Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 7, Direct/Indirect Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes ...

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Office of Research and Sponsored Programs Charging Direct and Indirect Costs Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

institutional activity." All costs charged to a sponsored project must comply with any terms and conditions direct charges on a sponsored project. However, there are exceptions when these costs may be chargedOffice of Research and Sponsored Programs Charging Direct and Indirect Costs Policy Revised 10

de la Torre, José R.

3

Facilities and Administration (F&A) cost is another term used for indirect cost. F&A/Indirect cost are calculated based on the direct expenditures of sponsored projects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are calculated based on the direct expenditures of sponsored projects. F&A/Indirect cost can not be readily. These costs are "real" though they can not be associated with a specific project. Examples of F and departmental administration. Penn will apply the appropriate F&A rate to the direct cost of the project based

Bushman, Frederic

4

College of Engineering Request for Institutional Waiver of Indirect Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigator Sponsor Project Title Total Direct Costs Total Modified Direct Costs Full Indirect Costs Rate Full Indirect Costs Amount Total Project Costs (with Full IDC) Requested Indirect Costs Rate Requested Indirect Costs Amount Total Project Costs (with req'd IDC) Principal Investigator's Justification for Indirect

Eustice, Ryan

5

Allocation of Direct and Indirect Costs … Cost Accounting Standard 418 … at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, OAS-L-13-07  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Allocation of Direct and Indirect Allocation of Direct and Indirect Costs - Cost Accounting Standard 418 - at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OAS-L-13-07 April 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 April 11, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, LIVERMORE SITE OFFICE FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on the "Allocation of Direct and Indirect Costs - Cost Accounting Standard 418 - at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory" BACKGROUND The attached report presents the results of the audit of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (Livermore) Allocation of Direct and Indirect Costs - Cost Accounting Standard 418, conducted to address the performance audit objective described below. The Office of

6

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-21 requires that certain expenses be treated as indirect costs and paid for through the indirect cost (F&A) mechanism. To qualify as a direct charge on a sponsored project, costs normally considere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

charge on a sponsored project, costs normally considered F&A must be charged in a timely manner and must that discuss which costs can be charged directly to federally funded projects and which expenses may qualify be treated as indirect costs and paid for through the indirect cost (F&A) mechanism. To qualify as a direct

Scott, Robert A.

7

Global Indirect Cost of Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Indirect cost of corrosion for the USA (1998 basis)...76.64 ? ? ? Mining 27.86 ? ? ? Petroleum refining 32.22 ? ? ? Chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical 111.04 ? ? ? Pulp and paper 148.05 ? ? ? Agricultural 126.28 ? ? ? Food processing 123.66 ? ? ? Electronics ? ? ? ? Home appliances 25.25 ? ? ? Subtotal 671.00 Production loss 2.5??5.5 26.84...

8

Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United States. The cost multipliers are used for scaling the component costs to retail prices.

Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

9

FACILITY AND ADMINISTRATIVE (INDIRECT) COSTS September 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2015. Definitions: Direct Costs: Costs that can be specifically identified with a particular project(s) Cost: A broad category of costs that are common to all research projects. "Facilities" is defined one F&A cost rate. If 50% or more of a project is performed off-campus (exclusive of any subcontract

Albertini, David

10

Indirect and Semi-direct Aerosol Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). ISDAC's ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Steven Ghan; Johannes Verlinde; Alexei Korolev; J. Walter Strapp; Beat Schmid; Jason M. Tomlinson; Mengistu Wolde; Sarah D. Brooks; Dan Cziczo; Manvendra K. Dubey; Jiwen Fan; Connor Flynn; Ismail Gultepe; John Hubbe; Mary K. Gilles; Alexander Laskin; Paul Lawson; W. Richard Leaitch; Peter Liu; Xiaohong Liu; Dan Lubin; Claudio Mazzoleni; Ann-Marie Macdonald; Ryan C. Moffet; Hugh Morrison; Mikhail Ovchinnikov; Matthew D. Shupe; David D. Turner; Shaocheng Xie; Alla Zelenyuk; Kenny Bae; Matt Freer; Andrew Glen

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

REQUEST FOR INDIRECT COST WAIVER I. Project Director  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REQUEST FOR INDIRECT COST WAIVER I. Project Director: Department: Project Title: Project Sponsor without fully recovering the institutional indirect costs which will be incurred in conducting the project COSTS 1. FULL: OF I. A. C. 2. PARTIAL: OF H. B. K. TOTAL PROJECT COSTS L. INDIRECT COSTS TO BE WAIVED, J

Krovi, Venkat

12

A multi-regression analysis of airline indirect operating costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A multiple regression analysis of domestic and local airline indirect costs was carried out to formulate cost estimating equations for airline indirect costs. Data from CAB and FAA sources covering the years 1962-66 was ...

Taneja, Nawal K.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Lookin g for data personnel costs, indirect costs, equipment costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Negotiating Group Question/Answer Sessions November 19, 2009 Q: What happens now? A: The negotiation process starts tomorrow [November 20, 2009], when DOE will be sending the Awardees an e-mail with information about which website to go to for clarification and direction, information from the Office of Civil Rights, and answers to some of the questions that came up in the meeting. DOE will be gathering information about the questions concerning cyber requirements, metrics, and reporting requirements and will be getting back to the awardees about those issues the week after Thanksgiving. We have done a review of the budgets, and emails will be sent giving opportunities to address any issues. We will also re-review technical and cost proposals.

14

Revised 1/17/12 Indirect Cost Recovery/Overhead Distribution Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the sponsored project whereas indirect cost items cannot be identified readily and specifically with a particular sponsored project. A. Direct Costs Direct costs, as defined by the federal government, are those costs that can be identified specifically with a particular sponsored project, an instructional activity

15

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Campaign Campaign For the month of April, researchers are descending on and above Barrow, Alaska, to obtain data from the atmosphere that will help them understand the impacts that aerosols have on Arctic clouds and climate. Scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are using a heavily instrumented aircraft to collect data from the sky, while instruments based at surface sites in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, are obtaining measurements from the ground. Information obtained during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, will help scientists analyze the role of aerosols in climate, and represents a key contribution to Arctic climate research during International Polar Year.

16

Federal Energy Subsidies Direct and Indirect Interventions in Energy Markets  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A one-time study defining direct and indirect Federal energy subsidies, methods of valuation of such subsidies, and a survey of existing subsidies.

Information Center

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Opportunities for reducing product costs in indirect liquefaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MITRE indirect liquefaction simulation model for the advanced configuration that includes Shell gasification and slurry-phase F-T synthesis was downsized to coincide with the Bechtel/Amoco conceptual plant with a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per stream day. Then the kinetic parameters used by Bechtel/Amoco in the slurry F-T model were substituted in the model. This resulted in the same per pass conversion and in the same number of reactors as estimated in the Bechtel basecase. The total capital cost for this plant was estimated to be $2982 million using the MITRE model. This agrees well with the preliminary Bechtel/Amoco capital cost of $2961 million for the same size plant(3). Once the WM simulation of the basecase plant was shown to be in agreement with the Bechtel/Amoco case, the analysis of further potential cost reductions beyond the basecase could be investigated. This analysis only investigated the potential cost reductions that could result from improvements in the F-T area of the conceptual plant. This is the area that is impacted by the research and development underway in the indirect program. The cost impact of the following potential improvements were investigated using the MITRE simulation model: Doubling the baseline catalyst activity; doubling the catalyst loading; and doubling the superficial gas velocity.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Fishing for sustainability: the effects of indirect and direct persuasion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Websites and technologies that promote sustainable behavior often employ direct persuasion by being open about persuasive intent. We examined the use of indirect persuasion, methods that do not make persuasive intent clear. We built two variants of a ... Keywords: consumer actions, consumer attitudes, information design, persuasive technology, sustainability

Turadg Aleahmad; Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Jeffrey Wong; Susan R. Fussell; Sara Kiesler

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Indirect search for New Physics: complementarity to direct searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an overview on the interplay between direct searches for new physics at the LHC and indirect constraints from the flavour sector, with an emphasis on the implications of the recent LHCb results. The complementarity with the Higgs search results will also be addressed. We show the correlation and complementarity between the different sectors in the context of a few specific examples in supersymmetry.

F. Mahmoudi

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

20

Global Direct Cost of Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Country-specific direct cost of corrosion for the year 2004...Basque region 1988 Pesetas, 75 100.00 0.75 1.9977 1.5 Czechoslovakia 1998 Koruna, 31.816 (f) 29.8600 1.0655 1.1006 1.17 Netherlands 1969 Guilders, 0.51441 3.6340 0.1416 8.2103 1.16 Sweden 1967 Kroner, 1 5.0000 0.2000 3.0284 0.61 Finland 1965 Markka, 0.175 (g) 3.2110 0.0545 2.0995 0.11 Global...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

22

The Measure of Human Error: Direct and Indirect Performance Shaping Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of performance shaping factors (PSFs) is to provide measures to account for human performance. PSFs fall into two categoriesdirect and indirect measures of human performance. While some PSFs such as time to complete a task are directly measurable, other PSFs, such as fitness for duty, can only be measured indirectly through other measures and PSFs, such as through fatigue measures. This paper explores the role of direct and indirect measures in human reliability analysis (HRA) and the implications that measurement theory has on analyses and applications using PSFs. The paper concludes with suggestions for maximizing the reliability and validity of PSFs.

Ronald L. Boring; Candice D. Griffith; Jeffrey C. Joe

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Direct and Indirect Effects of Latent Heat Release on a Synoptic-Scale Wave System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this paper is to diagnose, the direct and indirect effects of latent heat release on a synoptic-scale wave system containing an extratropical cyclone that developed over the eastern United States. To achieve this goal, ...

Patricia M. Pauley; Phillip J. Smith

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

FY 2011 Third Quarter Report Estimate of Historical Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects estimated from Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations are -0.06 W m-2 and -1.39 W m-2, respectively.

Koch, D

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

25

Direct and Indirect Shortwave Radiative Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea salt aerosols play a dual role in affecting the atmospheric radiative balance. Directly, sea salt particles scatter the incoming solar radiation and absorb the outgoing terrestrial radiation. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei, sea salt ...

Tarek Ayash; Sunling Gong; Charles Q. Jia

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

Koch, D

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

27

Unsaturated hydraulic parameters determined from direct and indirect methods  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic parameters are required for numerical simulations of unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, a vertically heterogeneous volcanic site for a potential high-level waste repository in the desert southwest. In this paper, direct measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using a centrifuge with a specialized rotor are compared to those estimated using a predictive conductivity equation and two methods of measuring moisture retention.

Flint, Lorraine E.; Hudson, David B.; Flint, Alan L.

1997-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

28

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation Paper Number: 044177 Comparison of Direct vs. Indirect Ventilation Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation Paper Number: 044177 Comparison of Direct vs. Indirect. Direct measurement of ventilation rate in livestock housing can be a formidable task due of a commercial laying hen house with manure belt (manure removed daily) obtained from direct measurement based

Kentucky, University of

30

Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cost study application of the guidebook on integrated community energy systems: indirect economic and energy impacts  

SciTech Connect

An ICES is being considered for a community located in a small New England city. (MCW) It is part of the city's newer development. It is a commercial park of offices, shopping center, bank, hospital, and hotel. The ICES for this community is designed to meet all heating, cooling, steam, and hot water needs. Electricity from the cogeneration unit is to be sold to the local utility, and electricity for the community will be purchased as at present. However, future electrical demand will be reduced, since absorption chillers, which will be powered by heat recovered from the central ICES unit, will partially replace electric air conditioners. In addition, hot-water heating from ICES will, in some cases, lower electrical use. Thus, the ICES involves substitution of energy forms as well as modification of fuel requirements. Examination of the integrated system, in comparison with existing energy systems, includes both indirect economic impacts (employment and fiscal effects on the city) and indirect energy impacts. The indirect economic analysis proceeds from an initial description of conditions that determine employment and fiscal results through specific estimates of employment and then revenues and costs to municipal government and finally to an evaluation of ICES's worth to the city. The indirect energy analysis compares energy resource requirements of the ICES with those for gas, oil, and electric systems now serving the community. (MCW)

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

ARM - Field Campaign - Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsIndirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) govCampaignsIndirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) Campaign Links ISDAC Website Related Campaigns Parameterization of Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds During ISDAC 2010.10.01, Korolev, AAF ISDAC - Second Year Supplemental Surface Spectral Irradiance Measurements 2009.04.07, Lubin, NSA ISDAC - NASA ARCTAS Coordination with ARM 2008.04.01, Ferrare, NSA ISDAC / RISCAM - Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) 2008.04.01, Collins, NSA ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer 2008.03.31, Lubin, NSA Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Website : http://acrf-campaign.arm.gov/isdac/

33

Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The direct supercritical CO2 cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Band-gap measurements of direct and indirect semiconductors using monochromated electrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the development of monochromators for transmission electron microscopes, valence electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) has become a powerful technique to study the band structure of materials with high spatial resolution. However, artifacts such as Cerenkov radiation pose a limit for interpretation of the low-loss spectra. In order to reveal the exact band-gap onset using the VEELS method, semiconductors with direct and indirect band-gap transitions have to be treated differently. For direct semiconductors, spectra acquired at thin regions can efficiently minimize the Cerenkov effects. Examples of hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) spectra acquired at different thickness showed that a correct band-gap onset value can be obtained for sample thicknesses up to 0.5 t/{lambda}. In addition, {omega}-q maps acquired at different specimen thicknesses confirm the thickness dependency of Cerenkov losses. For indirect semiconductors, the correct band-gap onset can be obtained in the dark-field mode when the required momentum transfer for indirect transition is satisfied. Dark-field VEEL spectroscopy using a star-shaped entrance aperture provides a way of removing Cerenkov effects in diffraction mode. Examples of Si spectra acquired by displacing the objective aperture revealed the exact indirect transition gap E{sub g} of 1.1 eV.

Gu Lin; Srot, Vesna; Sigle, Wilfried; Koch, Christoph; Aken, Peter van; Ruehle, Manfred [Max-Planck Institute for Metals Research, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Scholz, Ferdinand; Thapa, Sarad B.; Kirchner, Christoph [Institute of Optoelectronics, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Jetter, Michael [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Heavy-ion Collisions: Direct and indirect probes of the density and temperature dependence of Esym  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heavy-ion collisions provide a versatile terrestrial probe of the nuclear equation of state through the formation of nuclear matter at a wide variety of temperatures, densities, and pressures. Direct and indirect approaches for constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy using heavy-ion collisions have been developed. The direct approach relies on scaling methods which attempt to connect isotopic fragment distributions to the symmetry energy. Using the indirect approach constraints on the equation of state are extracted from comparison of experimental results and theoretical transport calculations which utilize effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. Besides exploring the density dependence of the equation of state, heavy-ion collisions are simultaneously probing different temperature gradients of nuclear matter allowing for the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy to be examined. The current progress and open questions related to constraining the density and temperature dependence of the symmetry energy with heavy-ion collisions are discussed in the review.

Z. Kohley; S. J. Yennello

2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Projects Directives and Procedures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Projects Directives and Procedures Responsible Office: Office....................................................................................................................2 1.3 Cost Transfer.................................................................................................................2 2. Project Management

Watson, Craig A.

37

Modeling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The direct and indirect effects of aerosols on the hurricane Katrina have been investigated using the WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme and modified Goddard shortwave radiation scheme. Simulations of the hurricane Katrina are conducted under the three aerosol scenarios: 1) the clean case with an aerosol number concentration of 200 cm-1, 2) the polluted case with a number concentration of 1000 cm-1, and 3) the aerosol radiative effects (AR) case with same aerosol concentration as polluted case but with a modified shortwave radiation scheme. The polluted and AR cases have much larger amounts of cloud water and water vapor in troposphere, and the increased cloud water can freeze to produce ice water paths. A tropical cyclone in dirty and dusty air has active rainbands outside the eyewall due to aerosol indirect effects. The aerosol direct effect can lead to the suppressing of convection and weakening of updraft intensity by warming the troposphere and cooling the surface temperature. However, these thermal changes in atmosphere are concerned with the enhanced amounts of cloud hydrometeors and modification of downdraft and corresponding the low level winds in rainband regions. Thus, the AR case can produce the enhanced precipitation even in the weakest hurricane. When comparing the model performance between aerosol indirect and direct effect by ensemble experiments, the adjustment time of the circulation due to modification of the aerosol radiative forcing by aerosol layers may take a longer time than the hurricane lifetime, and the results from the simulated hurricane show that it is more sensitive to aerosol indirect effects which are related to the cloud microphysics process changes. From this aerosol study, we can suggest that aerosols can influence the cloudiness, precipitation, and intensity of hurricanes significantly, and there may be different results in the meso-scale convective clouds cases. The hurricane system is a large and complex convective system with enormous heating energy and moistures. Moreover, relationships between various hydrometeors in hurricane systems are difficult to isolate and thus, it needs further study with more realistic cloud microphysical processes, aerosol distributions, and parameterizations.

Lee, Keun-Hee

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic ...

S. J. Ghan; X. Liu; R. C. Easter; R. Zaveri; P. J. Rasch; J.-H. Yoon; B. Eaton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Impact of Dark Matter Microhalos on Signatures for Direct and Indirect Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detecting dark matter as it streams through detectors on Earth relies on knowledge of its phase space density on a scale comparable to the size of our solar system. Numerical simulations predict that our Galactic halo contains an enormous hierarchy of substructures, streams and caustics, the remnants of the merging hierarchy that began with tiny Earth mass microhalos. If these bound or coherent structures persist until the present time, they could dramatically alter signatures for the detection of weakly interacting elementary particle dark matter (WIMP). Using numerical simulations that follow the coarse grained tidal disruption within the Galactic potential and fine grained heating from stellar encounters, we find that microhalos, streams and caustics have a negligible likelihood of impacting direct detection signatures implying that dark matter constraints derived using simple smooth halo models are relatively robust. We also find that many dense central cusps survive, yielding a small enhancement in the signal for indirect detection experiments.

Aurel Schneider; Lawrence M. Krauss; Ben Moore

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

09242008FCTT Review Sep2008.ppt 2008 TIAX LLC Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications Jayanti Sinha Stephen Lasher Yong Yang Peter...

42

Comparison of airborne asbestos levels determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using direct- and indirect-transfer techniques. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A subset of air samples from a 1988 EPA study was reanalyzed for asbestos by TEM using an indirect transfer technique. The samples were originally analyzed using a direct transfer technique. The document presents the results of the reanalysis and extends the discussion to include data from six other studies. The development of the two techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages are described. The data support the general opinion that TEM analysis of air samples using indirect transfer methods tends to provide estimates of total airborne asbestos structure concentration that are higher than those obtained using direct transfer methods. There is no single factor that can be used to convert measurements made by one method to a value that is comparable with measurements made by the other because the quantitative relationship is expected to depend on details of the sampling and analytical protocols and the nature of the asbestos in the air. The ratio of indirect measurements to direct measurements ranges from 3.8 to 1,700 for the studies considered. Additional research is needed to determine which transfer technique more accurately reflects biologically meaningful airborne asbestos concentrations. Breakdown of larger structures into smaller ones during indirect preparation does not appear to be sufficient to explain the difference in measured concentrations.

Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

OMB Circular A-21: Direct Charging Practices Major Types of Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are those costs that can be identified specifically with a particular sponsored project or that can costs · Human subject payments · Repair & maintenance costs for equipment used for the project · Travel and specifically with a particular sponsored project. (These costs were previously known as indirect costs.). Do

Yamamoto, Keith

44

Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008  

SciTech Connect

The ARM Climate Research Facilitys (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) during period 29 March through 30 April 2008. The deployment period is within the International Polar Year, thus contributing to and benefiting from the many ancillary observing systems collecting data synergistically. We will deploy the Canadian National Research Council Convair 580 aircraft to measure temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, single particle composition, concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, ISDAC will deploy two instruments at the ARM site in Barrow: a spectroradiometer to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius, and a tandem differential mobility analyzer to measure the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity. By using many of the same instruments used during Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during the fall and spring transitions. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary conditions are likely to be very different because of the much more extensive ocean water during M-PACE. The uniformity of the surface conditions during ISDAC greatly simplifies the objective analysis (surface fluxes and precipitation are very weak), so that it can largely rely on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis. The aerosol measurements can also be used as input to the cloud models and to evaluate the aerosol retrievals. By running the cloud models with and without solar absorption by the aerosols, we can determine the semidirect effect of the aerosol on the clouds.

SJ Ghan; B Schmid; JM Hubbe; CJ Flynn; A Laskin; AA Zelenyuk; DJ Czizco; CN Long; G McFarquhar; J Verlinde; J Harrington; JW Strapp; P Liu; A Korolev; A McDonald; M Wolde; A Fridlind; T Garrett; G Mace; G Kok; S Brooks; D Collins; D Lubin; P Lawson; M Dubey; C Mazzoleni; M Shupe; S Xie; DD Turner; Q Min; EJ Mlawer; D Mitchell

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosol on solar and infrared radiation through droplet and crystal nucleation on aerosol, and semidirect effects through the influence of solar absorption on the distribution of clouds. A three-mode representation of the aerosol in version 5.1 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1) yields global annual mean radiative forcing estimates for each of these forcing mechanisms that are within 0.1 W m2 of estimates using a more complex seven-mode representation that distinguishes between fresh and aged black carbon and primary organic matter. Simulating fresh black carbon particles separately from internally mixed accumulation mode particles is found to be important only near fossil fuel sources. In addition to the usual large indirect effect on solar radiation, this study finds an unexpectedly large positive longwave indirect effect (because of enhanced cirrus produced by homogenous nucleation of ice crystals on anthropogenic sulfate), small shortwave and longwave semidirect effects, and a small direct effect (because of cancelation and interactions of direct effects of black carbon and sulfate). Differences between the threemode and seven-mode versions are significantly larger (up to 0.2 W m2) when the hygroscopicity of primary organic matter is decreased from 0.1 to 0 and transfer of the primary carbonaceous aerosol to the accumulation mode in the seven-mode version requires more hygroscopic material coating the primary particles. Radiative forcing by cloudborne anthropogenic black carbon is only 20.07 W m2.

Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Rasch, Philip J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Eaton, Brian

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Direct and indirect effects of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to establish a model system to study the direct effect, the bystander effect and the combinational effect of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells, toward the goal of ...

