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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

The Effect of the Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide on the Radiation Absorption and Temperature Profile in Troposphere.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work on this paper focus on the effect of the water vapor and carbon dioxide on the absorption of atmospheric radiation and the temperature… (more)

Li, Chieh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Demonstration Measurements of Water Vapor, Cirrus Clouds, and Carbon Dioxide Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Profile measurements of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus clouds, and carbon dioxide using the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic lidar (RASL) during ground-based, upward-looking tests are presented here. These measurements improve upon any previously ...

David N. Whiteman; Kurt Rush; Igor Veselovskii; Martin Cadirola; Joseph Comer; John R. Potter; Rebecca Tola

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

FLUXNET: A New Tool to Study the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ecosystem–Scale Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Flux Densities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long–term and ...

Dennis Baldocchi; Eva Falge; Lianhong Gu; Richard Olson; David Hollinger; Steve Running; Peter Anthoni; Ch Bernhofer; Kenneth Davis; Robert Evans; Jose Fuentes; Allen Goldstein; Gabriel Katul; Beverly Law; Xuhui Lee; Yadvinder Malhi; Tilden Meyers; William Munger; Walt Oechel; K. T. Paw; Kim Pilegaard; H. P. Schmid; Riccardo Valentini; Shashi Verma; Timo Vesala; Kell Wilson; Steve Wofsy

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime ...

R. Moriwaki; M. Kanda

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Tropospheric Water Vapor and Climate Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO2), using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The ...

Edwin K. Schneider; Ben P. Kirtman; Richard S. Lindzen

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of China’s atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Distribution of Tropical Tropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence ...

De-Zheng Sun; Richard S. Lindzen

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Atmospheric Water Vapor Characteristics at 70°N  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an extensive rawinsonde archive, characteristics of Arctic water vapor and its transports at 70°N are examined for the period 1974–1991. Monthly-mean profiles and vertically integrated values of specific humidity and meridional vapor fluxes ...

Mark C. Serreze; Roger G. Barry; John E. Walsh

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Vapor Pressure Measurement of Supercooled Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dewpoint hygrometer was developed for subfreezing temperature application. Vapor pressure of supercooled water was determined by measuring temperatures at the dew-forming surface and the vapor source ice under the flux density balance, and ...

N. Fukuta; C. M. Gramada

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Maria Cadeddu

11

Water Vapor Fields Deduced from METEOSAT-1 Water Vapor Channel Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-operational process for the determination of water vapor fields from METEPSAT-1 water vapor channel data is described. Each count of the WV picture is replaced by the corresponding mean relative humidity value using both the calibration ...

M. M. Poc; M. Roulleau

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

A New Global Water Vapor Dataset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive and accurate global water vapor dataset is critical to the adequate understanding of water vapor's role in the earth's climate system. To begin to satisfy this need, the authors have produced a blended dataset made up of global, 5-...

David L. Randel; Thomas J. Greenwald; Thomas H. Vonder Haar; Graeme L. Stephens; Mark A. Ringerud; Cynthia L. Combs

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Description Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV). 2. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor. 3. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled

14

Water vapor retrieval over many surface types  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980-June 30, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was possible and the necessary relevant data to accomplish this is presented, as well as insight into the corresponding electrochemical mechanisms associated with the electroactive species. The influence of each atmospheric component was examined separately. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, nitrite ions are found to accumulate due to thermal decomposition of the nitrate. Water is highly soluble in the salt mixture, but no hydrolytic reactions were observed. Two methods of in situ analysis for water are described. Pure carbon dioxide is found to attack the melt at all temperatures above 250/sup 0/C producing carbonate. (LEW)

White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

18

atmoshperic water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmoshperic water vapor atmoshperic water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmoshperic water vapor China GEF GIS NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 625.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 704.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access

19

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do require supervision are presently planned to be operated for 8-hour periods each day. Because it is necessary to cover as broad a range of environmental conditions as possible, the daily 8-hour period will be shifted across the diurnal cycle as deemed appropriate during the IOP (but will be maintained as a contiguous 8-hour block).

20

Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A Water Vapor Index from Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for deriving a water vapor index is presented. An important feature of the index is the fact that it does not rely on radiosondes. Thus, it is not influenced by problems associated with radiosondes and the extent to which the horizontal ...

Larry M. McMillin; David S. Crosby; Mitchell D. Goldberg

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Improved Retrieval of Integrated Water Vapor from Water Vapor Radiometer Measurements Using Numerical Weather Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor radiometer (WVR) retrieval algorithms require a priori information on atmospheric conditions along the line of sight of the radiometer in order to derive opacities from observed brightness temperatures. This paper's focus is the mean ...

Steven R. Chiswell; Steven Businger; Michael Bevis; Fredrick Solheim; Christian Rocken; Randolph Ware

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Atmospheric Solar Heating Rate in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmosphere is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanré; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

27

ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Order Data Browell, Edward LASE Order Data Gutman, Seth GPS Order Data Richardson, Scott Chilled Mirror Order Data Sachse, G. Water Vapor Order Data Schmidlin, Francis CM Sondes...

28

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton,...

29

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

30

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

31

Water Vapor Flux Measurements from Ground-Based Vertically Pointed Water Vapor Differential Absorption and Doppler Lidars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, two lidar systems were used to measure the vertical water vapor flux in a convective boundary layer by means of eddy correlation. This was achieved by combining a water vapor differential absorption lidar and a heterodyne wind ...

Andreas Giez; Gerhard Ehret; Ronald L. Schwiesow; Kenneth J. Davis; Donald H. Lenschow

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to...

33

The Effects of Water Vapor on the Oxidation of Nickel-Base ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

water vapor are compared at temperatures from 700°C to 1100°C. It is shown that water vapor affects the oxidation of such alloys in different ways. Water vapor ...

34

Does EIA report water vapor emissions data? - FAQ - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Does EIA report water vapor emissions data? No. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas, but most scientists believe that human activity has a very small ...

35

Broadband Water Vapor Transmission Functions for Atmospheric IR Flux Computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission functions associated with water vapor molecular line and e-type absorption in the IR spectral regions are presented in the form of simple analytical functions and small tables, from which atmospheric IR fluxes and cooling rates can ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range ...

Refaat Tamer F.; Halama Gary E.; DeYoung Russell J.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave Radiometer and Microwave Profiler, yielded excellent data over a range of conditions. In all, angular-scanned and calibrated radiometric data from 22.345 to 380 GHz were taken. The Precipitable Water Vapor varied about an order of magnitude from 1 to 10 mm, and surface temperatures varied from about -10 to -40 deg. Celcius. Vaisala RS90

38

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) is given. This field experiment was conducted during November-December 2000 near the central ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma, and was sponsored jointly by the ARM, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE), and the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) programs. Its primary goal was to collect accurate measurements of upper-level (~8 to 12 km) water vapor near the ground-based ARM site. These data are being used to determine the accuracy of measurements that are

39

Intercomparison of Four Commercial Analyzers for Water Vapor Isotope Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ?18O and ?D of atmospheric water vapor are important tracers in hydrological and ecological studies. Isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) provides an in situ technology for measuring ?18O and ?D in ambient conditions. An intercomparison ...

Xue-Fa Wen; Xuhui Lee; Xiao-Min Sun; Jian-Lin Wang; Ya-Kun Tang; Sheng-Gong Li; Gui-Rui Yu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Moisture Vertical Structure, Column Water Vapor, and Tropical Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical structure of the relationship between water vapor and precipitation is analyzed in 5 yr of radiosonde and precipitation gauge data from the Nauru Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. The first vertical principal component of ...

Christopher E. Holloway; J. David Neelin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor from UARS MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial results of upper-tropospheric water vapor obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented. MLS is less affected by clouds than infrared or visible techniques, and the UARS ...

W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; D. A. Flower; L. Froidevaux; R. F. Jarnot; D. L. Hartmann; R. S. Harwood; R. B. Rood

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Solar Radiation Absorption due to Water Vapor: Advanced Broadband Parameterizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate parameterizations for calculating solar radiation absorption in the atmospheric column due to water vapor lines and continuum are proposed for use in broadband shortwave radiative transfer codes. The error in the absorption values is ...

Tatiana A. Tarasova; Boris A. Fomin

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus ...

Schneider, Tapio

44

The Arm Program's Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of water vapor intensive observation periods (WVIOPs) were conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma between 1996 and 2000. The goals of these WVIOPs are to characterize the accuracy of the operational ...

H. E. Revercomb; D. D. Turner; D. C. Tobin; R. O. Knuteson; W. F. Feltz; J. Barnard; J. Bösenberg; S. Clough; D. Cook; R. Ferrare; J. Goldsmith; S. Gutman; R. Halthore; B. Lesht; J. Liljegren; H. Linné; J. Michalsky; V. Morris; W. Porch; S. Richardson; B. Schmid; M. Splitt; T. Van Hove; E. Westwater; D. Whiteman

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Column Water Vapor Content in Clear and Cloudy Skies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With radiosonde data from 15 Northern Hemisphere stations, surface-to-400-mb column water vapor is computed from daytime soundings for 1988–1990. On the basis of simultaneous surface visual cloud observations, the data are categorized according ...

Dian J. Gaffen; William P. Elliott

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Raman Lidar Profiling of Tropospheric Water Vapor over Kangerlussuaq, Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new measurement capability has been implemented in the Arctic Lidar Technology (ARCLITE) system at the Sondrestrom upper-atmosphere research facility near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67.0°N, 50.9°W), enabling estimates of atmospheric water vapor ...

Ryan Reynolds Neely III; Jeffrey P. Thayer

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor mixing ratio distribution in the lower and middle troposphere has been continuously monitored, using an active lidar system. The methodology of the differential absorption laser method used for these measurements is summarized and ...

C. Cahen; G. Megie; P. Flamant

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

49

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Water Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) distributed a portion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to advance technologies for chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from industrial sources. The focus of the research projects is permanent sequestration of CO 2 through mineralization or development

50

Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of caprock minerals by carbon dioxide. Geofluids 7, 112-122.between water and carbon dioxide. Langmuir 15, 419-428. DaYung, K. H. (1995) Carbon dioxide’s liquid—vapor coexistence

Nielsen, L.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Relative influence of lapse rate and water vapor on the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Observational data are employed in a radiative transfer model to simulate the mean variation in normalized greenhouse effect (NGE) between January and July. This is performed at a variety of locations, and the mean local rate of change in NGE with surface temperature is determined. The result is 1.5 times larger than the variation of NGE with surface temperature obtained by spatially correlating the aggregated data. This disagreement is ascribed to systematic differences between the two approaches and is interpreted as indicating the significant role that large-scale circulations as well as surface temperatures have on determining local thermal and humidity structures. The separate effects of water vapor and lapse rate variations are estimated, by simulating the January-July changes in NGE with each process in turn held constant: beyond the tropics the lapse rate feedback is found to dominate over the water vapor feedback, particularly over land; in the inter-tropics, lapse rate variations account for about a third of the change in greenhouse trapping, contributing substantially to the `super-greenhouse effect.` Utilizing a radiative-convective model, the possible effects on climate change of both lapse rate changes and water vapor feedback are compared: a global mean model cliamte is perturbed by a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide and equilibrium surface temperatures obtained for a variety of lapse rates. If, under conditions of climate change, the global mean lapse rate varies with surface temperature in the same manner as in the present-day mean seasonal cycle (increasing the lapse rate magnitude by 6%), then the lapse rate feedback amplifies the modeled water vapor feedback by 40%; conversely, a 12% reduction in the magnitude of the lapse rate completely nullifies the water vapor feedback.

Sinha, A. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

Pruess, K.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 run resolution. This data includes information on constituents of the earth`s surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various rationing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. This work testS the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

Schlaepfer, D. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Observations Cady-Pereira, Karen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Shephard, Mark Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Atmospheric State and Surface The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES retrievals extremely useful for global monitoring of the atmospheric state, but they must be validated. The ARM sites are well instrumented and provide continuous measurements, which

56

Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements are presented of the vapor pressure of supercooled water utilizing infrared spectroscopy, which enables unambiguous verification that the authors’ data correspond to the vapor pressure of liquid water, not a mixture of liquid water ...

Will Cantrell; Eli Ochshorn; Alexander Kostinski; Keith Bozin

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Computation of Infrared Cooling Rates in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the behavior in the far wings of absorption lines to scale transmission along an inhomogencous path to an equivalent ...

Ming Dah Chou; Albert Arking

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Probing Hurricanes with Stable Isotopes of Rain and Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain and water vapor were collected during flights in Hurricanes Olivia (1994), Opal (1995), Marilyn (1995), and Hortense (1995) and analyzed for their stable isotopic concentrations, or ratios, H218O:H2O and HDO:H2O. The spatial patterns and ...

Stanley Gedzelman; James Lawrence; John Gamache; Michael Black; Edward Hindman; Robert Black; Jason Dunion; Hugh Willoughby; Xiaoping Zhang

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Relative Humidity Effect on the High-Frequency Attenuation of Water Vapor Flux Measured by a Closed-Path Eddy Covariance System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the high-frequency loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes, measured by a closed-path eddy covariance system, were studied, and the related correction factors through the cospectral transfer function method were ...

Ivan Mammarella; Samuli Launiainen; Tiia Gronholm; Petri Keronen; Jukka Pumpanen; Üllar Rannik; Timo Vesala

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

A SEARCH FOR WATER VAPORIZATION ON CERES  

SciTech Connect

There are hints that the dwarf planet (1) Ceres may contain a large amount of water ice. Some models and previous observations suggest that ice could be close enough to the surface to create a flux of water outward through the regolith. This work aims to confirm a previous detection of OH emission off the northern limb of Ceres with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Such emission would be evidence of water molecules escaping from the dwarf planet. We used the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to obtain spectra off the northern and southern limbs of Ceres at several epochs. These spectra cover the 307-312 nm wavelength range corresponding to the OH (0,0) emission band, which is the brightest band of this radical, well known in the cometary spectra. These new observations, five times more sensitive than those from IUE, did not permit detection of OH around Ceres. We derive an upper limit for the water production of about {approx}7 x 10{sup 25} molecules s{sup -1} and estimate the minimum thickness of the dust surface layer above the water ice layer (if present) to be about 20 m.

Rousselot, P.; Mousis, O.; Zucconi, J.-M. [Observatoire de Besancon, Institut UTINAM-UMR CNRS 6213, University of Franche-Comte, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J. [Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 aout 17, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Dumas, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Carry, B. [European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Marboeuf, U., E-mail: rousselot@obs-besancon.fr [Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, Universite Joseph Fourier, CNRS INSU (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Observation of Water Vapor Greenhouse Absorption over the Gulf of Mexico Using Aircraft and Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through its interaction with radiation, water vapor provides an important link between the ocean and atmosphere. One way this occurs is through the greenhouse effect; observations of water vapor greenhouse absorption in the Gulf of Mexico during ...

David Marsden; Francisco P. J. Valero

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Investigation of Turbulent Processes in the Lower Troposphere with Water Vapor DIAL and Radar–RASS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution water vapor and wind measurements in the lower troposphere within the scope of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) are presented. The measurements were performed during a field campaign with a new water vapor differential ...

V. Wulfmeyer

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Modes and Mechanisms of Global Water Vapor Variability over the Twentieth Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modes and mechanisms of the annual water vapor variations over the twentieth century are investigated based on a newly developed twentieth-century atmospheric reanalysis product. It is found that the leading modes of global water vapor ...

Liping Zhang; Lixin Wu; Bolan Gan

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study presented here attempts to quantify the significance of southerly water vapor fluxes on precipitation occurring in the eastern Fertile Crescent region. The water vapor fluxes were investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution by ...

J. P. Evans; R. B. Smith

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Automated Retrievals of Water Vapor and Aerosol Profiles from an Operational Raman Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated routines have been developed to derive water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient, and linear depolarization profiles, as well as total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical ...

D. D. Turner; R. A. Ferrare; L. A. Heilman Brasseur; W. F. Feltz; T. P. Tooman

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Tropical Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks in Climate Models: A Further Assessment Using Coupled Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By comparing the response of clouds and water vapor to ENSO forcing in nature with that in Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations by some leading climate models, an earlier evaluation of tropical cloud and water vapor ...

De-Zheng Sun; Yongqiang Yu; Tao Zhang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements Made by Raman Lidar and Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the calibration characteristics of the NASA/GSFC Raman water vapor lidar during three field experiments that occurred between 1991 and 1993. The lidar water vapor profiles are calibrated using relative humidity profiles ...

R. A. Ferrare; S. H. Melfi; D. N. Whiteman; K. D. Evans; F. J. Schmidlin; D. O'C. Starr

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

71

Observed annual and interannual variations in tropospheric water vapor  

SciTech Connect

Radiosonde observations from a global network of 56 radiosonde stations for 1973-1990 are used to describe and quantify annual and interannual variations of tropospheric water vapor. Taking care to identify data inhomogeneities related to changes in instruments or observing practices, monthly mean and anomaly data sets are constructed for dew point, specific humidity, relative humidity, temperature and precipitable water from the surface to 500 mb. Local annual cycles of tropospheric humidity can be classified according to the amplitude and phase of humidity variations which define five humidity regimes. For two regimes, both in middle and high latitudes, relative humidity is fairly constant while the annual cycle of precipitable water is in phase with that of temperature. At some midlatitude stations with a monsoon-like climate, seasonal relative humidity variations are large. In the tropics, seasonal relative humidity variations, especially above the boundary layer, dominate the annual cycle of precipitable water, and precipitable water variations are not related to temperature variations. Correlations of temperature and specific humidity anomalies are generally positive outside the tropics, suggesting that atmospheric warming is associated with increases in water vapor content. However, correlations of temperature and relative humidity anomalies are sometimes not significant and are often negative (e.g., in mid- and high latitude continental regions). Thus relative humidity is not always insensitive to temperature changes. In the tropics, tropospheric water vapor and temperature variations are not well correlated. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of tropical specific humidity variations identified two important modes of variability. The first is a step-like increase in specific humidity that occurred in about 1976-1977, and the second is associated with the El Nino phenomenon.

Gaffen, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. Thermal distillation uses boiling water to steam strip solid sorbents - the steam is recovered as fresh water. We anticipate that our method will compete favorably with current chemical stripping systems used for CO{sub 2} separation at power plants, which incur a 35% energy penalty. Thus we expect to offer a dramatically improved solution for removing carbon from hydrocarbon combustion. Our method can be demonstrated on small sources, which will enable us to conduct the demonstrations required to build confidence in the method. If successful, we will be in a position to advance a follow-on proposal for a demonstration at the 10-MW scale.

Aines, R; Bourcier, W

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

Imaging Spectrometry of Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imaging spectrometry has the potential of remotely detecting atmospheric trace gases on the basis of their absorption of radiation. Ozone absorbs particulary in the ultraviolet and visible range of the spectrum, whereas water vapor has strong absorption features in the near infrared. Hence, spectrometry is expected to be a promising tool to extract these trace gas contents in a given air column by using the correlation between cumulative trace gas amount and absorption strength in the sensor channels located in the absorption bands. New mathematical methods of channel selection and method evaluation for measuring atmospheric trace gases are presented. Three already known and four new differential absorption techniques are evaluated by using MODTRAN2 simulations of the radiance spectrum at the sensor level and an analytical error propagation analysis. Finally, the best methods and channel combinations are selected and applied to AVIRIS data of Central Switzerland. The spatial ozone distribution could be estimated over water in a qualitative manner, whereas the total column water vapor content could be quantified over land with an accuracy of about 6%.

Daniel Schläpfer; Klaus I. Itten; Johannes Keller

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

75

Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic environment. The instrument measures brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz from the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. The GVR will remain in Barrow

77

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

78

Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Backscattered Sunlight in Cloudy Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The “differential absorption technique” is used to derive columnar water vapor contents above clouds. Radiative transfer simulations were carried out for two different spectral channels, one channel within the ???–water water absorption band and ...

