionals in the cost engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases in order to produce the highest quality estimate and project possible from all levels of cost engineers. We cannot overemphasize the importance of using a good source of expert information in building these types of programs. ''Garbage in, garbage out'' still applies in this form of programming. Expert systems technology will become commonplace in many vertical markets; it is important to undersand what can and cannot be accomplished in our field, and where this technology will lead us in the future.

  17. Costs | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 working days of the event. Any additional costs that are the result of additional audio visual usage or extraordinary cleanupdamages will be billed to the user. Use of the...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring data was collected at four locations in China during 2008. The various sites are located in regions with different climate regimes and with high aerosol loadings of different optical, physical, and chemical properties. Measurements obtained at all the AMF sites during the 8-month deployment in China will help scientists to validate satellite-based findings, understand the mechanisms of the aerosol indirect effects in the region, and examine the roles of aerosols in affecting regional climate and atmospheric circulation, with a special focus on the impact of the East Asian monsoon system. As with other collections from the ARM Mobile Facility, the datasets are available from the ARM Archive. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | January 15, 2013 | Ganapathi Thin Film mirror is ~40-50% cheaper and 60% lighter than SOA * Project leverages extensive space experience by JPL and L'Garde to develop a low-cost parabolic dish capable of providing 4 kW thermal. Key features: * Metallized reflective thin film material with high reflectivity (>93%) with polyurethane foam backing * Single mold polyurethane

  20. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  1. With low projected manufacturing costs, high ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low projected manufacturing costs, high ion conductivities, reduced cross-over, chemical and thermal stability in both acidic and alkaline environments, the Sandia membrane technology is positioned to lower the cost of many energy-water systems. Poly (phenylene)-based Hydrocarbon Membrane Separators With a larger component of our electricity generation coming from intermittent and variable sources, stationary energy storage and local power generation will be essential for continued growth of the

  2. Reducing Power Factor Cost | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Power Factor Cost Reducing Power Factor Cost Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. PDF icon Reducing

  3. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Presentation by Fred Joseck, U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program, at the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop, February 17, 2011, in Washington, DC. PDF icon wkshp_market_readiness_joseck.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: National Academy of Sciences March 2011 H2A Delivery Models and Results Analysis of a Cluster Strategy for Near Term Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout

  4. Certificate of Current Cost and Pricing Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CERTIFICATE OF CURRENT COST AND PRICING DATA (OCT 1997) This is to certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data (as defined in section 15.401 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and required under FAR subsection 15.403-4) submitted, either actually or by specific identification in writing, to the Contracting Officer or to the Contracting Officer's representative in support of * are accurate, complete, and current as of **. This certification includes the

  5. Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Imminent' - News Releases | NREL Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called 'Imminent' July 13, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Solar concentrators using highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels soon, attendees were told at a recent international conference on the subject. Herb Hayden of Arizona Public Service (APS) and Robert McConnell and Martha Symko-Davies of the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  6. Soft Costs Competitive Awards | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Soft Costs Competitive Awards Soft Costs Competitive Awards Open Funding Opportunities State Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies II - State Energy Strategies (SEEDSII-SES) Mandatory concept paper due March 8, 2016 Current Awards Funding Program Year Announced Amount Awarded Solar Powering America by Recognizing Communities (SPARC) 2015 $13M SunShot Prize 2015 $10M Solar Market Pathways 2015 $16.5M Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize 2014 $1M Rooftop Solar Challenge II 2013 $12M Grid Engineering

  7. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Under DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, the Office of Acquisition and Project Management (OAPM) must perform a Performance Baseline External Independent Review (EIR) prior to Critical Decision (CD) 2, and a Construction/Execution Readiness EIR for all Major System projects prior to CD-3. The EIR Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) discuss all elements of EIRs including review

  8. Watt Does It Cost To Use It?

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Watt Does It Cost to Use It? Grades: 5-8, 9-12 Topic: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Author: Mark Ziesmer Owner: Alliance to Save Energy This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. WATT DOES IT COST TO USE IT? By Mark Ziesmer, Sultana High School Hesperia Unified School District, California Overview: Familiarize students with how electrical usage is counted, electrical pricing, and measure and evaluate

  9. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhinefrank, Ken

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress and results for this project which will be used to inform the utility-scale design process, improve cost estimates, accurately forecast energy production and to observe system operation and survivability.

  10. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  11. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  12. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Using Low-Cost Natural Gas | Department of Energy 2024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office provides information about the cost of hydrogen production using low-cost natural gas. PDF icon DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record # 12024 More Documents & Publications Distributed Hydrogen

  13. Directional fast-neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrd, Roger C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A plurality of omnidirectional radiation detectors are arranged in a close packed symmetrical pattern to form a segmented detector. The output radiation counts from these detectors are arithmetically combined to provide the direction of a source of incident radiation. Directionality is achieved without the use of shielding to provide collimation and background reduction effects. Indeed, output counts from paired detectors are simply subtracted to yield a vector direction toward the radiation source. The counts from all of the detectors can be combined to yield an output signal functionally related to the radiation source strength.

  14. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 2015 Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015 This paper presents average values of levelized costs for generating technologies that are brought online in 2020 1 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2015 (AEO2015) Reference case. 2 Both national values and the minimum and maximum values across the 22 U.S. regions of the NEMS electricity market module are presented. Levelized

  15. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates M. Melaina and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-56412 September 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  16. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  17. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-01-08

    To establish the Department's, including the NNSA's, requirements for laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation. Cancels DOE O 413.2. Canceled by DOE O 413.2B.

  18. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-04-19

    The Order establishes DOE requirements and responsibilities for laboratory directed research and development while providing laboratory directors with broad flexibility for program implementation. Cancels DOE O 413.2A. Admin Chg 1, 1-31-11.

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-10-22

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation. Supersedes DOE O 413.2B.

  20. Nonimaging radiant energy direction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1980-01-01

    A raidant energy nonimaging light direction device is provided. The device includes an energy transducer and a reflective wall whose contour is particularly determined with respect to the geometrical vector flux of a field associated with the transducer.