Wang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Advanced Photogrammetric and Ranging Techniques LAB 3: DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT GEO-REFERENCING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-assisted aerial triangulation, Integrated sensor orientation: GPS/INS-assisted aerial triangulation, and Direct data preparation procedure for GPS and GPS/INS-assisted aerial triangulation Analyzing and presenting a minimum of two horizontal and three vertical control points, requiring an expensive ground survey

Habib, Ayman

48

THE EFFECT OF INCREASING TRANSPORTATION COST ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study showed that certain influences in the global environment may have an impact on FDIs regional or country choice of investment. The following research questions were explored. Are changes in FDI location choices due to elevated transportation costs? Has the emphasis on market changed to a stauncher stance toward efficiency factors due to current oil pricing? The data was tested by applying multiple linear regressions using archival data from Dun and Bradstreet, the World Bank, and the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). This study looked at data in snapshots of two years of a decade beginning with 1997 and ending with 2007. A broader dataset which has already been developed will be expanded to include the dramatic changes in oil prices pre Y2K and post Y2K. It was hypothesized that results will reflect that the cost of transportation will drive investment closer, rather than further, from the origin of investment. Due to the nature of FDI immobility, it is further hypothesized that emphasis will be placed on efficiency factors rather than market because of concern about transportation costs. The purpose will be to explore the features that affect the location of the foreign direct investment, and to address the differences in emphasis, if any, by decision-makers upon locations chosen because of the present transport costs. The findings of the tests were theoretically along the same lines as the hypothesis predicted. In 1997 market factors were dominant instead of efficiency factors. This was seen through the significance of GDP growth and the amount of roads paved. In 2007 exchange rates and distance showed significance, moving factors to a stauncher stance toward efficiency. A pooled regression showed the results of the effect of transportation cost over all. When looking at the variances at the 0.1 p level a rise in the level of FDI investment was found, concluding that the hypothesis and transportation cost results were counter intuitive.

Gressler, Kimberly

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

49

An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs? Costs involved in conducting sponsored projects costs and F&A costs together are the actual cost of a sponsored project. Direct costs are "those costs, indirect costs cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. For example, it is difficult

50

The External Damage Cost of Direct Noise From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects and Social Costs of Road Transport, Transportationreview of the social costs of transportation in the U. S.social cost MV = motor vehicle NIPA = National Income Product Accounts NOx = nitrogen oxides NPTS = Nationwide Personal Transportation

Delucchi, Mark A.; Hsu, Shi-Ling

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A spreadsheet for geothermal direct use cost evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to be seriously considered as an alternative in any project, an energy source must be easily characterized in terms of cost, both capital and unit energy cost. Historically, this has been a difficult hurdle for geothermal energy. Its costs vary with the depth and character of the resource, number of production and injection wells, and a host of other parameters. As a result, even in cases where developers are interested in using the geothermal, identifying its costs has been a cumbersome process. To address this problem, the Geo-Heat Center has developed a spreadsheet which allows potential users to quickly evaluate the capital cost and unit energy cost of accessing a geothermal resource.

Rafferty, K.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes  

SciTech Connect

The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

De Doncker, Rik W. A. A. (Schenectady, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes  

SciTech Connect

The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

De Doncker, R.W.A.A.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Development of Low-Cost Directionally-Solidified Turbine Blades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

blade cost was realized. As a result, the new DS Mar-M 247 blade has been selected for production in the TFE731-B-100, an advanced version of the TFE731 -3...

55

Production of a Low-Cost DMD Wire Feedstock by Direct ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Production of a Low-Cost DMD Wire Feedstock by Direct Consolidation of Ti Sponge. Author(s), Kevin F. Dring, Martin Lefstad, Ola Jensrud.

56

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

57

Cost Transfers on Sponsored Agreements Effective July 1, 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be identified specifically with a particular sponsored project; · costs that can be directly assigned to a project with a high degree of accuracy. Facilities and Administrative (F&A) or indirect costs: · costs. Typically, cost transfers are appropriate when they are allowable direct costs of the sponsored project

58

Direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning revealed by a prolonged drought at a temperate forest site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanism that controls the variation of surface energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri, USA. Taking advantage of multiple micrometeorological and ecophysiological measurements and a prolonged drought in the middle of the 2005 growing season at this site, we studied how soil moisture, atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and net radiation affected surface energy partitioning. We stratified these factors to minimize potential confounding effects of correlation among them. We found that all three factors had direct effects on surface energy partitioning, but more important, all three factors also had crucial indirect effects. The direct effect of soil moisture was characterized by a rapid decrease in Bowen ratio with increasing soil moisture when the soil was dry and by insensitivity of Bowen ratio to variations in soil moisture when the soil was wet. However, the rate of decrease in Bowen ratio when the soil was dry and the level of soil moisture above which Bowen ratio became insensitive to changes in soil moisture depended on atmospheric conditions. The direct effect of increased net radiation was to increase Bowen ratio. The direct effect of VPD was very nonlinear: Increased VPD decreased Bowen ratio at low VPD but increased Bowen ratio at high VPD. The indirect effects were much more complicated. Reduced soil moisture weakened the influence of VPD but enhanced the influence of net adiation on surface energy partitioning. Soil moisture also controlled how net radiation influenced the relationship between surface energy partitioning and VPD and how VPD affected the relationship between surface energy partitioning and net radiation. Furthermore, both increased VPD and increased net radiation enhanced the sensitivity of Bowen ratio to changes in soil moisture and the effect of drought on surface energy partitioning. The direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning identified in this paper provide a target for testing atmospheric general circulation models in their representation of land-atmosphere coupling.

Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V ...  

A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V ... depending on the surface energy constraints of the nucleation ... scaling all times in ...

60

Evaluation of the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation technology: Direct and indirect remediation of uranium under alkaline conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field-scale technology demonstration has been conducted to optimize polyphosphate remediation technology for enhanced monitored natural attenuation of the uranium plume within the 300 Area aquifer at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington State. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of polyphosphate to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. Focused application of polyphosphate was conducted in a source or 'hot spot' area to reduce the inventory of available uranium contributing to the groundwater plume through direct precipitation of uranyl-phosphate solids and secondary containment via precipitation of apatite which can serve as a long-term sorbent for uranium. The test site consisted of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. The results indicated sequestration of uranium as insoluble phosphate phases appears to be a promising alternative for treating the uranium- contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site 300 Area. However, the formation of the apatite during the test was limited due to two separate overarching issues: (1) formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology, and (2) efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Richards, Emily L.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Edge, Ellen

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with todays state-of-the-art technologies. 1366s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

None

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct?hydrogen proton ex

63

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch

64

SOM ARRA Grant Activity Proposals Submitted as of 7-15-2010 Project Costs*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOM ARRA Grant Activity Proposals Submitted as of 7-15-2010 Project Costs* Total # of Proposals 1,264 Total Project Costs $1,093,036,719 Total Direct Costs $803,739,425 Total Indirects $290,408,131 Awards Received as of 2-11-2011 Project Costs* Year 1 Costs Total # of Awards 333 Total Project Costs $186

Bushman, Frederic

65

Non-personnel OMB A-21 Exceptions Direct Charging to Federal Projects Direct charging costs to federal grants which are typically considered F&A may be  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are met. These conditions include: 1. items are required by the projects scope of work 2. costs can be specifically and easily identified to this project 3. the number and/or cost of the items needed is clearly use on a project, charges may be allowable as direct costs if appropriately justified. Office supplies

Hall, Daniel

66

COST STUDY OF A 100-Mw(e) DIRECT-CYCLE BOILING WATER REACTOR PLANT  

SciTech Connect

A technical and economic evaluation is presented of a direct-cycle light- water boiling reactor designed for natural circulation and internal steam-water separation. The reference lOO-Mw(e) reactor power plant design evolved from the study should have the best chance (compared to similar plants) of approaching the 8 to 9 mill/kwh total power-cost level. (W.D.M.)

Bullinger, C.F.; Harrer, J.M.

1960-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy  

SciTech Connect

Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

Callaway, J.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey A. Kalinoski One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared for: Contract No. GS-10F-0099J to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gas and pollutants than

69

Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Indirect liquefaction processes. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the technology feasibility of the various coal gasification and indirect liquefaction technologies. Also included is the best-estimate costs for methanol and gasoline using the various technologies with three different coal/feedstocks by critically analyzing publicly available design studies and placing them on a common technical/financial basis. The following conclusion is that methanol from coal is cheaper than gasoline via either the Mobile MTG process or the Fisher/Tropsch process.

McGuckin, J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

This Guide is designed to provide assistance to the community regarding the direct charging of costs to sponsored projects while maintaining compliance with the Federal cost principles (2 CFR Part 220, OMB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

charging of costs to sponsored projects while maintaining compliance with the Federal cost principles (2. Typical costs charged directly to a sponsored project include: 1. compensation of employees incurred for the sponsored project. Costs of materials from stock/services rendered by specialized

72

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presentation presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information page 1 Overview * Base Period: - 100% complete * Manufacturing costs * Materials costs (particularly precious Timeline Barriers - Feb 17, 2006 to Feb. 16, 2008 * Option year 1 of 3: - 65% complete - Started Feb 16, 2008 metal catalysts) Characteristic Units 2008 2010 2015 Stack Cost $/kW e (net) - $25 $15 - $325K (2 year base period) - $182k (opt. yr. 1) - Contractor share: $0 * Funding for FY 2008 * Extensive interaction with Collaborations System Cost $/kW e (net) - $45 $30 * Funding for FY 2008 - $182k industry/researchers to solicit design & manufacturing metrics as input to cost analysis. page 2 Started Feb 16, 2008 Budget * Total project funding DOE Cost Targets

73

Indirection and computer security.  

SciTech Connect

The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

Berg, Michael J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

mMass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has not been included in this study. In general, the system designs do not change with production rate, but material costs, manufacturing methods, and business-operational...

75

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has not been included in this study. In general, our system designs do not change with production rate, but material costs, manufacturing methods, and business-operational...

76

Direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning revealed by a prolonged drought at a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, latent heat, and carbon dioxide as well as complementary vegetation and soil water status. As the drought stratified these factors to minimize potential confounding effects of correlation among them. We found that all three factors had direct effects on surface energy partitioning, but more important, all three

77

Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development  

SciTech Connect

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help them understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on their latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Their analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Glassner, D.; Sheehan, J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

17.2 - Cost Participation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

17.2 (June 2004) 17.2 (June 2004) 1 Cost Participation [Reference: FAR 35.003(b), DEAR 917.70] Overview This section discusses DOE treatment of cost participation by organizations performing research, development, and demonstration projects under DOE prime contracts. This section does not cover efforts and projects performed for DOE by other Federal agencies. Background Cost participation is a generic term denoting any situation where the Government does not fully reimburse the contractor for all allowable costs necessary to accomplish the project or effort under the contract. The term includes, but is not limited to: * Cost Sharing * Cost Matching * Cost Limitation, which may be direct or indirect * Participation in-kind

79

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

probes Temperature Mengistu Wolde NCAR reverse flow probe Temperature Walter Strapp EGG chilled mirror hygrometer Humidity Walter Strapp LICOR Water vapor and CO 2 mixing ratio...

80

Lookin g for data personnel costs, indirect costs, equipment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

you feel the burden is too high, let us know. Q: We have a matching share supported by a rate increase. Can we talk about that? A: Yes, we would be glad to talk with you about...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Modelling, simulation and analysis of low-cost direct torque control of PMSM using hall-effect sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on the development of a novel Direct Torque Control (DTC) scheme for permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors (surface and interior types) in the constant torque region with the help of cost-effective hall-effect sensors. This method requires no DC-link sensing, which is a mandatory matter in the conventional DTC drives, therefore it reduces the cost of a conventional DTC of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor and also removes common problems including; resistance change effect, low speed and integration drift. Conventional DTC drives require at least one DC-link voltage sensor (or two on the motor terminals) and two current sensors because of the necessary estimation of position, speed, torque, and stator flux in the stationary reference frame. Unlike the conventional DTC drive, the proposed method uses the rotor reference frame because the rotor position is provided by the three hall-effect sensors and does not require expensive voltage sensors. Moreover, the proposed algorithm takes the acceleration and deceleration of the motor and torque disturbances into account to improve the speed and torque responses. The basic theory of operation for the proposed topology is presented. A mathematical model for the proposed DTC of the PMSM topology is developed. A simulation program written in MATLAB/SIMULINK?® is used to verify the basic operation (performance) of the proposed topology. The mathematical model is capable of simulating the steady-state, as well as dynamic response even under heavy load conditions (e.g. transient load torque at ramp up). It is believed that the proposed system offers a reliable and low-cost solution for the emerging market of DTC for PMSM drives. Finally the proposed drive, considering the constant torque region operation, is applied to the agitation part of a laundry washing machine (operating in constant torque region) for speed performance comparison with the current low-cost agitation cycle speed control technique used by washing machine companies around the world.

Ozturk, Salih Baris

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

NETL: Guide for Preparation of Cost Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Business Opportunities and Business Opportunities Guide for Preparation of Cost Proposals The following guide is to be used in the preparation of the offeror's cost proposal. It provides general instructions as well as the format, exhibits and content that is required to be included in the submission. In addition, the exhibits include examples of both cost elements and indirect rate data that are in typical proposals. Please note that these are provided as a guide only. Do not attempt to conform your proposal to match the exact elements and accounts in the examples. Both the cost elements and indirect rate data in your proposal should be able to be traced to and supported by your accounting system. Any questions should be directed to the contact person noted in the instructions.

83

An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

84

An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect

The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

85

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski & Kevin N. Baum One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared under: Subcontract No. AGB-0-40628-01 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Prime Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the U.S. Department of Energy Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gasses and pollutants than

86

Cost of meeting geothermal liquid effluent disposal regulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Background information is presented on the characteristics of liquid wastes and the available disposal options. Regulations that may directly or indirectly influence liquid waste disposal are reviewed. An assessment of the available wastewater-treatment systems is provided. A case study of expected liquid-waste-treatment and disposal costs is summarized. (MHR)

Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Price, B.A.; Rogers, E.A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

1990-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

89

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

90

Evaluation of I-15 Devore (08-0A4224) Long-Life Pavement Rehabilitation Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Indirect Costs Engineer's Estimate Category Amount2 lane-mi. Administrative Costs Engineer's Estimate CategoryMiles) Total (All Costs) Engineer's Estimate Amount Original

Fermo, Mary G; Santero, Nicholas J; Nokes, William; Harvey, John T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Evaluation of I-10 Pomona (07-181304) Long-Life Pavement Rehabilitation Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the expenditures for these projects, costs were divided intofurnished materials. Project Cost Breakdown Original BidIndirect Costs Figure 1. Project cost breakdown based on

Harvey, John T; Santero, Nicholas J; G, Mary Fermo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Indirect Combustion Noise: Experimental Investigation of the Vortex Sound Generation in a Choked  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indirect Combustion Noise: Experimental Investigation of the Vortex Sound Generation in a Choked-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 2315 #12;Combustion noise in gas turbines consists of direct noise related to the unsteady combustion process itself and indirect noise. As known, indirect noise is produced when entropy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Economic Analysis on Direct Use of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel in CANDU Reactors - III: Spent DUPIC Fuel Disposal Cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposal costs of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and DUPIC fuels have been estimated based on available literature data and the engineering design of a spent CANDU fuel disposal facility by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The cost estimation was carried out by the normalization concept of total electricity generation. Therefore, the future electricity generation scale was analyzed to evaluate the appropriate capacity of the high-level waste disposal facility in Korea, which is a key parameter of the disposal cost estimation. Based on the total electricity generation scale, it is concluded that the disposal unit costs for spent CANDU natural uranium, CANDU-DUPIC, and PWR fuels are 192.3, 388.5, and 696.5 $/kg heavy element, respectively.

Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hangbok; Roh, Gyuhong; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Analysis of Parameters Affecting Costs of Horizontal Directional Drilling Projects in the United States for Municipal Infrastructure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is a growing and expanding trenchless method utilized to install pipelines from 2 to 60 inch diameters for lengths over 10,000 (more)

Vilfrant, Emmania Claudyne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Low-cost, highly efficient, and tunable ultrafast laser technology based on directly diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This doctoral project aims to develop robust, ultra low-cost ($5,000-20,000), highly-efficient, and tunable femtosecond laser technology based on diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite gain media (Cr:LiCAF, Cr3+:LiSAF and Cr:LiSGaF). ...

Demirbas, Umit

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Development of a New Class of Low Cost, High Frequency Link Direct DC to AC Converters for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes to design and develop a new class of power converters (direct DC to AC) to drastically improve performance and optimize the cost, size, weight and volume of the DC to AC converter in SOFC systems. The proposed topologies employ a high frequency link; direct DC to AC conversion approach. The direct DC to AC conversion approach is more efficient and operates without an intermediate dc-link stage. The absence of the dc-link, results in the elimination of bulky, aluminum electrolytic capacitors, which in turn leads to a reduction in the cost, volume, size and weight of the power electronic converter. The feasibility of two direct DC to AC converter topologies and their suitability to meet SECA objectives will be investigated. Laboratory proto-type converters (3-5kW) will be designed and tested in Phase-1. A detailed design trade-off study along with the test results will be available in the form of a report for the evaluation of SECA Industrial partners. This project proposes to develop a new and innovative power converter technology suitable for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power systems in accordance with SECA objectives. The proposed fuel cell inverter (FCI) employs state of the art power electronic devices configured in two unique topologies to achieve direct conversion of DC power (24-48V) available from a SOFC to AC power (120/240V, 60Hz) suitable for utility interface and powering stand alone loads. The primary objective is to realize cost effective fuel cell converter, which operates under a wide input voltage range, and output load swings with high efficiency and improved reliability.

Prasad Enjeti; J.W. Howze

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Indirect Cost THE ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. New York State and City Government Agencies Each application to these agencies will be examined being performed by the institution. PROCEDURE: Applications to all agencies should include Government Agencies Every research, center or program project application must include the applicable rate

Brown, Lucy L.

98

OR Forum---Modeling the Impacts of Electricity Tariffs on Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging, Costs, and Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been touted as a transportation technology with lower fuel costs and emissions impacts than other vehicle types. Most analyses of PHEVs assume that the power system operator can either directly or indirectly ... Keywords: environment, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, pricing

Ramteen Sioshansi

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Thermally Indirect Motions in the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energetics of the dry convective boundary layer is studied by partitioning the turbulent heat flux into thermally indirect (w???thermally direct (w???>0) components as a function of z/Zi. It is found that except for the inversion ...

J. M. Wilczak; Joost A. Businger

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Indirect evaporative cooling in retail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

JCPenney Co., Inc., recently opened a 126,000-sq ft, two-level retail store in Albuquerque, NM. The project construction was accomplished using a design-build format. This process allows preliminary construction processes to begin while the design is finalized. Law/Kingdom, Inc. was assigned the architectural and engineering services for this building. During the process of design, the team decided to study the addition of evaporative cooling into the air system. This article reviews system design, selection, and performance using an indirect evaporative system in the HVAC system. It also demonstrates the company`s design approach on the original equipment selection for a typical anchor store.

Bartlett, T.A. [JCPenney Co., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Libyan supply disruption may have both direct and indirect effects ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Global crude oil flows will tend to adjust to best match ... Another way in which a ... Oil inventory levels are generally high by historical standards.

102

Direct And Indirect Influence Among Political Science Departments:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

National Research Council=s (NRC) ratings of the quality ofinstitutions ranked by the 1993 NRC rankings also reveals aof placements with the 1993 NRC assessment scores is .72.

Grofman, Bernard; Feld, Scott; Masuoka, Natalie

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Aggregation of Direct and Indirect Positioning Sensors for Vehicle Guidance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

F IGURE 2-3: ACF OF PSEUDO AND IDEAL WHITE G AUSSIAN PROCESSAutocorrelation Function (ACF) An autocorrelation functionzxi N i=l Estimates of the ACF, also called the sample ACF,

Agogino, Alice; Chao, Susan; Wang, Jiangxin; Deng, Xinyan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Evaluating the Direct and Indirect Aerosol Effect on Climate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

one of the largest uncertainties in climate forcing studies is the effect of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. Aerosols affect the radiation budget under both clear...

105

Direct And Indirect Influence Among Political Science Departments:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chicago, Yale and Michigan are the top five departments inChicago, Yale and Michigan. These top five departments tend72 % (Harvard) to 44% (Michigan). 9 However, we can better

Grofman, Bernard; Feld, Scott; Masuoka, Natalie

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

imap: Indirect measurement of air pollution with cellphones. PerCOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractIn this paper, we introduce the cellphonebased indirect sensing problem. While participatory sensing aims at monitoring of a phenomenon by deploying a dense set of sensors carried by individuals, our indirect sensing problem aims at inferring the manifestations of a sparsely monitored phenomenon on the individuals. The main advantage of the indirect sensing method is that, by making use of existing exposure modeling and estimation methods, it provides a more feasible alternative to direct sensing. Collection of time-location logs using the cellphones plays a major role in our indirect sensing method, while direct sensing at the cellphones is unneeded. We focus on the air pollutant exposure estimation problem as an application of the indirect sensing technique and propose a web-based framework, iMAP, for addressing this problem. I.

Murat Demirbas; Carole Rudra; Atri Rudra; Murat Ali Bayir

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Biofuels and indirect land use change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

108

Early Station Costs Questionnaire  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early Station Costs Questionnaire Early Station Costs Questionnaire Marc Melaina Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Market Readiness Workshop February 16-17th, 2011 Washington, DC Questionnaire Goals * The Early Station Costs questionnaire provides an anonymous mechanism for organizations with direct experience with hydrogen station costs to provide feedback on current costs, near-term costs, economies of scale, and R&D priorities. * This feedback serves the hydrogen community and government agencies by increasing awareness of the status of refueling infrastructure costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions for Market Readiness Workshop Attendees * Are these questions the right ones to be asking?

109

Indirect detections and analyses of GRBs by ionospheric response  

SciTech Connect

We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID--Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency), and discus its possible impact on GRB science and investigations in general. Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss examples of such VLF/SID detection of GRBs 060124A, GRB080319D a GRB080320A. A network of SID monitors has been created and is operated to detect more GRBs. The importance of these detections for GRB analyses and GRB science in general is still to be further and in full detail exploited. Some possible outcomes in this direction will be outlined and discussed.