P. Albert; R. Bennartz; J. Fischer

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

80

Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program’s first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This ...

D. D. Turner; J. E. M. Goldsmith

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The finite element analysis of water vapor diffusion in a brick with vertical holes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a finite element analysis of water vapor diffusion in a brick with vertical holes. The isotherms, isodensity, isopressure and isohumidity surfaces considering the longitudinal and transverse direction diffusion of water vapor in a ... Keywords: brick wall, diffusion, finite element method (FEM), numerical simulation

Madalina Calbureanu; Mihai Talu; Carlos Manuel Travieso-González; Stefan Talu; Mihai Lungu; Raluca Malciu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Integrated Water Vapor Field and Multiscale Variations over China from GPS Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor plays a key role in the global hydrologic cycle and in climatic change. However, the distribution and variability of water vapor in the troposphere are not understood well—in particular, in China with the complex Tibetan Plateau and ...

Shuanggen Jin; Z. Li; J. Cho

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

On the Relationship between Water Vapor over the Oceans and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry (SMMR) are correlated with NMC-blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can ...

Graeme L. Stephens

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

Lee, Jongho

85

Results of Year-Round Remotely Sensed Integrated Water Vapor by Ground-Based Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on two years of measurements with a time resolution of 1 min, some climatological findings on precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid water (CLW) in central Europe are given. A weak diurnal cycle is apparent. The mean overall ...

J. Güldner; D. Spänkuch

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Microdrop Generator for the Calibration of a Water Vapor Isotope Ratio Spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microdrop generator is described that produces water vapor with a known isotopic composition and volume mixing ratio for the calibration of a near-infrared diode laser water isotope ratio spectrometer. The spectrometer is designed to measure in ...

Rosario Q. Iannone; Daniele Romanini; Samir Kassi; Harro A. J. Meijer; Erik R. Th Kerstel

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Inexpensive Near-IR Sun Photometer for Measuring Total Column Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An inexpensive two-channel near-IR sun photometer for measuring total atmospheric column water vapor (precipitable water) has been developed for use by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) environmental science ...

David R. Brooks; Forrest M. Mims III; Richard Roettger

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Seasonal Variations in the Vertically Integrated Water Vapor Transport Fields over the Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal mean fields of precipitable water and the zonal and meridional components of the vertically integrated atmospheric water vapor transport fields are calculated from five years of Southern Hemisphere data (1 September 1973 through 31 ...

David A. Howarth

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Adsorption of Water Vapor by Bare Soil in an Olive Grove in Southern Spain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data for water vapor adsorption and evaporation are presented for a bare soil (sandy loam, clay content 15%) in a southern Spanish olive grove. Water losses and gains were measured using eight high-precision minilysimeters, placed around an olive ...

A. Verhoef; A. Diaz-Espejo; J. R. Knight; L. Villagarcía; J. E. Fernández

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Kinetics of laser pulse vaporization of uranium dioxide by mass spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety analyses of nuclear reactors require knowledge of the evaporation behavior of UO/sub 2/ at temperatures well above the melting point of 3140 K. In this study, rapid transient heating of a small spot on a UO/sub 2/ specimen was accomplished by a laser pulse, which generates a surface temperature excursion. This in turn vaporizes the target surface and the gas expands into vacuum. The surface temperature transient was monitored by a fast-response automatic optical pyrometer. The maximum surface temperatures investigated range from approx. 3700 K to approx. 4300 K. A computer program was developed to simulate the laser heating process and calculate the surface temperature evolution. The effect of the uncertainties of the high temperature material properties on the calculation was included in a sensitivity study for UO/sub 2/ vaporization. The measured surface temperatures were in satisfactory agreements.

Tsai, C.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Retrieval of Cloud Water and Water Vapor Contents from Doppler Radar Data in a Tropical Squall Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the retrieval of cloud water and water vapor contents from Doppler radar data. The convective part of a tropical squall line (22 June 1981) observed during the COPT 81 (Convection Profonde Tropicale 1981) West African ...

Danièle Hauser; Paul Amayenc

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Simulations of the Effects of Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water, and Ice on AMSU Moisture Channel Brightness Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer simulations are performed to determine how water vapor and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water and ice particles within typical midlatitude atmospheres affect brightness temperatures TB's of moisture sounding channels used in ...

Bradley M. Muller; Henry E. Fuelberg; Xuwu Xiang

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Three-Dimensional Evolution of Water Vapor Distributions in the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere as Observed by the MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional evolution of stratospheric water vapor distributions observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) during the period October 1991–July 1992 is documented. The transport features inferred from the MLS water vapor distributions ...

W. A. Lahoz; A. O'Neill; E. S. Carr; R. S. Harwood; L. Froidevaux; W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; J. B. Kumer; J. L. Mergenthaler; A. E. Roche; G. E. Peckham; R. Swinbank

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Retrievals Obtained with Near-IR Solar Radiometer and Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple two-channel solar radiometer and analysis technique have been developed for setting atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 940-nm water vapor absorption band. A prototype solar ...

J. Reagan; K. Thome; B. Herman; R. Stone; J. DeLuisi; J. Snider

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The Apparent Water Vapor Sinks and Heat Sources Associated with the Intraseasonal Oscillation of the Indian Summer Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of using remote sensing retrievals to estimate apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources is explored. The apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources are estimated from a combination of remote sensing, specific humidity, and ...

Sun Wong; Eric J. Fetzer; Baijun Tian; Bjorn Lambrigtsen; Hengchun Ye

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Developing an Operational, Surface-Based, GPS, Water Vapor Observing System for NOAA: Network Design and Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for a reliable, low-cost observing system to measure water vapor in the atmosphere is incontrovertible. Experiments have shown the potential for using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure total precipitable water vapor ...

Daniel E. Wolfe; Seth I. Gutman

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The Earth’s Clear-Sky Radiation Budget and Water Vapor Absorption in the Far Infrared  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed observational data are used to simulate the sensitivity of clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) to water vapor perturbations in order to investigate the effect of uncertainties in water vapor measurements and spectroscopic ...

Ashok Sinha; John E. Harries

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Pairing Measurements of the Water Vapor Isotope Ratio with Humidity to Deduce Atmospheric Moistening and Dehydration in the Tropical Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor (expressed as the ? value) allow processes that control the humidity in the tropics to be identified. Isotopic information is useful because the change in ? relative to the water vapor mixing ratio (...

David Noone

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Separation of heavy water by vapor-phase thermal diffusion coupled with distillation and condensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on the enrichment of heavy water in a vapor-phase thermal-diffusion column has been conducted. With the combination of the effects of distillation, vapor-phase thermal diffusion, and partial condensation, considerable improvement in the degree of enrichment has been achieved in a vapor-phase column rather than in a liquid-phase column. It was also found that even the part of enrichment contributed only by vapor-phase thermal-diffusion effect is much higher than that obtained by liquid-phase thermal diffusion.

Yeh, H.M. [Tamkang Univ., Taiwan (China); Chang, S.M. [Cheng Kung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Thermodynamic Models for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Nitrogen+Oxygen+Carbon Dioxide at Low Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the design and optimization of CO2 recovery from alcoholic fermentation processes by distillation, models for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are needed. Two such thermodynamic models, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and a model based on Henry's law constants, are proposed for the ternary mixture N2+O2+CO2. Pure substance parameters of the Peng-Robinson EOS are taken from the literature, whereas the binary parameters of the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule are adjusted to experimental binary VLE data. The Peng-Robinson EOS describes both binary and ternary experimental data well, except at high pressures approaching the critical region. A molecular model is validated by simulation using binary and ternary experimental VLE data. On the basis of this model, the Henry's law constants of N2 and O2 in CO2 are predicted by molecular simulation. An easy-to-use thermodynamic model, based on those Henry's law constants, is developed to reliably describe the VLE in the CO2-rich region.

Vrabec, J; Buchhauser, U; Meyer-Pittroff, R; Hasse, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Comparison of Measurements of Atmospheric Wet Delay by Radiosonde, Water Vapor Radiometer, GPS, and VLBI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an instrument for measuring the integrated water vapor content of the atmosphere has been evaluated by comparison with concurrent observations made over a 14-day period by radiosonde, ...

A. E. Niell; A. J. Coster; F. S. Solheim; V. B. Mendes; P. C. Toor; R. B. Langley; C. A. Upham

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Influence of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Retrievals on Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting in Southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrievals from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) on quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) skill are examined over two flood-prone regions of Southern California: Santa ...

Steven Marcus; Jinwon Kim; Toshio Chin; David Danielson; Jayme Laber

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Distribution of Tropospheric Water Vapor in Clear and Cloudy Conditions from Microwave Radiometric Profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dataset gathered over 369 days in various midlatitude sites with a 12-frequency microwave radiometric profiler is used to analyze the statistical distribution of tropospheric water vapor content (WVC) in clear and cloudy conditions. The WVC ...

Alia Iassamen; Henri Sauvageot; Nicolas Jeannin; Soltane Ameur

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Water Vapor Transfer over the Southwest Pacific: Mean Patterns and Variations during Wet and Dry Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean water vapor transfer of the Southwest Pacific, as determined from radiosonde records near the 170°E meridional transect, is computed for the 1960–73 period. Emphasis is placed on defining average patterns, then examining variations that ...

M. M. Khatep; B. B. Fitzharris; W. E. Bardsley

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Temperature and Water Vapor Variance Scaling in Global Models: Comparisons to Satellite and Aircraft Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of the scale dependence of height-resolved temperature T and water vapor q variability are valuable for improved subgrid-scale climate model parameterizations and model evaluation. Variance spectral benchmarks for T and q obtained ...

B. H. Kahn; J. Teixeira; E. J. Fetzer; A. Gettelman; S. M. Hristova-Veleva; X. Huang; A. K. Kochanski; M. Köhler; S. K. Krueger; R. Wood; M. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Analysis of Intense Poleward Water Vapor Transports into High Latitudes of Western North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant cool season precipitation along the western coast of North America is often associated with intense water vapor transport (IWVT) from the Pacific Ocean during favorable synoptic-scale flow regimes. These relatively narrow and intense ...

Alain Roberge; John R. Gyakum; Eyad H. Atallah

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A Modified Tracer Selection and Tracking Procedure to Derive Winds Using Water Vapor Imagers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remotely sensed upper-tropospheric water vapor wind information has been of increasing interest for operational meteorology. A new tracer selection based on a local image anomaly and tracking procedure, itself based on Nash–Sutcliffe model ...

S. K. Deb; C. M. Kishtawal; P. K. Pal; P. C. Joshi

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van Hove, S. Y. Ha, and C. Rocken GPS Science and Technology Program University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Abstract The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has a need for an improved capability to measure and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. Applications for this type of data include their use in radiation transfer studies, cloud-resolving and single-column models, and for the establishment of an extended time series of water vapor observations. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's (UCAR) GPS Science and Technology (GST) Program is working with ARM to leverage the substantial investment in

110

A Water Vapor-Energy Balance Model Designed for Sensitivity Testing of Climatic Feedback Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A zonal mean water vapor-energy balance (WEB) model is formulated to assess feedback interactions of the hydrologic cycle and lapse rate with the radiative fluxes, snow-dependent albedo and transport mechanisms. The WEB model is designed for ...

Robert G. Gallimore

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Applicability of AIRS Monthly Mean Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiles over the Tibetan Plateau Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research explores the applicability of the gridded (level 3) monthly tropospheric water vapor (version 5) retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on board the NASA Aqua ...

Yuwei Zhang; Donghai Wang; Panmao Zhai; Guojun Gu

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Characterization of Upper-Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX Using LASE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor mass mixing ratio profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)–First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (...

R. A. Ferrare; E. V. Browell; S. Ismail; S. A. Kooi; L. H. Brasseur; V. G. Brackett; M. B. Clayton; J. D. W. Barrick; G. S. Diskin; J. E. M. Goldsmith; B. M. Lesht; J. R. Podolske; G. W. Sachse; F. J. Schmidlin; D. D. Turner; D. N. Whiteman; D. Tobin; L. M. Miloshevich; H. E. Revercomb; B. B. Demoz; P. Di Girolamo

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Retrieval of Clear Sky Moisture Profiles using the 183 GHz Water Vapor Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for retrieving vertical moisture profiles from downlooking radiometric measurements of atmospheric radiation near the 183 GHz water vapor line is described. A simulation experiment utilizing this retrieval technique and temperature ...

Ramesh K. Kakar

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Enhancement of ARM Surface Meteorological Observations during the Fall 1996 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes in situ moisture sensor comparisons that were performed in conjunction with the first Water Vapor Intensive Observation Period (IOP) conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) ...

Scott J. Richardson; Michael E. Splitt; Barry M. Lesht

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

A New Method for the Comparison of Trend Data with an Application to Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global total column water vapor trends have been derived from both the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite data and from globally distributed ...

Sebastian Mieruch; Stefan Noël; Maximilian Reuter; Heinrich Bovensmann; John P. Burrows; Marc Schröder; Jörg Schulz

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Clouds over Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite observations are analyzed to examine the correlations between aerosols and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) temperature and water vapor. This study focuses on two regions, both of which are important pathways for the mass transport ...

Hui Su; Jonathan H. Jiang; Xiaohong Liu; Joyce E. Penner; William G. Read; Steven Massie; Mark R. Schoeberl; Peter Colarco; Nathaniel J. Livesey; Michelle L. Santee

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles Retrieved from Pressure-Broadened Emission Spectra at 22 GHz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present the analysis and the evaluation of the retrieval of tropospheric water vapor profiles from pressure-broadened emission spectra at 22 GHz measured with a ground-based microwave spectroradiometer. The spectra have a bandwidth of ...

Alexander Haefele; Niklaus Kämpfer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Estimates of the Water Vapor Climate Feedback during El Niño–Southern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strength of the water vapor feedback has been estimated by analyzing the changes in tropospheric specific humidity during El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles. This analysis is done in climate models driven by observed sea surface ...

A. E. Dessler; S. Wong

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Simultaneous Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with MIR, Raman Lidar, and Rawinsondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made by the Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR), Raman lidar, and rawinsondes. Two types of rawinsonde sensor packages (AIR and Vaisala) were carried by the same balloon. The measured ...

J. R. Wang; S. H. Melfi; P. Racette; D. N. Whitemen; L. A. Chang; R. A. Ferrare; K. D. Evans; F. J. Schmidlin

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

GNSS Precipitable Water Vapor from an Amazonian Rain Forest Flux Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the complex interactions between water vapor fields and deep convection on the mesoscale requires observational networks with high spatial (kilometers) and temporal (minutes) resolution. In the equatorial tropics, where deep ...

David K. Adams; Rui M. S. Fernandes; Jair M. F. Maia

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground—Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, offers unique operational water vapor profiling capabilities, including active and passive remote ...

D. D. Turner; W. F. Feltz; R. A. Ferrare

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Response of the Tropospheric Circulation to Water Vapor–Like Forcings in the Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An idealized, dry general circulation model is used to examine the response of the tropospheric circulation to thermal forcings that mimic changes in stratospheric water vapor (SWV). It is found that SWV-like cooling in the stratosphere produces a ...

Neil F. Tandon; Lorenzo M. Polvani; Sean M. Davis

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Precipitation and Water Vapor Transport in the Southern Hemisphere with Emphasis on the South American Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

December–March climatologies of precipitation and vertically integrated water vapor transport were analyzed and compared to find the main paths by which moisture is fed to high-rainfall regions in the Southern Hemisphere in this season. The ...

Josefina Moraes Arraut; Prakki Satyamurty

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Recent Lidar Technology Developments and Their Influence on Measurements of Tropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the influences of recent technology developments in the areas of lasers, detectors, and optical filters of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system on the measurement of tropospheric water vapor (H20) profiles are discussed. ...

Syed Ismail; Edward V. Browell

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Impact of Kalpana-1-Derived Water Vapor Winds on Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor winds from the operational geostationary Indian National Satellite (INSAT) Kalpana-1 have recently become operational at the Space Applications Centre (SAC). A series of experimental forecasts are attempted here to evaluate the ...

S. K. Deb; C. M. Kishtawal; P. K. Pal

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Derived Over-Ocean Water Vapor Transports from Satellite-Retrieved E ? P Datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology is developed for deriving atmospheric water vapor transports over the World Oceans from satellite-retrieved precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) datasets. The motivation for developing the method is to understand climatically ...

Byung-Ju Sohn; Eric A. Smith; Franklin R. Robertson; Seong-Chan Park

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Tropical Cyclone Convection and Intensity Analysis Using Differenced Infrared and Water Vapor Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique to identify and quantify intense convection in tropical cyclones (TCs) using bispectral, geostationary satellite imagery is explored. This technique involves differencing the water vapor (WV) and infrared window (IRW) channel ...

Timothy L. Olander; Christopher S. Velden

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Water Vapor Measurements by Howard University Raman Lidar during the WAVES 2006 Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor mixing ratio retrieval using the Howard University Raman lidar is presented with emphasis on three aspects: (i) comparison of the lidar with collocated radiosondes and Raman lidar, (ii) investigation of the relationship between ...

M. Adam; B. B. Demoz; D. D. Venable; E. Joseph; R. Connell; D. N. Whiteman; A. Gambacorta; J. Wei; M. W. Shephard; L. M. Miloshevich; C. D. Barnet; R. L. Herman; J. Fitzgibbon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Global Observations of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Derived from TOVS Radiance Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a physically based method for the retrieval of upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) and upper-tropospheric column water vapor (UTCWV) based an the use of radiance data collected by the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Darren L. Jackson; Ian Wittmeyer

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements with Data Retrieved from ECMWF Analyses during the POLINAT Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the POLINAT (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) experiment, water vapor content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board the DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft-und-Raumfahrt) Falcon ...

Joëlle Ovarlez; Peter van Velthoven

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Improved Daytime Column-Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate water vapor profiles from radiosondes are essential for long-term climate prediction, weather prediction, validation of remote sensing retrievals, and other applications. The Vaisala RS80, RS90, and RS92 radiosondes are among the more ...

K. E. Cady-Pereira; M. W. Shephard; D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer; S. A. Clough; T. J. Wagner

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) on board the NASA DC-8 measured high-resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NASA African Monsoon ...

Syed Ismail; Richard A. Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; Gao Chen; Bruce Anderson; Susan A. Kooi; Anthony Notari; Carolyn F. Butler; Sharon Burton; Marta Fenn; Jason P. Dunion; Gerry Heymsfield; T. N. Krishnamurti; Mrinal K. Biswas

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Surface Water Vapor Pressure and Temperature Trends in North America during 1948–2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over one-quarter billion hourly values of temperature and relative humidity observed at 309 stations located across North America during 1948–2010 were studied. The water vapor pressure was determined and seasonal averages were computed. Data were ...

V. Isaac; W. A. van Wijngaarden

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Satellite-Based Assessment of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consistency of upper-tropospheric water vapor measurements from a variety of state-of-the-art instruments was assessed using collocated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) 6.7-?m brightness temperatures as a common ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Raman Lidar Profiling of Atmospheric Water Vapor: Simultaneous Measurements with Two Collocated Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raman lidar is a loading candidate for providing the detailed space-and time-resolved measurements of water vapor needed by a variety of atmospheric studies. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric watervapor are described using two collocated ...

J. E. M. Goldsmith; Scott E. Bisson; Richard A. Ferrare; Keith D. Evans; David N. Whiteman; S. H. Melfi

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A Lightning Prediction Index that Utilizes GPS Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary weather forecast challenge at the Cape Canaveral Air Station and Kennedy Space Center is lightning. This paper describes a statistical approach that combines integrated precipitable water vapor (IPWV) data from a global positioning ...

Robert A. Mazany; Steven Businger; Seth I. Gutman; William Roeder

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Dynamic Response of the Fine Wire Psychrometer for Direct Measurement of Water Vapor Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the measurement of humidity fluctuation in the atmospheric boundary layer, a wet- and dry-bulb ther-mocouple psychrometer has been used traditionally. However, in the direct measurement of water vapor flux with the eddy correlation method, ...

Osamu Tsukamoto

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Real-Time Water Vapor Maps from a GPS Surface Network: Construction, Validation, and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the construction of real-time integrated water vapor (IWV) maps from a surface network of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is presented. The IWV maps are constructed using a two-dimensional variational technique with a ...

Siebren de Haan; Iwan Holleman; Albert A. M. Holtslag

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Ly, Jennifer (San Jose, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

140

Statistical Retrieval of Humidity Profiles from Precipitable Water Vapor and Surface Measurements of Humidity and Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented of statistical retrieval of humidity profiles based on measurements of surface temperature ?1, surface dewpoint ?2, and integrated water vapor ?3. In this method the retrieved values of humidity depend nonlinearly on ...

Viatcheslav V. Tatarskii; Maia S. Tatarskaia; Ed R. Westwater

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Maintenance of the Free-Tropospheric Tropical Water Vapor Distribution. Part I: Clear Regime Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor budget of the free troposphere of the maritime Tropics is investigated using radiosonde observations, analyzed fields, and satellite observations, with particular attention paid to regions free of organized convection. In these ...

Steven C. Sherwood

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Calibration of Sun Radiometer–Based Atmospheric Water Vapor Retrievals Using GPS Meteorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of the validation and calibration process for integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements derived from sun radiometry at the 940-nm solar absorption channel employed in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Aerosol Canada (AEROCAN) is ...

Amadou Idrissa Bokoye; Alain Royer; Patrick Cliche; Norm O’Neill

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Water Vapor Transport Paths and Accumulation during Widespread Snowfall Events in Northeastern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aims to identify the distinct characteristics of water vapor transport (WVT) and its role in supplying moisture for widespread snowfall (WS) events in northeastern China (NEC). Fifty WS events in NEC were selected based on cumulative ...

Bo Sun; Huijun Wang

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Low-Level Water Vapor Fields from the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) “Split Window” Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple physical algorithm is developed which calculates the water vapor content of the lower troposphere from the 11 and 12 ?m (split window) channels on the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental ...

Dennis Chesters; Louis W. Uccellini; Wayne D. Robinson

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Development of a Scanning Raman Water Vapor Lidar for Boundary Layer and Tropospheric Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scanning, ultraviolet, Raman water vapor lidar designed primarily for boundary layer measurements has been built and operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Ground-Based Earth Observing Network team. The system provides high temporal and ...

W. E. Eichinger; D. I. Cooper; P. R. Forman; J. Griegos; M. A. Osborn; D. Richter; L. L. Tellier; R. Thornton

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Intercalibrating Microwave Satellite Observations for Monitoring Long-Term Variations in Upper- and Midtropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the growing archive of 183-GHz water vapor absorption band measurements from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on board polar-orbiting satellites and document adjustments ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden; Viju O. John

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Observed and Modeled Growing-Season Diurnal Precipitable Water Vapor in South-Central Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temporal-resolution total-column precipitable water vapor (PWV) was measured using a Radiometrics Corporation WVR-1100 Atmospheric Microwave Radiometer (AMR). The AMR was deployed at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, during the ...

John Hanesiak; Mark Melsness; Richard Raddatz

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Latent Heat Flux Profiles from Collocated Airborne Water Vapor and Wind Lidars during IHOP_2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Latent heat flux profiles in the convective boundary layer (CBL) are obtained for the first time with the combination of the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the NOAA high ...

C. Kiemle; G. Ehret; A. Fix; M. Wirth; G. Poberaj; W. A. Brewer; R. M. Hardesty; C. Senff; M. A. LeMone

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Water Vapor Profiling Using a Widely Tunable, Amplified Diode-Laser-Based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for automated profiling of water vapor in the lower troposphere has been designed, tested, and is in routine operation at Montana State University. The laser transmitter for the DIAL instrument ...

Amin R. Nehrir; Kevin S. Repasky; John L. Carlsten; Michael D. Obland; Joseph A. Shaw

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Comparison of Raman Lidar Observations of Water Vapor with COSMO-DE Forecasts during COPS 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor measurements with the multiwavelength Raman lidar Backscatter Extinction Lidar-Ratio Temperature Humidity Profiling Apparatus (BERTHA) were performed during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) in the ...

Christian Herold; Dietrich Althausen; Detlef Müller; Matthias Tesche; Patric Seifert; Ronny Engelmann; Cyrille Flamant; Rohini Bhawar; Paolo Di Girolamo

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected.

Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

A Steerable Dual-Channel Microwave Radiometer for Measurement of Water Vapor and Liquid in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument that remotely senses the integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid on a path through the atmosphere is discussed. The vapor and liquid are measured simultaneously but independently by microwave radiometers. Comparison of the ...

D. C. Hogg; F. O. Guiraud; J. B. Snider; M. T. Decker; E. R. Westwater

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been, and will continue to be, tremendous growth in the use and distribution of liquefied natural gas (LNG). As LNG poses the hazard of flammable vapor cloud formation from a release, which may result in a massive fire, increased public concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of this fuel. In addition, regulatory authorities in the U.S. as well as all over the world expect the implementation of consequence mitigation measures for LNG spills. For the effective and safer use any safety measure to prevent and mitigate an accidental release of LNG, it is critical to understand thoroughly the action mechanisms. Water spray curtains are generally used by petro-chemical industries to prevent and mitigate heavier-than-air toxic or flammable vapors. It is also used to cool and protect equipment from heat radiation of fuel fires. Currently, water spray curtains are recognized as one of the economic and promising techniques to enhance the dispersion of the LNG vapor cloud formed from a spill. Usually, water curtains are considered to absorb, dilute, disperse and warm a heavier-than-air vapor cloud. Dispersion of cryogenic LNG vapor behaves differently from other dense gases because of low molecular weight and extremely low temperature. So the interaction between water curtain and LNG vapor is different than other heavier vapor clouds. Only two major experimental investigations with water curtains in dispersing LNG vapor clouds were undertaken during the 1970s and 1980s. Studies showed that water spray curtains enhanced LNG vapor dispersion from small spills. However, the dominant phenomena to apply the water curtain most effectively in controlling LNG vapor were not clearly demonstrated. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of water spray curtains in controlling the LNG vapor clouds from outdoor experiments. A research methodology has been developed to study the dispersion phenomena of LNG vapor by the action of different water curtains experimentally. This dissertation details the research and experiment development. Small scale outdoor LNG spill experiments have been performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field at Texas A&M University. Field test results regarding important phenomena are presented and discussed. Results have determined that the water curtains are able to reduce the concentration of the LNG vapor cloud, push the vapor cloud upward and transfer heat to the cloud. These are being identified due to the water curtain mechanisms of entrainment of air, dilution of vapor with entrained air, transfer of momentum and heat to the gas cloud. Some of the dominant actions required to control and disperse LNG vapor cloud are also identified from the experimental tests. The gaps are presented as the future work and recommendation on how to improve the experiments in the future. This will benefit LNG industries to enhance its safety system and to make LNG facilities safer.

Rana, Morshed A.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of water vapor on the production of kinetic energy in the atmosphere is discussed here by comparing two idealized heat engines: the Carnot cycle and the steam cycle. A steam cycle transports water from a warm moist source to a colder ...

Olivier Pauluis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The Impact of the Sierra Nevada on Low-Level Winds and Water Vapor Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the influence of the Sierra Nevada on the water cycle in California the authors have analyzed low-level winds and water vapor fluxes upstream of the mountain range in regional climate model simulations. In a low Froude number (Fr) ...

Jinwon Kim; Hyun-Suk Kang

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Measuring Total Column Water Vapor by Pointing an Infrared Thermometer at the Sky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 2-yr study affirms that the temperature indicated by an inexpensive ($20–$60) IR thermometer pointed at the cloud-free zenith sky (Tz) is a proxy for total column water vapor [precipitable water (PW)]. From 8 September 2008 to 18 October 2010 Tz was ...

Forrest M. Mims III; Lin Hartung Chambers; David R. Brooks

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS Center in the atmosphere is discussed here by comparing two idealized heat engines: the Carnot cycle and the steam cycle. A steam cycle transports water from a warm moist source to a colder dryer sink. It acts as a heat engine

Pauluis, Olivier M.

158

Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore, comparability to the true ambient concentrations of tritium.

Eberhart, C.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison wit microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays an important role in weather in climate; it is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is studying the column abundance and distribution of water vapor with altitude. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is mainly for measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and spectral extinction by aerosol, it can also measure total column water vapor. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of MFRSR`s capabilities for total column water vapor under cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

The Predictive Uncertainty of Land Surface Fluxes in Response to Increasing Ambient Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the land surface and the atmosphere plays an important role in numerical weather forecasting and climate change prediction using general circulation models. In this study, a typical ...

Karsten Schulz; Andrew Jarvis; Keith Beven; Henrik Soegaard

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal mechanism by which moisture and latent heat are transported and cause "weather." The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is essential for weather and climate research as well as for operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term

162

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

163

Sensitivity of Spectroradiometric Calibrations in the Near Infrared to Variations in Atmospheric Water Vapor: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Spectra of natural sunlight and artificial sources are important in photovoltaic research. Calibration of the spectroradiometers used for these measurements is derived from the response to spectral irradiance standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Some photovoltaic devices respond in the near infrared, or NIR, so spectral measurements and calibrations are needed in this region. Over the course of several calibrations, we identified variations> 5% in spectroradiometer NIR calibration data for a certain spectroradiometer. A detailed uncertainty analysis did not reflect the observed variation. Reviewing calibration procedures and historical data, we noted that the variations were seen in water vapor absorption bands. We used spectral transmission models to compute changes in atmospheric transmission (as a function of water vapor content) over path lengths occurring during calibration. The results indicate that the observed variations result from varying water vapor content. A correction algorithm for adjusting measured data was developed based on our analysis.

Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A. A.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Direct radiometric observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect over the equatorial Pacific ocean  

SciTech Connect

Airborne radiometric measurements were used to determine tropospheric profiles of the clear sky greenhouse effect. At sea surface temperatures (SSTs) larger than 300 kelvin, the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect was found to increase with SST at a rate of 13 to 15 watts per square meter per kelvin. Satellite measurements of infrared radiances and SSTs indicate that almost 52 percent of the tropical oceans between 20{degrees}N and 20{degrees}S are affected during all seasons. Current general circulation models suggest that the increase in the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect with SST may have climatic effects on a planetary scale. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Valero, F.P.J.; Collins, W.D.; Bucholtz, A. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

165

Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Clayton and V. Brackett Science Applications International Corporation National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia T. P. Tooman and J. E. M. Goldsmith Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California J. A. Ogren National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Boulder, Colorado E. Andrews Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado

166

Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks. First quarterly report, January--March 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

FIRST DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN A PRE-STELLAR CORE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water is a crucial molecule in molecular astrophysics as it controls much of the gas/grain chemistry, including the formation and evolution of more complex organic molecules in ices. Pre-stellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and its partitioning between gas and ice in the densest cores. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Herschel Space Observatory, we report on the first detection of water vapor at high spectral resolution toward a dense cloud on the verge of star formation, the pre-stellar core L1544. The line shows an inverse P-Cygni profile, characteristic of gravitational contraction. To reproduce the observations, water vapor has to be present in the cold and dense central few thousand AU of L1544, where species heavier than helium are expected to freeze out onto dust grains, and the ortho:para H{sub 2} ratio has to be around 1:1 or larger. The observed amount of water vapor within the core (about 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }) can be maintained by far-UV photons locally produced by the impact of galactic cosmic rays with H{sub 2} molecules. Such FUV photons irradiate the icy mantles, liberating water vapor in the core center. Our Herschel data, combined with radiative transfer and chemical/dynamical models, shed light on the interplay between gas and solids in dense interstellar clouds and provide the first measurement of the water vapor abundance profile across the parent cloud of a future solar-type star and its potential planetary system.

Caselli, Paola; Douglas, Thomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Keto, Eric [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Calle Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Pagani, Laurent [LERMA and UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Yildiz, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van der Tak, Floris F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Codella, Claudio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Nisini, Brunella, E-mail: p.caselli@leeds.ac.uk [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

169

Water vapor on supergiants. The 12 micron TEXES spectra of mu Cephei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several recent papers have argued for warm, semi-detached, molecular layers surrounding red giant and supergiant stars, a concept known as a MOLsphere. Spectroscopic and interferometric analyses have often corroborated this general picture. Here, we present high-resolution spectroscopic data of pure rotational lines of water vapor at 12 microns for the supergiant mu Cephei. This star has often been used to test the concept of molecular layers around supergiants. Given the prediction of an isothermal, optically thick water-vapor layer in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium around the star (MOLsphere), we expected the 12 micron lines to be in emission or at least in absorption but filled in by emission from the molecular layer around the star. Our data, however, show the contrary; we find definite absorption. Thus, our data do not easily fit into the suggested isothermal MOLsphere scenario. The 12 micron lines, therefore, put new, strong constraints on the MOLsphere concept and on the nature of water seen in signatures across the spectra of early M supergiants. We also find that the absorption is even stronger than that calculated from a standard, spherically symmetric model photosphere without any surrounding layers. A cool model photosphere, representing cool outer layers is, however, able to reproduce the lines, but this model does not account for water vapor emission at 6 microns. Thus, a unified model for water vapor on mu Cephei appears to be lacking. It does seem necessary to model the underlying photospheres of these supergiants in their whole complexity. The strong water vapor lines clearly reveal inadequacies of classical model atmospheres.

N. Ryde; M. J. Richter; G. M. Harper; K. Eriksson; D. L. Lambert

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

How closely do changes in surface and column water vapor follow Clausius-Clapeyron scaling in climate change simulations?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The factors governing the rate of change in the amount of atmospheric water vapor are analyzed in simulations of climate change. The global-mean amount of water vapor is estimated to increase at a differential rate of 7.3% ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

171

A Feasibility Study for Simultaneous Estimates of Water Vapor and Precipitation Parameters Using a Three-Frequency Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radar return powers from a three-frequency radar, with center frequency at 22.235 GHz and upper and lower frequencies chosen with equal water vapor absorption coefficients, can be used to estimate water vapor density and parameters of the ...

R. Meneghini; L. Liao; L. Tian

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part II: Assessing the ECMWF Humidity Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent publication (Part I), the authors introduced a data source—Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC)—for monitoring and studying upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) and analyzed 10 yr (1994–2004) of ...

Zhengzhao Luo; Dieter Kley; Richard H. Johnson; Herman Smit

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water uptake and electro-osmosis are investigated to improve the understanding and aid the modeling of water transport in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) below 0 C. Measurements of water sorption isotherms show a significant reduction in the water capacity of polymer electrolytes below 0 C. This reduced water content is attributed to the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid water. At -25 C, 1100 equivalent weight Nafion in equilibrium with vapor over ice has 8 moles of water per sulfonic acid group. Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion and both random and multiblock copolymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. The electro-osmotic drag coefficient of BPSH chemistries is found to be {approx}0.4, and that of Nafion is {approx}1. No significant temperature effect on the drag coefficient is found. The implication of an electro-osmotic drag coefficient less than unity is discussed in terms of proton conduction mechanisms. Simulations of the ohmically limited current below 0 C show that a reduced water uptake below 0 C results in a significant decrease in PEMFC performance.

Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A Note on Water-Vapor Wind Tracking Using VAS Data on McIDAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eleven data sets where water-vapor winds were obtained from the GOES-5 6.7-micrometer measurement over the United States are compared with rawinsondes. Over 2OOO point comparisons are made for: a) an arbitrary height assignment of 400 mb; and b) ...

Tod R. Stewart; William L. Smith; Christopher M. Hayden

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Stratospheric Water Vapor Variability for Washington, DC/Boulder, CO: 1964–82  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements for Washington, DC and Boulder, CO are combined to provide a time series of midlatitude stratospheric water vapor data for the period 1964–82. The mean concentration for the data period is shown to be nearly constant with altitude ...

H. J. Mastenbrook; S. J. Oltmans

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Measurement of Low Amounts of Precipitable Water Vapor Using Ground-Based Millimeterwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extremely dry conditions characterized by amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) as low as 1–2 mm commonly occur in high-latitude regions during the winter months. While such dry atmospheres carry only a few percent of the latent heat energy ...

Paul E. Racette; Ed R. Westwater; Yong Han; Albin J. Gasiewski; Marian Klein; Domenico Cimini; David C. Jones; Will Manning; Edward J. Kim; James R. Wang; Vladimir Leuski; Peter Kiedron

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Intercomparison of Integrated Water Vapor Estimates from Multisensors in the Amazonian Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor is an atmospheric component of major interest in atmospheric science because it affects the energy budget and plays a key role in several atmospheric processes. The Amazonian region is one of the most humid on the planet, and land use ...

Luiz F. Sapucci; Luiz A. T. Machado; João F. G. Monico; Artemio Plana-Fattori

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Gas Scavenging of Soluble and Insoluble Organic Vapors by Levitated Water Drops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-millimeter-diameter drops of water were levitated with a standing acoustic wave centered in the jet of a small wind tunnel and the volume changes as the drop evaporates in the presence of 1-propanol vapor were measured. The results are ...

Mark Seaver; Amy Barrett

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

An Efficient Method for Computing the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient method has been developed to compute the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor. The method is based on the molecular line parameters compiled by McClatchey et al. (1973) and makes use of the far-wing scaling approximation and ...

Ming-Dah Chou; Albert Arking

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Relationships between Water Vapor Path and Precipitation over the Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between water vapor path W and surface precipitation rate P over tropical oceanic regions is analyzed using 4 yr of gridded daily SSM/I satellite microwave radiometer data. A tight monthly mean relationship P (mm day?1) = exp[...

Christopher S. Bretherton; Matthew E. Peters; Larissa E. Back

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A Climatology of Tropospheric Zonal-Mean Water Vapor Fields and Fluxes in Isentropic Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on reanalysis data for the years 1980–2001 from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40 data), a climatology of tropospheric zonal-mean water vapor fields and fluxes in isentropic coordinates is presented. In the ...

Tapio Schneider; Karen L. Smith; Paul A. O’Gorman; Christopher C. Walker

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Atmospheric Opacity. in the Schumann-Runge Bands and the Aeronomic Dissociation of Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of the agronomic production of odd hydrogen in the dissociation of water vapor is limited by uncertainties in the penetration of solar irradiance in the Schumann-Rung bands of O2 and by incomplete information concerning the products of ...

J. E. Frederick; R. D. Hudson

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

GPS/STORM—GPS Sensing of Atmospheric Water Vapor for Meteorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric water vapor was measured with six Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for 1 month at sites in Colorado, Kansas, and Oklahoma. During the time of the experiment from 7 May to 2 June 1993, the area experienced severe weather. The ...

Christian Rocken; Teresa Van Hove; James Johnson; Fred Solheim; Randolph Ware; Mike Bevis; Steve Chiswell; Steve Businger

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Luminescence Enhancement in InGaN and ZnO by Water Vapor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dependence of Ag/In Ratio of AgInS2 Crystals Grown by Hot-Press Method ... Analysis of Temperature Characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge Triple-Junction Solar Cell ... Luminescence Enhancement in InGaN and ZnO by Water Vapor Remote ...

185

A Simulation and Diagnostic Study of Water Vapor Image Dry Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS) model simulation and special 3-hour radiosonde dataset are used to investigate warm (dry) bands in 6,7 ?m water vapor satellite imagery on 6–7 March 1982. The purpose is to reveal processes ...

Bradley M. Muller; Henry E. Fuelberg

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Water Vapor Cross-Sensitivity of Open Path H2O/CO2 Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When measuring the flux of CO2 with an open-path infrared absorption sensor, cross-sensitivity by water vapor is a source of concern. This is particularly true if the flux is small, such as over the sea. In this paper some possible mechanisms for ...

W. Kohsiek

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

An Airborne Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer for Cloud, Precipitation, and Atmospheric Water Vapor Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A six-channel airborne total-power Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was recently built to provide measurements of atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and precipitation. The instrument is a cross-track scanner that has a 3-dB beamwidth of 3.5°...