Slosiar, R. [Partizanske Observatory, Amateur Astronomer, Bojnice (Slovakia); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 251 65 Ondrejov, Czech Republic and Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Elctrical Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic)

2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

110

Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile...

111

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home or building's space heating system to heat water as part of an integrated or combination water and space heating system.

112

New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor September 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Production scale, not lower labor costs, drives China's current advantage in manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, according to a new report released today by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although the prevailing belief is that low labor costs and direct government subsidies for PV manufacturing in China account for that country's dominance in PV manufacturing, the NREL/MIT study shows that a majority of the region's competitive advantage comes from production scale-enabled, in part, through preferred access to capital (indirect

113

New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor September 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Production scale, not lower labor costs, drives China's current advantage in manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, according to a new report released today by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although the prevailing belief is that low labor costs and direct government subsidies for PV manufacturing in China account for that country's dominance in PV manufacturing, the NREL/MIT study shows that a majority of the region's competitive advantage comes from production scale-enabled, in part, through preferred access to capital (indirect

114

Intimate Labors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TOTAL PROJECT COSTS:OTHER COSTS F. TOTAL PROJECT DIRECT COSTS G. INDIRECT COSTS:Dean UCHRI TOTAL H. TOTAL PROJECT DIRECT & INDIRECT COSTS

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Review of Some of the Literature on the Social Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concludes that oil dependency costs the State of CaliforniaL. Parker, External Costs of Oil Used in Transportation, 92-such as gas, oil and parts; the indirect costs, such as

Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of indirect...

117

Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Parsons, Edward L. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Framatome ANP Indirect-Cycle Very High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Framatome ANP is developing a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, relying on its previous experience with high temperature reactor designs, from its participation in the MODUL and the GT-MHR designs. The Framatome ANP VHTR design is based on an indirect cycle coupled to an 'off-the-shelf' combined cycle gas turbine. Although direct cycle HTR's are being promoted for their high efficiency, preliminary evaluations show that the Framatome ANP design efficiency is on par with a direct cycle while avoiding PGS (Power Generation System) developments and keeping the PGS contamination free. This concept was independently evaluated with sensitivity analysis by EDF. Moreover, the nuclear heat source of the indirect cycle could also be used to qualify the direct cycle components without risk of contamination behind the IHX, thus assisting in the preparation for the later introduction of that technology. Relying to the maximum extent on available technology, the Framatome ANP VHTR plant can demonstrate high-efficiency electricity generation and carbon-free hydrogen production. (authors)

Copsey, Bernie [Framatome ANP, Inc., 3315 Old Forest Road Lynchburg, VA (United States); Lecomte, Michel [Framatome ANP, SAS, Tour AREVA Paris, La Defense (France); Brinkmann, Gerd [Framatome ANP, GmbH, 49 (9131) 18-96630, Erlangen (Germany); Capitaine, Alain; Deberne, Nicolas [EDF/SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Evaluation of I-15 Devore (08-0A4224) Long-Life Pavement Rehabilitation Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the expenditures for these projects, costs were divided intoemulsion. Table 1 Project Cost Breakdown Direct CostsTotal Cost)/(Lane Miles) Project Cost Breakdown Original Bid

Fermo, Mary G; Santero, Nicholas J; Nokes, William; Harvey, John T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System design final report. Volume 3. Appendices pilot plan and design details and subsystem direct cost support  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Details of the design of a water desalination solar pilot plant in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia are presented. The major subsystems of the plant are defined, including solar energy collection and simulation, energy storage, energy delivery, reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation, water storage, waste disposal, backup power generators, controls and instrumentation data acquisition, facilities and enclosures, and computers. A list of the plant equipment and a set of process flow diagrams are provided. A cost analysis of the pilot plant is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Compiling for an indirect vector register architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The iVMX architecture contains a novel vector register file of up to 4096 vector registers accessed indirectly via a mapping mechanism, providing compatibility with the VMX architecture, and potential for dramatic performance benefits [7]. The large ... Keywords: compiler controlled cache, data reuse, rotating register file, simd, subword parallelism, vectorization, viterbi

Dorit Nuzman; Mircea Namolaru; Ayal Zaks; Jeff H. Derby

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it`s true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

Rafferty, K.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Governmental costs and revenues associated with geothermal energy development in Imperial County. Special Publication 3241  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study estimates the cost and revenue impacts to local governments of three geothermal energy growth scenarios in Imperial County. The level of geothermal energy potential for the three development scenarios tested is 2,000, 4,000 and 8,000 MW--enough power to serve 270,000 to 1,000,000 people. The government agencies involved do not expect any substantial additional capital costs due to geothermal energy development; therefore, average costing techniques have been used for projecting public service costs and government revenues. The analysis of the three growth scenarios tested indicates that county population would increase by 3, 7 and 19 percent and assessed values would increase by 20, 60, and 165 percent for Alternatives No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 respectively. Direct and indirect effects would increase new jobs in the county by 1,000, 3,000 and 8,000. Government revenues would tend to exceed public service costs for county and school districts, while city costs would tend to exceed revenues. In each of the alternatives, if county, cities and school districts are grouped together, the revenues exceed costs by an estimated $1,600 per additional person either directly or indirectly related to geothermal energy development in the operational stages. In the tenth year of development, while facilities are still being explored, developed and constructed, the revenues would exceed costs by an approximate $1,000 per additional person for each alternative. School districts with geothermal plants in their boundaries would be required by legislation SB 90 to reduce their tax rates by 15 to 87 percent, depending on the level of energy development. Revenue limits and school taxing methods will be affected by the Serrano-Priest decision and by new school legislation in process.

Goldman, G.; Strong, D.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Indirect liquefaction of biomass: A fresh approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Indirect liquefaction of biomass is accomplished by first gasifying it to produce a synthesis gas consisting of hydrogen and oxides of carbon, which in turn are converted to any one of a number of liquid fuels and/or chemicals by suitable choice of catalyst, synthesis gas composition and reaction conditions. This approach to producing synthetic fuels and chemicals has been extensively investigated where coal is the carbonaceous feed material, but less so for biomass or other feedstocks. It is generally recognized that the gasification to produce the synthesis gas posses one of the major technical and economic challenges to improving this technology. Herein, is reported a different slant on the indirect liquefaction that could lead to improvements in the efficiency and economics of the process.

Cox, J.L.; Tonkovich, A.Y.; Elliott, D.C. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Review of the Literature on the Social Cost of Motor Vehicle Use in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. Parker. 1992. External Costs of Oil Used in Transporta-such as gas, oil and parts; the indirect costs, such asTABLE 3 Estimated External Costs of Oil Used in Transport

Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Cost model for a small glass manufacturing enterprise.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The cost model developed is for small, glass-manufacturing enterprises to help themdetermine their product costs. It estimates the direct cost in glass manufacturing such as (more)

Gopisetti, Swetha.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is...

131

Influence of Project Type and Procurement Method on Rework Costs in Building Construction Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: While it is widely recognized that additional costs due to rework can have an adverse effect on project performance, limited empirical research has been done to investigate the influencing factors. The research presented in this paper aims to determine the influence of different project types and procurement methods on rework costs in construction projects. Using a questionnaire survey, rework costs were obtained from 161 Australian construction projects. The direct and indirect consequences of rework are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that, contrary to expectation, rework costs do not differ relative to project type or procurement method. In addition, it was found rework contributed to 52 % of a projects cost growth and that 26 % of the variance in cost growth was attributable to changes due to direct rework. To reduce rework costs and therefore improve project performance, it is posited that construction organizations begin to consider and measure them, so that an understanding of their magnitude can be captured, root causes identified, and effective prevention strategies implemented.

Peter E. D. Love

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

An Indirect Search for WIMPs with Super-Kamiokande  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A potential source of high energy neutrinos is the annihilation of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) collecting in gravitational potential wells such as the centers of the Earth, the Sun, or the Galaxy. A search for such a WIMP annihilation signal using the Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) detector is presented. Super-K observes 1.1 upward through-going muons per day. These events are caused by high energy (typical E_nu ~ 100 GeV) nu_mu interactions in the rock under the detector, and are generally consistent with the expected flux from atmospheric neutrinos. No enhancement of the neutrino signal due to WIMP annihilation is seen, so upper limits on the possible flux of WIMPS are set. These limits are compared to those from other such indirect searches, and a model-independent method is used to compare the Super-K results with direct-detection WIMP experiments.

A. Habig; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

133

Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

1990-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

134

Production of low-cost hydrogen. Final report, September 1989--August 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant technical progress has been made over the last decade to develop efficient processes for upgrading coal resources to distillable hydrocarbons which may be used to displace petroleum-derived fuels. While several different direct coal liquefaction routes are under investigation, each of them have in common the need for large quantities of hydrogen to convert the aromatic coal matrix to liquid products in the normal distillation range, and for hydrotreating to improve liquid product quality. In fact, it has been estimated that the production, recovery, and efficient use of hydrogen accounts for over 50 percent of the capital cost of the liquefaction facility. For this reason, improved methods for producing low-cost hydrogen are essential to the operating economics of the liquefaction process. This Final Report provides an assessment of the application of the MTCI indirect gasification technology for the production of low-cost hydrogen from coal feedstocks. The MTCI gasification technology is unique in that it overcomes many of the problems and issues associated with direct and other indirectly heated coal gasification systems. Although the MTCI technology can be utilized for producing hydrogen from almost any carbonaceous feedstock (fossil, biomass and waste), this report presents the results of an experimental program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center, to demonstrate the production of hydrogen from coal, mild gasification chars, and liquefaction bottoms.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters May 16, 2013 - 7:21pm Addthis An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called integrated or combination water and space heating systems. How They Work A tankless coil water heater provides hot water on demand without a tank. When a hot water faucet is turned on, water is heated as it flows through a heating coil or heat exchanger installed in a main furnace or boiler. Tankless coil water heaters are most efficient during cold months when the heating system is used regularly but can be an inefficient choice for many

136

Indirect measurement of the electrocaloric effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zr0.95Ti0.05O 3 𝑞 heat ?𝑞𝐼𝑆𝑂 heat change during isothermal process 𝑄 charge 𝑄𝑣𝑎𝑐 charge on electrode of empty capacitor 𝜌 material density / charge density 𝜌𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑒 free-charge density 𝑆 entropy 𝑠 entropy per unit... in the electrocaloric effect. However, in 2006, Alex Mischenko et al. [5] published a paper that made use of the indirect method and suggested cooling in zirconium-rich PZT 95/05 (PbZr0.95Ti0.05O 3) of up to 12 C, starting from 226 C. This reignited enthusiasm...

Young, James Scott

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

137

FROM: STEPHEN M. SMITH, DIRECTOR OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATIONS, ME-43 TO: DIRECTIVES POINTS OF CONTACT SUBJECT: DRAFT DOE G 430.1-1X, DOE Cost Estimating Guidefor Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is to notify you that the subject draft Guide has been posted in the Draft section of the DOE Directives Portal system for simultaneous use and coordination. The purpose of this Guide is to provide uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. Comments in the Guide are due June 15, 2004. Comments on Guides should not be designated major or suggested, they should be simply labeled as comments. Because Guides provide nonmandatory, supplemental information about acceptable methods for implementing requirements, comments supplied will be considered advisory in nature The following procedures should be followed for the submission of comments:

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect Shao, Hongfei Florida State University Liu, Guosheng Florida State University Category: Aerosols The aerosol first indirect effect is known to cool the Earth radiatively. However, its magnitude is very uncertain; large discrepancies exist among the observed values published in the literature. In this study, we first survey the published values of those parameters used for describing the first indirect effect. By analyzing the discrepancies among these values, we show that the first indirect effect has been overestimated by many investigators due to an improper parameter being used. Therefore, we introduce a more meaningful parameter to measure this effect. We estimated the first indirect effect using the new parameter based on observational

139

Electricity Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy volume year month chapter...

140

Thermal Infrared Exposure of Cryogenic Indirect Drive ICF Targets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets at the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be protected from thermal infrared radiation by a cold shroud. As the shroud is removed just before the laser pulse, infrared radiation will heat and possibly degrade the symmetry of the solid hydrogen fuel layer. A lumped component mathematical model has been constructed to calculate how long an indirect drive target can be exposed to thermal radiation before the fuel layer degrades. The allowed exposure time sets the maximum shroud removal time and therefore has important implications for the design of the cryogenic shroud systems. The model predicts that the maximum exposure time is approximately 0.18 s for plastic capsules inside hohlraums with transparent laser entrance holes. By covering the laser entrance holes with a partially reflective coating, the exposure time can be increased to approximately 1 s. The exposure time can be increased to about 2 s by using beryllium capsules. Several other design concepts could increase the exposure time even further. Lengthening of the allowed exposure time to 1 s or longer could allow a significant cost savings for the shroud system.

London, R A; Moody, J D; Sanchez, J J; Sater, J D; Haid, B J; Bittner, D N

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Indirect Assimilation of Radar Reflectivity with WRF 3D-Var and Its Impact on Prediction of Four Summertime Convective Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An indirect radar reflectivity assimilation scheme has been developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting model three-dimensional data assimilation system (WRF 3D-Var). This scheme, instead of assimilating radar reflectivity directly, ...

Hongli Wang; Juanzhen Sun; Shuiyong Fan; Xiang-Yu Huang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

costs to access in-state wind power, either in their 2004 IRPs, or in subsequent renewable energycost and performance of wind power, with limited analysis of geothermal. In its subsequent 2005 renewable energyWind Power Cost and Performance Assumptions .23 5.1.1 Busbar Costs ..26 5.1.2 Indirect Costs .29 5.1.3 Treatment of Renewable Energy

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Cost of Crime: A Review of the Research Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This information brief describes the research studies that have been conducted over the past 30 years to assess the cost of crime to individuals and to society. Although these studies have different focuses and use different research methodologies, they share the common goal of seeking to quantify the impact of criminal activity on the economic and social lives of crime victims and on the community in which the crime occurred. Because the studies vary in their scope and methodologies, their quantitative findings also differ from one other. Despite these differences, the studies are useful to policymakers because they provide a guide not only to the obvious and direct costs of crime but also to the subtle and indirect ones. These studies also help to identify what types of statistical information are available or not available concerning a particular cost of crime item. The information brief consists of the following: a description of the scope of cost of crime research studies and the types of data used in the studies; a summary of the types of crime costs identified in most studies; a description of the common data gaps that have been identified in the research literature; and a summary of other research issues that are suggested by the current research. Finally, Appendix A (page 6) contains an abstract for each cost of crime research study that was analyzed for this information brief. Each abstract contains the following information: the name of the research study; the scope of the study; the methodology used to conduct the research; aHouse Research Department August 1999

unknown authors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling October 4, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for multi-stage evaporative cooling within the Federal sector. Benefits Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is an advanced evaporative cooler that can lower air temperatures without adding moisture. These systems evaporate water in a secondary (or working) airstream, which is discharged in multiple stages. No water or humidity is added to the primary (or product) airstream in the process. Application Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is applicable in office, research and development, service, and school applications. Climate and Regional Considerations

145

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is box-shaped, and has two pipes sticking out one end: one a cold water inlet, and one a hot water outlet. These pipes lead into the heater to a cylindrical coil called a heat exchanger. Long tubes surrounding the heat exchanger are labeled the heated water jacket. At the bottom of the box is a row of small flames, called the boiler heat source. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home or building's space heating system to heat water as part of an integrated or combination water and space heating system. How Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Work A tankless coil water heater uses a heating coil or heat exchanger

146

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12;· Marginal Cost: ­ Change in total cost ­ Any production process involves fixed and variable costs. As production increases/expands, fixed costs are unchanged, so

Boisvert, Jeff

147

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the production of a synthetic crude oil product by direct contact of coal with an appropriate catalyst, with abundant domestic coal resources but lim- ited oil and gas resources, the conversion of coal into liquid in South Africa (for Fischer- Tropsch fuels). Also, the US Department of Energy an- nounced its financial

148

Indirect Coulomb energy for two-dimensional atoms  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we provide a family of lower bounds on the indirect Coulomb energy for atomic and molecular systems in two dimensions in terms of a functional of the single particle density with gradient correction terms.

Benguria, Rafael D.; Tusek, Matej [Departamento de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

A Critical Examination of the Observed First Aerosol Indirect Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative change in cloud droplet number concentration with respect to the relative change in aerosol number concentration, ?, is an indicator of the strength of the aerosol indirect effect and is commonly used in models to parameterize this ...

Hongfei Shao; Guosheng Liu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Indirect impacts in Illinois from a renewable portfolio standard  

SciTech Connect

Indirect impacts associated with Illinois' RPS include a change in the laws concerning the planning and zoning for wind development, a market for renewable energy credits, and awareness of problems with the transmission grid. (author)

Ohler, Adrienne M.; Radusewicz, Kristi

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Cost and schedule reduction for next-generation Candu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AECL has developed a suite of technologies for Candu{sup R} reactors that enable the next step in the evolution of the Candu family of heavy-water-moderated fuel-channel reactors. These technologies have been combined in the design for the Advanced Candu Reactor TM1 (ACRTM), AECL's next generation Candu power plant. The ACR design builds extensively on the existing Candu experience base, but includes innovations, in design and in delivery technology, that provide very substantial reductions in capital cost and in project schedules. In this paper, main features of next generation design and delivery are summarized, to provide the background basis for the cost and schedule reductions that have been achieved. In particular the paper outlines the impact of the innovative design steps for ACR: - Selection of slightly enriched fuel bundle design; - Use of light water coolant in place of traditional Candu heavy water coolant; - Compact core design with unique reactor physics benefits; - Optimized coolant and turbine system conditions. In addition to the direct cost benefits arising from efficiency improvement, and from the reduction in heavy water, the next generation Candu configuration results in numerous additional indirect cost benefits, including: - Reduction in number and complexity of reactivity mechanisms; - Reduction in number of heavy water auxiliary systems; - Simplification in heat transport and its support systems; - Simplified human-machine interface. The paper also describes the ACR approach to design for constructability. The application of module assembly and open-top construction techniques, based on Candu and other worldwide experience, has been proven to generate savings in both schedule durations and overall project cost, by reducing premium on-site activities, and by improving efficiency of system and subsystem assembly. AECL's up-to-date experience in the use of 3-D CADDS and related engineering tools has also been proven to reduce both engineering and construction costs through more efficient work planning and use of materials, through reduced re-work and through more precise configuration management. Full-scale exploitation of AECL's electronic engineering and project management tools enables further reductions in cost. The Candu fuel-channel reactor type offers inherent manufacturing and construction advantages through the application of a simple, low-pressure low-temperature reactor vessel along with modular fuel channel technology. This leads to cost benefits and total project schedule benefits. As a result, the targets which AECL has set for replication units - overnight capital cost of $1000 US/kW and total project schedule (engineering/manufacturing/construction/commissioning) of 48 months, have been shown to be achievable for the reference NG Candu design. (authors)

Hopwood, J.M.; Yu, S.; Pakan, M.; Soulard, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

U.S. Geographic Analysis of the Cost of Hydrogen from Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes U.S. geographic analysis of the cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. Wind-based water electrolysis represents a viable path to renewably-produced hydrogen production. It might be used for hydrogen-based transportation fuels, energy storage to augment electricity grid services, or as a supplement for other industrial hydrogen uses. This analysis focuses on the levelized production, costs of producing green hydrogen, rather than market prices which would require more extensive knowledge of an hourly or daily hydrogen market. However, the costs of hydrogen presented here do include a small profit from an internal rate of return on the system. The cost of renewable wind-based hydrogen production is very sensitive to the cost of the wind electricity. Using differently priced grid electricity to supplement the system had only a small effect on the cost of hydrogen; because wind electricity was always used either directly or indirectly to fully generate the hydrogen. Wind classes 3-6 across the U.S. were examined and the costs of hydrogen ranged from $3.74kg to $5.86/kg. These costs do not quite meet the 2015 DOE targets for central or distributed hydrogen production ($3.10/kg and $3.70/kg, respectively), so more work is needed on reducing the cost of wind electricity and the electrolyzers. If the PTC and ITC are claimed, however, many of the sites will meet both targets. For a subset of distributed refueling stations where there is also inexpensive, open space nearby this could be an alternative to central hydrogen production and distribution.

Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

DIRECT FUELCELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed for mechanical and piping layouts and for structural drawings. Procurement activities continued with delivery of major equipment items. Fabrication of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been initiated. Details of the process control philosophy were defined and control software programming was initiated.

Hossein Shezel-Ayagh

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

DIRECT FUELCELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed for mechanical and piping layouts and for structural drawings. Procurement activities continued with delivery of major equipment items. Fabrication of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been initiated. Details of the process control philosophy were defined and control software programming was initiated.

Hossein Shezel-Ayagh

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: PEMFC Manufacturing Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEMFC Manufacturing Cost PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Project Summary Full Title: Manufacturing Cost of Stationary Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems Project ID: 85 Principal Investigator: Brian James Keywords: Costs; fuel cells; stationary Performer Principal Investigator: Brian James Organization: Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) Address: 3601 Wilson Blvd., Suite 650 Arlington, VA 22201 Telephone: 703-243-3383 Email: brian_james@directedtechnologies.com Period of Performance End: November 1999 Project Description Type of Project: Analysis Category: Cross-Cutting Objectives: Estimate the cost of the fuel cell system using the Directed Technologies, Inc. cost database built up over the several years under U.S. Department of Energy and Ford Motor Company contracts.