P. Racette; R. F. Adler; J. R. Wang; A. J. Gasiewski; D. M. Jakson; D. S. Zacharias

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluid flow and heat transfer processes during productionis a slow process, so that rates of heat transfer to theprocesses induced by water injection into depleted or depleting vapor zones are characterized by a complex interplay between fluid flow and heat transfer,

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Parameterizations for Water Vapor IR Radiative Transfer in Both the Middle and Lower Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor contributes a maximum of 1°C/day to the middle atmospheric thermal infrared (IR) cooling. This magnitude is small but not negligible. Because of the small amount of mass involved and the extremely narrow molecular absorption lines at ...

Ming-Dah Chou; William L. Ridgway; Michael M-H. Yan

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Measured and Estimated Water Vapor Advection in the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flux of water vapor due to advection is measured using high resolution Raman lidar that was orientated horizontally across a land-lake transition. At the same time, a full surface energy balance is performed to assess the impact of scalar ...

Chad W. Higgins; Eric Pardyjak; Martin Froidevaux; Valentin Simeonov; Marc B. Parlange

191

Implications of the Stratospheric Water Vapor Distribution as Determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The LIMS experiment on Nimbus 7 has provided new results on the stratospheric water vapor distribution. The data show 1) a latitudinal gradient with mixing ratios that increase by a factor of 2 from equator to ±60 degrees at 50 mb, 2) most of the ...

Ellis Remsberg; James M. Russell III; Larry L. Gordley; John C. Gille; Paul L. Bailey

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

193

Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of surface evaporation on precipitation, known recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view ...

Michael G. Bosilovich; Siegfried D. Schubert

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Combined Passive Water Vapor Exchanger and Exhaust Gas Diffusion Barrier for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cells operating on hydrocarbon fuels require water vapor injection into the fuel stream for fuel reforming and the prevention of carbon fouling. Compared to active water recovery systems, a passive approach would eliminate the need for a separate water source, pumps, and actuators, and thus reduce parasitic thermal losses. The passive approach developed in this paper employs a capillary pump that recovers the water vapor from the exhaust, while providing a diffusion barrier that prevents exhaust gases from entering the fuel stream. Benchtop proof tests have proven the feasibility of the passive fuel humidifier concept, and have provided a calibration factor for a computational design tool that can be used for industrial applications

Williford, Rick E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hatchell, Brian K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Singh, Prabhakar (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

195

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the water cloud spectrum, due to the higher altitude of ice clouds. 4. COMPARISON WITH MODTRAN To verify with the MODTRAN4 radiative transfer model (version 1.1, Berk et al., 2000). We chose a triangular slit function chosen for the MODTRAN calculations with a FWHM of 10 cm-1 . This resolution is comparable

Salvaggio, Carl

196

In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport  

SciTech Connect

Nocturnal increases in water potential ( ) and water content (WC) in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux into the soil, a process termed hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution (HR). We have previously reported HR values up to ~0.29 mm day-1 in the upper soil for a seasonally dry old-growth ponderosa pine site. However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the diurnal patterns in WC, confounding efforts to determine the actual magnitude of HR. In this study, we estimated liquid (Jl) and vapor (Jv) soil water fluxes and their impacts on quantifying HR in situ by applying existing data sets of , WC, temperature (T) and soil physical properties to soil water transport equations. Under moist conditions, Jl between layers was estimated to be larger than necessary to account for measured nocturnal increases in WC of upper soil layers. However, as soil drying progressed unsaturated hydraulic conductivity declined rapidly such that Jl was irrelevant (< 2E-06 cm hr-1 at 0-60 cm depths) to total water flux by early August. In surface soil at depths above 15 cm, large T fluctuations can impact Jv leading to uncertainty concerning the role, if any, of HR in nocturnal WC dynamics. Vapor flux was estimated to be the highest at the shallowest depths measured (20 - 30 cm) where it could contribute up to 40% of hourly increases in nocturnal soil moisture depending on thermal conditions. While both HR and net soil water flux between adjacent layers contribute to WC in the 15-65 cm soil layer, HR was the dominant process and accounted for at least 80% of the diurnal increases in WC. While the absolute magnitude of HR is not easily quantified, total diurnal fluctuations in upper soil water content can be quantified and modeled, and remain highly applicable for establishing the magnitude and temporal dynamics of total ecosystem water flux.

Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Brooks, J Renee [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR; Dragila, Maria [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Meinzer, Rick [USDA Forest Service

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

CARBON DIOXIDE UPTAKE STUDIES IN ALGAE GROWN IN WATER AND DEUTERIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is described for studying carbon dioxide uptake in algae using C/sup 14/-labeled sodium bicarbonate as the source of carbon dioxide, Actively dividing, water grown and deuterium oxide adapted, Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris were employed in the studies. Uptake comparisons were made over pH range 6 to 9 using appropriate buffer systems. Uptake was fairly constant in the range pH 6 to 8 for both the aqueous and deuterated algae. Above pH 8 uptake dropped markedly. In general, the deuterated algae showed between 1O and 30% lower uptake than ordinary algae. Greater chlorophyll content is associated with higher carbon dioxide uptake. (auth)

Blake, M.I.; Kaganove, A.S.; Katz, J.J.

1962-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Addressing water vaporization in the vicinity of an exploding wire  

SciTech Connect

The phase state of thin ({approx}1 {mu}m) layer of water adjacent to the surface of rapidly heated thin wire 100{+-}50 {mu}m in radius is analyzed by computer hydrodynamic calculation. It is shown that when heating of a wire to a temperature of 420 deg. C is achieved in less than {approx}500 ns, the trajectory of the phase state is contained in the liquid part of the phase diagram. This suggests additional proof of and an explanation for the absence of shunting plasma discharge in fast underwater electrical wire explosions.

Grinenko, A.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Dolinsky, Yu. [Physics Department, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben Gurion University, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion{reg_sign} and both random and multi-block co-polymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. No significant change in the drag coefficient behavior for Nafion from that reported above 0 C is found. However BPSH is found to have a drag coefficient of 0.4. The implication of a drag coefficient less than unity in the interpretation of conduction mechanisms is discussed. Measurements of water sorption isotherms below 0 C are also presented. A significant reduction in the capacity of polymer electrolytes to store water below 0 C is found. This reduced water content is a result of the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid.

Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cylic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols R. A. Ferrare and K. D. Evans (a) Hughes STX Corporation Lanham, Maryland S. H. Melfi and D. N. Whiteman NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland The principal objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to develop a better understanding of the atmospheric radiative balance in order to improve the parameterization of radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs) which are used to study climate change. Meeting this objective requires detailed measurements of both water vapor and aerosols since these atmospheric constituents affect the radiation balance directly, through scattering and absorption of solar and

202

Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Theory and simulations  

SciTech Connect

Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels; and (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an {open_quote}Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption{close_quote} (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than {+-}5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

Borel, C.C.; Schlaepfer, D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite mapping observations of water vapor around Sagittarius B2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of the 1(10)-1(01) 556.936 GHz transition of ortho-water with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) have revealed the presence of widespread emission and absorption by water vapor around the strong submillimeter continuum source Sagittarius B2. An incompletely-sampled spectral line map of a region of size 26 x 19 arcmin around Sgr B2 reveals three noteworthy features. First, absorption by foreground water vapor is detectable at local standard-of-rest (LSR) velocities in the range -100 to 0 km/s at almost every observed position. Second, spatially-extended emission by water is detectable at LSR velocities in the range 80 to 120 km/s at almost every observed position. This emission is attributable to the 180-pc molecular ring identified from previous observations of CO. The typical peak antenna temperature of 0.075 K for this component implies a typical water abundance of 1.2E-6 to 8E-6 relative to H2. Third, strong absorption by water is observed within 5 arcmin of Sgr B2 at LSR veloci...

Neufeld, D A; Melnick, G J; Goldsmith, P F; Neufeld, David A.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Goldsmith, Paul F.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

Parameterization of Joint Frequency Distributions of Potential Temperature and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio in the Daytime Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Joint frequency distributions (JFDs) of potential temperature (?) versus water vapor mixing ratio (r) within the convective boundary layer were measured during a new field experiment named Boundary Layer Experiment 1996 (BLX96). These JFDs were ...

Larry K. Berg; Roland B. Stull

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

An Open Path, Fast Response IR Spectrometer for Simultaneous Detection of C02 and Water Vapor Fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast response C02 and water vapor (H2O) analyzer was developed in this study for the measurement of atmospheric turbulence fluctuations and, in conjunction with a fast response anemometer, transport of these entities. High speed and high ...

M. J. Heikinheimo; G. W. Thurtell; G. E. Kidd

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Response of Water Vapor and CO2 Fluxes in Semiarid Lands to Seasonal and Intermittent Precipitation Pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation pulses are important in controlling ecological processes in semiarid ecosystems. The effects of seasonal and intermittent precipitation events on net water vapor and CO2 fluxes were determined for crested wheatgrass (Agropyron ...

Sasha Ivans; Lawrence Hipps; A. Joshua Leffler; Carolyn Y. Ivans

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

An Integrated Assessment of Measured and Modeled Integrated Water Vapor in Switzerland for the Period 2001–03  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper an integrated assessment of the vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) measured by radiosonde, microwave radiometer (MWR), and GPS and modeled by the limited-area mesoscale model of MeteoSwiss is presented. The different IWV ...

G. Guerova; E. Brockmann; F. Schubiger; J. Morland; C. Mätzler

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Water Vapor, Surface Temperature, and the Greenhouse Effect—A Statistical Analysis of Tropical-Mean Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor feedback is one of the important factors that determine the response of the atmosphere to surface warming. To take into account the compensating drying effects in downdraft regions, averaging over the whole Tropics is necessary. ...

Hu Yang; Ka Kit Tung

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Hurricane Debby—An Illustration of the Complementary Nature of VAS Soundings and Cloud and Water Vapor Motion Winds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility of VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) temperature and moisture soundings and cloud and water vapor motion winds in defining a storm and its surroundings at subsynoptic scales has been examined using a numerical analysis and prognosis ...

John F. Le Marshall; William L. Smith; Geary M. Callan

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Water Vapor Structure Displacements from Cloud-Free Meteosat Scenes and Their Interpretation for the Wind Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaluation of water vapor (WV) images taken by satellite-borne radiometers has become an essential source of data in modern meteorology. The analysis of structure displacements within sections of WV images is an effective way to get ...

G. Büche; H. Karbstein; A. Kummer; H. Fischer

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Satellite-Model Coupled Analysis of Convective Potential in Florida with VAS Water Vapor and Surface Temperature Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for time-continuous mesoscale weather analysis is applied to a study of convective cloud development in central Florida. The analysis system incorporates water vapor concentrations and surface temperatures retrieved from infrared VISSR (...

Alan E. Lipton; George D. Modica; Scot T. Heckman; Arthur J. Jackson

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

A Satellite Study of the Relationship between Sea Surface Temperature and Column Water Vapor over Tropical and Subtropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The known characteristics of the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and column water vapor (CWV) are reevaluated with recent satellite observations over tropical and subtropical oceans. Satellite data acquired by the Aqua Advanced ...

Kaya Kanemaru; Hirohiko Masunaga

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Use of Digital Warping of Microwave Integrated Water Vapor Imagery to Improve Forecasts of Marine Extratropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique is described in which forecasts of the locations of features associated with marine cyclones may be improved through the use of microwave integrated water vapor (IWV) imagery and image warping of forecast mesoscale model fields. Here, ...

G. David Alexander; James A. Weinman; J. L. Schols

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Measurement of Water Vapor Flux Profiles in the Convective Boundary Layer with Lidar and Radar-RASS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A remote-sensing method to retrieve vertical profiles of water vapor flux in the convective boundary layer by using a differential absorption lidar and a radar-radio acoustic sounding system is described. The system's height range presently ...

Christoph Senff; Jens Bösenberg; Gerhard Peters

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Representation of Water Vapor and Its Dependence on Vertical Resolution in the Hadley Centre Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of the Hadley Centre Atmospheric Climate Model version 3, HadAM3, are used to investigate the impact of increasing vertical resolution on simulated climates. In particular, improvements in the representation of water vapor and ...

V. D. Pope; J. A. Pamment; D. R. Jackson; A. Slingo

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Boundary-Layer Water Vapor Probing with a Solar-Blind Raman Lidar: Validations, Meteorological Observations and Prospects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of a solar-blind Raman lidar (SBRL) to measure the vertical profile of water vapor in the boundary layer is proved from a theoretical as well as an experimental point of view.

D. Renaut; R. Capitini

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Evolution of Water Vapor Concentrations and Stratospheric Age of Air in Coupled Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric water vapor concentrations and age of air are investigated in an ensemble of coupled chemistry-climate model simulations covering the period from 1960 to 2005. Observed greenhouse gas concentrations, halogen concentrations, aerosol ...

John Austin; John Wilson; Feng Li; Holger Vömel

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Verification of NWP Model Analyses and Radiosonde Humidity Data with GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Estimates during AMMA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper assesses the performance of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Integrated Forecast System (ECMWF-IFS) operational analysis and NCEP–NCAR reanalyses I and II over West Africa, using precipitable water vapor (PWV) ...

O. Bock; M. Nuret

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Column Water Vapor Statistics and Their Relationship to Deep Convection, Vertical and Horizontal Circulation, and Moisture Structure at Nauru  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships among relatively high-frequency probability distribution functions (pdfs) of anomalous column water vapor (cwv), precipitating deep convection, and the vertical and horizontal structures of circulation and tropospheric moisture are ...

Benjamin R. Lintner; Christopher E. Holloway; J. David Neelin

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Near-Infrared Diode Laser Spectrometer for the In Situ Measurement of Methane and Water Vapor from Stratospheric Balloons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Spectromètre à Diodes Laser Accordables (SDLA), a balloonborne near-infrared diode laser spectrometer, was developed to provide simultaneous in situ measurements of methane and water vapor in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The ...

Georges Durry; Ivan Pouchet

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Intercalibration of GOES-11 and GOES-12 Water Vapor Channels with MetOp IASI Hyperspectral Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibrated radiances from geostationary water vapor channels play an important role for weather forecasting, data assimilation, and climate studies. Therefore, better understanding the data quality for radiance measurements and independently ...

Likun Wang; Changyong Cao; Mitch Goldberg

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Reduction of Noise Interference from METEOSAT Water Vapor Image Data by Means of Fourier Transform and Frequency Domain Filtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Images provided by the water vapor channel data of meteorological satellites are suitable for the determination of wind vectors in the midtroposphere. Preprocessing the image data affects the quality and quantity of the derived wind vectors. ...

Gerhard Gesell; Herbert Fischer; Thomas König

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Comparison of Near–Real Time Estimates of Integrated Water Vapor Derived with GPS, Radiosondes, and Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the authors compare the integrated water vapor (IWV) retrieved with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, radiosondes (RS), and a microwave radiometer (MWR) using data collected simultaneously during a 3-month campaign in the ...

Joël Van Baelen; Jean-Pierre Aubagnac; Alain Dabas

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Intercomparisons of Stratospheric Water Vapor Sensors: FLASH-B and NOAA/CMDL Frost-Point Hygrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of global climate rely critically on accurate water vapor measurements. In this paper, a comparison of the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) frost-point hygrometer and the Fluorescent Advanced Stratospheric ...

H. Vömel; V. Yushkov; S. Khaykin; L. Korshunov; E. Kyrö; R. Kivi

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Validation of Precipitable Water Vapor within the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis Using Global GPS Observations from One Decade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to previous studies validating numerical weather prediction (NWP) models using observations from the global positioning system (GPS), this paper focuses on the validation of seasonal and interannual variations in the water vapor. The ...

Sibylle Vey; Reinhard Dietrich; Axel Rülke; Mathias Fritsche; Peter Steigenberger; Markus Rothacher

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Eye-Safe Diode-Laser-Based Micropulse Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Water Vapor Profiling in the Lower Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A second-generation diode-laser-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configured micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for profiling of lower-tropospheric water vapor is presented. The DIAL transmitter is based on a ...

Amin R. Nehrir; Kevin S. Repasky; John L. Carlsten

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometric Observations of Precipitable Water Vapor: A Comparison with Ground Truth from Two Radiosonde Observing Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dual-channel microwave radiometric measurements of precipitable water vapor are compared with values determined from two types of radiosondes. The first type is used in conventional soundings taken by the National Weather Service. The second is ...

Ed R. Westwater; Michael J. Falls; Ingrid A. Popa Fotino

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Comparisons of Line-of-Sight Water Vapor Observations Using the Global Positioning System and a Pointing Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Line-of-sight measurements of integrated water vapor from a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a microwave radiometer are compared. These two instruments were collocated at the central facility of the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric ...

John Braun; Christian Rocken; James Liljegren

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison with microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays a fundamental role in weather and climate. It is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is devoting a large fraction of its resources for the accurate characterization of the column abundance and the distribution of water vapor with altitude. Balloon sondes, microwave radiometers, and Raman lidars are the major instruments either currently in use or under consideration for these tasks. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is primarily intended for use in accurate measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and in the measurement of spectral extinction by aerosol, it has the potential to measure total column water vapor as well. In this paper the authors report on a preliminary investigation of the MFRSR`s capabilities with regard to accurate measurements of total column water vapor at times when there is a clear path to the sun, i.e., cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Analysis of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Brightness Temperatures from SSM/T2, HIRS, and GMS-5 VISSR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite microwave and infrared instruments sensitive to upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) are compared using both simulated and observed cloud-cleared brightness temperatures (Tb’s). To filter out cloudy scenes, a cloud detection algorithm ...

Wesley Berg; John J. Bates; Darren L. Jackson

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Intercomparison of Water Vapor Data Measured with Lidar during IHOP_2002. Part II: Airborne-to-Airborne Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dataset of the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) gives the first opportunity for direct intercomparisons of airborne water vapor lidar systems and allows very important conclusions to be drawn for future field campaigns. Three airborne ...

Andreas Behrendt; Volker Wulfmeyer; Thorsten Schaberl; Hans-Stefan Bauer; Christoph Kiemle; Gerhard Ehret; Cyrille Flamant; Susan Kooi; Syed Ismail; Richard Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; David N. Whiteman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Intercalibrating microwave satellite observations for monitoring long-term variations in upper and mid-tropospheric water vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the growing archive of 183 GHz water vapor absorption band measurements from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) onboard polar orbiting satellites and document adjustments necessary to use ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden; Viju O. John

235

Effects of adsorbed water vapor on the Wheeler kinetic rate constant and kinetic adsorption capacity for activated carbon adsorbents  

SciTech Connect

Activated carbon plays a key role reducing organic vapor emissions to the environment from synthetic chemical manufacturing, pesticide manufacturing, in odor control, for removal of contaminant vapors during remediation of hazardous waste sites, and as an adsorption matrix for collection of organic vapors from ambient air in occupational and environmental settings to assess exposure. The Wheeler dynamic adsorption model has been evaluated under laboratory conditions and has shown potential for predicting activated carbon bed penetration. Water vapor is a normal constituent of ambient air that is present at concentrations 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations of potentially toxic air contaminants. Many investigations have shown that adsorbed water vapor can reduce the breakthrough-time of activated charcoal beds. The effect of adsorbed water vapor on the predictive power of the Wheeler model has not been evaluated. The research evaluated the effect of water vapor adsorbed on activated charcoal on the subsequent adsorption of four air contaminants, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene, and 1-propanol. The adsorbent used in this research had a large surface area, 1200 m[sup 2]/g and that 95% of the surface area was associated with micropores (pores with diameters less than 2 micrometers). Kinetic adsorption capacities for all four adsorbates were not affected by the presence of water vapor except for some observed enhancement. The kinetic trial data suggest that the primary effect of adsorbed water vapor was to reduce the effective pore radius of the smaller mesopores thus restricting pore diffusion. This results in an increase in the critical bed capacity with shorter breakthrough times for adsorbent beds.