158

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

159

[Production of low-cost hydrogen]. Technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the proposed effort is to verify, at the laboratory scale, the ability of the MTCI indirectly heated fluid-bed gasifier to economically produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from liquefaction byproduct streams and from char produced in mild gasification processes. An important objective of the proposed effort is to provide a process data base that can be utilized by the AMOCO Corporation in evaluating the design and economics of an integrated liquefaction process which employs the MTCI gasifier for hydrogen production. The AMOCO Corporation has offered to provide this effort at no cost to MTCI or the government. Their participation in the project is an important element in verifying the economics of an indirectly heated gasifier to meet the overall program objective of reducing the cost of direct liquefaction processes. During this period, gasification tests on SRC residue were completed and testing of a preoxidized caking coal was initiated. The oxidation process substantially reduced the free-swelling index (FSI) and by recycling the carbon to the gasifier, the efficiency of the process was also increased. All of the planned testing has been completed and the system analysis initiated.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPCs initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPCs next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPCs $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

None

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Biofuel Policies and Indirect Land Use Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Union sees the expansion of biomass production for bioenergy as one of the components of its strategy to replace fossil energy sources by non-fossil renewable sources. However, the target of 10 % renewables in the transport sector by 2020 set in the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (EU-RED) has been widely criticised. Due to an increase in biomass demand for feedstocks for biofuel production and a continuously high demand of the food and feed sector, the demand for land to be used for both food and production and bioenergy is expected to increase globally (see e.g. Hertl et al. 2008, Haberl et al. 2011). Considering that already today deforestation for agricultural expansion and for conversion into pasture, but also forest degradation, infrastructure development, destructive logging and fires cause nearly 20 % of global GHG emissions (UN-REDD 2009), the contribution of biofuels to climate mitigation is at least questionable. To ensure that biofuels contribute to GHG emission savings and that their overall sustainability is maintained, the EU-RED has put forward a sustainability regulation in

Ruth Delzeit; Mareike Lange

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2004-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

163

Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2004-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

164

Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392°, 9.501785° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.26392,"lon":9.501785,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

165

Policy 1305 Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy 1305 Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Projects Responsible Office Office of Grant transfer of payroll and other direct costs associated with sponsored projects. Purpose of the Policy are responsible for ensuring that transfers of costs to sponsored projects which represent corrections of errors

166

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

167

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method  

SciTech Connect

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a high driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1000{degrees}C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, T.F.; Parsons, E.J. Jr.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a high driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1000[degrees]C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, T.F.; Parsons, E.J. Jr.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

XRCC1 & DNA MTases : direct and indirect modulation of inflammation-induced DNA damage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cancer causes 13% of all deaths worldwide. Inflammation-mediated cancer accounts for ~15% of all malignancies, strongly necessitating investigation of the molecular interactions at play. Inflammatory reactive oxygen and ...

Mutamba, James T. (James Tendai)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

?FosB differentially modulates nucleus accumbens direct and indirect pathway function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synaptic modifications in nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) play a key role in adaptive and pathological reward-dependent learning, including maladaptive responses involved in drug addiction. NAc MSNs ...

Neve, Rachael L.

172

Directions for improved fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts.

Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Indirect global warming effects of ozone and stratospheric water vapor induced by surface methane emission  

SciTech Connect

Methane has indirect effects on climate due to chemical interactions as well as direct radiative forcing effects as a greenhouse gas. We have calculated the indirect, time-varying tropospheric radiative forcing and GWP of O{sub 3} and stratospheric H{sub 2}O due to an impulse of CH{sub 4}. This impulse, applied to the lowest layer of the atmosphere, is the increase of the atmospheric mass of CH{sub 4} resulting from a 25 percent steady state increase in the current emissions as a function of latitude. The direct CH{sub 4} radiative forcing and GWP are also calculated. The LLNL 2-D radiative-chemistry-transport model is used to evaluate the resulting changes in the O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} atmospheric profiles as a function of time. A correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model is used to calculate the radiative forcing at the tropopause of the globally-averaged atmosphere profiles. The O{sub 3} indirect GWPs vary from {approximately}27 after a 20 yr integration to {approximately}4 after 500 years, agreeing with the previous estimates to within about 10 percent. The H{sub 2}O indirect GWPs vary from {approximately}2 after a 20 yr integration to {approximately}0.3 after 500 years, and are in close agreement with other estimates. The CH{sub 4} GWPs vary from {approximately}53 at 20 yrs to {approximately}7 at 500 yrs. The 20 year CH{sub 4} GWP is {approximately}20% larger than previous estimates of the direct CH{sub 4} GWP due to a CH{sub 4} response time ({approximately}17 yrs) that is much longer than the overall lifetime (10 yrs). The increased CH{sub 4} response time results from changes in the OH abundances caused by the CH{sub 4} impulse. The CH{sub 4} radiative forcing results are consistent with IPCC values. Estimates are made of latitude effects in the radiative forcing calculations, and UV effects on the O{sub 3} radiative forcing calculations (10%).

Wuebbles, D.J.; Grossman, A.S.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O. Jr.; Jain, A.; Grant, K.A.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

SciTech Connect

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Large inherent optical gain from the direct gap transition of Ge thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recent demonstration of Ge-on-Si diode lasers renews the interest in the unique carrier dynamics of Ge involving both direct (?) and indirect (L) valleys. Here, we report a large inherent direct gap optical gain ...

Wang, Xiaoxin

180

PAFC Cost Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Estimates of the Global Indirect Energy-Use Emission Impacts of USA Biofuel Policy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the indirect energy-use emission implications of increases in the use of biofuels in the USA between 2001 and 2010 as mandates within a dynamic global computable general equilibrium model. The study incorporates explicit markets for biofuels, petroleum and other fossil fuels, and accounts for interactions among all sectors of an 18-region global economy. It considers bilateral trade, as well as the dynamics of capital allocation and investment. Simulation results show that the biofuel mandates in the USA generate an overall reduction in global energy use and emissions over the simulation period from 2001 to 2030. Consequently, the indirect energy-use emission change or emission leakage under the mandate is negative. That is, global emission reductions are larger than the direct emission savings from replacing petroleum with biofuels under the USA RFS2 over the last decade. Under our principal scenario this enhanced the direct emission reduction from biofuels by about 66%. The global change in lifecycle energy-use emissions for this scenario was estimated to be about 93 million tons of CO2e in 2010, 45 million tons of CO2e in 2020, and an increase of 5 million tons of CO2e in 2030, relative to the baseline scenario. Sensitivity results of six alternative scenarios provided additional insights into the pattern of the regional and global effects of biofuel mandates on energy-use emissions.

Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

JGI - Directions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Map to JGI Directions from Directions from key local start points, public transit Home > About Us > Map to JGI UC logo DOE logo Contact Us Credits Disclaimer Access...

183

Time-optimal CNOT between indirectly coupled qubits in a linear Ising chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give analytical solutions for the time-optimal synthesis of entangling gates between indirectly coupled qubits 1 and 3 in a linear spin chain of three qubits subject to an Ising Hamiltonian interaction with equal coupling $J$ plus a local magnetic field acting on the intermediate qubit. The energy available is fixed, but we relax the standard assumption of instantaneous unitary operations acting on single qubits. The time required for performing an entangling gate which is equivalent, modulo local unitary operations, to the $\\mathrm{CNOT}(1, 3)$ between the indirectly coupled qubits 1 and 3 is $T=\\sqrt{3/2} J^{-1}$, i.e. faster than a previous estimate based on a similar Hamiltonian and the assumption of local unitaries with zero time cost. Furthermore, performing a simple Walsh-Hadamard rotation in the Hlibert space of qubit 3 shows that the time-optimal synthesis of the $\\mathrm{CNOT}^{\\pm}(1, 3)$ (which acts as the identity when the control qubit 1 is in the state $\\ket{0}$, while if the control qubit is in the state $\\ket{1}$ the target qubit 3 is flipped as $\\ket{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\ket{\\mp}$) also requires the same time $T$.

A. Carlini; A. Hosoya; T. Koike; Y. Okudaira

2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

184

Time-optimal CNOT between indirectly coupled qubits in a linear Ising chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give analytical solutions for the time-optimal synthesis of entangling gates between indirectly coupled qubits 1 and 3 in a linear spin chain of three qubits subject to an Ising Hamiltonian interaction with equal coupling $J$ plus a local magnetic field acting on the intermediate qubit 2. The energy available is fixed, but we relax the standard assumption of instantaneous unitary operations acting on single qubits. The time required for performing an entangling gate which is equivalent, modulo local unitary operations, to the $\\mathrm{CNOT}(1, 3)$ between the indirectly coupled qubits 1 and 3 is $T=\\sqrt{3/2} J^{-1}$, i.e. faster than a previous estimate based on a similar Hamiltonian and the assumption of local unitaries with zero time cost. Furthermore, performing a simple Walsh-Hadamard rotation in the Hlibert space of qubit 3 shows that the time-optimal synthesis of the $\\mathrm{CNOT}^{\\pm}(1, 3)$ (which acts as the identity when the control qubit 1 is in the state $\\ket{0}$, while if the control qubit...

Carlini, A; Koike, T; Okudaira, Y

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cost Quality Management Assessment for the Idaho Operations Office. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Engineering and Cost Management (EM-24) conducted a Cost Quality Management Assessment of EM-30 and EM-40 activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on Feb. 3--19, 1992 (Round I). The CQMA team assessed the cost and cost-related management activities at INEL. The Round II CQMA, conducted at INEL Sept. 19--29, 1994, reviewed EM-30, EM-40, EM-50, and EM-60 cost and cost-related management practices against performance objectives and criteria. Round II did not address indirect cost analysis. INEL has made measurable progress since Round I.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Minimum Changeover Cost Arborescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

having minimum changeover cost, a cost that we now describe. ... We define the changeover cost at j, denoted by d(j), as the sum of the costs at j paid for each of ...

187

Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

NONE

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Indirect detections and analyses of GRBs by ionospheric response  

SciTech Connect

We present and discuss the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID--Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency), and evaluate its possible impact on GRB science and investigations in general. Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss examples of such VLF/SID detection of GRBs 060124A, GRB080319D a GRB080320A. A network of SID monitors has been created and is operated to detect more GRBs. The importance of these detections for GRB analyses and GRB science in general is still to be further and in full detail exploited.

Hudec, Rene [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Slosiar, Rudolf [Bojnice and Partizanske Observatory (Slovakia)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities) and 37 percent complex (medical buildings and power plants). Allowing for the influence of one large facility which received less-extensive treatment due to previous work, thorough audits were obtained for an average cost of $0.050/SF. Large medical buildings (greater than about 170,000 square feet) were audited for $0.050/SF or less, and program costs for survey audits of 17.2 million square feet were $0.0028/SF. The effect on audit costs of complexity of recommended modifications, amount of savings determined, amount of implementation costs, building size, and building complexity are discussed. Primary effects on audit costs are size and complexity of buildings. Program guidelines limited consideration of projects with greater than a four year payback.

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Economics of geothermal direct-heat applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cost and production data from five commercial-scale geothermal direct-heat application projects are reviewed. Unit costs of geothermal energy under a variety of assumptions about production levels, costs, tax treatment, financial structure, and cost of capital are calculated and compared to prices of conventional fuels which would be displaced over the life of a geothermal project. Geothermal energy is found to be less costly than distillate fuel oil for all cases examined and cheaper than natural gas in many cases.

Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Cohen, L.A.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 15, Estimating Methods  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

193

Synchronization in hyperchaotic time-delayed electronic oscillators coupled indirectly via a common environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present paper explores the synchronization scenario of hyperchaotic time-delayed electronic oscillators coupled indirectly via a common environment. We show that depending upon the coupling parameters a hyperchaotic time-delayed system can show in-phase or complete synchronization, and also inverse-phase or anti-synchronization. This paper reports the first experimental confirmation of synchronization of hyperchaos in time-delayed electronic oscillators coupled indirectly through a common environment. We confirm the occurrence of in-phase and inverse-phase synchronization phenomena in the coupled system through the dynamical measures like generalized autocorrelation function, correlation of probability of recurrence, and the concept of localized sets computed directly from the experimental time-series data. We also present a linear stability analysis of the coupled system. The experimental and analytical results are further supported by the detailed numerical analysis of the coupled system. Apart from the above mentioned measures, we numerically compute another quantitative measure, namely, Lyapunov exponent spectrum of the coupled system that confirms the transition from the in-phase (inverse-phase) synchronized state to the complete (anti-) synchronized state with the increasing coupling strength.

Tanmoy Banerjee; Debabrata Biswas

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

194

Full Economic Costing:-Updated guidance notes for peer reviewers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the level of resources required to undertake the project and not their unit cost. In particular, peer are as follows: 1) Directly Incurred costs: These are costs which are specific to a project and will be charged to the project on the basis of actual costs incurred. They must be supported by an audit record, which

195

Wind turbine reliability : understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

SciTech Connect

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. Cost of energy (COE) is a key project evaluation metric, both in commercial applications and in the U.S. federal wind energy program. To reflect this commercial reality, the wind energy research community has adopted COE as a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The COE metric accounts for the effects of reliability through levelized replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. However, unlike the other cost contributors, such as initial capital investment and scheduled maintenance and operating expenses, costs associated with component failures are necessarily speculative. They are based on assumptions about the reliability of components that in many cases have not been operated for a complete life cycle. Due to the logistical and practical difficulty of replacing major components in a wind turbine, unanticipated failures (especially serial failures) can have a large impact on the economics of a project. The uncertainty associated with long-term component reliability has direct bearing on the confidence level associated with COE projections. In addition, wind turbine technology is evolving. New materials and designs are being incorporated in contemporary wind turbines with the ultimate goal of reducing weight, controlling loads, and improving energy capture. While the goal of these innovations is reduction in the COE, there is a potential impact on reliability whenever new technologies are introduced. While some of these innovations may ultimately improve reliability, in the short term, the technology risks and the perception of risk will increase. The COE metric used by researchers to evaluate technologies does not address this issue. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce COE.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Wind turbine reliability : understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. Cost of energy (COE) is a key project evaluation metric, both in commercial applications and in the U.S. federal wind energy program. To reflect this commercial reality, the wind energy research community has adopted COE as a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The COE metric accounts for the effects of reliability through levelized replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. However, unlike the other cost contributors, such as initial capital investment and scheduled maintenance and operating expenses, costs associated with component failures are necessarily speculative. They are based on assumptions about the reliability of components that in many cases have not been operated for a complete life cycle. Due to the logistical and practical difficulty of replacing major components in a wind turbine, unanticipated failures (especially serial failures) can have a large impact on the economics of a project. The uncertainty associated with long-term component reliability has direct bearing on the confidence level associated with COE projections. In addition, wind turbine technology is evolving. New materials and designs are being incorporated in contemporary wind turbines with the ultimate goal of reducing weight, controlling loads, and improving energy capture. While the goal of these innovations is reduction in the COE, there is a potential impact on reliability whenever new technologies are introduced. While some of these innovations may ultimately improve reliability, in the short term, the technology risks and the perception of risk will increase. The COE metric used by researchers to evaluate technologies does not address this issue. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce COE.

Not Available

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cost Study Manual  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

28, 2012 28, 2012 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a percent of payroll exceeds the comparator group by more than five percent. For example, if per capita benefit costs for the comparator group are $10,000 and the benefit costs as a percent of payroll for the comparator group are 20%, the threshold for the contractor's benefits as a

198

GRADUATE STUDENT TUITION ON RESEARCH AWARDS Graduate Student salaries and tuition costs are allowable costs on sponsored projects and are  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are allowable costs on sponsored projects and are often a required cost. Policy BACKGROUND In accordance to their research projects must include a line item in the direct cost budget proposal for tuition remission based and budgets for non-competing renewals that include salary costs for a Research Project Assistant must also

Krovi, Venkat

199

Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

Von Drasek, William A. (Oak Forest, IL); Saucedo, Victor M. (Willowbrook, IL)

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

200

Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target Design  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target design. These targets either use a fill tube or the capsule is strong enough to withstand the room temperature pressure of the DT fuel. Only features that affect the design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System (NCTS) are presented. The design presented is the current thinking and may evolve further. The NCTS should be designed to accommodate a range of targets and target scales, as described here. The interface location between the target and the NCTS cryostat is at the target base / gripper joint, the tamping gas gland/gland joint, and the electrical plug/receptacle joint.

Bernat, T P; Gibson, C R

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

NRC Consent to Indirect License Transfer/Threshold Determination- Merger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Company ("CY"), and Yankee Atomic Electric Company ("YR") (each a "Yankee Company," and together, "the Yankee Companies"), hereby respond to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ("NRC") Third Request for Additional Information for Application for NRC Consent to Indirect License Transfer/Threshold Determination (TAC Nos. L24496, L24497, and L24498) ("RAI 3") received by the Yankee Companies on August 5, 2011. If you have questions or require additional information, please contact me or Joe Fay at (207) 350-0300. Sincerely, Wayne Norton

The Yankee Companies

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

JGI - Directions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Directions Address DOE Joint Genome Institute 2800 Mitchell Drive Walnut Creek, CA 94598 From Oakland Airport Follow Airport exit signs onto AIRPORT DR. Turn RIGHT onto HEGENBERGER...

205

Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

factors add 20 percent to liquefaction plant total installed cost 6 Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for current urban and...

206

Direct measure of quantum correlation  

SciTech Connect

The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.

Yu, Chang-shui [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Zhao, Haiqing [School of Science, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate  

SciTech Connect

Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

209

Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Industrial Technologies Div.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sample Invoice Cost Share UT-B Contracts Div August 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SHIPPED VIA CUSTOMER NUMBER TERMS NET DAYS COST ELEMENT DESCRIPTION CURRENT COSTS CUMULATIVE COSTS DIRECT for the Department of Energy COMMENTS OR SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS: SUBCONTRACT NUMBER BILLING PERIOD Begin/End Date AMOUNT PREVIOUSLY PAID TOTAL COST INCURRED COMPANY COST SHARE * SELLERS COST SHARE * TOTAL INVOICED *If

211

Unit costs of waste management operations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

213

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

214

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Durable Seal Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability Transportation: 5,000 hr Stationary: 40,000 hr Durability Improve mechanical and chemical stability to achieve 40,000 hr of useful operating life. Low Cost Low Cost A material cost equivalent to or less than the cost of silicones in common use. 3 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL

215

Evaluation of I-710 Long Beach (07-1384U4) Long-Life Pavement Rehabilitation Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the expenditures for these projects, costs were divided intomaterials. Table 1 Project Cost Breakdown Direct Costs16.40 plier 2 lane-mi. Project Cost Breakdown Original Bid

Harvey, John T; Santero, Nicholas J; Lee, Hojung; du Toit, Williem; Fermo, Mary G

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

OOTW COST TOOLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Pricklypear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simple directions help you determine the density of pricklypear on your land, and then estimate the cost of controlling these plants with the pad or stem spray method.

Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Freedom of Information Act - Costs | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

described below. Commercial use requesters: Responsible for all direct costs; i.e. search for responsive documents, review of documents located for responsiveness; 16%...

219

Indirect detection of dryout in simulated LMFBR fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The method of indirect dryout detection was developed by an examination of the data from THORS Bundle 6A. This was a 19-pin bundle of FFTF configuration. The pin size, wire-wrap size and axial pitch were identical to those in Bundle 9; the major difference between the Bundle 6A and Bundle 9 FPSs was the length of the upper unheated zone, which simulated, in Bundle 6A, the reflector and fission gas plenum in FFTF (1.19 m) and, in Bundle 9, the upper axial blanket and fission gas plenum in CRBR (1.54 m). In addition, Bundle 6A had half-size (0.71 mm) edge channel wire-wraps and a low thermal inertia (0.51 mm thick) duct wall surrounded by calcium silicate insulation in an attempt to flatten the bundle temperature profile.

Levin, A.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of {tau}{sub a}, and parameterization assumptions such as a lower bound on N{sub d}. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}. In an alternative approach, the radiative flux perturbation due to anthropogenic aerosols can be broken down into a component over the cloud-free portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol direct effect) and a component over the cloudy portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol indirect effect). An estimate obtained by scaling these simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic {tau}{sub a} and satellite-retrieved Nd - {tau}{sub a} regression slopes, respectively, yields a global, annual-mean aerosol direct effect estimate of -0.4 {+-} 0.2 Wm{sup -2} and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, with a total estimate of -1.2 {+-} 0.4 Wm{sup -2}.

Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Aerosol indirect effects general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated in the present study using three satellite datasets. The satellite datasets are taken as reference bearing in mind that cloud and aerosol retrievals include uncertainties. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (?a) and various cloud and radiation quantities consistently in models and satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over oceans. The relationship between ?a and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and ?a as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld ?a relationship, we find that none is unequivocally confirmed by our results. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between ?a and cloud top temperature and outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - ?a relationship show a strong positive correlation between ?a and cloud fraction. The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of ?a, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the short-wave total aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.50.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic ?a and satellite-retrieved Nd ?a regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.40.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.70.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.20.4 Wm-2.

Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, T.; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, A.; Lohmann, U.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, A.; Feingold, G.; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, J. E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Y.; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, P.; Stier, P.; Grandey, B.; Feichter, J.; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, D.; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, H.; Lamarque, J. F.; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

Operations Cost Allocation Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms OCP Cost Allocation Spreadsheets OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation - Questions and Answers - September 19 - 20, 2011 Additional Questions and Answers Customer Comments/Questions and Answers: Arizona Municipal Power Users Association Arizona Power Authority Central Arizona Project Colorado River Commission Colorado River Energy Distributors Association City of Gilbert, AZ Irrigation and Electrical Districts Association of Arizona Town of Marana, AZ City of Mesa, AZ Town of Wickenburg, AZ Western's Final Decision Regarding the Long-Term Cost Allocation Methodology for Operations Staff Costs

223

Minimum Cost Arborescences ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the cost allocation problem when a group of agents or nodes have to be connected to a source, and where the cost matrix describing the cost of connecting each pair of agents is not necessarily symmetric, thus extending the well-studied problem of minimum cost spanning tree games, where the costs are assumed to be symmetric. The focus is on rules which satisfy axioms representing incentive and fairness properties. We show that while some results are similar, there are also significant differences between the frameworks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric cost matrices.

Bhaskar Dutta; Debasis Mishra; We Thank Daniel Granot; Anirban Kar; Herve Moulin For Comments

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

how the challenge from high oil costs interacts with, but isproducts will re?ect that oil cost. A more appropriate andvirtually all of the cost of that oil must be paid directly

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

227

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

228

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

229

Documents: Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Search Documents: Search PDF Documents View a list of all documents Cost Analysis PDF Icon Summary of the Cost Analysis Report for the Long-term Management of Depleted UF6...

230

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Presented by: J.M. Hieb, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company CHPRC1204-04 Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Everyone is trying to stretch a...