Hall, T.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter recovered rapidly from shutdowns showing that the system was resilient to discontinuous feed conditions therefore provided flexibility on the SMZ regeneration process.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

237

Biphasic catalysis in water/carbon dioxide micellar systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for catalyzing an organic reaction to form a reaction product by placing reactants and a catalyst for the organic reaction, the catalyst of a metal complex and at least one ligand soluble within one of the phases of said aqueous biphasic system, within an aqueous biphasic system including a water phase, a dense phase fluid, and a surfactant adapted for forming an emulsion or microemulsion within the aqueous biphasic system, the reactants soluble within one of the phases of the aqueous biphasic system and convertible in the presence of the catalyst to a product having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble; and, maintaining the aqueous biphasic system under pressures, at temperatures, and for a period of time sufficient for the organic reaction to occur and form the reaction product and to maintain sufficient density on the dense phase fluid, the reaction product characterized as having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble.

Jacobson, Gunilla B. (Los Alamos, NM); Tumas, William (Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Keith P. (Austin, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Tower and Aircraft Eddy Covariance Measurements of Water Vapor, Energy, and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes during SMACEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A network of eddy covariance (EC) and micrometeorological flux (METFLUX) stations over corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] canopies was established as part of the Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) in ...

J. H. Prueger; J. L. Hatfield; T. B. Parkin; W. P. Kustas; L. E. Hipps; C. M. U. Neale; J. I. MacPherson; W. E. Eichinger; D. I. Cooper

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Field Testing of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzers Measuring Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prevalent methods for making high-accuracy tower-based measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio, notably nondispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR), require frequent system calibration and sample drying. Wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down ...

Scott J. Richardson; Natasha L. Miles; Kenneth J. Davis; Eric R. Crosson; Chris W. Rella; Arlyn E. Andrews

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

Mills, Bernice E.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The adsorption of water vapor on carbon fiber composite molecular sieve  

SciTech Connect

Carbon Fiber Composite Molecular Sieve (CFCMS) is a porous adsorbent carbon material manufactured from isotropic pitch derived carbon fibers and a phenolic resin binder via a slurry molding process. The material is produced in the form of a monolith and can be activated in steam, CO{sub 2} or O{sub 2}, during which it develops high BET surface areas and micropore volumes. The material has a continuous carbon skeletal structure and is, therefore, electrically conductive. The passage of an electric current at low voltage allows for direct resistive heating of the carbon and thus provides an efficient method of desorbing adsorbed gases. This method of separating gases has been named electrical swing adsorption (ESA) and is analogous to thermal or pressure swing adsorption. Recently, the authors have examined the potential of CFCMS/ESA for the adsorption and separation of water vapor. Frequently, water vapor must be removed from a gas stream before separation and processing can occur. To assess the potential of CFCMS for water adsorption a series of CFCMS samples were manufactured and activated to relatively high burn-off. Half of each sample was treated at 200 C in flowing oxygen to increase the number of chemisorbed surface functional groups. The amount of water adsorbed has previously been shown to be controlled by the availability of surface functional groups (such as carboxylic acid) which act as active sites for the adsorption of water. Here the authors report the preliminary study of the moisture adsorption behavior of treated and untreated CFCMS samples.

Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.; Rogers, M.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are currently being assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Transport properties of fission product vapors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kinetic theory of gases is used to calculate the transport properties of fission product vapors in a steam and hydrogen environment. Provided in tabular form is diffusivity of steam and hydrogen, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gaseous mixture, and diffusivity of cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide, diatomic tellurium and tellurium dioxide. These transport properties are required in determining the thermal-hydraulics of and fission product transport in light water reactors.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Water vapor and greenhouse trapping: The role of far infrared absorption  

SciTech Connect

Few observations have been made of atmospheric absorption across the far infra-red. Yet water vapour absorption in this spectral region may significantly effect climate. The impact of far infra-red absorption is assessed by calculating the spectral variation of the total and water vapour greenhouse effects, for the sub-arctic winter (SAW) and tropical (TRP) standard atmospheres. Although the calculated efficiency of greenhouse trapping peaks outside of the far infra-red, the low strength there of the Planck function causes relatively small absolute forcings, except in the carbon dioxide and ozone bands. The sensitivity of the normalised greenhouse effect to water vapour concentration is largest in the far infra-red for the SAW atmosphere, and in the window region for the TRP. The sensitivity differs most between the two atmospheres in the far infra-red, over the middle/upper troposphere; in the SAw case the contribution from the water vapour continuum is virtually eliminated. Improved spectral observations and simulations at far infra-red wavelengths thus appear necessary to better understand the contemporary greenhouse effect, and to validate models of climate change. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Sinha, A.; Harries, J.E. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road (United Kingdom)

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, F. A. Best, and R. G. Dedecker University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Accurate and spectrally detailed observations of the thermal emission from radiatively important atmospheric gases, aerosols, and clouds are now being provided to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data base by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) prototype at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Spectra over the range from 520 to 3000 cm -1 (3 to 19 microns) with a resolution of 0.5 cm

249

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

250

Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.

Pruess, K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Water vapor transmittance models for narrow bands in the 13 to 19. mu. m spectral region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the development of water vapor transmittance models for narrow bands (satellite sensor channels) in the 13 to 19 ..mu..m spectral region. The models are the result of research efforts of the author in 1971-1972 while on active duty with the US Air Force at the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC). The models were developed for application in studies involving a temperature profiling sensor system carried aboard the satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), formerly DAPP. Recently, (Lovill et al., 1978; Luther et al., 1981) the models were implemented for studies concerned with methodologies to retrieve total atmospheric column ozone from measurements of newer DMSP Block 5D series satellite sensors with similar channels (see Nichols, 1975).

Weichel, R.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Water Vapor, Condensed Water, and Crystal Concentration in Orographically Influenced Cirrus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from measurements made with a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) in cirriform clouds containing crystals with dimensions typically less than 30 ?m. Independent measurements of crystal number concentration and cloud water ...

Johan Ström; Jost Heintzenberg

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

OBSERVATION Microbial Electrosynthesis: Feeding Microbes Electricity To Convert Carbon Dioxide and Water to Multicarbon Extracellular Organic Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The possibility of providing the acetogenic microorganism Sporomusa ovata with electrons delivered directly to the cells with a graphite electrode for the reduction of carbon dioxide to organic compounds was investigated. Biofilms of S. ovata growing on graphite cathode surfaces consumed electrons with the reduction of carbon dioxide to acetate and small amounts of 2-oxobutyrate. Electrons appearing in these products accounted for over 85 % of the electrons consumed. These results demonstrate that microbial production of multicarbon organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water with electricity as the energy source is feasible. IMPORTANCE Reducing carbon dioxide to multicarbon organic chemicals and fuels with electricity has been identified as an attractive strategy to convert solar energy that is harvested intermittently with photovoltaic technology and store it as covalent chemical bonds. The organic compounds produced can then be distributed via existing infrastructure. Nonbiological electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has proven problematic. The results presented here suggest that microbiological catalysts may be a robust alternative, and when coupled with photovoltaics, current-driven microbial carbon dioxide reduction represents a new form of photosynthesis that might convert solar energy to organic products more effectively than traditional biomass-based strategies.

Kelly P. Nevin; Trevor L. Woodard; Ashley E. Franks; Zarath M. Summers; Derek R. Lovley

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten years (1994–2004) of measurements of tropical upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) are investigated over three regions—the tropical Atlantic, tropical Africa, ...

Zhengzhao Luo; Dieter Kley; Richard H. Johnson; Herman Smit

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Diurnal Cycle of Water Vapor as Documented by a Dense GPS Network in a Coastal Area during ESCOMPTE IOP2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global positioning system (GPS) data from a dense network have been used for the analysis of the diurnal cycle of water vapor over Marseille, France, during the second intensive observation period (IOP2; 21–26 June 2001) of the Expérience sur ...

Sophie Bastin; Cédric Champollion; Olivier Bock; Philippe Drobinski; Frédéric Masson

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

First-Order Structure Function Analysis of Statistical Scale Invariance in the AIRS-Observed Water Vapor Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power-law scale dependence, or scaling, of first-order structure functions of the tropospheric water vapor field between 58°S and 58°N is investigated using observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Power-law scale dependence ...

Kyle G. Pressel; William D. Collins

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Comparison of Aura MLS Water Vapor Measurements with GFS and NAM Analyses in the Upper Troposphere–Lower Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor mixing ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere measured by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 2.2 instrument have been compared with Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses at five levels within the 300–100-hPa ...

Le Van Thien; William A. Gallus Jr.; Mark A. Olsen; Nathaniel Livesey

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Water Vapor Transport Associated with the 30–50 Day Oscillation over the Asian Monsoon Regions during 1979 Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we examine the water vapor transport over the entire Asian monsoon region using the FGGE III-b data of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Effort is ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Ming-Cheng Yen; Masato Murakami

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer and Diode Laser Hygrometer on the NASA DC-8  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January–February 2003, the 14-channel NASA Ames airborne tracking sun photometer (AATS) and the NASA Langley/Ames diode laser hygrometer (DLH) were flown on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. The AATS measured column water vapor on the aircraft-to-sun ...

J. M. Livingston; B. Schmid; P. B. Russell; J. R. Podolske; J. Redemann; G. S. Diskin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

One-Parameter Scaling and Exponential-Sum Fitting for Water Vapor and CO2 Infrared Transmission Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A medium-sized band model for water vapor and CO2 absorption is developed using the one-parameter scaling approximation. The infrared spectrum is divided into 10 bands. The Planck-weighted diffuse transmittance is reduced to a function dependent ...

Ming-Dah Chou; William L. Ridgway; Michael M-H. Yan

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Portable Eddy Covariance System for the Measurement of Ecosystem–Atmosphere Exchange of CO2, Water Vapor, and Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed and field-tested a portable eddy covariance system to measure exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The ...

D. P. Billesbach; M. L. Fischer; M. S. Torn; J. A. Berry

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

In Situ Measurement of the Water Vapor 18O/16O Isotope Ratio for Atmospheric and Ecological Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a system for in situ measurement of H216O/H218O in air based on tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption spectroscopy is described. Laboratory tests showed that its 60-min precision (one standard deviation) was 0.21‰ at a water vapor ...

Xuhui Lee; Steve Sargent; Ronald Smith; Bert Tanner

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Four-Dimensional Variational Data Analysis of Water Vapor Raman Lidar Data and Their Impact on Mesoscale Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of water vapor observations on mesoscale initial fields provided by a triangle of Raman lidar systems covering an area of about 200 km × 200 km is investigated. A test case during the Lindenberg Campaign for Assessment of Humidity and ...

Matthias Grzeschik; Hans-Stefan Bauer; Volker Wulfmeyer; Dirk Engelbart; Ulla Wandinger; Ina Mattis; Dietrich Althausen; Ronny Engelmann; Matthias Tesche; Andrea Riede

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

First-Year Operation of a New Water Vapor Raman Lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new water vapor Raman lidar was recently built at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California and more than a year of routine 2-h-long nighttime measurements 4–5 times per week have been completed. The ...

Thierry Leblanc; I. Stuart McDermid; Robin A. Aspey

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES FOR DESIGNING NEW POWER GENERATION CYCLES  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken with the goal of developing a computational package for the thermodynamic properties of ammonia-water-carbon dioxide mixtures at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. This objective was accomplished by modifying an existing set of empirical equations of state for ammonia-water mixtures. This involved using the Wagner equation of state for the gas phase properties of carbon dioxide. In the liquid phase, Pitzer's ionic model was used. The implementation of this approach in the form of a computation package that can be used for the optimization of power cycles required additional code development. In particular, this thermodynamic model consisted of a large set of non-linear equations. Consequently, in the interest of computational speed and robustness that is required when applied to optimization problems, analytic gradients were incorporated in the Newton solver routines. The equations were then implemented using a stream property predictor to make initial guesses of the composition, temperature, pressure, enthalpy, entropy, etc. near a known state. The predictor's validity is then tested upon the convergence of an iteration. It proved difficult to obtain experimental data from the literature that could be used to test the accuracy of the new thermodynamic property package, and this remains a critical need for future efforts in the area. It was possible, however, to assess the feasibility of using this complicated property prediction package for power cycle design and optimization. Such feasibility was first demonstrated by modification of our Kalina cycle optimization code to use the package with either a deterministic optimizer, MINOS, or a stochastic optimizer using differential evolution, a genetic-algorithm-based technique. Beyond this feasibility demonstration, a new approach to the design and optimization of power cycles was developed using a graph theoretic approach.

Ashish Gupta

2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report examines the validity and explores the practical implications of the proposition that CO2 enrichment of the leaf environment enhances plant growth and, simultaneously decreases plant water use. A theoretical analysis of the water and carbon dioxide balance of plant leaves was made in the form of a computer program based upon known physiological facts. It predicts significant increases in water use efficiency by plants as CO is enriched, the size of the increase depending upon the external conditions. Experimental tests were conducted in an environmental simulator with stands of soybean, pepper and southern pea plants. The predictions of the model were substantially verified, with CO2 concentrations ranging from normal to six-fold normal. Although CO2 is obviously an ideal antitranspirant, the efficacy of its release in open stands is doubtful in view of plausible economic factors. Butt in enclosures this would be a different matter, and for such situations the present report gives a scientific basis for engineering and system analysis.

van Bavel, C. H. M.

1972-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Modeling studies of cold water injection into fluid-depleted, vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The physical processes involved in cold water injection into a ''superheated'' fractured reservoir are not yet fully understood, and this insufficient knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms limits the possibility of forecasting future resevoir behavior and optimizing the heat extraction process. Numerical simulation can be a very effective tool in the study of the complex phenomena involved, allowing a rapid examination of different situations and conditions, a systematic investigation of the effects of various parameters on reservoir performance, and some insight into long term behavior. We have performed simulation experiments on simple one-dimensional, porous and fractured reservoir models in order to study the migration of injected water, thermodynamic conditions in the boiling zone, heat extraction, and vapor generation. A two-dimensional radial porous medium model, with some characteristics typical of the high productivity zones of Larderello, has also been applied for studying the evolution of the shape and the thermodynamic conditions of the injection plume in the presence of gravity, reservoir heterogeneities and anisotropy.

Calore, C.; Pruess, K.; Celati, R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system) constraints across the United States. Finally, a representative scenario for a 1,800 MW subcritical coal fired power plant (amongst other types including supercritical coal, integrated gasification combined cycle, natural gas turbine and natural gas combined cycle) can look to existing and new carbon capture, transportation, compression and sequestration technologies along with a suite of extracting and treating technologies for water to assess the system's overall physical and economic viability. Thus, this particular plant, with 90% capture, will reduce the net emissions of CO{sub 2} (original less the amount of energy and hence CO{sub 2} emissions required to power the carbon capture water treatment systems) less than 90%, and its water demands will increase by approximately 50%. These systems may increase the plant's LCOE by approximately 50% or more. This representative example suggests that scaling up these CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies to many plants throughout the country could increase the water demands substantially at the regional, and possibly national level. These scenarios for all power plants and saline formations throughout U.S. can incorporate new information as it becomes available for potential new plant build out planning.

Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Water uptake of clay and desert dust aerosol particles at sub- and supersaturated water vapor conditions  

SciTech Connect

Airborne mineral dust particles serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby influencing the formation and properties of warm clouds. It is therefore of particular interest how dust aerosols with different mineralogy behave when exposed to high relative humidity (RH) or supersaturation with respect to liquid water similar to atmospheric conditions. In this study the sub-saturated hygroscopic growth and the supersaturated cloud condensation nucleus activity of pure clays and real desert dust aerosols was determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC), respectively. Five different illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay samples as well as three desert dust samples (Saharan dust (SD), Chinese dust (CD) and Arizona test dust (ATD)) were used. Aerosols were generated both with a wet and a dry disperser and the water uptake was parameterized via the hygroscopicity parameter, ?. The hygroscopicity of dry generated dust aerosols was found to be negligible when compared to processed atmospheric aerosols, with CCNC derived ? values between 0.00 and 0.02. The latter value can be idealized as a particle consisting of 96.7% (by volume) insoluble material and ~3.3% ammonium sulfate. Pure clay aerosols were found to be generally less hygroscopic than real desert dust particles. All illite and montmorillonite samples had ?~0.003, kaolinites were least hygroscopic and had ?=0.001. SD (?=0.023) was found to be the most hygroscopic dry-generated desert dust followed by CD (?=0.007) and ATD (?=0.003). Wet-generated dust showed an increased water uptake when compared to dry-generated samples. This is considered to be an artifact introduced by redistribution of soluble material between the particles while immersed in an aqueous medium during atomization, thus indicating that specification of the generation method is critically important when presenting such data. Any atmospheric processing of fresh mineral dust which leads to the addition of more than ~3% soluble material is expected to significantly enhance hygroscopicity and CCN activity.

Herich, Hanna; Tritscher, Torsten; Wiacek, Aldona; Gysel, Martin; Weingartner, E.; Lohmann, U.; Baltensperger, Urs; Cziczo, Daniel J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, of theTransport in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs, Geothermics,Depletion of Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs, Lawrence

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL): Impact of Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations on Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor Content of the TTL Jiwen Fan Climate Physics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contributed by: Jennifer Comstock, Mikhail Ovtchinnikov, Sally McFarlane, and Greg McFarquhar OBJECTIVES Look into the effects of the commonly used heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing parameterizations on anvil properties and water vapor content in the TTL for the deep convective clouds developed in the contrasting environments. Examine the impact of the immersion-freezing on homogeneous freezing process. Homogeneous freezing parameterizations (HFPs) 1) Koop et al. (2000): J r depends on the water activity of the solution and is independent of the nature of solute.

275

Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The benefits of using a two stage vapor compression heat pump with ammonia water solution circuits (VCHSC) to simultaneously provide chilled water for air conditioning and hot water for various uses are reviewed. The performance results for a two stage VCHSC are summarized. Experimental results indicate that the two stage VCHSC can achieve cooling coefficient of performances as high as 1.04 while pumping heat through a lift of 194°F (108°C). Comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired furnace. The basis for comparison being primary energy usage, energy cost and initial cost of the systems. Energy saving at various operating conditions is estimated. In some cases, energy saving could be as high as 31%. Based on the national average energy prices in 1991 and the projected prices for 1995, suitable applications for the two stage VCHSC have been identified.

Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

277

DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

Ashish Gupta

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

279

SAT-TMMC: Liquid-Vapor coexistence properties - TraPPE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SAT-TMMC: Liquid-Vapor coexistence properties - TraPPE Carbon Dioxide. ... Fluid, Carbon Dioxide. Model, TraPPE [1]. V, 27000 Å 3. TRUNCATION, ...

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

280

Interactions of Plutonium Dioxide with Water and Oxygen-Hydrogen Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure-volume-temperature data and mass spectrometric results obtained during exposure of PuO{sub 2} to D{sub 2}O show that the dioxide reacts with water at room temperature to produce a higher oxide (PuO{sub 2+x})and H{sub 2}. Results demonstrate that PuO{sub 2+x} is the thermodynamically stable oxide in air. The absence of O{sub 2} at detectable levels in the gas phase implies that radiolytic decomposition of water to the elements is not a significant reaction. The rate of the PuO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O reaction is 6{+-}4 nmol H{sub 2}/m{sup 2} day, a value that is independent of the H{sub 2}O concentration on the oxide over a range that extends from fractional monolayer coverage to saturation by liquid water. Evaluation of literature data shows that oxide compositions in excess of PuO{sub 2.25} are attained, but the maximum value of x is unknown. During exposure of PuO{sub 2} to a 2:1 D{sub 2}:O{sub 2} mixture at room temperature, the elements combine by a process consistent with a surface-catalyzed reaction. Water is simultaneously formed by the H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction and consumed by the PuO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O reaction and accumulates until the opposing rates are equal. Thereafter, PuO{sub 2+x} is formed at a constant rate by the water-catalyzed PuO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} reaction. The failure of earlier attempts to prepare higher oxides of plutonium is discussed and the catalytic cycle that promotes the reaction of PuO{sub 2} with O{sub 2} is described. Implications of the results for extended storage and environmental chemistry of oxide are examined. Moisture-catalyzed oxidation of PuO{sub 2} accounts for observation of both pressure increases and decreases in oxide storage containers with air atmospheres. Application of the experimental rate results indicates that the reaction of a typical oxide with 0.5 mass % of adsorbed water maybe complete after 25 to 50 years at room temperature.

Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

283

Effects of Water Vapor on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels Under Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Exposure Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation of ferritic stainless steels has been studied under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect ''dual'' exposure conditions, i.e. simultaneous exposure to air on one side of the sample, and fuel (hydrogen) on the other. It was found that, under the dual exposures, the oxidation behavior of the stainless steels at the airside differed significantly from that observed during exposure to air at both sides. Increased water vapor partial pressure in the air at the airside further accelerated the anomalous oxidation, resulting in nucleation and growth of hematite in the scale that led to a localized attack. The accelerated oxidation and growth of the hematite nodules was a result of combined effects of hydrogen transport from the fuel side to the airside and the presence of increased water vapor.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment. The kinetics of the new desulfurization process has been studied. The study results provide the theoretical guidance for improving sulfur removal efficiency and controlling the quality of PFS.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Improved efficiency in the sulfur dioxide-iodine hydrogen cycle through the use of magnesium oxide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of iodine with dry magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfite hexahydrate was studied experimentally as a possible means of improving the efficiency of the sulfur dioxide-iodine cycle. When no extra water was introduced, the maximum product yield was 67% obtained at 423 K. With excess water vapor, a nonporous plug was formed which prevented complete reaction. In the second case, maximum yield was 62% measured at 433 K showing that added water does not increase reaction products. This reaction gives an alternate route for producing hydrogen from water via the sulfur dioxide-iodine process.

Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Maintenance of the free-tropospheric tropical water vapor distribution. Part I: Clear regime budget  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor budget, of the free troposphere of the maritime Tropics is investigated using radiosonde observations, analyzed fields, and satellite observations, with particular attention paid to regions free of organized convection. In these arid regions, time-average drying by subsidence must be balanced by moistening horizontal advection from convective areas and via vertical turbulent transport from below. It is found that for at least 25% of the maritime Tropics, 80% - 10% of this source above 700 mb is by horizontal advection. The remainder comes from vertical convective transport (scales < 250 km), with a pronounced local maximum at 500 mb. The regions for which this is true are characterized by pentad outgoing longwave radiation > 270 W m{sup -2} and may be said to exist out of equilibrium with the surface as regards moisture. Transport from below makes a significant contribution between 700 and 800 mb, despite the usual presence of an inversion below these levels, but is difficult to quantify accurately. The convective transport convergence is estimated as a residual from large-scale budgets and directly from sounding time series by an independent method, which shows a narrow maximum at 500 mb. Half of the paper addresses the question of data accuracy, including sounding and analyzed data, as it pertains to the question at hand. It is concluded that the moisture budgets from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses are of useful accuracy despite some significant mean discrepancies between the analyses and sounding observations in convective areas. The budget is found to be similar to that of a general circulation model based on the ECMWF forecasting model. Humidity measurements from operational soundings appear responsive below 300 mb, but then abruptly become unresponsive. 39 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Sherwood, S.C. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Comparison of Column Water Vapor Measurements Using Downward-looking Near-Infrared and Infrared Imaging Systems and Upward-looking Microwave Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote soundings of precipitable water vapor from three systems are compared with each other and with ground truth from radiosondes. Ancillary data from a mesoscale network of surface observing stations and from wind-profiling radars are also ...

Bo-Cai Gao; Alexander F. H. Goetz; Ed R. Westwater; B. Boba Stankov; D. Birkenheuer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances Michael J. Iacono, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 USA 1. Overview Objectives: * Evaluate water vapor and temperature simulation in two versions of CAM3 by comparing modeled and observed cloud-cleared AIRS spectral radiances. * Use spectral differences to verify comparisons between modeled water vapor and temperature and observed fields retrieved from AIRS radiances. Models: OSS: Optimal Spectral Sampling model developed at AER was used to simulate clear sky AIRS radiance spectra in CAM3. RRTMG/McICA: ARM-supported LW and SW radiative transfer model developed at AER for application to GCMs. RRTMG has been fully

289

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are widely used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). Comparisons of PWV derived from MWRs with water vapor retrievals from instruments like radiosondes, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Raman

290

The Validation of AIRS Retrievals of Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Using Measurements from a Network of Ground-Based GPS Receivers over the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robust and easily implemented verification procedure based on the column-integrated precipitable water (IPW) vapor estimates derived from a network of ground-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers has been used to assess the quality of ...

M. K. Rama Varma Raja; Seth I. Gutman; James G. Yoe; Larry M. McMillin; Jiang Zhao

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II CD-ROM Atlas of Global Monthly Aerosols, Ozone, NO2, Water, Vapor, and Relative Humitidy (1985–1993)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual profile measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite have been used to create latitude-longitude maps of monthly mean aerosols, ozone, water vapor, ...

D. Rind; X. Liao

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Prognostic Parameterization for the Subgrid-Scale Variability of Water Vapor and Clouds in Large-Scale Models and Its Use to Diagnose Cloud Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parameterization for the horizontal subgrid-scale variability of water vapor and cloud condensate is introduced, which is used to diagnose cloud fraction in the spirit of statistically based cloud cover parameterizations. High-resolution cloud-...

Adrian M. Tompkins

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Experimental Determination of Water Vapor Profiles from Ground-Based Radiometer Measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor profiles have been obtained from radiometer measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz and ground values of humidity, temperature and pressure. The inversion technique was based on minimum variance estimation, including constraints derived ...

B. G. Skoog; J. I. H. Askne; G. Elgered

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

On-Site Calibration for High Precision Measurements of Water Vapor Isotope Ratios Using Off-Axis Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stable isotope ratio measurements of atmospheric water vapor (?18Ov and ?2Hv) are scarce relative to those in precipitation. This limitation is rapidly changing due to advances in absorption spectroscopy technology and the development of ...

Joshua Rambo; Chun-Ta Lai; James Farlin; Matt Schroeder; Ken Bible

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

INTERCOMPARISON OF WATER VAPOR CALIBRATION CONSTANTS DERIVED FROM IN-SITU AND DISTANT SOUNDINGS FOR A RAMAN-LIDAR OPERATING IN THE AMAZON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTERCOMPARISON OF WATER VAPOR CALIBRATION CONSTANTS DERIVED FROM IN-SITU AND DISTANT SOUNDINGS such measurements on tropical regions. Indeed, there were important field campaigns in the Amazon that explored some

Barbosa, Henrique

296

On the Potential Change in Surface Water Vapor Deposition over the Continental United States due to Increases in Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of surface water vapor deposition (WVD) over the continental United States under the present climate and a future climate scenario reflecting the mid-twenty-first-century increased greenhouse gas concentrations were evaluated by ...

Zaitao Pan; Moti Segal; Charles Graves

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Improved performance of a ballast resistance helical transversely excited CO/sub 2/ laser with water vapor and low ionization potential additives instead of helium  

SciTech Connect

Increased laser energy, peak power, and number of lasing rotational lines are reported in a ballast resistance TE CO/sub 2/ laser, with small amounts of water vapor and low ionization potential additives in place of helium.

Nath, A.K.; Biswas, D.J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Comparisons of Raman Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles with Radiosondes, Hygrometers on the Meteorological Observation Tower, and GPS at Tsukuba, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical distribution profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio (w) were measured by Raman lidar at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan, during the period from 2000 to 2004. The measured values were compared with those obtained with ...

Tetsu Sakai; Tomohiro Nagai; Masahisa Nakazato; Takatsugu Matsumura; Narihiro Orikasa; Yoshinori Shoji

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

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301

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

303

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

305

Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water. Version 2  

SciTech Connect

The collection of extensive, reliable, oceanic carbon data is a key component of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). A portion of the US JGOFS oceanic carbon dioxide measurements will be made during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. A science team has been formed to plan and coordinate the various activities needed to produce high quality oceanic carbon dioxide measurements under this program. This handbook was prepared at the request of, and with the active participation of, that science team. The procedures have been agreed on by the members of the science team and describe well tested methods. They are intended to provide standard operating procedures, together with an appropriate quality control plan, for measurements made as part of this survey. These are not the only measurement techniques in use for the parameters of the oceanic carbon system; however, they do represent the current state-of-the-art for ship-board measurements. In the end, the editors hope that this handbook can serve widely as a clear and unambiguous guide to other investigators who are setting up to analyze the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water.

Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C. [eds.] [eds.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Brucite Carbonation in Dry to Water-Saturated Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In geologic carbon sequestration, while part of the injected carbon dioxide will dissolve into host brine, some will remain as neat to water saturated super critical CO2 (scCO2) near the well bore and at the caprock, especially in the short-term life cycle of the sequestration site. Little is known about the reactivity of minerals with scCO2 containing variable concentrations of water. In this study, we used high-pressure infrared spectroscopy to examine the carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH)2) in situ over a 24 hr reaction period with scCO2 containing water concentrations between 0% and 100% saturation, at temperatures of 35, 50, and 70 °C, and at a pressure of 100 bar. Little or no detectable carbonation was observed when brucite was reacted with neat scCO2. Higher water concentrations and higher temperatures led to greater brucite carbonation rates and larger extents of conversion to magnesium carbonate products. The only observed carbonation product at 35 °C was nesquehonite (MgCO3 • 3H2O). Mixtures of nesquehonite and magnesite (MgCO3) were detected at 50 °C, but magnesite was more prevalent with increasing water concentration. Both an amorphous hydrated magnesium carbonate solid and magnesite were detected at 70 °C, but magnesite predominated with increasing water concentration. The identity of the magnesium carbonate products appears strongly linked to magnesium water exchange kinetics through temperature and water availability effects.

Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Zhang, Changyong; Wang, Zheming; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

307

Multiphase Reactive Transport modeling of Stable Isotope Fractionation of Infiltrating Unsaturated Zone Pore Water and Vapor Using TOUGHREACT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of transport and isotope fractionation provide a method to quantitatively interpret vadose zone pore water stable isotope depth profiles based on soil properties, climatic conditions, and infiltration. We incorporate the temperature-dependent equilibration of stable isotopic species between water and water vapor, and their differing diffusive transport properties into the thermodynamic database of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. These simulations are used to illustrate the evolution of stable isotope profiles in semiarid regions where recharge during wet seasons disturbs the drying profile traditionally associated with vadose zone pore waters. Alternating wet and dry seasons lead to annual fluctuations in moisture content, capillary pressure, and stable isotope compositions in the vadose zone. Periodic infiltration models capture the effects of seasonal increases in precipitation and predict stable isotope profiles that are distinct from those observed under drying (zero infiltration) conditions. After infiltration, evaporation causes a shift to higher 18O and D values, which are preserved in the deeper pore waters. The magnitude of the isotopic composition shift preserved in deep vadose zone pore waters varies inversely with the rate of infiltration.

Singleton, Michael J.; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Concerning the Measurement and Magnitude of Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide Exchange from a Semiarid Grassland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grassland environments constitute approximately 40% of the earth’s vegetated surface, and they play a key role in a number of processes linking the land surface with the atmosphere. To investigate these linkages, a variety of techniques, ...

Joseph G. Alfieri; Peter D. Blanken; David Smith; Jack Morgan

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.035 graphics Graphics data Data Investigators R.F. Keeling, S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher and J.S. Walker Carbon Dioxide Research Group Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California La Jolla, California 92093-0444, U.S.A. Period of Record 1958-2008 Methods Air samples at Mauna Loa are collected continuously from air intakes at the top of four 7-m towers and one 27-m tower. Four air samples are collected each hour for the purpose of determining the CO2 concentration. Determinations of CO2 are made by using a Siemens Ultramat 3 nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. This analyzer registers the concentration of CO2 in a stream of air flowing at ~0.5

310

New demands, new supplies : a national look at the water balance of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process.

Krumhansl, James Lee; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Morgantown, WV); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Exchanges of Energy, Water and Carbon Dioxide Xuhui Lee (Yale University) and Edward Pa:on (NCAR)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influences of the Boundary Layer Flow on Vegeta8on-Air Influences of the Boundary Layer Flow on Vegeta8on-Air Exchanges of Energy, Water and Carbon Dioxide Xuhui Lee (Yale University) and Edward Pa:on (NCAR) * Summarize your projects and its scienFfic objecFves for the next 3-5 years The objecFve of this project is to establish a mechanisFc understanding of the interplay between flow heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), land surface heterogeneity, and vegetaFon-air exchange of energy, water and CO 2 . The project will invesFgate mechanisms by which mesoscale moFons in the ABL influence vegetaFon-air exchange. It will also quanFfy the influence of heterogeneity on predicFons by 1D column models used in regional and global scale climate models. It is hypothesized that two important ABL processes entrainment and flow

312

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

313

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Three-dimensional modeling and simulation of vapor explosions in Light Water Reactors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Steam explosions can occur during a severe accident in light water nuclear reactors with the core melting as the consequence of interaction of molten core… (more)

Schröder, Maxim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

THE WATER VAPOR SPECTRUM OF APM 08279+5255: X-RAY HEATING AND INFRARED PUMPING OVER HUNDREDS OF PARSECS  

SciTech Connect

We present the rest-frame 200-320 {mu}m spectrum of the z = 3.91 quasar APM 08279+5255, obtained with Z-Spec at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. In addition to the J = 8 {yields} 7 to J = 13 {yields} 12 CO rotational transitions which dominate the CO cooling, we find six transitions of water originating at energy levels ranging up to 643 K. Most are first detections at high redshift, and we have confirmed one transition with CARMA. The CO cooling is well described by our X-ray dominated region (XDR) model, assuming L{sub 1-100keV} {approx} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, and that the gas is distributed over a 550-pc size scale, as per the now-favored {mu} = 4 lensing model. The total observed cooling in water corresponds to 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} L{sub Sun }, comparable to that of CO. We compare the water spectrum with that of Mrk 231, finding that the intensity ratios among the high-lying lines are similar, but with a total luminosity scaled up by a factor of {approx}50. Using this scaling, we estimate an average water abundance relative to H{sub 2} of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, a good match to the prediction of the chemical network in the XDR model. As with Mrk 231, the high-lying water transitions are excited radiatively via absorption in the rest-frame far-infrared, and we show that the powerful dust continuum in APM 08279+5255 is more than sufficient to pump this massive reservoir of warm water vapor.

Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Naylor, B. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Maloney, P. R.; Aguirre, J. E.; Glenn, J.; Kamenetzky, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Lupu, R.; Scott, K. [Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Matsuhara, H. [Institute for Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

316

Intercomparison of Water Vapor Data Measured with Lidar during IHOP_2002. Part I: Airborne to Ground-Based Lidar Systems and Comparisons with Chilled-Mirror Hygrometer Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor data measured with airborne and ground-based lidar systems during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002), which took place in the Southern Great Plains during 13 May–25 June 2002 were investigated. So far, the data collected ...

Andreas Behrendt; Volker Wulfmeyer; Hans-Stefan Bauer; Thorsten Schaberl; Paolo Di Girolamo; Donato Summa; Christoph Kiemle; Gerhard Ehret; David N. Whiteman; Belay B. Demoz; Edward V. Browell; Syed Ismail; Richard Ferrare; Susan Kooi; Junhong Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Upper-Tropospheric Winds Derived from Geostationary Satellite Water Vapor Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational geostationary meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water ...

Christopher S. Velden; Christopher M. Hayden; Steven J. Nieman; W. Paul Menzel; Steven Wanzong; James S. Goerss

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

How Total Precipitable Water Vapor Anomalies Relate to Cloud Vertical Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NOAA operational total precipitable water (TPW) anomaly product is available to forecasters to display percentage of normal TPW in real time for applications like heavy precipitation forecasts. In this work, the TPW anomaly is compared to ...

John M. Forsythe; Jason B. Dodson; Philip T. Partain; Stanley Q. Kidder; Thomas H. Vonder Haar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability  

SciTech Connect

This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Warm water vapor envelope in Mira variables and its effects on the apparent size from the near-infrared to the mid-infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a possible interpretation for the increase of the angular diameter of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, and chi Cyg from the K band to the 11 micron region revealed by the recent interferometric observations using narrow bandpasses where no salient spectral feature is present (Weiner et al. 2003a, 2003b). A simple two-layer model consisting of hot and cool H2O layers for the warm water vapor envelope can reproduce the angular diameters observed with Infrared Spatial Interferometer as well as the high-resolution TEXES spectra obtained in the 11 micron region. The strong absorption of H2O expected from the dense water vapor envelope is filled in by emission from the extended part of the envelope, and this results in the high-resolution 11 micron spectra which exhibit only weak, fine spectral features, masking the spectroscopic evidences of the dense, warm water vapor envelope. On the other hand, the presence of the warm water vapor envelope manifests itself as the larger angular diameters in the 11 micron region as compared to those measured in the near-infrared. Furthermore, comparison of the visibilities predicted in the near-infrared with observational results available in the literature demonstrates that our two-layer model for the warm water vapor envelope can also reproduce the observed near-infrared visibilities and angular diameters. The radii of the hot H2O layers in the three Mira variables are derived to be 1.5--1.7 Rstar with temperatures of 1800--2000 K and H2O column densities of (1--5) x 10^{21} cm^{-2}, while the radii of the cool H2O layers are derived to be 2.2--2.5 Rstar with temperatures of 1200--1400 K and H2O column densities of (1--7) x 10^{21} cm^{-2}.

Keiichi Ohnaka

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Extremely Luminous Water Vapor Emission from a Type 2 Quasar at Redshift z = 0.66  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search for water masers in 47 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Type 2 quasars using the Green Bank Telescope has yielded a detection at a redshift of z = 0.660. This maser is more than an order of magnitude higher in redshift than any previously known and, with a total isotropic luminosity of 23,000 L_sun, also the most powerful. The presence and detectability of water masers in quasars at z ~ 0.3-0.8 may provide a better understanding of quasar molecular tori and disks, as well as fundamental quasar and galaxy properties such as black hole masses. Water masers at cosmologically interesting distances may also eventually provide, via direct distance determinations, a new cosmological observable for testing the reality and properties of dark energy, currently inferred primarily through Type 1a supernova measurements.

Richard Barvainis; Robert Antonucci

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

Explaining Sources of Discrepancy in SSM/I Water Vapor Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines a mix of seven statistical and physical Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave algorithms that were designed for retrieval of over-ocean precipitable water (PW). The aim is to understand and explain why the ...