231

Cost Estimation Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

232

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Indirect control with quantum accessor (I): coherent control of multi-level system via qubit chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indirect controllability of an arbitrary finite dimensional quantum system (N-dimensional qudit) through a quantum accessor is investigated. Here, The qudit is coupled to a quantum accessor which is modeled as a fully controllable spin chain with nearest neighbor (anisotropic) XY-coupling. The complete controllability of such indirect control system is investigated in detail. The general approach is applied to the indirect controllability of two and three dimensional quantum systems. For two and three dimensional systems, a simpler indirect control scheme is also presented.

H. C. Fu; Hui Dong; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. : A parameterization of aerosol activation - 3. Sectionalclouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,2004. Albrecht, B. A. : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Quaas, Johannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oscillation influence aerosol variability? , J. Geophys.clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,2004. Albrecht, B. A. : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Quaas, Johannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Indirect Land Use Change: A second best solution to a first class problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have led to assigning biofuel producers with thetheir compliance with biofuel policies. We show that theother indirect effects of biofuel may need to be considered

Zilberman, David D.; Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

FSM Research Administrators' Workshop Series Cost Principles for Sponsored Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FSM Research Administrators' Workshop Series Cost Principles for Sponsored Projects October 4, 2012 degree of accuracy #12;Examples of Direct Costs · Salaries and fringe benefits of project personnel, unallowable. Other factors affecting allowability of costs: · Reasonable · Allocable to the proposed project

Chisholm, Rex L.

238

A greedy strategy for detecting negative cost cycles in networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we develop a greedy strategy for the problem of checking whether a network (directed graph) with positive and negative costs on its edges has a negative cost cycle. We call our approach the Vertex Contraction algorithm; it is the first ... Keywords: Bellman-Ford, Negative cost cycle detection, Relaxation, Vertex Contraction

K. Subramani; L. Kovalchick

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Update of Hydrogen from Biomass -- Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Milestone report summarizing the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via (1) gasification/reforming of the resulting syngas and (2) fast pyrolysis/reforming of the resulting bio-oil. Hydrogen has the potential to be a clean alternative to the fossil fuels currently used in the transportation sector. This is especially true if the hydrogen is manufactured from renewable resources, primarily sunlight, wind, and biomass. Analyses have been conducted to assess the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: (1) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas, and (2) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil. This study was conducted to update previous analyses of these processes in order to include recent experimental advances and any changes in direction from previous analyses. The systems examined were gasification in the Battelle/FERCO low pressure indirectly-heated gasifier followed by steam reforming, gasification in the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) high pressure direct-fired gasifier followed by steam reforming, and pyrolysis followed by coproduct separation and steam reforming. In each process, water-gas shift is used to convert the reformed gas into hydrogen, and pressure swing adsorption is used to purify the product. The delivered cost of hydrogen, as well as the plant gate hydrogen selling price, were determined. All analyses included Latin Hypercube sampling to obtain a detailed sensitivity analysis.

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Amos, W. A.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Direct Costs and Benefits of US Electric Utility Divestitures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. We find that divestiture reduces distribution efficiency but increases power sourcing efficiency. Both effects depend on the amount of own nuclear generation output but not fossil-fuel or hydro output. The net present value for all divestitures in our...

Triebs, Thomas P.; Pollitt, Michael G.; Kwoka, John E.

242

Commercial equipment cost database  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared for DOE, Office of Codes and Standards, as part of the Commercial Equipment Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, specifically addresses the equipment cost estimates used to evaluate the economic impacts of revised standards. A database including commercial equipment list prices and estimated contractor costs was developed, and through statistical modeling, estimated contractor costs are related to equipment parameters including performance. These models are then used to evaluate cost estimates developed by the ASHRAE 90.1 Standing Standards Project Committee, which is in the process of developing a revised ASHRAE 90.1 standard. The database will also be used to support further evaluation of the manufacturer and consumer impacts of standards. Cost estimates developed from the database will serve as inputs to economic modeling tools, which will be used to estimate these impacts. Preliminary results suggest that list pricing is a suitable measure from which to estimate contractor costs for commercial equipment. Models developed from these cost estimates accurately predict estimated costs. The models also confirm the expected relationships between equipment characteristics and cost. Cost models were developed for gas-fired and electric water heaters, gas-fired packaged boilers, and warm air furnaces for indoor installation. Because of industry concerns about the use of the data, information was not available for the other categories of EPAct-covered equipment. These concerns must be addressed to extend the analysis to all EPAct equipment categories.

Freeman, S.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Biofuel Policy & Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) Dr. Julie Witcover, Dr. Sonia Yeh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biofuel Policy & Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) Dr. Julie Witcover, Dr. Sonia Yeh Institute(jwitcover@ucdavis.edu), Sonia Yeh(slyeh@ucdavis.edu) Project Description Indirect land use change (ILUC) occurs when biofuel with a risk of substantial GHG emissions. Controversy over ILUCs inclusion in biofuel policies is due

California at Davis, University of

244

Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A clear understanding of particle formation mechanisms is critical for assessing aerosol indirect radiative forcing and associated climate feedback processes. Recent studies reveal the importance of ion-mediated nucleation (IMN) in generating new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Here we implement for the first time a physically based treatment of IMN into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. Our simulations show that, compared to globally averaged results based on binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN), the presence of ionization (i.e., IMN) halves H2SO4 column burden, but increases the column integrated nucleation rate by around one order of magnitude, total particle number burden by a factor of ~ 3, CCN burden by ~ 10% (at 0.2% supersaturation) to 65% (at 1.0% supersaturation), and cloud droplet number burden by ~ 18%. Compared to BHN, IMN increases cloud liquid water path by 7.5%, decreases precipitation by 1.1%, and increases total cloud cover by 1.9%. This leads to an increase of total shortwave cloud radiative forcing by 3.67 W/m2 (more negative) and longwave cloud forcing by 1.78 W/m2 (more positive), resulting in a -1.9 W/m2 net change in cloud radiative forcing associated with IMN. The significant impacts of ionization on global aerosol formation, CCN abundance, and cloud radiative forcing may provide an important physical mechanism linking the global energy balance to various processes affecting atmospheric ionization, which should be properly represented in climate models.

Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ghan, Steven J.

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

245

Lawrence Livermore National Security Cost Model Functional Management Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scope of the Functional Management Assessment of the cost model included a review of the plan and progress of the Cost Model Review Team. The review focused on processes in place to ensure simplicity, compliance with cost accounting standards and indirect cost allocation methodology, and the change management plan. This was intended to be a high-level initial review in order to provide recommendations for a subsequent more comprehensive review. The single document reviewed by the team during the assessment was the Indirect Cost Recovery Model Review, which describes how the indirect rate restructure and new organizational structure have resulted in streamlined charging practices to better understand and strategically manage costs. ISSUE 1: The cost model focuses heavily on rate structure but not on cost management. Significant progress has been made to simplify the rate structure. The number of indirect rates has been reduced from 67 different indirect rates used under the prior contract to 32 rates in the first year of the LLNS contract, with a goal of further reduction to 16 for FY09. The reductions are being recommended by a broad-based Working Group driven by Lab leadership desiring a simplified rate structure that would make it easier to analyze the true cost of overhead, be viewed as equitable, and ensure appropriate use of Service, i.e., operations, Centers. This has been a real challenge due to the significant change in approach from one that previously involved a very complex rate structure. Under this prior approach, the goal was to manage the rates, and rates were established at very detailed levels that would 'shine the light' on pools of overhead costs. As long as rates stayed constant or declined, not as much attention tended to be given to them, particularly with so many pools to review (184 indirect rate pools in FY05). However, as difficult and important as simplifying the rate structure has been, the fundamental reason for the simplification is to make it easier to analyze the true cost of overhead so the costs can be effectively managed. For the current year, the overall the goal of keeping the total cost of an FTE to FY07 levels. This approach reflects the past practice of managing to rates rather than focusing on costs, although streamlined with the more simplified rate structure. Given all the challenges being faced with the contract transition, this was a reasonable interim tactic for dealing with the known cost increases such as fees and taxes. Nonetheless, in order to take full advantage of the opportunities that exist for making sound decisions for further reducing the rates themselves, the Laboratory needs to implement an ongoing and disciplined approach to understanding and managing overhead cost. ISSUE 2: The NIF has a significantly different rate structure than other Laboratory work. Because of its significant size and unique organizational structure as a major construction project, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has indirect charges that vary from the norm. These variations were reviewed and approved by and disclosed to the NNSA in the Laboratory's past annual Disclosure Statements. In mid-FY 09, NIF will begin transition from a construction line item to an operational center. The reallocation of costs when this occurs could significantly impact the Laboratory's rates and rate structure planning for that transition from a cost- and rate- impact standpoint should begin soon. ISSUE 3: The new rate model must be finalized shortly in order to implement the model beginning in FY 09. As noted in Issue No.1, a Working Group has developed a simplified rate structure for the Lab to use for FY09. The Working Group has evaluated the cost impacts of the simplified rate structure at the major program level and identified a disparate impact in the Safeguards and Security area where a substantial increase in overhead cost allocation may need to be mitigated. The simplified rate structure will need to be approved by the Laboratory Director and issued within the Laboratory to formulate detailed bu

Tevis, J; Hirahara, J; Thomas, B; Mendez, M

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

246

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

247

Low cost MCFC anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

Erickson, D.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

What solar heating costs  

SciTech Connect

Few people know why solar energy systems cost what they do. Designers and installers know what whole packages cost, but rarely how much goes to piping, how much for labor and how much for the collectors. Yet one stands a better chance of controlling costs if one can compare where the money is going against where it should be going. A detailed Tennessee Valley Authority study of large solar projects shows how much each component contributes to the total bill.

Adams, J.A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Cost analysis guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

Strait, R.S.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

250

CAES Updated Cost Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems (CAES) for bulk energy storage applications have been receiving renewed interest. Increased penetration of large quantities of intermittent wind generation are requiring utilities to re-examine the cost and value of CAES systems. New second generation CAES cycles have been identified which offer the potential for lower capital and operating costs. This project was undertaken to update and summarize the capital and operating costs and performance features of second ge...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

251

Simple cost model for EV traction motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

Cuenca, R.M.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Cost Affordable Titanium IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Enhancing the Cost Effectiveness of High Performance Titanium Alloy Component Production by Powder Metallurgy Evolution of Texture in...

253

Cost Effective Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

three relevant technologies, namely casting, alloy development and orientation measurement, developed by Rolls-Royce to enable the cost effective production.

254

Sharing Supermodular Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents. ..... Mixed integer programming formulations for production planning and scheduling prob- lems.

255

Petroleum well costs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This is the first academic study of well costs and drilling times for Australia?s petroleum producing basins, both onshore and offshore. I analyse a substantial (more)

Leamon, Gregory Robert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

COST REVIEW and ESTIMATING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Programming Guide. OMB Circular A-94, Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs, dated October 29, 1992 Page | 41 APPENDIX A ICRICE...

257

The Cost of Debt ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate firm-specific marginal cost of debt functions for a large panel of companies between 1980 and 2007. The marginal cost curves are identified by exogenous variation in the marginal tax benefits of debt. The location of a given companys cost of debt function varies with characteristics such as asset collateral, size, book-to-market, asset tangibility, cash flows, and whether the firm pays dividends. By integrating the area between benefit and cost functions we estimate that the equilibrium net benefit of debt is 3.5 % of asset value, resulting from an estimated gross benefit of debt of 10.4 % of asset value and an estimated cost of debt of 6.9%. We find that the cost of being overlevered is asymmetrically higher than the cost of being underlevered and that expected default costs constitute approximately half of the total ex ante cost of debt. We thank Rick Green (the Acting Editor), and an anonymous referee, Heitor Almeida, Ravi Bansal,

Jules H. Van Binsbergen; John R. Graham; Jie Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Reducing Energy Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy expense is becoming increasingly dominant in the operating costs of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. At the same time, electricity prices vary significantly at...

259

Target Cost Management Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

Okano, Hiroshi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Export and Direct Investment as a Signal in Global Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines the production strategies of an international firm. We show that foreign direct investment acts as a signal to overcome an asymmetric information problem in the host-country. We find that a host-country will prefer a situation where a technologically superior (inferior) firm does direct investment (export) compared to the situations where all or neither types of foreign firms are investing abroad. Since, the technologically superior (inferior) firm does direct investment (export) for moderate cost of direct investment, this finding suggests higher host-country welfare for moderate cost of direct investment compared to very small or very large costs of direct investment.

Arijit Mukherjee; Udo Broll

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Cost analysis in support of minimum energy standards for clothes washers and dryers  

SciTech Connect

The results of the cost analysis of energy conservation design options for laundry products are presented. The analysis was conducted using two approaches. The first, is directed toward the development of industrial engineering cost estimates of each energy conservation option. This approach results in the estimation of manufacturers costs. The second approach is directed toward determining the market price differential of energy conservation features. The results of this approach are shown. The market cost represents the cost to the consumer. It is the final cost, and therefore includes distribution costs as well as manufacturing costs.

1979-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The desalination subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, was operated successfully for two years. Water production rates of 180 m/sup 3//day can be obtained for a period of 24 hours. In addition, once the proper procedures are followed, water production can continue for long periods of time at rates of 135 m/sup 3//day. Electrical energy costs to produce one m/sup 3/ of potable water is SR 1.66 in Saudi Arabia and $1.66 to $2.21 in the United States. As with any new process, a number of important details must be learned to obtain the most out of the system. Some of these details are: (1) product water production rate and efficiency are maximized for this system at 10% salinity and ..delta..Ts greater than 3/degree/C, (2) the anhydrous ammonia must be kept clean, (3) the ice in the freezer tubes must be melted without decreasing the salinity of the mixture in the slurry separator, (4) the salinity of the mixture going through each of the freezer tubes must be the same, and (5) the salinity of the slurry must be less than 11%. The authors believe that a subsequent design of an indirect-contact freeze desalination sub-system can be successful. Maintenance of the desalination subsystem has been nominal with only about 6/1/2/ person days required per month. Proper operating procedures and some redesign of the desalination subsystem should minimize the required maintenance. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Zimmerman, J.C.; Al-Abbadi, N.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Software Cost Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort required to develop a software system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last 30 years. This paper provides a general overview of software cost estimation methods including the recent advances in the field. As a number of these models rely on a software size estimate as input, we first provide an overview of common size metrics. We then highlight the cost estimation models that have been proposed and used successfully. Models may be classified into 2 major categories: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. A key factor in selecting a cost estimation model is the accuracy of its estimates. Unfortunately, despite the large body of experience with estimation models, the accuracy of these models is not satisfactory. The paper includes comment on the performance of the estimation models and description of several newer approaches to cost estimation.

Hareton Leung Zhang; Zhang Fan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Cost-Affordable Titanium III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Production and Thermomechanical Consolidation of Titanium Alloy Powders Cost Affordable Developments in Titanium Technology and...

266

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETION OF THE PROPOSED CHANGE/DIRECTED ...  

Give estimated hours for each labor category per unit, the total hours, and the hourly direct labor cost (this is the gross amount the worker is ...

267

Transmission line capital costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Fine Adjustment of Large Scale Air-Sea Energy Flux Parameterizations by Direct Estimates of Ocean Heat Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An inverse technique is used to adjust uncertain coefficients and parameters in the bulk formulae of climatological air-sea energy fluxes in order to obtain an agreement of indirect estimates of meridional heat transport with direct estimates in ...

Hans-Jrg Isemer; Jrgen Willebrand; Lutz Hasse

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Hydrogen Generation through Indirect Biophotolysis in Batch Cultures of the Non-Heterocystous Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nitrogen-fixing non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum was used as a model organism to study hydrogen generation by indirect biophotolysis in nitrogen-limited batch cultures that were continuously illuminated and sparged with argon/CO2 to maintain anaerobiosis. The highest hydrogen production rate (i.e., 0.18 mL/mg?day or 7.3 ?mol/mg?day) ) was observed in cultures with an initial medium nitrate concentration of 1 mM at a light intensity of 100 ?mol/m2?sec. The addition of photosystem II inhibitor DCMU did not reduce hydrogen production rates relative to unchallenged controls for 50 to 150 hours, and intracellular glycogen concentrations decreased significantly during the hydrogen generation period. The insensitivity of the hydrogen production process to DCMU is indicative of the fact that hydrogen was not derived from water splitting at photosystem II (i.e., direct biophotolysis) but rather from electrons provided by intracellular glycogen reserves (i.e., indirect biophotolysis). It was shown that hydrogen generation could be sustained for long time periods by subjecting the cultures to alternating cycles of aerobic, nitrogen-limited growth and anaerobic hydrogen production.

Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Carter, Blaine M.; Gerschler, Jared J.; Benemann, John R.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Total capital cost data base: 10MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the total capital cost data base of the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant. This Solar One cost data base was created using the computer code ''Cost Data Management System (CDMS)''. The cost data base format was developed to be used as a common method of presentation of capital costs for power plants. The basic format is a plant system cost breakdown structure. Major accounts are land; structures and improvements; collector, receiver, thermal transport, thermal storage, and stream generation systems; turbine plant; electrical plant; miscellaneous plant systems and equipment; and plant-level indirect costs. Each major account includes subaccounts to as many as nine level of detail. The data base can be accessed to provide elements-of-work costs at any subaccount level or at the plant level. The elements-of-work include sitework/earthwork; concrete work; metal work; architectural; process equipment; piping; electrical; and miscellaneous work. Each of these elements-of-work can be or are broken into finer detail and costs can be accumulated to identify more specific needs, e.g., pipe insulation or heat exchangers. The cost data base can be accessed and various reports can be generated. These vary from a single page summary to detailed listings of costs and notes. Reported costs can be stated in dollars, dollars per kilowatt or percentage of the total plant cost. Reports or samples of reports for the pilot plant capital cost are included.

Norris, H.F. Jr.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Memorandum, Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Principles Governing Departmental Directives - Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10, 2007 Memorandum, Principles Governing Departmental Directives - September 10, 2007 September 10, 2007 The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, and procedures for Departmental Elements and, in some instances, our contractors. The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, and procedures for Departmental Elements and, in some instances, our contractors. Directives help ensure that the Department operates in a safe, secure, efficient, and cost-effective manner. They promote operational consistency throughout the DOE complex, foster sound management, and

272

Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Using Ground-Based Remote Sensors and Models  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Using Ground-Based Remote Sensors and Models G. Feingold National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado D. E. Lane Rutgers University Camden, New Jersey Q.-L. Min Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York Introduction The effect of aerosols on cloud microphysical and radiative properties (the "indirect effect") has the greatest uncertainty of all known climate-forcing mechanisms. Increases in aerosol concentrations result in higher concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), increased cloud droplet concentrations, and smaller droplet sizes (Twomey 1974). A possible secondary effect is the suppression of rainfall.

273

Daylighting in schools: Energy costs reduced, student performance improved  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ordinarily, architectural-engineering firms are only indirectly concerned with psychological and physical benefits to the occupants of the buildings they design. However, a firm in North Carolina, Innovative Design, is not ordinary. Their use of daylighting in schools yields considerable economic benefits: energy costs reduced up to 64%, cooling and electrical equipment costs reduced, long-term mechanical and lighting equipment maintenance costs reduced. But equally impressive are the benefits of daylighting on student performance. Students in schools using daylighting have higher achievement scores in reading and math tests. Further, as shown in a related study, because of additional vitamin D received by students via daylighting, they will have less dental decay--and grow taller. In the two performance reports which follow, authors Nicklas and Bailey analyze specific win-win benefits of daylighting. Their findings are startling.

Nicklas, M.H.; Bailey, G.B. [Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Obtaining Credit for Guided Wave as a Buried Pipe Direct Examination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundCurrently, guided wave examinations of buried and underground pipe are considered indirect examinations in Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) initiative 09-14, Guideline for the Management of Underground Piping and Tank Integrity, Revision 3, and in Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation 1801, Generic Aging and Lessons Learned (GALL) Report, Revision 2. Indirect examinations receive significantly less credit than direct examinations. Although a guided wave ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

275

cost | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cost cost Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

276

Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

277

iCheat: a representation for artistic control of indirect cinematic lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thanks to an increase in rendering efficiency, indirect illumination has recently begun to be integrated in cinematic lighting design, an application where physical accuracy is less important than careful control of scene appearance. This paper presents ...

Juraj Obert; Jaroslav K?ivnek; Fabio Pellacini; Daniel Sykora; Sumanta Pattanaik

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

COSTS OF NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

The discussion on the costs of nuclear power from stationary plants, designed primarily for the generation of electricity. deals with those plants in operation, being built, or being designed for construction at an early date. An attempt is made to consider the power costs on the basis of consistent definitions and assumptions for the various nuclear plants and for comparable fossil-fuel plants. Information on several new power reactor projects is included. (auth)

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Plant Engineering: Evaluation of Indirect Assessment Techniques for Coating Flaw Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a description of the work performed and conclusions resulting from an investigation of indirect assessment techniques for coating flaw detection on buried piping in nuclear generating power plant environments. Indirect assessment techniques have been developed and successfully used in the oil and gas industry to identify coating flaws on buried transmission and distribution pipelines. These techniques involve the use of electrochemical measurements taken at the soil surface (grade) to dete...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

280

The Indirect Detection of GRBs by Ionospheric Response - Detection of GRB060124A  

SciTech Connect

We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID-Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency). Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss an example of such VLF/SID detection of the GRB 060124A.

Slosiar, Rudolf [Astronomical Union of Amateur Astronomers, Bojnice (Slovakia); Hudec, Rene [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ 251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NREL: Energy Analysis - Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Transparent Cost Database Button The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculator provides a simple calculator for both utility-scale and distributed generation (DG) renewable energy technologies that compares the combination of capital costs, operations and maintenance (O&M), performance, and fuel costs. Note that this does not include financing issues, discount issues, future replacement, or degradation costs. Each of these would need to be included for a thorough analysis. To estimate simple cost of energy, use the slider controls or enter values directly to adjust the values. The calculator will return the LCOE expressed in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program

282

High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 [times] 10[sup 6] Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Vandervort, C.L.; Seger, J.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 {times} 10{sup 6} Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Vandervort, C.L.; Seger, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which needs to be 44% or better along with relatively high wind speeds. Along with low production costs, however, delivery and storage costs will also factor into the final cost...