Byung-Ju Sohn; Eric A. Smith

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2005 through September 2005. In previous work, a series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a SMZ system coupled with a VPB to remove and ultimately destroy the organic pollutants found in produced water. Based on the laboratory scale data, a field test of the process was conducted at the McGrath Salt Water Disposal facility in July and August of 2005. The system performed well over repeated feed and regeneration cycles demonstrating the viability of the process for long term operation. Of the BTEX components present in the produced water, benzene had the lowest adsorption affinity for the SMZ and thus controlled the sorption cycle length. Regeneration of the SMZ using air sparging was found to be sufficient in the field to maintain the SMZ adsorption capacity and to allow continuous operation of the system. As expected, the BTEX concentrations in the regeneration off gas stream were initially very high in a given regeneration cycle. However, a granular activated carbon buffering column placed upstream of the VPB reduced the peak BTEX concentrations to acceptable levels for the VPB. In this way, the VPB was able to maintain stable performance over the entire SMZ regeneration period despite the intermittent nature of the feed.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

325

Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei effects on tropical anvil characteristics and water vapor of the tropical tropopause layer  

SciTech Connect

Cloud anvils from deep convective clouds are of great importance to the radiative energy budget and the aerosol impact on them is the least understood. Few studies examined the effects of both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) on anvil properties and water vapor content (WVC) in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model with size-resolved cloud microphysics, we focus on the CCN and IN effects on cloud anvil properties and WVC in the TTL. We find that cloud microphysical changes induced by CCN/IN play a very important role in determining cloud anvil area and WVC in the TTL, whether convection is enhanced or suppressed. Also, CCN effects on anvil microphysical properties, anvil size and lifetime are much more evident relative to IN. IN has little effect on convection, but can increase ice number and mass concentrations significantly under humid conditions. CCN in the PBL is found to have greater effects on convective strength and mid-tropospheric CCN has negligible effects on convection and cloud properties. Convective transport may only moisten the main convective outflow region but the cloud anvil size determines the WVC in the TTL domain. This study shows an important role of CCN in the lower-troposphere in modifying convection, the upper-level cloud properties. It also shows the effects of IN and the PBL CCN on the upper-level clouds depends on the humidity, resolving some contradictory results in past studies. 2

Fan, Jiwen; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

Comments on ''Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements''  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent publication, Leblanc and McDermid [Appl. Opt., 47, 5592 (2008)]APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.005592 proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios. Scanning of the full telescope aperture with the calibration lamp can circumvent most of these limitations. Based on the work done to date, it seems likely that the use of multiple calibration lamps in different fixed positions in front of the telescope may provide sufficient redundancy for long-term calibration needs. Further full-aperture scanning experiments, performed over an extended period of time, are needed to determine a ''best practice'' for the use of multiple calibration lamps in the hybrid technique.

Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

329

Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference is used to restrict the application of the geophysical retrieval algorithms which are developed to handle specific atmospheric absorptive situations. An improved semi-empirical sea surface emissivity model is integrated into this refined D-matrix procedure that is being developed for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer (AMSR). The purpose of this work is to test the refined geophysical parameter retrieval methods using data from the Special Sensor Microwave / Imager (SSM/I). When comparing the statistical performance of the TIWV, WS, and CLW retrieval methods presented to the statistical performance of published retrieval methods for each geophysical parameter, the retrieval methods developed for this study perform only slightly better. However, it is demonstrated that the new retrieval methods are more physically valid than the comparison retrieval methods. The utilization of the polarization difference of the 85 GHZ channels to restrict the application of specifically-derived retrieval algorithms proves to be a valuable and reliable geophysical parameter retrieval tool.

Manning, Norman Willis William

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols at the US Southern Great Plains Climate Study Site  

SciTech Connect

There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program, Southern Great Plains CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site in northern Oklahoma. Research conducted at several laboratories has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We have developed and installed a ruggedized Raman lidar system that resides permanently at the CART site, and that is computer automated to eliminate the requirements for operator interaction. In addition to the design goal of profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar provides quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Blair, F.H.; Bisson, S.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels„The Ohio State University  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels-The Ohio State University Background This University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) project will explore a critical need for innovative turbine endwall designs that could increase turbine durability and mitigate the adverse effects of residue deposition from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The Ohio State University (OSU), in cooperation with Brigham Young University (BYU),

333

Abstract: Apparatus for Measuring Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Measurements of the vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities of ethanol and the vapor pressure of an ethanol water mixture (ethanol=0.6743 ...

334

Validation of aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles from routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy with which vertical profiles of aerosol extinction ?ep(?) can be retrieved from ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) routine measurements was assessed using data from two airborne field campaigns, the ARM Aerosol Intensive Operation Period (AIOP, May 2003), and the Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE, September 2005). This assessment pertains to the aerosol at its ambient concentration and thermodynamic state (i.e. ?ep(?) either free of or corrected for sampling artifacts) and includes the following ACRF routine methods: Raman Lidar, Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and in-situ aerosol profiles (IAP) with a small aircraft. Profiles of aerosol optical depth ?p(???, from which the profiles of ?ep(???are derived through vertical differentiation, were measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14); these data were used as truth in this evaluation. The ACRF IAP ?ep(550 nm) were lower by 16% (during AIOP) and higher by 10% (during ALIVE) when compared to AATS-14. The ACRF MPL ?ep(523 nm) were higher by 24% (AIOP) and 19%-21% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14 but the correlation improved significantly during ALIVE. In the AIOP a second MPL operated by NASA showed a smaller positive bias (13%) with respect to AATS-14. The ACRF Raman Lidar ?ep(355 nm) were higher by 54% (AIOP) and higher by 6% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14. The large bias in AIOP stemmed from a gradual loss of the sensitivity of the Raman Lidar starting about the end of 2001 going unnoticed until after AIOP. A major refurbishment and upgrade of the instrument and improvements to a data-processing algorithm led to the significant improvement and very small bias in ALIVE. Finally we find that during ALIVE the Raman Lidar water vapor densities ?w are higher by 8% when compared to AATS-14, whereas comparisons between AATS-14 and in-situ measured ?w aboard two different aircraft showed small negative biases (0 to -3%).

Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Ferrare, Richard; Clayton, Marian F.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P. B.; Gore, W.; Dominguez, Roseanne

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

335

Vapor Degreasing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Applications of vapor degreasing by vapor-spray-vapor systems...hardware Brass 2270 5000 Buffing compound; rouge Lacquer spray Racked work on continuous monorail Acoustic ceiling tile Steel 2720 6000 Light oil (stamping lubricant) Painting Monorail conveyor Gas meters Terneplate 4540 10,000 Light oil Painting Monorail conveyor Continuous strip, 0.25â??4.1 mm...

336

Vapor Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thermodynamics (that is, vapor liquid equilibrium) as ... of solids and low volatility liquids is extraordinarily ... such situations is the gas saturation method ...

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

337

Modeling the Behavior of Formate, Acetate, and Carbon Dioxide in Water/Steam Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Organic substances persist in high-temperature aqueous environments for varying periods of tiem depending on temperature, pH, contact with solid surfaces, and other factors. Since carboxylic acids and CO{sub 2} affect the pH and can potentially play specific roles in the promotion of inhibition of turbine corrosion, it is important to be able to predict the amounts of these substances that are transferred to steam and the composition of the early condensate as a function of condesnation ratio for various boiler chemistries. Such predictions can only be made using a speciated model including all the solutes. Example calculations for AVT and OT chemistry show complex relationships between early condensate enrichment ratios and boiler pressure, boiler water composition, and condensation ratio. Even small amounts of sodium and chloride below 0.1 {mu}g {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in the steam are relevant to early condensate pH and carboxylic acid concentration. The calculations show that the enrichment of the early condensate relative to steam is typically 10 times greater for formate than for acetate.

Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most datasets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to atmospheric carbon dioxide data includes: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Isotopes • Atmospheric carbon dioxide records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii • Monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and other data from the NOAA/CMDL continuous monitoring network • Data from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network • Atmospheric CO2 records from continuous measurements at Jubany Station, Antarctica and from 10 sites in the SIO air sampling network • Historical data from the extended Vostok ice core (2003) and the Siple Station ice core (1997) • Historical records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores (1998) • AmeriFlux Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements • Data from the Canadian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network • Flask Samples from at U.S.S.R.-Operated Sites (1991) • The CISIRO (Australia) Monitoring Program from Aircraft for 1972-1981 • CO2 Concentrations in Surface Water and the Atmosphere during 1986-1989 NOAA/PMEL Cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans • Surface Water and Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrous Oxide Observations by Shipboard Automated Gas Chromatography: Results from Expeditions Between 1977 and 1990 (1992) • IPCC Working Group 1, 1994: Modeling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995). New datasets are added when available to the category of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

339

Observed dependence of the water vapor and clear-sky greenhouse effect on sea surface temperature: Comparison with climate warming experiments  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a comparison of the water vapor and clear-sky greenhouse effect dependence on sea surface temperature for climate variations of different types. Firstly, coincident satellite observations and meteorological analyses are used to examine seasonal and interannual variations and to evaluate the performance of a general circulation model. Then, this model is used to compare the results inferred from the analysis of observed climate variability with those derived from global climate warming experiments. One part of the coupling between the surface temperature, the water vapor and the clear-sky greenhouse effect is explained by the dependence of the saturation water vapor pressure on the atmospheric temperature. However, the analysis of observed and simulated fields shows that the coupling is very different according to the type of region under consideration and the type of climate forcing that is applied to the Earth-atmosphere system. This difference, due to the variability of the vertical structure of the atmosphere, is analyzed in detail by considering the temperature lapse rate and the vertical profile of relative humidity. Our results suggest that extrapolating the feedbacks inferred from seasonal and short-term interannual climate variability to longer-term climate changes requires great caution. It is argued that our confidence in climate models` predictions would be increased significantly if the basic physical processes that govern the variability of the vertical structure of the atmosphere, and its relation to the large-scale circulation, were better understood and simulated. For this purpose, combined observational and numerical studies focusing on physical processes are needed. 44 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Bony, S.; Le Treut, H. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Duvel, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Vapor concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

Bayly, John G. (Deep River, CA); Booth, Ronald J. (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Hot water system is energized by exhaust gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels (natural gas or oil) results in the formation of carbon dioxide and water (water vapor). This water vapor contains approximately 1000 Btu/lb. as latent heat and amounts to 10% of all the heat input to the boiler (combustion). This means that for an 80% efficient boiler operation, 50% of the heat wasted in the flue gas is latent heat - which can only be recovered by condensing the water vapor. Since the dew point of the flue gases is approximately 130/sup 0/F, it is necessary to cool the gases to ambient temperature for complete heat recovery. By reducing these gases to within 10/sup 0/ of the incoming cold water, this Eldon Corporation heat reclaimer can achieve temperatures as low as 45/sup 0/ in winter.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal ... which can split carbon dioxide as well as water molecules by abstracting ...

344

A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

345

SORPTION OF GASES BY VAPOR-DEPOSITED TITANIUM FILMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are summarized for an investigation of the sorption rates of gases on vapor-deposited titanium films. The usefulness of such films for ultrahigh speed vacuum pumping is appraised. The sorption of hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, helium, argon, and methane onto titanium films was measured for a variety of circumstances using techniques and apparatus developed for this specific purpose. The information obtained and techniques evolved in this study have shown that large-scale getter pumping is feasible and can be a very effective means of pumping many gases. Sticking fractions larger than 0.8 were obtained for hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The experiments have shown that the sticking fraction for gases on vapor-deposited films is a function of the deposition conditions. There is strong evidence to support the supposition that conditions which favor the formation of a porous, fine-grained film structure with a large surface-to-volume ratio produce films with the highest sorption rates. The technique for measuring sticking fractions is new and in many respects unique. It utilizes a very large sorption surface, thus minimizing the perturbing effect of the instrumentation and evaporation apparatus and reducing the hazard of film contamination due to small leaks in the system or outgassing of system components. The method gives especially good accuracy for measurements of sticking fractions approaching unity. The quantity of gas adsorbed, the gas flux onto the getter surface, and the gas flux leaving the getter surface are measured directly. Any two of these three independent measurements can be used to determine the sticking fraction, thereby providing a means of checking the data. The evaporation techniques, substrate surface, and substrate area were chosen to very nearly duplicate the conditions likely to be encountered in the practical application of large-scale getter pumping. (auth)

Clausing, R.E.

1964-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport in NCEP–NCAR Reanalyses: Comparison with River Discharge in the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors extract the water transport produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis for a 10-yr period, 1984–93, and compare its convergence into two river basins with an independent dataset, river discharge (...

William J. Gutowski Jr.; Yibin Chen; Zekai Ötles

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Pharmaceutical Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Water treatment process for water for injection (WFI)...deionization WFI production Evaporation still or vapor compression...

349

Advanced Proliferation Resistant, Lower Cost, Uranium-Thorium Dioxide Fuels for Light Water Reactors (Progress report for work through June 2002, 12th quarterly report)  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this NERI project is to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of an optimized thorium-uranium dioxide (ThO2/UO2) fuel design for light water reactors (LWRs). The project is led by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with the collaboration of three universities, the University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Purdue University; Argonne National Laboratory; and all of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel vendors in the United States (Framatome, Siemens, and Westinghouse). In addition, a number of researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and Professor Kwangheon Park at Kyunghee University are active collaborators with Korean Ministry of Science and Technology funding. The project has been organized into five tasks: · Task 1 consists of fuel cycle neutronics and economics analysis to determine the economic viability of various ThO2/UO2 fuel designs in PWRs, · Task 2 will determine whether or not ThO2/UO2 fuel can be manufactured economically, · Task 3 will evaluate the behavior of ThO2/UO2 fuel during normal, off-normal, and accident conditions and compare the results with the results of previous UO2 fuel evaluations and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing standards, · Task 4 will determine the long-term stability of ThO2/UO2 high-level waste, and · Task 5 consists of the Korean work on core design, fuel performance analysis, and xenon diffusivity measurements.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

Not Available

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates or intermediate salts through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that high calcination temperatures decrease the activity of sodium bicarbonate Grade 1 (SBC No.1) during subsequent carbonation cycles, but there is little or no progressive decrease in activity in successive cycles. SBC No.1 appears to be more active than SBC No.3. As expected, the presence of SO{sub 2} in simulated flue gas results in a progressive loss of sorbent capacity with increasing cycles. This is most likely due to an irreversible reaction to produce Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. This compound appears to be stable at calcination temperatures as high as 200 C. Tests of 40% supported potassium carbonate sorbent and plain support material suggest that some of the activity observed in tests of the supported sorbent may be due to adsorption by the support material rather than to carbonation of the sorbent.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

354

Comparison of Short-Term Oxidation Behavior of Model and Commercial Chromia-Forming Ferritic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-purity Fe-20Cr and commercial type 430 ferritic stainless steel were exposed at 700 and 800 C in dry air and air with 10% water vapor (wet air) and characterized by SEM, XRD, STEM, SIMS, and EPMA. The Fe-20Cr alloy formed a fast growing Fe-rich oxide scale at 700 C in wet air after 24 h exposure, but formed a thin chromia scale at 700 C in dry air and at 800 C in both dry air and wet air. In contrast, thin spinel + chromia base scales with a discontinuous silica subscale were formed on 430 stainless steel under all conditions studied. Extensive void formation was observed at the alloy-oxide interface for the Fe-20Cr in both dry and wet conditions, but not for the 430 stainless steel. The Fe-20Cr alloy was found to exhibit a greater relative extent of subsurface Cr depletion than the 430 stainless steel, despite the former's higher Cr content. Depletion of Cr in the Fe-20Cr after 24 h exposure was also greater at 700 C than 800 C. The relative differences in oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of the coarse alloy grain size of the high-purity Fe-20Cr material, and the effects of Mn, Si, and C on the oxide scale formed on the 430 stainless steel.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

Reaction products of chlorine dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concern over the presence of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinedisinfected drinking water has led to extensive investigations of treatment options for controlling these by-products. Among these treatment options is the use of an alternative disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide. Although chlorine dioxide does not react to produce trihalomethanes, considerable evidence does exist that chlorine dioxide, like chlorine, will produce other organic by-products. The literature describes chlorinated and nonchlorinated derivatives including acids, epoxides, quinones, aldehydes, disulfides, and sulfonic acids that are products of reactions carried out under conditions that are vastly different from those experienced during drinking water treatment. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that some by-products in these categories may be produced. Certain specific volatile aldehydes and halogenated derivatives as determined by the total organic halogen parameter are among those by-products that have been measured.

Alan A. Stevens

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs (SBIR Phase I) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Earl H. Wagener (Primary Contact), Brad P. Morgan, Jeffrey R. DiMaio Tetramer Technologies L.L.C. 657 S. Mechanic St. Pendleton, SC 29670 Phone: (864) 646-6282 Email: earl.wagener@tetramertechnologies.com DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0006172 Project Start Date: June 17, 2011 Project End Date: March 16, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate water vapor transport membrane with * >18,000 gas permeation units (GPU) Water vapor membrane with less than 20% loss in * performance after stress tests Crossover leak rate: <150 GPU * Temperature Durability of 90°C with excursions to * 100°C Cost of <$10/m

358

The Reactions of Water Vapour on the Surfaces of Stoichiometric and Reduced Uranium Dioxide: A High Resolution XPS Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of water with stoichiometric and O-defective UO{sub 2} thin film surfaces is studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron X-rays radiation. The decomposition of D{sub 2}O molecules and the oxidative healing of defects on the reduced surfaces was observed and quantified. D{sub 2}O adsorption on the stoichiometric UO{sub 2} surface at 300 K showed small amounts of OD species (ca. 532 eV) probably formed on trace amounts of surface defects, while at 95 K D2O ice (533.5 eV) was the main surface species. On the contrary, a large signal of OD species was seen on the 300 K-Ar{sup +}-sputtered (reduced) surface, UO{sub 2-x}. This was concomitant with a rapid healing of surface defects as monitored by their U4f signal. Quantitative analysis of the OD signal with increasing temperature showed their disappearance by 550 K. The disappearance of these species while hydrogen molecules are still desorbing from the surface as monitored by TPD [S.D. Senanayake, H. Idriss, Surf. Sci. 563 (1-3) (2004) 135; S.D. Senanayake, R. Rousseau, D. Colegrave, H. Idriss, J. Nucl. Mater. 342 (2005) 179] is shedding light on the re-combinative desorption mechanism from dissociatively adsorbed water molecules on the surfaces of this defective metal oxide.

Senanayake,S.; Waterhouse, G.; Chan, A.; Madey, T.; Mullins, D.; Idriss, H.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

Urania vapor composition at very high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemically unstable nature of uranium dioxide its vapor composition at very high temperatures is, presently, not sufficiently studied though more experimental knowledge is needed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors. We used laser vaporization coupled to mass spectrometry of the produced vapor to study urania vapor composition at temperatures in the vicinity of its melting point and higher. The very good agreement between measured melting and freezing temperatures and between partial pressures measured on the temperature increase and decrease indicated that the change in stoichiometry during laser heating was very limited. The evolutions with temperature (in the range 2800-3400 K) of the partial pressures of the main vapor species (UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 3}, and UO{sub 2}{sup +}) were compared with theoretically predicted evolutions for equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid and gas-solid phase coexistences and showed very good agreement. The measured main relative partial pressure ratios around 3300 K all agree with calculated values for total equilibrium between condensed and vapor phases. It is the first time the three main partial pressure ratios above stoichiometric liquid urania have been measured at the same temperature under conditions close to equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid phase coexistence.

Pflieger, Rachel [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marcoule Institute for Separation Chemistry (ICSM), UMR 5257, CEA-CNRS-UMII-ENSCM, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Colle, Jean-Yves [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Iosilevskiy, Igor [Joint Institute for High Temperature, Russian Academy of Science, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, State University, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Extreme Matter Institute (EMMI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Sheindlin, Michael [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Institute for High Temperature, Russian Academy of Science, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Influence of a Tropical Island Mountain on Solar Radiation, Air Temperature and Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation, air temperature, and water vapor pressure at 17 stations on the northwest flank of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are compared with modeled clear day solar radiation and free atmosphere air temperature and water vapor pressure. ...