285

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation CTS 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference costs #12;Potential Applications · Roadway Project Feasibility Studies ­ Identified potential roadway infrastructure improvement ­ Documentation of estimated project costs ­ Determine property assessments

Minnesota, University of

286

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

287

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

288

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Cycling Costs Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Prepared under Subcontract No. NFT-1-11325-01

289

Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Mesquite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication includes simple directions for determining the density of mesquite and then estimating the cost of controlling these plants with either the leaf spray or stem spray method.

Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Cedar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simple directions help you determine the density of cedar on rangeland or improved pastures, and then estimate the cost of controlling these plants with any of the three Brush Busters methods.

Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

2001-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

291

Research on Chronological Cost Simulation of Demand-Side Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many electric power utilities use Direct Load Control (DLC) to reduce operational costs and peak capacity requirements. This report proposes a very effective and unique method for DLC dispatch.

1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

292

The cost of noise reduction in commercial tilt rotor aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relationship between direct operating cost and departure noise annoyance was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various ...

Faulkner, Henry B.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

COST AND QUALITY TABLES 95  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Tables 5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts The annual publication Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) will no longer be pub- lished by the EIA. The tables presented in this docu- ment are intended to replace that annual publication. Questions regarding the availability of these data should be directed to: Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division

294

Production Cost Optimization Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved thermal performance of coal-fired power plants continue to grow, as the costs of fuel rise and the prospect of a carbon dioxide cap and trade program looms on the horizon. This report summarizes the efforts to date of utilities committed to reducing their heat rate by 1.0% in the Production Cost Optimization (PCO) Project. The process includes benchmarking of plant thermal performance using existing plant data and a site-specific performance appraisal. The appraisal determines po...

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

295

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

296

Cost calculation algorithm for stand-alone photovoltaic systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photovoltaics are the technology that generates direct current (DC) electrical power measured in watts or kilowatts from semiconductors when they are illuminated by photons. Photovoltaics are the technological symbol for a future sustainable energy supply ... Keywords: PV system design, life cycle cost, photovoltaic cell, present worth, software, unit energy cost

Irfan Gney; Nevzat Onat; Gkhan Koyi?it

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

COST SAVING THROUGH APPLICATION OF THE INVESTMENT CASTING PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

Bendix now makes four component parts for one precision mechanical assembly from investment castings rather than from wrought-stock machined and welded assemblies--a conversion based directly on the cost saving potential. With proper evaluation of metal components for casting suitability and usage, manufacturers may realize cost saving far beyond their expectations.

Cromwell, W. E.; Tiehen, G. L.; Paul, J. P.

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Costs and Indices for Domestic Oil and Gas Field Equipment and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Lease Equipment Costs for Gas Production in the Mid-Continent: Direct Annual Operating Costs for Gas Production in the Mid-Continent: Gas Production--the Rocky Mountains

299

Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments  

SciTech Connect

A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Portable top drive cuts horizontal drilling costs  

SciTech Connect

Economic analysis of a seven-well, long-reach horizontal drilling program into an unconsolidated, heavy-oil-bearing reservoir in Winter field near the Alberta/Saskatchewan border in Canada reveals that -- in the right application -- renting a portable top drive drilling system can reduce total drilling costs. Use of the portable top drive combined with other cost-saving measures enabled Saskoil, one of Canada`s larger independents, to drill more cheaply, on a cost-per-meter basis, in 1993 than in 1992. This was despite significant rental rates for drilling rigs and directional drilling services caused by increased demand in Western Canada. Total cost savings of 10% on wells that would otherwise cost in the (C) $500,000 range are believed realistic. Based on this year`s performance, Saskoil recommends top drive for the company`s future horizontal wells in this area. This article describes the operator`s horizontal well program, advantages of top drive in that program and how it was installed and applied. Estimated time savings for six wells, plus other ways top drive can cut costs and improve operations are discussed.

Jackson, B. [Saskoil, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yager, D. [Tesco Drilling Tech., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Heliostat cost reduction study.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Service Provider Competition: Delay Cost Structure, Segmentation, and Cost Advantage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We model competition between two providers who serve delay-sensitive customers. We compare a generalized delay cost structure, where a customer's delay cost depends on her service valuation, with the traditional additive delay cost structure, where the ... Keywords: delay cost structure, service competition, value-based market segmentation

Maxim Afanasyev; Haim Mendelson

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Long-run marginal costs lower than average costs  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this article is that the long-run marginal costs of electricity are not always greater than the present average costs, as is often assumed. As long as short-run costs decrease with new plant additions, the long-run marginal cost is less than long-run average cost. When average costs increase with new additions, long-run marginal costs are greater than long-run average costs. The long-run marginal costs of a particular utility may be less than, equal to, or greater than its long-run average costs - even with inflation present. The way to determine which condition holds for a given utility is to estimate costs under various combinations of assumptions: probable load growth, zero load growth, and load growth greater than expected; and changes in load factor with attendant costs. Utilities that can demonstrate long-run marginal costs lower than long-run average costs should be encouraged to build plant and increase load, for the resulting productivity gains and slowing of inflation. Utilities that face long-run marginal costs greater than long-run average costs should discourage growth in sales through any available means.

Hunter, S.R.

1980-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

306

High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Administration, 2008). A number of low- carbon power generation technologies are available today, but many-rated by their forced outage rates to represent the amount of power generation capacity that is available on average). Rather, it does so indirectly, by changing the relative costs of power generating technologies

Kammen, Daniel M.

307

Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

Szymczak, W.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Percent of 2010 Luminaire Cost LED Luminaire Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LEDs promise to change the world, and few doubt that they will, but a key limiter to more rapid adoption is the cost of the LED themselves. The cost breakdown of LED luminaires vary, but it is safe to put the cost of the LED at around 25% to 40 % of the total luminaire cost. It is projected to remain a significant cost of the total luminaire for many years.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Bartholomew, Mary Jane Brookhaven National Laboratory Daum, Peter Brookhaven National Laboratory Dunn, Maureen Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Liu, Yangang Brookhaven National Laboratory Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Andrews, Betsy NOAA/CMDL Ogren, John NOAA/CMDL Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Field Campaigns Impacts of aerosol indirect effects are considered too uncertain for inclusion in reports issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A major reason for this uncertainty is an insufficient physical

311

Indirect control with quantum accessor: coherent control by initial state preparation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the second one in our series of papers on indirect quantum control assisted by quantum accessor. In this paper we propose and study a new class of indirect quantum control(IDQC) scheme based on the initial states preparation of the accessor. In the present scheme, after the initial state of the accessor is properly prepared, the system is controlled by repeatedly switching on and off the interaction between the system and the accessor. This is different from the protocol of our first paper, where we manipulate the interaction between the controlled system and the accessor. We prove the controllability of the controlled system for the proposed indirect control scheme. Furthermore, we give an example with two coupled spins qubits to illustrate the scheme, the concrete control process and the controllability.

H. Dong; X. F. Liu; H. C. Fu; C. P. Sun

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

312

EU Metric Directive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... View EU Metric Directive Commission Services Working Document PDF ... of European Union (EU) Meeting on Metric Directives (2005); Packaging ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

313

Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply to the system, was demonstrated. System analyses of 40 MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, were carried out using CHEMCAD simulation software. The analyses included systems for near-term and long-term deployment. A new concept was developed that was based on clusters of one-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant, including the key equipment layout and the site plan, was completed. The process information and operational data from the proof-of-concept tests were used in the design of 40 MW high efficiency DFC/T power plants. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant was also prepared. Pilot-scale tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were conducted. The tests demonstrated that the concept has the potential to offer higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output and fuel utilization capabilities were also evaluated. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW DFC/T Alpha Unit was completed, including equipment and piping layouts, instrumentation, electrical, and structural drawings. The lessons learned from the proof-of-concept tests were incorporated in the design of the Alpha Unit. The sub-MW packaged unit was fabricated, including integration of the Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) stack module with the mechanical balance-of-plant and electrical balance-of-plant. Factory acceptance tests of the Alpha DFC/T power plant were conducted at Danbury, CT. The Alpha Unit achieved an unsurpassed electrical efficiency of 58% (LHV natural gas) during the factory tests. The resulting high efficiency in conversion of chemical energy to electricity far exceeded any sub-MW class power generation equipment presently in the market. After successful completion of the factory tests, the unit was shipped to the Billings Clinic in Billings, MT, for field demonstration tests. The DFC/T unit accomplished a major achievement by successfully completing 8000 hours of operation at the Billings site. The Alpha sub-MW DF

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

costs | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Varnish cache server costs Dataset Summary Description This dataset represents a historical repository of all the numerical data from the smartgrid.gov website condensed into spreadsheets to enable analysis of the data. Below are a couple of things worth noting: Source Smartgrid.gov Date Released March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Date Updated March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Keywords AMI costs distribution smart grid transmission Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 4Q12 (xlsx, 112.1 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 3Q12 (xlsx, 107.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 2Q12 (xlsx, 111.9 KiB)

315

Geothermal probabilistic cost study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Cost and Advanced Battery Technologies Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Batteries are a critical cost factor for plug-in electric vehicles, and the current high cost of lithium ion batteries poses a serious challenge for the competitiveness of Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEVs). Because the market penetration of PEVs will depend heavily on future battery costs, determining the direction of battery costs is very important. This report examines the cost drivers for lithium-ion PEV batteries and also presents an assessment of recent advancements in the growing attempts to ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

Gawlik, Keith

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

318

Do Households Smooth Small Consumption Shocks? Evidence from Anticipated and Unanticipated Variation in Home Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

home energy costs are electricity bills. 76% of energy coststo be paying their electricity bills directly, for instanceof the fact that electricity bills comprise almost three-

Cullen, Julie Berry; Friedberg, Leora; Wolfram, Catherine

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Sponsored Research Accounting Services OMNI User Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KKGMCHD (child level - one for the direct/indirect/cost share budgets). · Project budget balances can at the project budget status for direct and indirect costs for one project. Interpreting the results Budget = Sum Budget 780300 = Indirect budget This project does not have a cost share budget Available Budget = Direct

Weston, Ken

320

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways -costs are compared with cost estimates of similar stationsHydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. Memo regarding Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Technical Standards, Newsletter-June 1999 Build...

322

DOE Hydrogen Program Record 10004, Fuel Cell System Cost - 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record Program Record Record #: 10004 Date: September 16, 2010 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2010 Update to: Record 9012 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: December 16, 2010 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2010 technology and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $51/kW when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. Rationale: In fiscal year 2010, TIAX LLC (TIAX) and Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) each updated their 2009 cost analyses of 80-kW net direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell systems based on 2010 technology and projected to manufacturing volumes of 500,000 units per year [1,2]. Both cost estimates are based on performance at beginning of life.

323

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

Donna Post Guillen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1984 and 1986, 35.3 million square feet of state owned buildings were audited to identify cost saving retrofit projects. Originally intended for direct legislative funding or bond sales, funding became available in 1989 through oil overcharge moneys in a program known as LoanSTAR. Due to the time between the audits and availability of funds, update of the reports for current energy and equipment cost, and for accomplishment of projects was necessary. Audits in 1984 and 1986 identified total savings of $21.3 million per year and investment costs of $42.3 million per year. The 1989 update revealed retrofit projects remaining worth $10.9 million per year in savings and costing $30.5 million. The reduction in savings and costs is primarily due to changes in prices and accomplishment of projects. The methodology for updating prices and surveying facility energy contacts to determine accomplishment will be discussed. Both the accomplishment of maintenance and operation (M&O) type projects and capital-intensive retrofit/measures will be discussed. For example, the surveys revealed that 69% of 291 M&O's have already been accomplished, along with 24% of the 750 retrofit/measures.

Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Pennsylvania life cycle costing manual  

SciTech Connect

Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for institutions and governments to purchase equipment based on lowest initial (first) costs. Recurring costs such as operational, maintenance, and energy costs often were not considered in the purchase decision. If an agency wanted to buy something, it published specifications and requested bids from several manufacturers. Often, the lowest bidder who met the specifications won the job, with no consideration given to the economic life of the equipment or yearly recurring costs such as energy and maintenance costs. The practice of purchasing based on lowest initial costs probably did not make good economic sense prior to 1970, and it certainly does not make good sense now. The wise person will consider all costs and benefits associated with a purchase, both initial and post-purchase, in order to make procurement decisions that are valid for the life of the equipment. This describes a method of financial analysis that considers all pertinent costs: life cycle costing (LCC).

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Analyzing signatures of aerosol-cloud interactions from satellite retrievals and the GISS GCM to constrain the aerosol indirect effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud developmentclouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,1014 Albrecht, B. A. , Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Resolution of Indirect Anaphora in Japanese Sentences Using Examples "X no Y (Y of X)"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A noun phrase can indirectly refer to an entity that has already been mentioned. For example, "I went into an old house last night. The roof was leaking badly and ..." indicates that "the roof" is associated with "an old house", which was mentioned in the previous sentence. This kind of reference (indirect anaphora) has not been studied well in natural language processing, but is important for coherence resolution, language understanding, and machine translation. In order to analyze indirect anaphora, we need a case frame dictionary for nouns that contains knowledge of the relationships between two nouns but no such dictionary presently exists. Therefore, we are forced to use examples of "X no Y" (Y of X) and a verb case frame dictionary instead. We tried estimating indirect anaphora using this information and obtained a recall rate of 63% and a precision rate of 68% on test sentences. This indicates that the information of "X no Y" is useful to a certain extent when we cannot make us...

Masaki Murata; Hitoshi Isahara; Makoto Nagao

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The Development of Indirect Drive ICF and the Countdown to Ignition Experiments on the NIF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Development of Indirect Drive ICF and the Countdown to Ignition Experiments on the NIF Maxwell Prize Address APS Division of Plasma Physics Meeting November 15, 2007 John Lindl NIF and Photon Science.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 #12;The NIF

330

Reply to Quaas et al.: Can satellites be used to estimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We welcome the comments by Quaas et al. (1). In our paper (2), we used a model to show that the methods used to estimate indirect aerosol forcing using satellite data, especially those based on relating the slope of present-day (PD) drop number (Nc) to aerosol optical depth (AOD), underestimate the forcing calculated when both PD and preindustrial (PI) data are available.

Penner, J. E.; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

Anklam, T

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

332

Cost-sensitive classifier evaluation using cost curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaluation of classifier performance in a cost-sensitive setting is straightforward if the operating conditions (misclassification costs and class distributions) are fixed and known. When this is not the case, evaluation requires a method of visualizing ...

Robert C. Holte; Chris Drummond

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Production of low-cost hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the proposed effort is to verify at the laboratory scale, the ability of the MTCI indirectly heated fluid-bed gasifier to economically produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from liquefaction by-product streams and from char produced in mild gasification processes. Specifically, the proposed effort is aimed at developing an experimental technology data base by defining the process characteristics that would be required for process integration into an overall liquefaction system. This would result in substantial decreases in the cost of hydrogen for the production of competitively priced coal-derived liquid fuels. During this quarter, shakedown tests of the reactor were completed. Subbituminous coals from Black Thunder mine and Eagle Butte mine were obtained for use in mild gasification to produce char. During the initial shakedown tests, it was determined that a new pulse combustor was needed. A pulse combustor with a large aerovalve was fabricated and tested. Three shakedown tests with limestone as the fluid-bed medium were carried out at temperature from 1450{degree}F to 1550{degree}F.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Cost Sensitive Conditional Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While POMDPs provide a general platform for conditional planning under a wide range of quality metrics they have limited scalability. On the other hand, uniform probability conditional planners scale very well, but many lack the ability to optimize plan quality metrics. We present an innovation to planning graph based heuristics that helps uniform probability conditional planners both scale and generate high quality plans when using actions with non uniform costs. We make empirical comparisons with two state of the art planners to show the benefit of our techniques.

Daniel Bryce; Subbarao Kambhampati

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Cost effective multimedia courseware development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multimedia technology offers considerable potential for education though the costs of production of courseware are prohibitive especially in a rapidly changing discipline such as computer science. This paper proposes a cost-effective technique which ...

C. J. Pilgrim; Y. K. Leung; D. D. Grant

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Cost and Impacts of Policies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Policies RESULTS 2010-2025 and long-run impacts 2010-2025 GovernmentIndustry Costs Hydrogen production, infrastructure & cost HyTrans merges the early transition...

338

User cost in oil production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Overview and Low Cost Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... The major reason that there is not more widespread use of titanium and its alloys is the high cost. Developments in reducing the cost of titanium...

340

Cost-sensitive classifier evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaluating classifier performance in a cost-sensitive setting is straightforward if the operating conditions (misclassification costs and class distributions) are fixed and known. When this is not the case, evaluation requires a method of visualizing ...

Robert C. Holte; Chris Drummond

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

3800 Green Series Cost Elements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Stoller - Legacy ManagementSustainable Acquisition (formerly EPP) Program 3800 Series Cost Elements01/30/2012 (Rev. 4)

343

Empirical Methods of Cost Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

344

Bifacial Efficiency at Monofacial Cost  

solar cells; photovoltaics; PV; bifacial efficiency; Monofacial Cost, Bifacial Cells; bifacial Modules; industry growth forum; gamma solar Created ...

345

COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROJECTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROJECTS 1 California Institute of Technology Issuing Authority: Office is that portion of the total cost of an externally funded project that is not funded by the sponsor. Depending as a demonstration of its commitment to the project. When voluntary cost sharing is included in the proposal budget

Tai, Yu-Chong

346

Principles Governing Departmental Directives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ELEMENTS FROM: SAMUEL W. BODMA 4 SUBJECT: Principles Governing Departmental Directives The Department of Energy uses directives as its primary means to establish,...

347

directed acyclic word graph  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and R. Verin, Direct Construction of Compact Directed Acyclic Word Graphs, 8th Annual Symposium, CPM 97, Aarhus, Denmark, 116-129, 1997. ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

348

An analysis of the impacts of economic incentive programs on commercial nuclear power plant operations and maintenance costs  

SciTech Connect

Operations and Maintenance (O and M) expenditures by nuclear power plant owner/operators possess a very logical and vital link in considerations relating to plant safety and reliability. Since the determinants of O and M outlays are considerable and varied, the potential linkages to plant safety, both directly and indirectly, can likewise be substantial. One significant issue before the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the impact, if any, on O and M spending from state programs that attempt to improve plant operating performance, and how and to what extent these programs may affect plant safety and pose public health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and degree of impacts from state promulgated economic incentive programs (EIPs) on plant O and M spending. A multivariate regression framework is specified, and the model is estimated on industry data over a five-year period, 1986--1990. Explanatory variables for the O and M spending model include plant characteristics, regulatory effects, financial strength factors, replacement power costs, and the performance incentive programs. EIPs are found to have statistically significant effects on plant O and M outlays, albeit small in relation to other factors. Moreover, the results indicate that the relatively financially weaker firms are more sensitive in their O and M spending to the presence of such programs. Formulations for linking spending behavior and EIPs with plant safety performance remains for future analysis.

Kavanaugh, D.C.; Monroe, W.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wood, R.S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Principles Governing Departmental Directives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

efficient, and cost-effective manner. They promote operational consistency throughout the DOE complex, foster sound management, and facilitate achievement of DOE'S strategic goals....

350

Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the years the industry has shown a good deal of ingenuity and, as a result, has developed several cost effective methods of processing and handling wood. SMB systems usually cannot afford to perform much onsite processing and therefore usually purchase fuels processed to specification. Owners of larger systems try to minimize onsite processing to minimize processing costs. Whole truck dumpers are expensive, but allow for faster and easier unloading, which reduces labor costs and charges by the haulers. Storage costs are a major factor in overall costs, thus the amount of fuel reserve is an important consideration. Silos and bins are relatively expensive compared to open piles used for larger facilities, but may be required depending on space available, wood characteristics, and amount of wood to be stored. For larger systems, a front-end loader has a lot of flexibility in use and is an essential piece of equipment for moving material. Few opportunities appear to exist for improving the cost effectiveness of these systems.

Badger, P.C.

2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

351

Sample Invoice Cost & No Fee UT-B Contracts Div August 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SHIPPED VIA CUSTOMER NUMBER TERMS NET DAYS COST ELEMENT DESCRIPTION CURRENT COSTS CUMULATIVE COSTS DIRECT for the Department of Energy COMMENTS OR SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS: SUBCONTRACT NUMBER BILLING PERIOD Begin/End Date: Company Name Address 1 Address 2 City, ST ZIP Code Street Address City, ST ZIP Code Name, Phone, E

352

Sample Invoice Cost & Fee UT-B Contracts Div August 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SHIPPED VIA CUSTOMER NUMBER TERMS NET DAYS COST ELEMENT DESCRIPTION CURRENT COSTS CUMULATIVE COSTS DIRECT for the Department of Energy COMMENTS OR SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS: SUBCONTRACT NUMBER BILLING PERIOD Begin/End Date: Company Name Address 1 Address 2 City, ST ZIP Code Street Address City, ST ZIP Code Name, Phone, E

353

Heliostat production evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of ths study is to provide a factory cost for the production of heliostats in terms of 1979 dollars. Factory cost is defined as the sum of all direct labor, direct material and burden expenses that are incurred in the manufacture of a heliostat, and its packaging for shipment. Transportation, installation, taxes other than plant real taxes, profit, selling expenses, and all other profit and loss items are not included. Two production volumes are considered, 25,000 heliostat units per year and 250,000 heliostat units per year. The study concluded that the factory cost to manufacture heliostats is $95.99/m/sup 2/ at 25,000 units per year and $67.95/m/sup 2/ at 250,000 units per year. The Policy Analysis Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute estimates that this implies an installed price of $122.12/m/sup 2/ at the 25,000 unit per year volume.

None

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Heliostat production evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to provide a factory cost for the production of heliostats in terms of 1979 dollars. Factory cost is defined as the sum of all direct labor, direct material and burden expenses that are incurred in the manufacture of a heliostat, and its packaging for shipment. Transportation, installation, taxes other than plant real taxes, profit, selling expenses, and all other profit and loss items are not included. Two production volumes are considered, 25,000 heliostat units per year and 250,000 heliostat units per year. The study concluded that the factory cost to manufacture heliostats is $95.99/m/sup 2/ at 25,000 units per year and $67.95/m/sup 2/ at 250,000 units per year. The Policy Analysis Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute estimates that this implies an installed price of $122.12/m/sup 2/ at the 25,000 unit-per-year volume.

Britt, J. F.; Shulte, C. W.; Davey, H. L.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Realistic costs of carbon capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Telephone costs at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a fusion energy research laboratory located on the Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro, New Jersey. Princeton University operates the laboratory under contact with the US Department of Energy (DOE). PPPL researches nuclear fusion and plasma physics and investigates the potential of a commercial fusion reactor. The objective of the audit was to determine whether PPPL was monitoring telephone use and costs in order to prevent personal toll costs from being charged to the DOE contract. Our audit disclosed that 5 out of the 10 PPPL cost centers we reviewed were not following established policies and procedures for monitoring telephone toll charges. This condition resulted because PPPL's management did not adequately review telephone use and costs. As a result, PPPL charged personal toll calls to DOE. Therefore, we recommend that the Manager, DOE Field Office, Chicago, (CH) direct PPPL to enforce its telephone policies and procedures to ensure that personal toll calls are not charged to DOE. The Acting Manager, CH, concurred with our recommendations and agreed to implement corrective actions.

1991-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Direct process for explosives  

SciTech Connect

A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate.

Akst, Irving B. (1032 Duncan St., Pampa, TX 79065); Stinecipher, Mary M. (324 Connie St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Back-end costs of alternative nuclear fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its charter, the Alternate Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) was directed to evaluate the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). The principal conclusion from this study is that the costs for recycling a broad range of reactor fuels will not have a large impact on total fuel cycle costs. For the once-through fuel cycle, the costs of fresh fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel storage, and associated transportation is about 1.2 to 1.3 mills/kWh. For the recycle of uranium and plutonium into thermal reactors, the back-cycle costs (i.e., the costs of irradiated fuel storage, transportation, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste disposal) will be from 3 to 3.5 mills/kWh. The costs for the recycle of uranium and plutonium into fast breeder reactors will be from 4.5 to 5 mills/kWh. Using a radioactive spikant or a denatured /sup 233/U-Th cycle will increase power costs for both recycle cases by about 1 mill/kWh. None of these costs substantially influence the total cost of nuclear power, which is in the range of 4 cents/kWh. The fuel cycle costs used in this study do not include costs incurred prior to fuel fabrication; that is, the cost of the uranium or thorium, the costs for enrichment, or credit for fissile materials in the discharged fuel, which is not recycled with the system.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Making Carbon Capture and Storage Efficient and Cost Competitive |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture and Storage Efficient and Cost Competitive Carbon Capture and Storage Efficient and Cost Competitive Making Carbon Capture and Storage Efficient and Cost Competitive July 26, 2012 - 6:32pm Addthis Ohio State University (OSU) Professor Liang-Shih Fan shows Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Charles McConnell OSU's coal direct chemical looping reactor. | Photo by Niranjani Deshpande Ohio State University (OSU) Professor Liang-Shih Fan shows Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Charles McConnell OSU's coal direct chemical looping reactor. | Photo by Niranjani Deshpande Amanda Scott Amanda Scott Former Managing Editor, Energy.gov What are the key facts? These projects will build on the important progress made by this Administration in promoting innovative technologies that help make coal-fired energy cleaner and more cost-competitive.

360

Surface-Based Remote Sensing of the Aerosol Indirect Effect at Southern Great Plains  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface-Based Remote Sensing of the Surface-Based Remote Sensing of the Aerosol Indirect Effect at Southern Great Plains G. Feingold and W. L. Eberhard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado D. E. Vernon and M. Previdi Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey Abstract We have demonstrated first measurements of the aerosol indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The response of non-precipitating, ice-free clouds to changes in aerosol loading is quantified in terms of a relative change in cloud-drop effective radius (r e ) for a relative change in aerosol extinction under conditions of equivalent cloud liquid water path (LWP). This is done in a single column of air at a temporal resolution of 20 s (spatial resolution of ~100 m).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Questions and Answers - What is one example of indirect evidence that  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How do I make amodel of an atom? How do I make a<br>model of an atom? Previous Question (How do I make a model of an atom?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (What is an element? How many elements are there?) What is an element? Howmany elements are there? What is one example of indirect evidence that scientists use to study an atom? Pretty much everything we know about atoms is indirect evidence. One can't really see atoms. We do see enough of their effects that we can, with confidence, describe the nature of atoms. Here at Jefferson Lab we have quite a few instruments to measure the properties and behavior of atoms. We use a few simple tricks to measure atoms. The most common method is to shoot the atoms through an easy-to-ionize gas or liquid. Argon is the most

362

Configuration and performance of the indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas, indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) is introduced as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20--200 megawatt (MW) size range. The novel indirect-fired carbonate fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFCFC) power plant system configures the ambient pressure carbonate fuel cell with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations from ASPEN simulations present material and energy balances with expected power output. The results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed carbonate fuel cell steam bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

GUIDE TO NUCLEAR POWER COST EVALUATION. VOLUME 4. FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

Information on fuel cycle cost is presented. Topics covered include: nuclear fuel, fuel management, fuel cost, fissionable material cost, use charge, conversion and fabrication costs, processing cost, and shipping cost. (M.C.G.)

1962-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Foreign Direct Investment  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investment Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 June 2001 ii iii Contents Foreign Affiliates' Role in U.S. Energy Industry Operations ..............................................................................1 Foreign Direct Investment: The International Transactions Accounts ..............................................................8 U.S. Companies' Direct Investment Abroad in Energy ......................................................................................14 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................................19

366

An indirect sensing technique for diesel fuel quantity control. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This reports on a project to develop an indirect sensing technique for diesel fuel quantity control. Development has continued on a vehicle-installed prototype for EPA certification and demonstration. Focus of development is on the use of this technology for retrofitting existing diesel vehicles to reduce emissions rather than exclusively upon deployment in the OEM market. Technical obstacles that have been encountered and their solutions and remaining project tasks are described.

MacCarley, C.A.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Indirect vector control of a squirrel cage induction generator wind turbine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with a squirrel cage induction generator connected to the grid through a back-to-back converter driven by vector control. The stator-side converter controls the generator torque by means of an indirect vector control scheme. In order ... Keywords: Back-to-back converter, Low voltage ride through, Squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG), Torque regulation, Vector control, Wind power generation

Jos Luis DomNguez-GarcA; Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt; LluS Trilla-Romero; Adri Junyent-Ferr

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Direct-contact condensers for solar pond power production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a direct-contact condenser as a way of reducing the cost of electricity from an organic Rankine cycle power plant coupled to a solar pond is examined. Three possible direct-contact heat exchangers are considered: drop-type, bubble-type, and packed-bed. Each condenser is designed to operate with a deaerator and a degasser to reduce contamination and loss of working fluid. Appropriate correlations and models from the literature for heat and mass transfer, particle terminal velocity, and particle production are presented. Each piece of equipment is sized and costed. Finally, the cost of the entire power plant is compared with that of a plant using a conventional shell-and-tube condenser. For two of the three direct-contact designs, a reduction in the cost of electricity is estimated. However, the reduction is not significant enough to compensate for the uncertainties involved in the relatively new technology of direct-contact heat transfer.

Fisher, E.M.; Wright, J.D.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Circofer -- Low cost approach to DRI production  

SciTech Connect

Lurgi's Circofer Process for reducing fine ores with coal in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) is a direct approach by using a widely applied and proven reactor in commercializing a state of the art technology. The technology is in response to the demand for a direct reduction process of the future by making possible: the use of low cost ore fines and inexpensive primary energy, fine coal; production of a high grade product used as feedstock by mini mills with the additional advantage of dilution of contaminants introduced by scrap; low environmental impact; and low specific investment costs due to the closed energy circuit. With the incorporation of the latest developments in CFB technology, Circofer offers excellent heat and mass transfer conditions and, consequently, improved gas and energy utilization. High gas conversions using recycle gas have a positive influence on the process economics whereby no export gas is produced. Sticking, accretion and reoxidation problems, which have plagued all previous attempts at developing direct reduction processes using fine ore and coal as a reductant, are avoided, essentially by operating with defined amounts of excess carbon and separation of the reduction and gasifying zones.

Weber, P.; Bresser, W.; Hirsch, M. (Lurgi Metallurgie GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric Utility companies charge industrial clients for two things: demand and usage. Depending on type of business and hours operation, demand cost could be very high. Most of the operations scheduling in a plant is achieved considering labor cost. For small plants, it is quite possible that a decrease in labor could result in an increase in electric demand and cost or vice versa. In this paper two cases are presented which highlight the dependence of one on other.

Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The Impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing  

SciTech Connect

Some of the global warming effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases is offset by increased solar reflection from clouds with smaller droplets that form on increased numbers of cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air. The global magnitude of the resulting indirect aerosol climate forcing is estimated to be comparable (and opposed) to the anthropogenic carbon dioxide forcing, but estimates are highly uncertain because of complexities in characterizing the physical process that determine global aerosol and cloud populations and their interactions. Beyond reflecting sunlight more effectively, smaller droplets are less efficient at producing precipitation, and decreased precipitation is expected to result in increased cloud water and cloud cover, further increasing the indirect forcing. Yet polluted marine boundary-layer clouds are not generally observed to hold more water. Here we use model simulations of stratocumulus clouds to show that suppression of precipitation from increased droplet concentrations leads to increased cloud water only when sufficient precipitation reaches the surface, a condition favored when the overlying air is moist. Otherwise, aerosol induced suppression of precipitation enhances entrainment of overlying dry air, thereby reducing cloud water and diminishing the indirect climate forcing.

Ackerman, A S; Kirkpatrick, M P; Stevens, D E; Toon, O B

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest uncertainty in climate forcing and projection. Previous IPCC reported aerosol indirect forcing is negative, which does not account for aerosol-convective cloud interactions because the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead to enhanced regional convergence and a strong top-of atmosphere (TOA) warming. Aerosol invigoration effect on convection can result in a strong radiative warming in the atmosphere (+5.6 W m-2) due to strong night-time warming, a lofted latent heating, and a reduced diurnal temperature difference, all of which could remarkably impact regional circulation and modify weather systems. We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear and cloud base temperature play key roles in determining the significance of aerosol invigoration effect for convective systems.

Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

373

Lessons Learned Quarterly Report, March 1995 | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1995, and includes information on direct and indirect NEPA process costs and on total project costs. Additionally, the report includes a feature story on lessons learned during...

374

BatPro Commercial Software License Agreement  

BATTERY PRODUCTION AND COST MODEL (BATPRO), ... such damages, costs and expenses arise or are alleged to arise, directly or indirectly, from the ...

375

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Today in Energy - High airline jet fuel costs prompt cost ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... and idling time. ... Delta stated that it anticipates cost savings of $300 million per year as a result of this ...

379

A cost analysis model for heavy equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total cost is one of the most important factors for a heavy equipment product purchase decision. However, the different cost views and perspectives of performance expectations between the different involved stakeholders may cause customer relation problems ... Keywords: Cost responsibilities, Operating costs, Ownership costs, Post-Manufacturing Product Cost (PMPC), System life-cycle cost

Shibiao Chen; L. Ken Keys

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Project Summary Full Title: Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Project ID: 196 Principal Investigator: Eric Carlson Keywords: Fuel cells, fuel cell vehicles (FCV), transportation, costs Purpose Assess the cost of an 80 kW direct hydrogen fuel cell system relative to the DOE 2005 target of $125/kW. The system includes the fuel cell stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) components for water, thermal, and fuel management, but not hydrogen storage. Performer Principal Investigator: Eric Carlson Organization: TIAX, LLC Address: 15 Acorn Park Cambridge, MA 02140-2328 Telephone: 617-498-5903 Email: carlson.e@tiaxllc.com Additional Performers: P. Kopf, TIAX, LLC; J. Sinha, TIAX, LLC; S. Sriramulu, TIAX, LLC

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tool to compare existing cost estimates from the literature,It compiles and organizes cost estimates obtained from aE. Hydrogen supply: cost estimate for hydrogen pathways

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 6 November 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objective * Assess cost of H 2 from bio-derived liquids * Looking at forecourt scale systems: 100-1500kg/day * Emphasis on Ethanol * Looking at both "conventional" and "advanced" systems * Interaction with the Researchers is bi-directional * Researchers help me with catalysts, performance, configurations * I can assist Researchers with system studies, configurations, and system performance estimates * Output of my work will be: * System/Configuration Definition * Performance specification & optimization * Capital cost estimation

385

Preemptive scheduling with position costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

horizon is divided into time periods. In these models, the whole production is not processed in a single period, and production and holding costs are introduced...

386

FIRM PRODUCTIVITY AND SUNK COSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to explore whether or not sunk costs are systematically related to productivity dierences at the rm level, as suggested by models of industry dynamics (Hopenhayn, 1992).The comparisons of productivity distributions for groups of rms with dierent levels of sunk costs are performed by non-parametric procedures and for a large scale rm-level panel data set of Spanish manufacturing rms. We nd that sunk costs are an important source of heterogeneity across rm productivity. The evidence we nd is consistent with models of industry dynamics predicting lower productivity for rms with a higher level of sunk costs.

Jose C. Farias; Sonia Ruano

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use. by Anthony Radich. Introduction. The idea of using vegetable oil for fuel has been around as long as the diesel engine.

388

HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Download Data | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a...

390

WSRC Nuclear Materials Cost Module  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Office (GAO) WSRC NM Cost Module Generates WSRC monthly and fiscal year to date Inventory and Manufacturing Statement for government owned accountable nuclear materials....

391

Control strategy for hydrocarbon emissions in turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines during cold-start  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasoline consumption and pollutant emissions from transportation are costly and have serious, demonstrated environmental and health impacts. Downsized, turbocharged direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines ...

Cedrone, Kevin David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Geothermal direct contact heat exchange. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A glass direct contact heat exchange column was operated in the laboratory. The column was operated at atmospheric pressure using hot water and normal hexane. Column internals testing included an empty column, sieve trays, disk-and-doughnut trays, and two types of packing. Operation was very smooth in all cases and the minimum temperature approaches varied from less than 1/sup 0/C for packing to 13/sup 0/C for the empty column. High heat transfer rates were obtained in all cases, however, columns should be sized on the basis of liquid and vapor traffic. The solubilities of hydrocarbons were determined for normal hexane, pentane and butane in water and sodium chloride and calcium chloride brines at various temperatures. The values seem to be internally consistent and salt content was found to depress hydrocarbon solubility. Laboratory stripping tests showed that gas stripping can be used to remove hydrocarbon from reject hot water from the direct contact heat exchange column. Although the gas volumes required are small, stripping gas requirements cannot be accurately predicted without testing. A computer program was used to study the effect of operating variables on the thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Optimum efficiencies for the moderate brine conditions studied were obtained with isopentane as working fluid and relatively low operating pressure. A preliminary design for a 50 MWe plant was prepared and plant capital cost and operating cost were estimated. These costs were combined with previously developed brine production and power transmission costs to provide an estimate of the cost of delivered power for a geothermal field at Heber, California. A pilot plant program is described that would be suitable for continuing the investigation of the direct contact process in the field. The program includes a suggested schedule and the estimated cost.

Sims, A.V.

1977-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

393

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National been identified by carbon fiber manufacturers as a market with substantial growth potential. When manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able

394

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons in ? sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions. The fraction of photons due to direct

Saskia Mioduszewski; Phenix Collaboration

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Direct Loan Program (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Connecticut Development Authoritys Direct Loan Program provides direct senior and subordinated loans and mezzanine investments to companies creating or maintaining jobs. Up to $20,000 per job...

396

Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny with respect to cost-effective improvements. In this paper, the authors suggest fruitful areas of research that can lead to lower cost distillation separations. The areas of research are classified under the headings of phase equilibrium, material and energy balances, mass transfer efficiencies, equipment design, and system energy consumption. For each of the categories, a summary is given of the present status of the technology as well as directions that improvement-type investigations might take.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Direct process for explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

399

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type of hydrocarbon), via reaction with ozone, a key pollutant in the troposphere. Although there has been much indirect evidence supporting Criegee's mechanism, breakthrough research done at the ALS by chemists from Sandia National Laboratories, the University of Manchester, and Bristol University has for the first time directly measured reaction rates for so-called "Criegee intermediates," elusive molecules formed at intermediate stages of ozonolysis. The surprising results may have important implications for subjects ranging from advanced engine design to air quality and climate modeling.

400

Cost prediction for ray shooting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ray shooting problem arises in many different contexts. For example, solving it efficiently would remove a bottleneck when images are ray-traced in computer graphics. Unfortunately, theoretical solutions to the problem are not very practical, ... Keywords: average performance, cost model, cost prediction, octree, ray shooting, space decomposition

Boris Aronov; Herv Brnnimann; Allen Y. Chang; Yi-Jen Chiang

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electric power substation capital costs  

SciTech Connect

The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

A semiempirical linear model of indirect, flat-panel x-ray detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It is important to understand signal and noise transfer in the indirect, flat-panel x-ray detector when developing and optimizing imaging systems. For optimization where simulating images is necessary, this study introduces a semiempirical model to simulate projection images with user-defined x-ray fluence interaction. Methods: The signal and noise transfer in the indirect, flat-panel x-ray detectors is characterized by statistics consistent with energy-integration of x-ray photons. For an incident x-ray spectrum, x-ray photons are attenuated and absorbed in the x-ray scintillator to produce light photons, which are coupled to photodiodes for signal readout. The signal mean and variance are linearly related to the energy-integrated x-ray spectrum by empirically determined factors. With the known first- and second-order statistics, images can be simulated by incorporating multipixel signal statistics and the modulation transfer function of the imaging system. To estimate the semiempirical input to this model, 500 projection images (using an indirect, flat-panel x-ray detector in the breast CT system) were acquired with 50-100 kilovolt (kV) x-ray spectra filtered with 0.1-mm tin (Sn), 0.2-mm copper (Cu), 1.5-mm aluminum (Al), or 0.05-mm silver (Ag). The signal mean and variance of each detector element and the noise power spectra (NPS) were calculated and incorporated into this model for accuracy. Additionally, the modulation transfer function of the detector system was physically measured and incorporated in the image simulation steps. For validation purposes, simulated and measured projection images of air scans were compared using 40 kV/0.1-mm Sn, 65 kV/0.2-mm Cu, 85 kV/1.5-mm Al, and 95 kV/0.05-mm Ag. Results: The linear relationship between the measured signal statistics and the energy-integrated x-ray spectrum was confirmed and incorporated into the model. The signal mean and variance factors were linearly related to kV for each filter material (r{sup 2} of signal mean to kV: 0.91, 0.93, 0.86, and 0.99 for 0.1-mm Sn, 0.2-mm Cu, 1.5-mm Al, and 0.05-mm Ag, respectively; r{sup 2} of signal variance to kV: 0.99 for all four filters). The comparison of the signal and noise (mean, variance, and NPS) between the simulated and measured air scan images suggested that this model was reasonable in predicting accurate signal statistics of air scan images using absolute percent error. Overall, the model was found to be accurate in estimating signal statistics and spatial correlation between the detector elements of the images acquired with indirect, flat-panel x-ray detectors. Conclusions: The semiempirical linear model of the indirect, flat-panel x-ray detectors was described and validated with images of air scans. The model was found to be a useful tool in understanding the signal and noise transfer within indirect, flat-panel x-ray detector systems.

Huang, Shih-Ying; Yang Kai; Abbey, Craig K.; Boone, John M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States) and Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Ambulatory Care Center Suite 0505, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Ambulatory Care Center Suite 0505, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 92106 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States) and Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Ambulatory Care Center Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp  

SciTech Connect

High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Indirect measurements of reactions in hot p-p chain and CNO cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several reactions have been experimentally studied, including the {sup 12}N(d,n){sup 13}O and the ones induced by the {sup 3}He+{sup 12}C entrance channel. The former was carried out at the CRIB facility of University of Tokyo, aiming to indirectly determine the astrophysical reaction rates of the {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O reaction. For the {sup 3}He+{sup 12}C entrance channel, many excited states of several nuclei are populated and the angular distribution of each state is being analyzed.

Wang, Y. B.; Guo, B.; Jin, S. J.; Li, Z. H.; Binh, D. N.; Hashimoto, H.; Hayakawa, S.; He, J. J.; Hu, J.; Iwasa, N.; Kahl, D. M.; Kubono, S.; Kume, N.; Li, E. T.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, X.; Su, J.; Xu, S. W.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yan, S. Q. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, PO Box 275 (10), Beijing 102413 (China); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan); Institute of Modern Physics, China Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Department of Physics, Tohoku university, Sendai (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku university, Sendai (Japan); China Institute of Atomic Energy, PO Box 275 (10), Beijing 102413 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, China Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan); China Institute of Atomic Energy, PO Box 275 (10), Beijing 102413 (China); and others

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

406

Indirect control of quantum system via accessor: pure coherent control without system excitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A pure indirect control of quantum systems via quantum accessor is investigated. In this control scheme, we do not apply any external classical excitation fields on the controlled system and we control a quantum system via a quantum accessor and classical control fields control the accessor only. Complete controllability is investigated for arbitrary finite dimensional quantum systems and exemplified by 2 and 3 dimensional systems. The scheme exhibits some advantages; it uses less qubits in accessor and does not depend on the energy-level structure of the controlled system.

H. C. Fu; Hui Dong; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun

2008-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

407

Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C. (eds.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden  

SciTech Connect

Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Web data indexing in the cloud: efficiency and cost reductions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An increasing part of the world's data is either shared through the Web or directly produced through and for Web platforms, in particular using structured formats like XML or JSON. Cloud platforms are interesting candidates to handle large data repositories, ... Keywords: cloud computing, monetary cost, query processing, web data management

Jess Camacho-Rodrguez; Dario Colazzo; Ioana Manolescu

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

AEP Ohio - Commercial Self Direct Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Commercial Self Direct Rebate Program - Commercial Self Direct Rebate Program AEP Ohio - Commercial Self Direct Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate 75% of 50% of the total cost (additional measure caps may apply) A Tiered system, based on the total project costs, determines what percentage of the eligible calculated credit is available to the applicant Program Info Start Date 1/1/2008 Expiration Date 12/15/2013 State Ohio

412

Energy Department Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency Energy Department Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency November 28, 2011 - 2:00pm Addthis Thanks to Camille Beben of the Office of Management, approvals for Department directives that used to take 14 months now take less than 6 months. | DOE photo, credit Hantz Leger. Thanks to Camille Beben of the Office of Management, approvals for Department directives that used to take 14 months now take less than 6 months. | DOE photo, credit Hantz Leger. Melvin G. Williams, Jr. Melvin G. Williams, Jr. Former Associate Deputy Secretary "We are working every day to help develop a clean energy economy, create good jobs, and make sure America is competitive on the global stage." Mel Williams, Associate Deputy Secretary of Energy

413

Energy Department Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency Department Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency Energy Department Employees Strive to Cut Costs, Improve Efficiency November 28, 2011 - 2:00pm Addthis Thanks to Camille Beben of the Office of Management, approvals for Department directives that used to take 14 months now take less than 6 months. | DOE photo, credit Hantz Leger. Thanks to Camille Beben of the Office of Management, approvals for Department directives that used to take 14 months now take less than 6 months. | DOE photo, credit Hantz Leger. Melvin G. Williams, Jr. Melvin G. Williams, Jr. Former Associate Deputy Secretary "We are working every day to help develop a clean energy economy, create good jobs, and make sure America is competitive on the global stage." Mel Williams, Associate Deputy Secretary of Energy

414

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions. The fraction of photons due to direct production in Au+Au collisions is shown as a function of $p_T$ and centrality. This measurement is compared with expectation from pQCD calculations. Other possible sources of direct photons are discussed.

S. Mioduszewski; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

415

Model simulations of the first aerosol indirect effect and comparison of cloud susceptibility fo satellite measurements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Present-day global anthropogenic emissions contribute more than half of the mass in submicron particles primarily due to sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol components derived from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. These anthropogenic aerosols modify the microphysics of clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the reflectivity of low-level water clouds, leading to a cooling effect on climate (the Twomey effect or first indirect effect). The magnitude of the first aerosol indirect effect is associated with cloud frequency as well as a quantity representing the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in cloud drop number concentration. This quantity is referred to as cloud susceptibility [Twomey, 1991]. Analysis of satellite measurements demonstrates that marine stratus clouds are likely to be of higher susceptibility than continental clouds because of their lower number concentrations of cloud drops [Platnick and Twomey, 1994]. Here, we use an improved version of the fully coupled climate/chemistry model [Chuang et al., 1997] to calculate the global concentrations Of sulfate, dust, sea salt, and carbonaceous aerosols (biomass smoke and fossil fuel organic matter and black carbon). We investigated the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud susceptibility and calculated the associated changes of shortwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We also examined the correspondence between the model simulation of cloud susceptibility and that inferred from satellite measurements to test whether our simulated aerosol concentrations and aerosol/cloud interactions give a faithful representation of these features.

Chuang, C; Penner, J E; Kawamoto, K

2002-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

416

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief overview of direct-photon measurements in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. Direct-photon yields for pT > 4 GeV/c and photon-hadron azimuthal correlations were determined with the aid of an electromagnetic calorimeter. By detecting e+e- pairs from the internal conversion of virtual photons direct-photon yields were measured between 1 direct-photon yield in this range.

Klaus Reygers; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

417

Direct energy conversion systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential importance of direct energy conversion to the long-term development of fusion power is discussed with stress on the possibility of alleviating waste heat problems. This is envisioned to be crucial for any central power station in the 21st century. Two approaches to direct conversion, i.e., direct collection and magnetic expansion, are reviewed. While other techniques may be possible, none have received sufficient study to allow evaluation. It is stressed that, due to the intimate connection between the type of fusion fuel, the confinement scheme, direct conversion, and the coupling technique, all four element must be optimized simultaneously for high overall efficiency.

Miley, G.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Foreign Direct Investment Acquisitions and Divestitures for the Year 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investment Acquisitions and Divestitures for the Year 2002 Investment Acquisitions and Divestitures for the Year 2002 Home > Energy Finance > Foreign Investment in U.S. Energy > Foreign Direct Investment Acquisitions and Divestitures, 2002 Acquisitions of U.S. Energy Assets by Foreign Investors in 2002 Remain High Foreign direct acquisitions are purchases, directly or indirectly, by the original foreign investor resulting in the ownership of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated U.S. business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated U.S. business. The purchases may include foreign assets owned by the U.S. business that is being acquired. Purchases of a U.S. business or asset by one foreign owner from another foreign owner are not included in the foreign

419

Can the Existence of Dark Energy be Directly Detected?  

SciTech Connect

The majority of astronomers and physicists accept the reality of dark energy and also believe that it can only be studied indirectly through observation of the motions of stars and galaxies. In this paper I open the experimental question of whether it is possible to directly detect dark energy through the presence of dark energy density. Two thirds of this paper outlines the major aspects of dark energy density as now comprehended by the astronomical and physics community. The final third summarizes various proposals for direct detection of dark energy density or its possible effects. At this time I do not have a fruitful answer to the question: Can the Existence of Dark Energy Be Directly Detected?

Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

420

Direct Detection of Classically Undetectable Dark Matter through Quantum Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although various pieces of indirect evidence about the nature of dark matter have been collected, its direct detection has eluded experimental searches despite extensive effort. If the mass of dark matter is below 1 MeV, it is essentially imperceptible to conventional detection methods because negligible energy is transferred to nuclei during collisions. Here I propose directly detecting dark matter through the quantum decoherence it causes rather than its classical effects such as recoil or ionization. I show that quantum spatial superpositions are sensitive to low-mass dark matter which is inaccessible to classical techniques. This provides new independent motivation for matter interferometry with large masses, especially on spaceborne platforms. The apparent dark matter wind we experience as the Sun travels through the Milky Way ensures interferometers and related devices are directional detectors, and so are able to provide unmistakable evidence that decoherence has galactic origins.

C. Jess Riedel

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cost | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 18 April, 2013 - 13:41 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To normalize competing claims of LCOE, DOE has developed-for its own use-a standardized cost and performance data reporting process to facilitate uniform calculation of LCOE from MHK device developers. This standardization framework is only the first version in what is anticipated to be an iterative process that involves industry and the broader DOE stakeholder community. Multiple files are attached here for review and comment.Upload Files: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document icon device_performance_validation_data_request.docx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon

422

Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ELECTRIC 0.92 ELECTRIC 0.92 ELECTRIC HPWH(2) HPWH(3) HPWH Standard 0.62 EF WH unless high natural gas costs (>1.50therm), in which case recommendations consistent with new...

423

Preemptive scheduling with position costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

imization of the sum of the position costs of all the jobs, which will be denoted by. ??fi in the ?-field of the ..... http://www-poleia.lip6.fr/~sourd/project/position. 5...

424

Engineering Cost Analysis - Chapter 17  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of these is that costs over the life of the project must be estimated based on some forecast, and forecasts have proven to be highly variable and frequently inaccurate. The...

425

Production Cost Optimization Project 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Production Cost Optimization project assists participating members in implementing or enhancing heat rate optimization programs to reduce production costs through sustainable performance improvements. This Technical Update summarizes the status of the project and presents results for five (5) sites that have completed initial and follow-up assessments. A PCO assessment consists of benchmarking plant thermal performance using historical plant data along with an on-site performance appraisal to id...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

426

Electricity transmission congestion costs: A review of recent reports  

SciTech Connect

Recently, independent system operators (ISOs) and others have published reports on the costs of transmission congestion. The magnitude of congestion costs cited in these reports has contributed to the national discussion on the current state of U.S. electricity transmission system and whether it provides an adequate platform for competition in wholesale electricity markets. This report reviews reports of congestion costs and begins to assess their implications for the current national discussion on the importance of the U.S. electricity transmission system for enabling competitive wholesale electricity markets. As a guiding principle, we posit that a more robust electricity system could reduce congestion costs; and thereby, (1) facilitate more vibrant and fair competition in wholesale electricity markets, and (2) enable consumers to seek out the lowest prices for electricity. Yet, examining the details suggests that, sometimes, there will be trade-offs between these goals. Therefore, it is essential to understand who pays, how much, and how do they benefit in evaluating options (both transmission and non-transmission alternatives) to address transmission congestion. To describe the differences among published estimates of congestion costs, we develop and motivate three ways by which transmission congestion costs are calculated in restructured markets. The assessment demonstrates that published transmission congestion costs are not directly comparable because they have been developed to serve different purposes. More importantly, critical information needed to make them more comparable, for example in order to evaluate the impacts of options to relieve congestion, is sometimes not available.

Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Eto, Joseph H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

direct_deposit_111609  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called The Laboratory, to initiate credit entries and, if necessary, debit entries and adjustments for any credit entries in error to my account listed on this form. If deposit is for:

428

Directions and Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Directions & Maps Directions & Maps Plan Your Visit Visit About the Museum Museum Hours Directions & Maps When to Visit Arrange for a Visit Around Los Alamos Contact Us invisible utility element Directions and Maps Aerial View of Los Alamos Aerial approach to the Los Alamos airport Where we're located Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the Pajarito Plateau in the Jemez Mountains, 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe. The Bradbury Science Museum is located in downtown Los Alamos at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street. If you're driving here and using GPS navigation, our address is 1350 Central Avenue, Los Alamos, NM 87544. How to get here From Albuquerque take I-25 north to Santa Fe (take NM 599 for most direct route), then US 84/285 north to Pojoaque. At Pojoaque take the NM 502 exit

429

Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulationif its not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GEs low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

None

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

Cost Comparison of Public Elementary School Construction Costs Based on Project Delivery System in the State of Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If a correlation exists between cost and project delivery system then this is crucial knowledge for any group organizing a new construction project. It has been observed anecdotally that the construction cost per student of public elementary schools has been observed to continue to increase in the state of Texas, even with the recent downturn in the economy. The recent economic depression in the USA has seen construction material costs stagnate and construction costs dropping. This is a direct result of the competitive nature of a market that has a lack of business. The issue of a rising cost at the time of a falling market is of more than a passing research interest to school superintendents and the people of Texas. This study investigated the relationship between cost and project delivery systems. A survey was sent to all school superintendents in Texas requesting recent data on elementary school enrollment, project delivery type and construction costs. One hundred and thirty six responses were received from one thousand and seventy six Texas school districts. A comparative means test was used to determine if a relationship exists between construction cost per student and project delivery system for public elementary schools in Texas. The research shows that Texas school districts are primarily using two types of project delivery systems for their new school construction, Construction Management at Risk and Competitive Sealed Proposals. After comparing the average construction cost per student for these two project delivery systems, the statistical analysis showed that Competitive Sealed Proposals cost approximately four thousand dollar less per student than Construction Management at Risk. The clear question is then as to why are districts using Construction Management at Risk when the comparative benefits of the contract type are not worth this amount of money per student.

Reinisch, Ashley

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative Island approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this islands used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an islands cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Fuel Cell System Cost for Transporationa--2008 Cost Estimate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell System Cost for Fuel Cell System Cost for Transportation-2008 Cost Estimate National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program NREL/BK-6A1-45457 May 2009 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

433

Policy 1306 Cost Sharing on Sponsored Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy 1306 Cost Sharing on Sponsored Projects Responsible Office Office of Research Administration committed cost sharing, and in-kind/matching requirements associated with sponsored projects. Definitions Cost Sharing A portion of total sponsored project costs not funded by the sponsor. Mandatory Cost

434

Sponsored Project Account Cost Transfer Explanation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sponsored Project Account Cost Transfer Explanation Check-Off List December 2011 The explanations checked below best describe the reasons for why the cost transfers are being made. Costs as to how to allocate the cost, temporarily assigned the cost to an existing account that acted

He, Chuan

435

Observations and Modeling of Shallow Convective Clouds: Implications for the Indirect Aerosol Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Observations Observations and Modeling of Shallow Convective Clouds: Implications for the Indirect Aerosol Effects Sylwester Arabas 1 , Joanna Slawinska 1 , Wojciech Grabowski 2 , Hugh Morrison 2 , Hanna Pawlowska 1 1 : Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Poland 2 : National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA 348 constants for reference state and lateral boundary conditions 349 ibcx=icyx 350 ibcy=icyy*j3 351 ibcz=icyz 352 irlx=irelx 353 irly=irely*j3 354 irdbc=0 355 fcr0=fcr0*icorio 356 itdl=0 357 tdt=40.*3600. 358 u0tdl=u00 359 360 361 constants for thermodynamics 362 c bv=sqrt(st*g) 363 bv=st 364 st=bv**2/g 365 cp=3.5*rg 366 cap=rg/cp 367 pr00=rg*rh00*tt00

436

Synchronized states in chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a dynamic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider synchronization of chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a common environmnet where the environment has an intrinsic dynmics of its own modulated via feedback from the systems. We find that a rich vareity of synchronization behavior, such as in-phase, anti-phase,complete and anti- synchronization is possible. We present an approximate stability analysis for the different synchronization behaviors. The transitions to different states of synchronous behaviour are analyzed in the parameter plane of coupling strengths by numerical studies for specific cases such as Rossler and Lorenz systems and are characterized using various indices such as correlation, average phase difference and Lyapunov exponents. The threshold condition obtained from numerical analysis is found to agree with that from the stability analysis.

V. Resmi; G. Ambika; R. E. Amritkar

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

437

Cooling and squeezing the fluctuations of a nanomechanical beam by indirect quantum feedback control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study cooling and squeezing the fluctuations of a nanomechanical beam using quantum feedback control. In our model, the nanomechanical beam is coupled to a transmission line resonator via a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The leakage of the electromagnetic field from the transmission line resonator is measured using homodyne detection. This measured signal is then used to design a quantum-feedback-control signal to drive the electromagnetic field in the transmission line resonator. Although the control is imposed on the transmission line resonator, this quantum-feedback-control signal indirectly affects the thermal motion of the nanomechanical beam via the inductive beam-resonator coupling, making it possible to cool and squeeze the fluctuations of the beam, allowing it to approach the standard quantum limit.

Jing Zhang; Yu-xi Liu; Franco Nori

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ce-doped EuO: Magnetic properties and the indirect band gap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have prepared and investigated thin films of EuO doped with the rare-earth element cerium. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to determine the quality of these films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Ce doping leads to an enhanced Curie temperature near 150 K, close to that seen for oxygen-deficient EuO{sub 1-x}. However, the magnetization of Ce-doped EuO exhibits differences from that observed for Gd-doped and oxygen-deficient samples. The high-resolution angular-resolved photoemission from Ce-doped EuO reveals filling of conduction-band states near the X point. This indicates that the band gap in EuO is indirect, and that at 2% doping Ce-doped EuO{sub 1-x} is at least semimetallic.

Liu Pan; Tang Jinke [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States); Colon Santana, Juan A.; Belashchenko, Kirill D.; Dowben, Peter A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Cost objective PLM and CE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during the progression of the project of product development.

Nicolas Perry; Alain Bernard

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Costs of electronuclear fuel production  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding /sup 233/U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg /sup 233/U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound.

Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

FY 1996 cost savings report  

SciTech Connect

Cost savings are an integral part of Hanford site operations. Congressional actions towards establishing a balanced budget have resulted in reductions to funding for all federal agencies, including the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission. In September 1994 the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) approved the FY 1995 multi-year baseline that included a cost estimate of $1.9 billion for FY 1996. However, Congress only appropriated $1.3 billion for that year. The shortfall of $600 million resulted in a significant challenge to accomplish the required workscope. Therefore, RL initiated an aggressive cost savings program to eliminate the shortfall by deleting workscope that was unnecessary and performing the remaining workscope more efficiently. RL initiated baseline planning actions (including deletions, deferrals, transfers, and additions) during the FY 1996 multi-year baseline development process to match workscope and anticipated funding and identified $205 million of workscope deletions. CFR (Contract Finance and Review Division) then reviewed over 200 cost baseline change requests during FY 1996 and documented an additional $95 million of FY 1996 cost savings. This included $73 million of workscope deletions and $22 million of efficiencies. Total savings as a result of FY 1996 initiatives, including baseline planning actions and current year initiatives, were $300 million.

Andrews-Smith, K.L.

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Surface Wind Direction Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Common large shifts of wind direction in the weak-wind nocturnal boundary layer are poorly understood and are not adequately captured by numerical models and statistical parameterizations. The current study examines 15 datasets representing a ...

Larry Mahrt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

2013 FCMN Directions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... $100 (one way). Driving directions: Take I-95S to Exit 4B towards Washington.Merge onto I-495 to Exit 27 towards Silver Spring.Slight right onto ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

445

Maps & Directions | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maps & Directions ORNL is located in Roane County, Tennessee, about 7 miles from the center of the city of Oak Ridge and about 25 miles from the McGhee Tyson Airport near...

446

Direct nuclear pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

Miley, George H. (Champagne, IL); Wells, William E. (Urbana, IL); DeYoung, Russell J. (Hampton, VA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Economic assessment of geothermal direct heat technology: A review of five DOE demonstration projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report the cost of using low temperature geothermal energy resources for direct heating applications is compared to the costs associated with conventional heating fuels. The projects compared all involved replacing conventional fuels (e.g., natural gas and fuel oils) with geothermal energy in existing heating systems. The cost of using geothermal energy in existing systems was also compared with the cost of new coal-fired equipment.

Hederman, William F. Jr.; Cohen, Laura A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain  

SciTech Connect

Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain???????¢????????????????s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

449

Outline Development of Direct PCR Benefits of Direct PCR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1 Direct PCR Amplification of STR Loci: Protocols and Performance ... Benefits of direct PCR Collection media: FTA and 903 paper ...

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

Total Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Grand total social cost of highway transportation Subtotal:of alternative transportation investments. A social-costtransportation option that has These costs will be inefficiently incurred if people do not fully lower total social costs.

Delucchi, Mark A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Maintenance cost studies of present aircraft subsystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes two detailed studies of actual maintenance costs for present transport aircraft. The first part describes maintenance costs for jet transport aircraft broken down into subsystem costs according to an ...

Pearlman, Chaim Herman Shalom

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Total cost model for making sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Benefit-cost in a Benevolent Society  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that there is a well-de?ned cost function C( y) for publicthe private values bene?t-cost test, but is potentiallythe private values bene?t-cost test, Lemma 4 implies y-

Bergstrom, Ted

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

USA oilgas production cost : recent changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

456

NETL: Turbine Projects - Cost Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Reduction Cost Reduction Turbine Projects Cost Reduction Single Crystal Turbine Blades Enhancing Gas Turbine Efficiency Data/Fact Sheets Enabling and Information Technologies to Increase RAM of Advanced Powerplants Data/Fact Sheets Development of NDE Technology for Environmental Barrier Coating and Residual Life Estimation Data/Fact Sheets Welding and Weld Repair of Single Crystal Gas Turbine Alloy Data/Fact Sheets Combustion Turbine Hot Section Coating Life Management Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating [PDF] Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle RAM Data/Fact Sheets Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine [PDF]

457

Low-Cost Zero-Emission Primary Magnesium Production by Solid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis is a new low-cost process for direct extraction of magnesium oxide to pure magnesium and oxygen gas. .... Grain Refinement of AZ91 Alloy by Addition of Ceramic Particles.

458

Projective Reeds-Shepp car on $S^2$ with quadratic cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fix two points $x,\\bar{x}\\in S^2$ and two directions (without orientation) $\\eta,\\bar\\eta$ of the velocities in these points. In this paper we are interested to the problem of minimizing the cost

Boscain, Ugo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

The cost of noise reduction for departure and arrival operations of commercial tilt rotor aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and noise annoyance due to a departure and an arrival operation was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt ...

Faulkner, Henry B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Low cost titanium--myth or reality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct cost indirect" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Pricing of automotive coiled spring steel...3 kg (20 tons) per car ? Total $40.75 (a) 1989 prices...

462

Directed light fabrication of rhenium components  

SciTech Connect

Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a direct metal deposition process that fuses powder, delivered by gas into the focal zone of a high powered laser beam to form fully dense near-net shaped components. This is accomplished in one step without the use of molds, dies, forming, pressing, sintering or forging equipment. DLF is performed in a high purity inert environment free from the contaminants associated with conventional processing such as oxide and carbon pickup, lubricants, binding agents, cooling or cleaning agents. Applications using rhenium have historically been limited in part by its workability and cost. This study demonstrates the ability to fuse rhenium metal powder, using a DLF machine, into free standing rods and describes the associated parameter study. Microstructural comparisons between DLF deposited rhenium and commercial rhenium sheet product is performed. This research combined with existing DLF technology demonstrates the feasibility of forming complex rhenium, metal shapes directly from powder.

Milewski, J.O.; Thoma, D.J.; Lewis, G.K.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Update of Hydrogen from Biomass-Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Operated for the U.S. Dep. of Energy by Midwest Research Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: 1) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas, and 2) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil. In each process, water-gas shift is used to convert the reformed gas into hydrogen, and pressure swing adsorption is used to purify the product. This study was conducted to incorporate recent experimental advances and any changes in direction from previous analyses. The systems examined are based on the Battelle/FERCO low pressure indirectly-heated biomass gasifier, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) high pressure direct-fired gasifier, and fluidized bed pyrolysis followed by coproduct separation. The pyrolysis case assumes a bio-oil feed which is shipped from remote locations to the hydrogen production plant. The delivered cost of hydrogen, as well as the plant gate hydrogen selling price, were determined using both a cash flow spreadsheet and Crystal Ball risk assessment software. This software is able to predict the sensitivity of the hydrogen selling price to changes in various analysis parameters, and determines which of the parameters contribute the greatest uncertainty to the results. All of the parameters are varied at once, giving a combined uncertainty of hydrogen selling price. Several cases were run for each of the biomass conversion technologies at varying plant sizes and internal

Pamela L. Spath; Janice M. Lane; Margaret K. Mann; Wade A. Amos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Entanglement cost in practical scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We quantify the one-shot entanglement cost of an arbitrary bipartite state, that is the minimum number of singlets needed by two distant parties to create a single copy of the state up to a finite accuracy, using local operations and classical communication only. This analysis, in contrast to the traditional one, pertains to scenarios of practical relevance, in which resources are finite and transformations can only be achieved approximately. Moreover, it unveils a fundamental relation between two well-known entanglement measures, namely, the Schmidt number and the entanglement of formation. Using this relation, we are able to recover the usual expression of the entanglement