Dennis Nullet

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Mercury Vapor Pressure Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparent difference between the historical mercury vapor concentration equations used by the mercury atmospheric measurement community ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

364

Carbon Dioxide Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. © C opyright 2009 Carbon Dioxide Compression DOE – EPRI – NIST ... Greenhouse gas sequestration Page 5. 5 © C opyright 2009 ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

365

Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Description of the Canadian Particulate-Fill WastePackage (WP) System for Spent-Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and its Applicability to Ligh-Water Reactor SNF WPS with Depleted Uranium-Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3502 3502 Chemical Technology Division DESCRIPTION OF THE CANADIAN PARTICULATE-FILL WASTE-PACKAGE (WP) SYSTEM FOR SPENT-NUCLEAR FUEL(SNF) AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO LIGHT- WATER REACTOR SNF WPS WITH DEPLETED URANIUM-DIOXIDE FILL Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6180 Tel: (423) 574-6783 Fax: (423) 574-9512 Email: forsbergcw@ornl.gov October 20, 1997 _________________________ Managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464 for the * U.S. Department of Energy. iii CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

367

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO{sub 2} removal rates declined from 20% to about 8% over the course of three hours. Following calcination, a second carbonation cycle was conducted, at a lower temperature with a lower water vapor content. CO{sub 2} removal and sorbent capacity utilization declined under these conditions. Modifications were made to the reactor to permit addition of extra water for testing in the next quarter. Thermodynamic analysis of the carbonation reaction suggested the importance of other phases, intermediate between sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, and the potential for misapplication of thermodynamic data from the literature. An analysis of initial rate data from TGA experiments suggested that the data may fit a model controlled by the heat transfer from the sorbent particle surface to the bulk gas.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Vapor phase heat transport systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor phase heat-transport systems are being tested in two of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The systems consist of an active fin-and-tube solar collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by a pump or by a self-pumping scheme. In one of the test cells the liquid was self-pumped to the roof-mounted collector 17 ft above the condenser. A mechanical valve was designed and tested that showed that the system could operate in a completely passive mode. Performance comparisons have been made with a passive water wall test cell.

Hedstrom, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

370

Distributions of Liquid, Vapor, and Ice in an Orographic Cloud from Field Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase distribution of the water mass of a cold orographic cloud into vapor, liquid, and ice is calculated from measurements made from an instrumented aircraft. The vapor values are calculated from thermodynamic measurements, and the liquid is ...

Taneil Uttal; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORITE Chlorine Dioxide CAS # 10049-04-4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about chlorine dioxide and chlorite. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. It is important you understand this information because these substances may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. HIGHLIGHTS: Chlorine dioxide is a gas that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is used to disinfect drinking water and make it safe to drink. Chlorite is formed when chlorine dioxide reacts with water. High levels of chlorine dioxide can be irritating to the nose, eyes, throat, and lungs. Chlorine dioxide and chlorite have not been found in any of the 1,647 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What are chlorine dioxide and chlorite? Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish-yellow manufactured gas. It does not occur naturally in the environment. When

Chlorite Cas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Mt. Cimone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mt. Cimone Mt. Cimone Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Mt. Cimone graphics Graphics data Data Investigators Tiziano Colombo and Riccardo Santaguida Italian Meteorological Service, Via delle Ville, 100-41029 Sestola (MO), Italy Period of Record 1979-1997 Methods Continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements have been carried out at Mt. Cimone since 1979. Since December 1988, air samples have also been collected approximately once per week in a pair of 2-L, electropolished, stainless steel cylindrical flasks. From 1979 until December 1988, a Hartmann and Braun URAS-2T NDIR gas analyzer was used for CO2 determinations. Currently, CO2 determinations are made through the use of a Siemens Ultramat-5E NDIR gas analyzer. Water vapor is eliminated by passing the air through a U-tube

373

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Vapor-pressure lowering in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor-pressure lowering phenomenon in porous media was investigated for a range of temperatures by measuring vapor pressure vs. mass of water adsorbed in consolidated sandstone cores and unconsolidated silica sands. Experimental results showed that the mass of water adsorbed on the rock surface is much more than the amount of pore steam. Results also revealed that the water adsorption is caused mainly by micropores in the porous medium. Measurement of the mass of methane and ethane adsorbed on dry rocks showed that the amount of adsorption is not great in comparison with the pore gas. It was found that adsorption data for water/sandstone core studies could be normalized with respect to temperature. Although this appears not to have been reported previously, it does agree in principle with findings for solid powders with micropores. Another interesting result was that reanalysis of previous studies of capillarity in sandstones indicates that experimental data probably were influenced mostly by adsorption.

Hsieh, C.H.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dissolving plutonium dioxide comprises adding silver ions to a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution to significantly speed up dissolution of difficultly soluble plutonium dioxide.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, 336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's proposal to participate with a group of international organizations in an experiment to evaluate the dispersion and diffusion of liquid carbon dioxide droplets in ocean waters. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Finding of No Significant Impact Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Final Environmental Assessment Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment

378

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants.

Holladay, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Haag, Gary L. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past century, fossil fuel consumption has added carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at rapidly increasing rates. The prospect of further acceleration of this rate by turning from petroleum to coal has alarmed climatologists because of possible catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar (Photosynthesis) energy, and genetic engineering. Some exciting new developments in genetic engineering will be touched on together with established bio-engineering-aquaculture, hydroponics, yeast, pharmaceutical production, fermentation, single cell protein, etc. A 'bio-factory' will be described, with a feed stream of carbon dioxide, water, nutrients containing sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus and trace elements, and living culture interacting with light under controlled conditions to yield food and raw materials. Candidate products will be suggested and a few of the problems anticipated. Engineering and logistic requirements will be outlined and the economic impact assessed.

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Psychrometric Constant Is Not Constant: A Novel Approach to Enhance the Accuracy and Precision of Latent Energy Fluxes through Automated Water Vapor Calibrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous agencies, programs, and national networks are focused on improving understanding of water and energy fluxes across temporal and spatial scales and on enhancing confidence to synthesize data across multiple sites. Enhancing the accuracy ...

H. W. Loescher; C. V. Hanson; T. W. Ocheltree

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Development of a Carbon Dioxide Micro Gas Sensor with Integrated AgCl Reference Electrode.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ããIn recent years, high carbon dioxide emissions not only result in serious air pollution and greenhouse effect, but also cause water acidification and decrease the… (more)

Hung, Wei-Che

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Improved Magnus Form Approximation of Saturation Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Algorithms, based on Magnus's form equations, are described that minimize the difference between several relationships between temperature and water vapor pressure at saturation that are commonly used in archiving data. The work was initiated in ...

Oleg A. Alduchov; Robert E. Eskridge

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ice Growth from the Vapor at ?5°C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are summarized and illustrated from a long series of experiments on ice growth from the vapor, nearly all in a very small range of conditions: ?5°C, slightly below liquid water saturation, with minimal environmental gradients and no ...

Charles A. Knight

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

CYCLIC CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) Cyclic CO 2 stimulation is a single-well operation that is developing as a method of rapidly producing oil....

387

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

388

SRD 134 Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. CARBON DIOXIDE. MW [1]. 44.010. NBP [1]. 194.75 K. TP [1]. 216.59 K. CO 2. Pc [1]. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

389

Effects of capillarity and vapor adsorption in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in natural (undisturbed) conditions contain water as both vapor and liquid phases. The most compelling evidence for the presence of distributed liquid water is the observation that vapor pressures in these systems are close to saturated vapor pressure for measured reservoir temperatures (White et al., 1971; Truesdell and White, 1973). Analysis of natural heat flow conditions provides additional, indirect evidence for the ubiquitous presence of liquid. From an analysis of the heat pipe process (vapor-liquid counterflow) Preuss (1985) inferred that effective vertical permeability to liquid phase in vapor-dominated reservoirs is approximately 10{sup 17} m{sup 2}, for a heat flux of 1 W/m{sup 2}. This value appears to be at the high end of matrix permeabilities of unfractured rocks at The Geysers, suggesting that at least the smaller fractures contribute to liquid permeability. For liquid to be mobile in fractures, the rock matrix must be essentially completely liquid-saturated, because otherwise liquid phase would be sucked from the fractures into the matrix by capillary force. Large water saturation in the matrix, well above the irreducible saturation of perhaps 30%, has been shown to be compatible with production of superheated steam (Pruess and Narasimhan, 1982). In response to fluid production the liquid phase will boil, with heat of vaporization supplied by the reservoir rocks. As reservoir temperatures decline reservoir pressures will decline also. For depletion of ''bulk'' liquid, the pressure would decline along the saturated vapor pressure curve, while for liquid held by capillary and adsorptive forces inside porous media, an additional decline will arise from ''vapor pressure lowering''. Capillary pressure and vapor adsorption effects, and associated vapor pressure lowering phenomena, have received considerable attention in the geothermal literature, and also in studies related to geologic disposal of heat generating nuclear wastes, and in the drying of porous materials. Geothermally oriented studies were presented by Chicoine et al. (1977), Hsieh and Ramey (1978, 1981), Herkelrath et al. (1983), and Nghiem and Ramey (1991). Nuclear waste-related work includes papers by Herkelrath and O'Neal (1985), Pollock (1986), Eaton and Bixler (1987), Pruess et al. (1990), Nitao (1990), and Doughty and E'ruess (1991). Applications to industrial drying of porous materials have been discussed by Hamiathy (1969) arid Whitaker (1977). This paper is primarily concerned with evaluating the impact of vapor pressure lowering (VPL) effects on the depletion behavior of vapor-dominated reservoirs. We have examined experimental data on vapor adsorption and capillary pressures in an effort to identify constitutive relationships that would be applicable to the tight matrix rocks of vapor-dominated systems. Numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the impact of these effects on the depletion of vapor-dominated reservoirs.

Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Basic Engineering Research for D and D of R Reactor Storage Pond Sludge: Electrokinetics, Carbon Dioxide Extraction, and Supercritical Water Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D and D operations at DOE sites across the country. The standard process for destruction of MLLW is incineration, which has an uncertain future. The extraction and destruction of PCBs from MLLW was the subject of this research Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide with 5% ethanol as cosolvent and Supercritical Waster Oxidation (SCWO) were the processes studied in depth. The solid matrix for experimental extraction studies was Toxi-dry, a commonly used absorbent made from plant material. PCB surrogates were 1.2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 2-chlorobiphenyl (2CBP). Extraction pressures of 2,000 and 4,000 psi and temperatures of 40 and 80 C were studied. Higher extraction efficiencies were observed with cosolvent and at high temperature, but pressure little effect. SCWO treatment of the treatment of the PCB surrogates resulted in their destruction below detection limits.

Michael A. Matthews; David A. Bruce,; Thomas A. Davis; Mark C. Thies; John W. Weidner; Ralph E. White

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Influence of stand age on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in Canadian forests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating annual carbon dioxide eddy ?uxes using open-pathJ. , 2010. Ecosystem carbon dioxide ?uxes after disturbanceEnvironmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Ecological effects of experimental drought and prescribed fire in a southern California coastal grassland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a global network of carbon dioxide ?ux measurement systems.of ecosystem scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy ?interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange and carbon

Potts, D.L.; Suding, K.N.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Goulden, M.L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

Yang, Rosa L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor, a triatomic gas, is a green-house gas unless it can be condensed ... Concentrated Solar Power for Producing Liquid Fuels from CO2 and H2O.

395

Extraction of iron and calcium from low rank coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainers  

SciTech Connect

Iron and calcium were extracted from low rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetyl acetone, ethanol and acetic acid, or acetyl acetone and water entrainers at 313.2 K and 15.0 MPa. The low rank coal used in this study was Berau coal from Indonesia. The addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetic acid entrainers in supercritical carbon dioxide showed very limited effect on enhancement of the recovery rates of Fe. The recovery rates of Fe from dried coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with acetyl acetone were low however, the addition of acetyl acetone with water in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Fe. Water seems to play an important role in extracting Fe from coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and acetyl acetone. On the other hand, the extraction rates of Ca with supercritical carbon dioxide and water, methanol, ethanol, and acetyl acetone entrainers were very low. The addition of acetic acid with or without water in supercritical carbon dioxide slightly enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The addition of acetic acid with ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate and coal particle size on the recovery rates of Fe were examined. The recovery rate of Fe increased with increasing carbon dioxide flow rate and with decreasing particle size of the low rank coal.

Iwai, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Ohta, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

397

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Definition: Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal activity and high concentrations in...

399

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

402

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arizona to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 818 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Kansas (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Kansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Kansas to be $1.08 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,816 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Michigan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Michigan to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,542 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Virginia (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Virginia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Virginia to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,600 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Nevada (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Nevada. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Nevada to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 944 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Nebraska (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Nebraska. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Nebraska to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.1 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,840 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Indiana  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Indiana. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Indiana to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,684 million gallons.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arkansas (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arkansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arkansas to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.7 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,507 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Ohio (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Ohio. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Ohio to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,343 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Utah (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Utah. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Utah to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 828 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Idaho (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Idaho. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Idaho to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 906 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maryland (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maryland to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,581 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in New York (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in New York. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in New York to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,230 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation  

SciTech Connect

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

1985-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

417

Organic vapor jet printing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

418

WATER ICE AND CARBON DIOXIDE ICE INTERACTIONS: CRATER INVESTIGATIONS IN RESIDUAL NORTH POLAR ICE CAP. M.A. Thueson and H. Xie, Earth and Environmental Science, The Uni-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, U.S.A. (misti.thueson@gmail.com) (Hongjie.xie@utsa.edu). Introduction sublimes. As summer progresses the walls of the crater, though above the temperature of CO2 sublima- tion (as seen in figure 2), keep a high albedo. This would imply that the walls are water ice. Inuvik

Texas at San Antonio, University of

419

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

420

Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fill Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill DU dioxide in the form of sand may be used to fill the void spaces in the waste package after the package is loaded with SNF. This...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

422

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Procedure for Preparing Carbon Dioxide-Free Water. • Sampleammonia (NH 3), carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (Hbicarbonate (NaHC0 3 ) in carbon dioxide~free water and

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Available Technologies: Acceleration of Carbon Dioxide ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; ADVANTAGES: Accelerated capture of carbon dioxide; Effective at extremely dilute (nanomolar ...

424

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Tennessee (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Tennessee. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Tennessee to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,321 million gallons.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Wisconsin (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Wisconsin. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Wisconsin to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,476 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

Not Available

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Massachusetts. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Massachusetts to be $1.4 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.6 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,293 million gallons.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Pennsylvania. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Pennsylvania to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,837 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Montana (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Montana. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Montana to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,207 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in New Mexico (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in New Mexico. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in New Mexico to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.6 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,117 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use March 17, 2011 - 2:09pm Addthis A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. JoAnn Milliken What does this project do? GreenFire Energy will conduct the first field demonstration of a CO2-based geothermal system. Getting geothermal power with CO2 instead of water would be particularly beneficial in the arid Southwestern U.S., where water is scarce. Geothermal power holds enormous opportunities to provide affordable, clean energy that avoids greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2). That's

435

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

436

OPERATIONAL TESTS OF EBWR VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A description of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor vapor-recovery system is given. The seal air operating pressures, temperatures, and moisture content were measured. Air flow through the seals was measured and seal wear was assessed. Assuming direct-cycle D/sub 2/ operation, the seals were evaluated relative to the amount of D/sub 2/ leakage that would be controlled (C.J.G.)

Gariboldi, R.J.; Jacobson, D.R.

1960-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Passive vapor transport solar heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Fuel vapor canister  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an improved fuel vapor storage canister for use in a vehicle emission system of the type utilizing an enclosure with an interior communicated with a source of fuel vapor. The improved canister comprises: the enclosure having a mixture including particles of activated charcoal and many pieces of foam rubber, the pieces of foam rubber in the mixture being randomly and substantially evenly dispersed whereby substantially all the charcoal particles are spaced relatively closely to at least one foam rubber piece; the mixture being packed into the enclosure under pressure so that the pieces of foam rubber are compressed enough to tightly secure the charcoal particles one against another to prevent a griding action therebetween.

Moskaitis, R.J.; Ciuffetelli, L.A.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

440

The carbon dioxide dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burning fossil fuels on the global climate is discussed. It may be that as we produce carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels, we create a greenhouse effect which causes temperatures on earth to rise. Implications of changes in global temperatures are discussed.

Edelson, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

443

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Indiana (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ind power is one of the fastest-growing forms of ind power is one of the fastest-growing forms of new power generation in the United States. Industry growth in 2007 was an astounding 45%. New wind power installations constituted 35% of all new electric power installations. This growth is the result of many drivers, includ- ing increased economic competitiveness and favorable state policies such as Renewable Portfolio Standards. However, new wind power installations provide more than cost-competitive electricity. Wind power brings economic development to rural regions, reduces greenhouse gas production by displacing fossil fuels, and reduces water consumption in the electric power sector. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers

445

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

446

Vapor-Liquid Partitioning of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This study focused on the partitioning of sulfuric acid and ammonium bisulfate between the liquid and vapor phases.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

448

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

449

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Hydrocarbon pool and vapor fire data analysis  

SciTech Connect

The flame geometry and thermal radiation data from a series of large scale experiments involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline spills on water were analyzed. The experiments were conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. Two types of fires have been studied; namely, pool fires and vapor fires. The spill quantity varied from 4 m/sup 3/ to approximately 6 m/sup 3/. The LPG pool fire flame height to diameter ratio were between 3.5 and 4.5. The gasoline flame height was about 2. The flame emissive powers for LPG pool fires ranged from 78 kW/m/sup 2/ to 115 kW/m/sup 2/. The average surface emissive power for gasoline pool fire was 40 kW/m/sup 2/. The LPG vapor fire emissive power ranged from 159 to 269 kW/m/sup 2/. 63 figures, 13 tables.

Mudan, K.S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

PROTECTING AGAINST VAPOR EXPLOSIONS WITH WATER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... developed commercially for fire suppression applications. (7) Johnson and Shale, 1995 IS1 This paper provides a summary ...

2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale carbon dioxide...

453

Sonochemical reduction of carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production are responsible for approximately 75% of the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the… (more)

Koblov, Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

455

Interfacial instability induced by lateral vapor pressure fluctuation in bounded thin liquid-vapor layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study an instability of thin liquid-vapor layers bounded by rigid parallel walls from both below and above. In this system, the interfacial instability is induced by lateral vapor pressure fluctuation, which is in turn attributed to the effect of phase change: evaporation occurs at the hotter portion of the interface and condensation at the colder one. The high vapor pressure drives the liquid away and the low one pulls it up. A set of equations describing the temporal evolution of the interface of the liquid-vapor layers is derived. This model neglects the effect of mass loss or gain at the interface and guarantees the mass conservation of the liquid layer. The result of linear stability analysis of the model shows that the presence of the pressure dependence of the local saturation temperature suppresses the growth of long-wave disturbances. We find the stability criterion, which suggests that only slight temperature gradients are sufficient to overcome the stabilizing gravitational effect for a water an...

Kanatani, Kentaro

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol was investigated. The procedure for the carbon dioxide conversion was carried out using a small scale… (more)

Okpo, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in three cases, 2005-2040 (million metric tons carbon dioxide ...

459

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces Title China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and...

460

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 January Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important...

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461

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

462

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K (1.73oF), the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3 (7.53 kWh/kgal). At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 ($1.48/kgal) achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K (0.80oF), the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 (15.0 kWh/kgal) and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3 ($2.31/kgal). Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. The following table shows the improvement of a series flow arrangement compared to parallel: ?T (K) Improvement (%)*1.111 2.222 3.333 15.21 10.80 8.37 * Incoming salt concentration: 3.5% Outgoing salt concentration: 7% Temperature: 450 K (350oF) Pressure: 928 kPa (120 psig) Stages: 4

Lubis, Mirna R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

464

Vapor adsorption process  

SciTech Connect

The removal of undesirable acid components from sour natural gas is often accomplished by a vapor adsorption process wherein a bed of solid adsorbent material is contacted with an inlet gas stream so that desired components contained in the gas stream are adsorbed on the bed, then regenerated by contact with a heated regeneration gas stream. Adsorbed components are desorbed from the bed and the bed is cooled preparatory to again being contacted with the inlet gas stream. By this process, the bed is contacted, during the regeneration cycle, with a selected adsorbable material. This material has the property of being displaced from the bed by the desired components and has a heat of desorption equal to or greater than the heat of adsorption of the desired components. When the bed is contacted with the inlet gas stream, the selected adsorbable material is displaced by the desired components resulting in the temperature of the bed remaining relatively constant, thereby allowing the utilization of the maximum bed adsorption capacity. (4 claims)

Snyder, C.F.; Casad, B.M.

1973-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

465

Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1984-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

466

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

467

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition