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1

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

2

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

3

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Estuaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from estuaries are reviewed in relation with biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. In estuaries, carbon dioxide and methane emissions show a large spatial and temporal ...

Gwenaël Abril; Alberto Vieira Borges

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a national level involves substantial investment efforts, though part of these may be regained soon.1 On a global level, the costs of the available options are likely to ...

Catrinus J. Jepma; Che Wah Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960–...2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in...

Ekaterini Panopoulou; Theologos Pantelidis

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide emissions Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News &...

7

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

8

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

9

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries Extended discussion here Carbon emissions per capita 1973 vs. 1991 by major end use. (Denmark comparison is 1972 and 1991) With the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto approaching, there is a great deal of excitement over policies designed to reduce future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels. At COP-3, more than 130 nations will meet to create legally binding targets for CO2 reductions. Accordingly, we have analyzed the patterns of emissions arising from the end uses of energy (and electricity production) in ten industrialized countries, with surprising and, in some cases, worrisome results. The surprise is that emissions in many countries in the early 1990s were lower than in the 1970s in an absolute sense and on a per capita basis; the worry

10

Graph Model for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Metallurgical Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical models are presented for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from metallurgical processes. The article also presents ... in graph form to calculate transit and net emissions of carbon dioxide based o...

Yu. N. Chesnokov; V. G. Lisienko; A. V. Lapteva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions per 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas. In this case, there is much less energy

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ã? 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may

13

Emissions of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Uncontrolled Burning of Garden and Domestic Waste (Backyard Burning)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Straw and plastic (polyethylene) film used for wrapping silage were included, since burnings of these wastes on agricultural fields is considered to be one of the most common types of uncontrolled waste combustions in Sweden. ... To obtain fundamental information on dioxin emissions from an open burning 8 wastes which were likely amenable to be burnt wildly or suspected to generate high levels of dioxins were subjected to an open burning simulation in a special adapted furnace. ... designed to simulate waste generated by a "recycling" and a "nonrecycling" family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. ...

Björn Hedman; Morgan Näslund; Calle Nilsson; Stellan Marklund

2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

14

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

15

Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding and considering the distribution of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is important in designing international climate change ... incentives for participation. I evaluate historic internation...

Joseph E. Aldy

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Do Consumers Select Food Products Based on Carbon Dioxide Emissions?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates whether consumers select foods based on the levels of carbon dioxide emissions by a real choice experiment. Respondents are...2 emissions under no monetary incentives. The willingness to.....

Keiko Aoki; Kenju Akai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

By the Numbers: A Visual Chronicle of Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq.) emissions are now considered a de facto indicator ... this chapter highlights the size and scope of carbon emissions at multiple levels—countries, cities, industrial...

Tonya Boone; Ram Ganeshan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/biogenic_emissions.html Cost: Free References: EPA, 40 CFR Part 60[1] Tailoring Rule[2] Biogenic Emissions[3] The 'EPA Climate Change - Green House Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide

19

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

20

Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the ?-convergence, stochastic convergence and ?-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector.

Juan Wang; Kezhong Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates #12 Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission es- timates / by Bas Subject headings: satellite retrieval / nitrogen dioxide / ozone / air pollution / emis- sion estimates

Haak, Hein

23

The effect of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on world emissions of a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. We use a large unbalanced panel data ... the effects of the international agreement. While carbon

Risa Kumazawa; Michael S. Callaghan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

25

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Global carbon dioxide emissions scenarios: Sensitivity to social and technological factors in three regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

28

Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Scenarios: Sensitivity to Social and Technological Factors in Three Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

30

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Tar Sands Plants in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Tar Sands Plants in Canada ... When the CO2 emissions from the production of synthetic crude, refining, and utilization of fuels are combined, the emissions from utilization account for about 80 and about 70% of the emitted CO2 when fluid coking and delayed coking processes are considered, respectively. ... The combined production of 1 million barrels a day of synthetic crude would emit ?46 million tonnes of CO2 annually, which accounts for less than 8% of the Canadian CO2 emissions. ...

Edward Furimsky

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

32

On the potential economic costs of cutting carbon dioxide emissions in Portugal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic ... €6,340. More importantly, and since carbon dioxide emissions are l...

Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis allowances and offsets, shifting production technology from coal-fired baseload resources to a combination

35

Climate Change: Global growth of carbon dioxide emissions continues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After declining 1.5% in 2009, global carbon dioxide emissions rose 5.8% in 2010, the largest yearly jump in two decades, according to a Worldwatch Institute report released on April 28. Worldwatch is a Washington, D.C.-based, environmental think tank. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper tests the convergence in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions for a collection of developed and developing...

Joakim Westerlund; Syed A. Basher

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In view of global warming, the concept of a low carbon world economy has been brought to center stage. In this paper, a systematical empirical investigation of the convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China is conducted based on provincial data for the period of 1995–2011. Using the log t test developed by Phillips and Sul (2007), evident divergence at the country level and convergence to three steady state equilibriums at provincial level was identified. Furthermore, estimates from the ordered logit model uncover important determinants underlying the formation of clubs, including the per capita GDP, energy consumption structure, energy intensity, and initial levels of economic development. The results from this study contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the carbon dioxide emissions status quo in China and serves as reference when launching region-based emissions mitigation policies.

Yiming Wang; Pei Zhang; Dake Huang; Changda Cai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Energy use and sulphur dioxide emissions in Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of energy use in 22 selected countries of Asia and estimates the anthropogenic emission of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) for the selected countries, both at national and disaggregated sub-country-regional levels. The paper also makes a comparative assessment of the Asian countries in terms of SO{sub 2} emission intensity (i.e. emission per GDP), emission per capita and emission density (i.e. emission per unit area). Total SO{sub 2} emission in the region was estimated to be about 38 million tons in 1990 Five countries, China, India, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, accounted for over 91% of the regional SO{sub 2} emission. Coal use had the dominant share (81%) of the total emission from the region. Among the economic sectors, industry contributed the largest share (49%) to the total emissions of the selected countries as a whole, followed by the power sector (30%). These findings suggest the need for mitigation strategies focussed on the industry and power sectors of the major emitting countries in Asia. 20 refs., 10 tabs.

Shrestha, R.M.; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Malla, S. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)] [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Performance Comparison of Two Fuzzy Based Models in Predicting Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many studies have been carried out worldwide to predict carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using various methods. Most of the methods...2 emissions are not immediately known. This paper offers...2 emissions in Malays...

Herrini Mohd Pauzi; Lazim Abdullah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Carbon dioxide emissions, impact on Malaysia's manufacturing productivity growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methods used to measure productivity growth generally ignore the pollutants that are produced by the industrial processes. For example, pollutant emissions generated as undesirable output, apart from the main output of Malaysia's manufacturing sector, are excluded from the productivity accounting framework. This study aims at an extended productivity measure that takes pollutants into account by internalisation of Carbon dioxide (CO2) as a measure of air pollutant emissions into the production function, as an unpriced input. The results show that there was a slowdown in the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) growth in general, and a negative impact of CO2 emissions produced by the sector in particular, compared to other productivity indicators of the sector when CO2 is internalised in the models.

Elsadig Musa Ahmed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

Uppsala Universitet

42

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes of the air-sea system. The perturbation, dIc, includes carbon emissions and changes in the terrestrial), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global

Follows, Mick

43

State Externalities Policy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Who Bears the Risks of Future Regulation?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ITEM...: In January 1991, representatives of 38 state consumer advocacy offices and 17 environmental organizations warned utilities that failures to anticipate future carbon-dioxide-emission cost i...

Ralph Cavanagh; Ashok Gupta; Dan Lashof; Marika Tatsutani

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates be inferred for important trace gases such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Chemical transport models.11 to 3.79. Total nitrogen dioxide columns can be retrieved from space in the 405­465 nm window

Haak, Hein

45

Carbon dioxide emission reduction using molten carbonate fuel cell systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The contribution of the molten carbonate fuel cell system (MCFCs) to carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction in power application is analyzed. \\{MCFCs\\} can separate and concentrate CO2 emitted from traditional thermal power plants (PPs) without reducing the plant's overall energy efficiency. \\{MCFCs\\} can also be used by itself as an effective CO2 separator or concentrator by managing the anode gas stream to increase the heat utilization of the system. The CO2 separated and concentrated by \\{MCFCs\\} is most effectively captured by condensation. \\{MCFCs\\} is currently used as a CO2 separator only to a limited extent due to its high cost and relatively small scale operation. However, \\{MCFCs\\} will substantially contribute to reduce CO2 emissions in power generation applications in the near future.

Jung-Ho Wee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Table 22. Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual (million metric tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 AEO 1983 AEO 1984 AEO 1985 AEO 1986 AEO 1987 AEO 1989* AEO 1990 AEO 1991 AEO 1992 AEO 1993 5009 5053 5130 5207 5269 5335 5401 5449 5504 5562 5621 5672 5724 5771 5819 5867 5918 5969 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441.3 5489.0 5551.3 5621.0 5679.7 5727.3 5775.0 5841.0 5888.7 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 AEO 1997 5295 5381 5491 5586 5658 5715 5781 5863 5934 6009 6106 6184 6236 6268 AEO 1998 5474 5621 5711 5784 5893 5957 6026 6098 6192 6292 6379 6465 6542 AEO 1999 5522 5689 5810 5913 5976 6036 6084 6152 6244 6325 6418 6493 AEO 2000

48

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

49

Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S. Economy: A Structural Decomposition Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact of various influences on carbon dioxide emissions. It incorporates methodological refinements of input-output...2 emissions in the U.S. over the 1972 ... as...

Stephen D. Casler; Adam Rose

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A decomposition analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the Chinese nonferrous metal industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nonferrous metal industry (NMI) of China consumes large amounts of energy and associated emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are very high. Actions to reduce CO 2 emissions and ener...

Y. Shi; T. Zhao

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Investigation of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Costs in Single Point Incremental Forming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The LCA of sheet metal forming processes is lacking in studies of sustainability issues and quantification of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper summarizes an investigation of the...2 emissions

Kadra Branker; David W. Adams…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

2007-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

53

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012 ... U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels fell 3.8% last year to the lowest level since 1994, according to a report released last week by the Energy Information Administration. ... Consequently, looking just at carbon emissions and production, 2012 marks the largest annual drop in carbon emissions per GDP since 1948 when records were first kept. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

54

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not counted as part of emissions inventories, and biomass energy is sometimes referred to as being 'carbon neutral.' But what happens when a forest is harvested for fuel but takes 60 years to regrow or when biomass is harvested in a country that is not party to an international accord but is burned in a country that is party to an international accord? Biomass energy is only truly 'carbon neutral' if we get the system boundaries right. They need to make sure that the accounting methodology is compatible with our needs and realities in management and policy.

Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Hardcopy Uncontrolled NOAA NESDIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interface Control Document IPT Integrated Product Team NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, DataHardcopy Uncontrolled NOAA NESDIS CENTER for SATELLITE APPLICATIONS and RESEARCH DOCUMENT GUIDELINE DG-9.2 TEST READINESS DOCUMENT GUIDELINE Version 3.0 #12;NOAA NESDIS STAR DOCUMENT GUIDELINE DG-9

Kuligowski, Bob

56

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003?2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8?GtC? yr?1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

G Myhre; K Alterskj?r; D Lowe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Review of accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from tourism at different spatial scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon dioxide emission from tourism, as a focus of man-land relationship in tourism industry in the 21st century, is a vital index reflecting its effect on environment change. The article summarizes the contents of carbon dioxide emissions from tourism at different scales such as world, nation, region and unit. These results indicate that: (1) the accounting of the carbon dioxide emissions from tourism began from global and national scales at the end of the last century, then to regional and basic scales. (2) The Carbon dioxide emissions from tourism are mainly from high-developed countries and regions in terms of space, from the minority high-spending tourists in terms of behavior, from high-speed vehicles, high-grade accommodations and high-level tourism activities in terms of tourism element. The carbon dioxide emissions per capita of developing countries and regions are less than one tenth in developed countries and regions. As for the proportion of total emission, tourism transportation accounts for the largest, generally more than 65%, followed by accommodation, and the last is tourism activity. (3) Based on the systemic analysis of these coefficients of accounting carbon dioxide emissions in tourism, the paper indicates that there are progresses in the consistency of coefficients at global scale and diversity of coefficients at national, regional and unit scales, while the coefficients of developed countries and regions are higher than those of developing countries and regions. In addition, some recommendations including coefficients have given to China.

Yu-guo Tao; Zhen-fang Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Report #: DOE/EIA-0573(2005) Released Date: November 2006 Next Release Date: Not applicable Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing Mark Schipper 1 , Energy Information Administration (EIA) Abstract Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

59

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

60

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: quantile panel-type analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper samples the data of 138 countries during the 1971–2007 period, and performs an empirical test to validate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. It first performs panel ...

Kuan-Min Wang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Current status of waste to power generation in Japan and resulting reduction of carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the current status of waste to power generation (WPG) in Japan and various scenarios involving indirect reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by WPG. The number of WPG facilities ... power plants. If t...

Masaki Takaoka; Nobuo Takeda; Naruo Yamagata…

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Some operational aspects and applications of dividing wall columns: energy requirements and carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the end of 20th century and beginning of the 21st, oil prices reached 100 USD per barrel, and more attention was given to environmental regulations on carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, applications of...

Raúl Delgado-Delgado; Salvador Hernández…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions and nitrogen turnover during liquid manure storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gas (GHG) methane...4) have increased significantly during the twentieth century (IPCC 2001). Compared to carbon dioxide (CO2), the amounts of CH4 are low in the atmosphe...

Sven G. Sommer; Søren O. Petersen; Peter Sørensen…

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Carbon dioxide emissions and governance: A nonparametric analysis for the G-20  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper applies nonparametric estimators to examine the carbon dioxide emissions–governance relationship. By using data for the twenty largest economies (Group of twenty, G-20) the dynamics of the considered relationship are analyzed for the time period 1996–2010. Six governance measures are included in our analysis (Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption) as have been defined by the World Bank. The empirical findings reveal a high nonlinear relationship between countries' carbon dioxide emissions and the examined governance measures. The results reveal significant differences on the number of governance measures influencing countries' carbon dioxide emission levels. It is evident that these differences are subject to countries' specific regional and development variations. Finally, it appears that increasing the quality of countries' different governance factors does not always result to lower carbon dioxide emission levels.

George E. Halkos; Nickolaos G. Tzeremes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Carbon dioxide sequestration in petrochemical industries with the aim of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to acceptable levels is arguably the greatest...2 increase in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide sequestration that consists of separation, transportation and...2..., is one...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004 These data represent energy use and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions associated with cropland production in the U.S. Energy use and emissions occurring on the farm are referred to as on-site energy and on-site emissions. Energy use and emissions associated with cropland production that occur off the farm (e.g., use of electricity, energy and emissions associated with fertilizer and pesticide production) are referred to as off-site energy and off-site emissions. The combination of on-site and off-site energy and carbon is referred to as total energy and total carbon, respectively. Data provided here are for on-site and total energy and associated CO2 emissions. Units are Megagram C for CO2 estimates and Gigajoule for energy

68

Carbon dioxide emission, institutional quality, and economic growth: Empirical evidence in Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In view of Malaysia's status as a fast-growing economy with accelerating carbon dioxide emissions, a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth and pollution is vital to the policy makers. This paper, therefore, attempts to investigate the existence of long run relationship among carbon dioxide emission, institutional quality, exports, and economic growth and further examines the causal relationship among these variables in Malaysia for the period 1984–2008. From the bounds test, it is found that a long run relationship does exist among the variables, even using different conditioning information sets. A positive and significant interaction term between carbon dioxide emission and institutional quality indicator (i.e. law and order) implies that good institutional quality is important in controlling carbon dioxide emission in the process of economic development. The results for Granger causality tests further confirm the importance of institutional frameworks in reducing carbon dioxide emissions since institutional quality is found not only affects economic growth directly, but also indirectly via carbon dioxide emissions. This indicates that sound institutional frameworks are essential for Malaysia to achieve high economic growth without sacrificing its environment.

Lin-Sea Lau; Chee-Keong Choong; Yoke-Kee Eng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Convergence in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Among G7 Countries: A TAR Panel Unit Root Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subject of this paper is the examination the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions of the G7 countries during the 1960– ... Kingdom was the transition country whose per capita carbon dioxide (CO2

Nilgun Cil Yavuz; Veli Yilanci

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Changes in carbon dioxide emissions and LMDI-based impact factor decomposition: the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region as a case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at provincial level can provide a scientific...2 reduction policies. We studied the variation of CO2 emissions of primary energy consumption and its influencing...2 emission

Li Zhang; Jun Lei; Xuan Zhou; XiaoLei Zhang; Wen Dong; Yu Yang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions 2 0 1 0 Green TransporTaTion TechnoloGies Compared to traditional gasoline engines, diesel engines require less maintenance, generate energy more efficiently, and produce less carbon dioxide emissions. But when uncontrolled, diesel engines churn out harmful emissions like particu- late matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are currently working to develop

72

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach ... This capacity corresponds approximately to storing the emissions of a 5 MW power plant emitting 65 tons of CO2 per day for almost 1800 years27 or 14 years from a 300 MW coal power plant where 8000 tons of CO2 is captured per day. ... To overcome this CO2 emission problem, there is great interest, esp. in Canada, to capture carbon dioxide and utilize it as a flooding agent for the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. ...

Anne-Christine Aycaguer; Miriam Lev-On; Arthur M. Winer

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). As indicated by Wagner (2008), the series of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita carbon focuses solely on the energy consumption, carbon dioxide ( 2CO ) emissions and economic growth nexus in countries' energy efficiencies and cross-country differences in the 2CO emissions trajectories are accounted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO2 emissions from the

75

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Focus Area: Geothermal Power Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/PubDetails.aspx?Action=View& Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carben-version-3-multisector-carbon-d Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance The CarBen model enables users to conduct wedge anlayses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The spreadsheet-based tool relies upon expert opinion for scenario formulation and is not intended to be used

76

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of in...

Stephan Scholz

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets ... The varying proportions of CO2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio (?13C), with a range of about 2 ‰. ... The large range of carbon emissions within the bituminous rank class suggests that rank-specific carbon emission factors are provincial rather than global. ...

Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

78

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Chinese urban households  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper draws on Chinese survey data to investigate variations in carbon dioxide emissions across households with different income levels. Rich households generate more emissions per capita than poor households via both their direct energy consumption and their higher expenditure on goods and services that use energy as an intermediate input. An econometric analysis confirms a positive relationship between emissions and income and establishes a slightly increasing marginal propensity to emit (MPE) over the relevant income range. The redistribution of income from rich to poor households is therefore shown to reduce aggregate household emissions, suggesting that the twin pursuits of reducing inequality and emissions can be achieved in tandem.

Jane Golley; Xin Meng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Energy, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon taxes and the Chinese economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given the global characteristics of climate change and China's potential importance as a source of CO2 emissions, advocates of controlling CO2 emissions call for substantial efforts in China. However, the Chinese...

ZhongXiang Zhang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Table 4. 2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " 2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"Shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation" "Alabama",0.01584875241,0.5778871607,0.02136328943,0.1334667239,0.2514340736 "Alaska",0.06448385239,0.0785744956,0.0462016929,0.4291084798,0.3816314793 "Arizona",0.02474932909,0.5668758159,0.02425067581,0.04966758421,0.334456595 "Arkansas",0.03882032779,0.4886410984,0.03509200153,0.1307772146,0.3066693577 "California",0.04308920353,0.1176161395,0.07822332929,0.1824277392,0.5786435885 "Colorado",0.04301641968,0.4131279202,0.08115394032,0.1545280216,0.3081736982

82

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 July 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views

83

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions index, we use conversion factors. To determine theof Energy. 11 This conversion factor includes only thebe using different conversion factors for electricity in

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

EIA - AEO2010 - Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass [75] to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in AEO2010. According to current international convention [76], carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time [77]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

85

Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010)" State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010)" "million metric tons carbon dioxide" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,," 2000 to 2010 " "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",140.4264977,131.9521389,136.7103146,137.2323195,139.6896437,141.493798,143.9716001,146.076107,139.2224128,119.7962734,132.7462762,-0.05469211069,-7.680221558 "Alaska",44.32104312,43.40375114,43.56121812,43.5078746,46.76217106,48.06229125,45.79367017,44.11576503,39.46205329,37.91867389,38.72718369,-0.1262122693,-5.593859429 "Arizona",85.96984024,88.33838336,87.66914741,89.29026566,96.58329461,96.7032775,100.0087541,102.1950438,103.1458188,94.63481918,95.91303514,0.1156591064,9.943194897

86

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Atlantic South Atlantic Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 25, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA South Atlantic Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic- Reference Case (xls, 74.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

87

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Central North Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 23, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions East North Central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

88

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source, New England |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Source, New England Source, New England Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 21, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions New England Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source, New England- Reference Case (xls, 73.9 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

89

Table 3. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "Alabama",2.103862865,76.71236863,2.835897119,17.71721059,33.37693698,132.7462762 "Alaska",2.497277997,3.042968925,1.789261448,16.61816292,14.7795124,38.72718369 "Arizona",2.373783271,54.37078005,2.325955921,4.76376875,32.07874715,95.91303514 "Arkansas",2.566776983,32.30865878,2.320262268,8.646911643,20.27679552,66.11940519 "California",15.93482613,43.49564577,28.92778352,67.46363514,213.9882899,369.8101805 "Colorado",4.150125234,39.85763155,7.82954551,14.90850811,29.73188961,96.47770002

90

Table 2. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,,,," Shares " "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas" "Alabama",67.81545193,35.95576449,28.97505976,132.7462762,0.5108651925,0.2708608145,0.218273993 "Alaska",1.364880388,19.58916888,17.77313443,38.72718369,0.03524347131,0.5058247724,0.4589317562 "Arizona",43.2377726,34.82066125,17.85460129,95.91303514,0.4508018387,0.3630440972,0.1861540641 "Arkansas",27.72445786,23.82768621,14.56726112,66.11940519,0.4193089424,0.3603735717,0.2203174859 "California",5.157135123,241.2575077,123.3955377,369.8101805,0.01394535736,0.6523820067,0.3336726359

91

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Central North Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 24, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA west north central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

92

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Central South Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 27, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA West South Central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

93

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Mountain | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mountain Mountain Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 28, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA Mountain Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Mountain- Reference Case (xls, 74.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

94

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Central South Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 26, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions East South Central EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

95

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - United States |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United States United States Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 30, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA United States Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - United States- Reference Case (xls, 75.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

96

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Source- Middle Atlantic Source- Middle Atlantic Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 22, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions middle atlantic Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic- Reference Case (xls, 74.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

97

Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 201  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 2010)" Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 2010)" "metric tons carbon dioxide per person" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"2000 to 2010" "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",31.54590416,29.56352198,30.5739632,30.56483509,30.96927578,31.14605742,31.33283758,31.52225314,29.78727412,25.44798199,28.06679306,-0.1102872527,-3.479111105 "Alaska",70.60324067,68.51009907,67.8551127,67.17588806,70.92646205,72.04509462,67.81012638,64.8863351,57.56413017,54.58358965,54.63289567,-0.2261984697,-15.97034499 "Arizona",16.64049197,16.65546102,16.08173855,15.97087112,16.77174168,16.18743942,16.15392734,16.06780183,15.87052371,14.3654833,14.36549251,-0.1367146759,-2.274999466

98

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Pacific | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pacific Pacific Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 29, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA Pacific Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Pacific- Reference Case (xls, 74.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

99

"1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Emission Factors" Fuel Emission Factors" "(From Appendix H of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1" "Fuel ",,"Emission Factor ",,"Units" "Coal2" "Anthracite",,103.69,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Bituminous",,93.28,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Sub-bituminous",,97.17,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Lignite",,97.72,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Electric Power Sector",,95.52,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Industrial Coking",,93.71,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Other Industrial",,93.98,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Residential/Commercial",,95.35,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Natural Gas3"

100

Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector  

SciTech Connect

As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Coping with carbon: a near-term strategy to limit carbon dioxide emissions from power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dioxide from power stations. According to the...source, natural gas. On top of this...can be applied to gas-fired plants too...build large power stations. Individual plants...A nuclear power station is both cost effective...lower greenhouse gas emissions than any...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Carbon Dioxide Emissions of the City Center of Firenze, Italy: Measurement, Evaluation, and Source Partitioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An eddy covariance station was installed in the city center of Firenze, Italy, to measure carbon fluxes at half-hourly intervals over a mostly homogeneous urban area. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission observations made over an initial period of 3.5 ...

A. Matese; B. Gioli; F. P. Vaccari; A. Zaldei; F. Miglietta

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman Nitrogen dioxide: Less than 5% of the NOx BUT with an outstanding peak for the 2007 MY in Fresno 0. Nitrogen dioxide: less than 5% of NOx except the Fresno fleet containing the 2007 Sprinter ambulances. #12;

Denver, University of

104

Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the dynamic causal relationships between energy consumption, energy price and economic activity in Saudi Arabia based on a demand side approach. We use a Johansen multivariate cointegration approach and incorporate CO2 emissions as a control variable. The results indicate that there exists at least a long-run relationship between energy consumption, energy price, carbon dioxide emissions, and economic growth. Furthermore, a long-run unidirectional causality stands from energy consumption to economic growth and CO2 emissions, bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth, and a long-run unidirectional causality runs from energy price to economic growth and CO2 emissions. In the short-run, there is unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to energy consumption and economic output and from energy price to CO2 emissions. Even though, the energy-led growth hypothesis is valid, the share of energy consumption in explaining economic growth is minimal. Energy price is the most important factor in explaining economic growth. Hence, policies aimed at reducing energy consumption and controlling for CO2 emissions may not reduce significantly Saudi?s economic growth. Investing in the use of renewable energy sources like solar and wind power is an urgent necessity to control for fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

Atef Saad Alshehry; Mounir Belloumi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Carbon Dioxide Emission Pathways Avoiding Dangerous Ocean Impacts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases could lead to undesirable effects on oceans in coming centuries. Drawing on recommendations published by the German Advisory Council on Global Change, levels of unacceptable global marine change (so-...

K. Kvale; K. Zickfeld; T. Bruckner; K. J. Meissner; K. Tanaka; A. J. Weaver

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (NDP-058) data Data image ASCII Text Documentation PDF file PDF file Contributors R. J. Andres, G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews (contributors) DOI DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058 This data package presents data sets recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

107

Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions: A matter of time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...country can support consumption of goods and services...internal combustion engine. So, how much...emissions to the consumption of particular goods...internationally traded fossil fuels, foodstuffs...underemphasize the role of consumption of goods and services...from selling the fuel. Those who use...

Ken Caldeira; Steven J. Davis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators  

SciTech Connect

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A new method for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from transportation at fine spatial  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial scales are useful to both modelers and decision makers who are faced with the problem of global warming and climate change. Globally, transport related emissions of carbon dioxide are growing. This letter presents a new method based on the volume-preserving principle in the areal interpolation literature to disaggregate transportation-related CO2 emission estimates from the county-level scale to a 1?km2 grid scale. The proposed volume-preserving interpolation (VPI) method, together with the distance-decay principle, were used to derive emission weights for each grid based on its proximity to highways, roads, railroads, waterways, and airports. The total CO2 emission value summed from the grids within a county is made to be equal to the original county-level estimate, thus enforcing the volume-preserving property. The method was applied to downscale the transportation-related CO2 emission values by county (i.e.?parish) for the state of Louisiana into 1?km2 grids. The results reveal a more realistic spatial pattern of CO2 emission from transportation, which can be used to identify the emission 'hot spots'. Of the four highest transportation-related CO2 emission hotspots in Louisiana, high-emission grids literally covered the entire East Baton Rouge Parish and Orleans Parish, whereas CO2 emission in Jefferson Parish (New Orleans suburb) and Caddo Parish (city of Shreveport) were more unevenly distributed. We argue that the new method is sound in principle, flexible in practice, and the resultant estimates are more accurate than previous gridding approaches.

Yuqin Shu; Nina S N Lam; Margaret Reams

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (DB-1015) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.db1015 This data has been updated. Please see NDP-081. Contributed by: James W. Raich 1 and Christopher S. Potter2 1Department of Botany Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 USA Email: jraich@iastate.edu 2NASA Ames Research Center MS 242-2 Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA Email: cpotter@gaia.arc.nasa.gov Prepared by L.M. Olsen. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Date Published: March, 1996 (Revised for the web: 2002) The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center is a part of the Environmental Sciences Division of the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (ORNL) and is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290. The ORNL is managed by University of Tennessee-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

111

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

"Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO 1995",,5137,5173.666667,5188.333333,5261.666667,5309.333333,5360.666667,5393.666667,5441.333333,5489,5551.333333,5621,5679.666667,5727.333333,5775,5841,5888.666667,5943.666667 "AEO 1996",,,5181.817301,5223.645142,5294.776326,5354.687297,5416.802205,5463.67395,5525.288005,5588.52771,5660.226888,5734.87972,5812.398031,5879.320068,5924.814575,5981.291626,6029.640422,6086.804077,6142.120972

113

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

114

From Sulfur Dioxide to Greenhouse Gases: Trends and Events Shaping Future Emissions Trading Programs in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of the United States sulfur dioxide (SO2...) trading program has led to worldwide interest in emissions trading. The program has become a model for ... a theoretical option discussed only by economist...

Joseph Kruger

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from soil receiving urban wastewater for maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated how amending maize with wastewater at 120 kg N ha?1 affected crop growth, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) compared to plants ferti...

Fabián Fernández-Luqueño; Verónica Reyes-Varela…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Conceptual design of syngas production systems with almost net-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work describes three different configurations of syngas production processes using a combination of SMR (steam methane reforming) and DRM (dry reforming of methane). The ideal SMR + DRM process ensures the maximum product yield, the heat-integrated SMR + DRM process fulfills the maximum heat recovery, and the stand-alone SMR + DRM process effectively suppress net CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. Through specific optimization algorithms, the syngas production systems subject to almost net-zero CO2 emissions are successfully verified by simulations in Aspen Plus environment.

Wei Wu; Hsiao-Tung Yang; Jenn-Jiang Hwang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Estimation of carbon dioxide emission in highway construction: a case study in southwest region of China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The large-scale transportation infrastructure construction in developing countries such as China requires emission estimation method for better project design. This study proposed an empirical method to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which was generated from highway construction based on four real projects in southwest region of China. The proposed method estimated the total emission from different steps of construction process (raw material production, material transportation and onsite construction) by different project types (e.g. subgrade, pavement, bridge, and tunnels). The results show that in general over 80 percent of the CO2 emission was generated from raw material production; the onsite construction and material transportation only accounted for 10 and 3 percent of the whole CO2 emission, respectively. Moreover, the CO2 emission from bridge and tunnel constructions was much larger than subgrade and pavement construction. The total CO2 emission from road, bridge and tunnel constructions was 5229 kg/m, 35,547 kg/m and 42,302 kg/m, respectively. The empirical estimation method of the CO2 emission proposed in this study can be considered as references for CO2 emission estimation in other regions which are similar as southwest region of China.

Xianwei Wang; Zhengyu Duan; Lingsheng Wu; Dongyuan Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

EIA - AEO2011 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Early Release Overview 1 Early Release Overview Release Date: December 16, 2011 | Next Release Date: January 2012 | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0383ER(2011) Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure DataAfter falling by 3 percent in 2008 and nearly 7 percent in 2009, largely driven by the economic downturn, total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to 2005 levels (5,980 million metric tons) until 2027, and then rise by an additional 5 percent from 2027 to 2035, reaching 6,315 million metric tons in 2035 (Figure 13). Energy-related CO2 emissions grow by 0.2 percent per year from 2005 to 2035. Emissions per capita fall by an average of 0.8 percent per year from 2005 to 2035, as growth in demand for electricity and transportation fuels is moderated by higher energy prices, effi ciency standards, State RPS requirements, and Federal

119

Intention to change activities that reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to worry about global climate change consequences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introduction Mitigating the global climate change requires actions at different levels including that lay people change their consumption patterns, which cause emissions of greenhouse gases. Recent research suggests that inducing affects such as fear and worry may have positive effects. Objective To investigate whether worry in addition to personalized information about emissions of carbon dioxide would influence lay people's intentions to change consumption-related personal activities causing carbon-dioxide emissions. Method A municipality-provided tool to calculate their annual carbon dioxide emissions was used by 135 university students who after being informed about negative consequences of global climate change stated their intentions to change a number of personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during the following 12 months. They also rated how worried they were about eight global climate change consequences. Results Intentions to change travel, energy use at home, food consumption, involvement in environmental organizations, and support of environmental policies increased with worry. An interaction was also observed such that high-emitters’ intentions to invest in energy-efficient infrastructure increased more with worry than did low- and medium-emitters’ intentions. Conclusions In line with recent research positing that affect increases preventive actions, the hypothesis was supported that intentions to change personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions increased with participants’ worry about the consequences of global climate change.

E.-L. Sundblad; A. Biel; T. Gärling

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Carbon dioxide emissions intensity of Portuguese industry and energy sectors: A convergence analysis and econometric approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Given the relevance of energy and pollution issues for industrialised countries and the importance of industry and energy sectors to the achievement of their economic and environmental goals, it is important to know if there is a common pattern of emissions intensity, fuel intensity and energy intensity, between industries, to know if it justifies a more specific application of energy policies between sectors, which sectors have the greatest potential for reducing energy use and which are the long term effects of those specific variables on the mitigation of emissions. We found that although there is literature on decomposition of effects that affect emissions, the study of the convergence and of the relationships between these variables does not include ratios or effects that result from the decomposition analysis. Thus, the above questions are not answered, much less for the Portuguese reality. The purpose of this paper is to study: (i) the existence of convergence of some relevant ratios as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity, CO2 emissions by fossil fuel consumption, fossil fuel intensity, energy intensity and economic structure, between industry and energy sectors in Portugal, and (ii) the influence that the consumption of fossil fuels, the consumption of aggregate energy and GDP have on CO2 emissions, and the influence that the ratios in which CO2 emissions intensity decomposes can affect that variable, using an econometric approach, namely Panel corrected standard errors estimator. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all ratios with exception of fossil fuel intensity. Gamma convergence verifies for all ratios, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity.

Victor Moutinho; Margarita Robaina-Alves; Jorge Mota

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Abstract--Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused by an increase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this project is to provide the airport manager at major airports, such as Dulles International Airport of emissions offset. The case study of this project will be Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD Abstract-- Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused

122

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry Ali Hasanbeigi, Lynn Price China Energy Group Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Marlene Arens Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) January 2013 This work was supported by the China Sustainable Energy Program of the Energy Foundation and Dow Chemical Company (through a charitable contribution) through the Department of Energy under contract No.DE- AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY LBNL-6106E ii Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

123

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Taxing Car-produced Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Matching the Cure to the Disease  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by cars is a linear (albeit fuel specific) function of the amount of fuel consumed. Because CO2 emissions generate social costs, through their effect on climate change, which escape the price mechanism, a tax on CO2 is indicated. An ideal tax would alter the consumer prices so that they match the marginal social costs. This setting thus calls for a specific tax on fuel equal to the value of externality resulting from the combustion of a unit of fuel. Since such tax scheme is readily available, we study to what extent the existing CO2 tax policies make use of it. We find that they do only to a limited extent. Thus our policy prescription is to drop existing CO2 taxes and use the existing fuel taxes to adjust fuel prices so that they match the marginal social costs related to burning of fuel.

Petr David; Josef Montag

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet light sensitive video system  

SciTech Connect

Remote measurements of SO/sub 2/ emissions and plume velocities were made with a portable ultraviolet light-sensitive video system and compared with EPA in-stack compliance measurement methods. The instrument system measures the ultraviolet light absorption of SO/sub 2/ and movement of SO/sub 2/ fluctuations in the effluent plume and relates these measurements to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and velocity of the plume. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using this technique for rapid surveillance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. The effects caused by submicron aerosols also were investigated. The field tests were performed on two occasions. On the first occasion, SO/sub 2/ and plume velocity measurements were made at a typical coal-fired power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The second occasion involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study, which resulted in routine SO/sub 2/ emission measurements performed at 12 industrial sites. The results of smoke generator and field tests indicate that the sulfur dioxide concentration of smoke stack emissions can be made with an accuracy less than +/-120 ppm (relative to the EPA stack test compliance method), provided the particulate opacity of the emissions is less than 22 percent. The velocity measurement feature of the instrument correlated poorly with the EPA compliance method for stack gas velocity.

McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

128

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand ... Fugitive emissions from geothermal fields were noted, though not added to the result for geothermal power generation, but all other “CO2 emissions” pertaining to this study arose from construction, maintenance, and decommissioning of power stations, since renewable technologies (apart from geothermal) do not emit CO2 during normal operation. ... Hondo, H. Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case Energy 2005, 30 ( 11?12 SPEC. ...

Bridget M. Rule; Zeb J. Worth; Carol A. Boyle

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

SR/OIAF-CNEAF/2008-04 SR/OIAF-CNEAF/2008-04 The Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. Unless referenced otherwise, the information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special

130

The tractor and semitrailer routing problem with many-to-many demand considering carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The tractor and semitrailer routing problem with many-to-many demand (TSRP-MMD) is investigated in this study. The TSRP-MMD extends the existing studies on the rollon–rolloff vehicle routing problem (RRVRP) to a many-to-many problem with an intercity line-haul network background. To demonstrate and utilize the energy efficiency of the tractor and semitrailer combination, the TSRP-MMD takes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per ton-kilometer as the objective. Because the problem is NP-hard, a modified Clarke and Wright Savings heuristic algorithm (CW) followed by an improvement phase and a local search phase is developed to solve the TSRP-MMD. The integer program is used to find optimum solutions for small-scale problems. The computational results show that the developed heuristics can be efficiently used to solve the problem.

Hongqi Li; Tan Lv; Yanran Li

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

132

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Ocean Acidification: The Potential Impacts on Ocean Biodiversity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the focus in recent years on the potential impacts of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere linked to anthropogenic activities ... oceans as a consequence of the influx of carbon dioxide absor...

William C. G. Burns

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants in Greece in Relation to Mined Lignite Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions were shown to vary with the calorific value and carbonate content of lignite burned at three large power plants. ... The annual carbon dioxide emissions, Q, in a lignite-fired power plant can be calculated on the basis of the total carbon mass balance, using the following formula:(18)Specific emission factor, Qs, expressed in tons of CO2 generated per MW h is given bywhere Q is the annual CO2 emissions (in tons), Qs is the specific CO2 emissions (in tons MW?1 h?1), L is the annual lignite consumption (in tons/year), CL is the total carbon content of lignite on an as-received basis (%), W is the annual production of bottom ash ( in tons/year), CW is the total carbon content of bottom ash on an as-received basis (%), F is the annual production of fly ash (in tons/year), CF is the total carbon content of fly ash on an as-received basis (%), and E is the annual production of electricity ( in MW h). ... The carbon dioxide emitted as a product of combustion of coal (fossil fuels) is currently responsible for over 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. ...

Despina Vamvuka; Michael Galetakis

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

135

An assessment of operations of oil-exporting countries in terms of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from 16 oil-exporting countries are studied using Data Envelopment Analysis using indicators representing economic growth, energy consumption and emissions. The analysis for 1996 shows that Norway, Gabon and Nigeria are efficient and that Russia is inefficient. Malmquist Productivity Index analysis shows that there is progress in achieving higher values of GDP and non-fossil fuel consumption and in achieving lower values of fossil fuel consumption and carbon emissions in the year 1996 when compared with 1992 for Norway, Russia, Mexico, Algeria, Libya, Gabon and Oman.

Ramakrishnan Ramanathan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Evaluation of Sludge Characteristics and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plants in China by Mass and Energy Balances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy balances were used to evaluate the characteristics of sludge and to calculate the carbon dioxide emissions in the WWTPs in this study. To avoid the errors, mass balances by TP have been used to calibrate the relating data before making energy ... Keywords: Sludge, CEP, mass balance, energy balance, carbon dioxide

Gan Wang; Yongzhen Peng; Shuying Wang; Gan Wang; Hongxun Hou

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 2. Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions Coefficients,and Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption, and CarbonEnergy – Related Carbon Emissions Fuel Energy Use Carbon (

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Concentrations on the Rise as Kyoto Era Fades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to on-site measurements by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations reached 391.3 parts per million (ppm) in 2011, up from 388.56 ppm in 2010 and fro...

Xing Fu-Bertaux

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Urbanisation, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in China: A panel data analysis of China’s provinces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global warming resulting from rapid economic growth across the world has become a worldwide threat. The coordination of development of urbanisation, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions therefore forms an important issue; it has attracted considerable attention from both governments and researchers in recent years. This study investigated the relationship between urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions over the period 1995–2011, using a panel data model, based on the data for 30 Chinese provinces. The potential to reduce CO2 emissions was also analysed. The results indicated that per capita CO2 emissions in China were characterised by conspicuous regional imbalances during the period studied; in fact, per capita CO2 emissions decrease gradually from the eastern coastal region to the central region, and then to the western region. Urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions were found to present a long run bi-directional positive relationship, the significance of which was discovered to vary between provinces as a result of the scale of their respective economies. In addition, a bi-directional causal relationship was found to exist between urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: specifically, a bi-directional positive causal relationship exists between CO2 emissions and urbanisation, as well as between energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and a one way positive causal relationship exists from urbanisation to energy consumption. Scenario simulations further demonstrated that whilst China’s per capita and total CO2 emissions will increase continuously between 2012 and 2020 under all of the three scenarios developed in this study, the potential to achieve reductions is also high. A better understanding of the relationship between urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions will help China to realise the low-carbon economic development.

Shaojian Wang; Chuanglin Fang; Xingliang Guan; Bo Pang; Haitao Ma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

Hall, Sharon J.

144

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap- ping gases, which blanket the planet and cause temperatures future limits on carbon emissions. · Electricity consumers should opt for "green power" where imperative that emissions of the main heat-trapping gas, car- bon dioxide (CO2), are significantly reduced

Combes, Stacey A.

145

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources Project No.: FG02-04ER83925 SBIR CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Commercial hollow fiber membrane cartridge [6" (D) X 17" (L)] Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. developed and tested a carbon dioxide (CO2) removal system for flue gas streams from large point sources that offers improved mass transfer rates compared to conventional technologies. The project fabricated perfluorinated membranes on hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane contactors, demonstrated CO2 removal from a simulated flue gas mixture via amine absorption using the fabricated membranes, examine chemical compatibility of the membrane with amines, and demonstrate enhanced stability of the perfluoro-coated membranes. In addition, an economic analysis was performed to demonstrate that the perfluoro-coated

146

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Recovery from Flue Gas using Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbents Carbon Dioxide Recovery from Flue Gas using Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbents Project No.: FG02-04ER83885 SBIR Virtual Depiction of a Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbent Virtual Depiction of a Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbent Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. has completed a small business innovative research (SBIR) project that initiated development of a novel sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. The primary goal of this project wa s to develop a process using a supported amine for CO2 capture that exhibits better system efficiency, lower cost, and less corrosion than current aqueous amine-based processes. The project was to demonstrate performance of carbon-supported amine sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. Three tasks were undertaken:

147

Spatial effects of carbon dioxide emissions from residential energy consumption: A county-level study using enhanced nocturnal lighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As the world’s largest developing country and greenhouse gas emitter, China’s residential energy consumption (REC) is now responsible for over 11% of the country’s total energy consumption. In this paper, we present a novel method that utilizes spatially distributed information from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP–OLS) and human activity index (HAI) to test the hypothesis that counties with similar carbon dioxide emissions from REC are more spatially clustered than would be expected by chance. Our results revealed a high degree of county-level clustering in the distribution of emissions per capita. However, further analysis showed that high-emission counties tended to be surrounded by counties with relatively low per capita GDP levels. Therefore, our results contrasted with other evidence that REC emissions were closely related to GDP levels. Accordingly, we stress the need for the consideration of other factors in determining emission patterns, such as residential consumption patterns (e.g., consumer choices, behavior, knowledge, and information diffusion).

Heli Lu; Guifang Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide;#12;Summary The tourism sector is not only affected by climate change but also has an impact on the Earth of such measures, we calculated the climate efficiency of the tourism sector in the case of Switzerland.We defined

Fischlin, Andreas

149

Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: An ecological study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend = 0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend = 0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend = 0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend = 0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity.

Alexander R. Zheutlin; Sara D. Adar; Sung Kyun Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

U.S. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading Program: Results and Further Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of emissions trading (cap and trade) is gaining worldwide...2 have been reduced annually from sources participating in the US SO2 emissions trading program. Ambient SO2 levels and sulfate deposition have ...

Stephanie Rose Benkovic; Joseph Kruger

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A Framework to Analyze the Reduction Potential of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Passenger Cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automobile manufacturers are increasingly obligated to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their vehicle fleets. In this paper a framework to analyze the reduction potential of the life cycle CO2 emissions of ...

Christoph Herrmann; Karsten Kieckhäfer…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Project No.: FC26-02NT41440 Pilot Plant at the University of Texas Pilot Plant at the University of Texas The University of Texas at Austin investigated an improved process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption that uses an alternative solvent, aqueous potassium carbonate (K2CO3) promoted by piperazine (PZ). If successful, this process would use less energy for CO2 capture than the conventional monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing process. An improved capture system would mean a relative improvement in overall power plant efficiency. The project developed models to predict the performance of absorption/stripping of CO2 using the improved solvent and perform a pilot plant study to validate the process models and define the range of feasible

153

EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6 Growth in demand for transportation fuels is moderated by rising fuel prices and new, stricter federal CAFE standards for model years 2017 to 2025, which reduce transportation emissions from 2018 until they begin to rise near the end of the projection period. Transportation emissions in 2040 are 26 million metric tons below the 2011 level. Largely as a result of the inclusion of the new CAFE standards in AEO2013, transportation-related CO2 emissions in 2035 are 94 million metric tons below their level in the AEO2012 Reference case. State RPS requirements and abundant low-cost natural gas help shift the

154

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conversion Factors methodology as well as conversion factors used for the CO 2related emissions. Conversion Factors This study uses the

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The road from Kyoto: The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in IEA countries  

SciTech Connect

Building on earlier analysis of energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions in 13 member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the authors quantify energy use and carbon emissions for nearly three dozen activities and economic branches from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. They show how lifestyles, economic structure, and overall economic growth affect the structure and rate of CO{sub 2} emissions. Similarly they show how energy intensities, final fuel mixes, and utility fuel mixes shape emissions. Using Laspeyres indices, they calculate the relative importance of each of these factors in affecting sectoral and total emissions over time. They focus on consumer sectors, homes and personal travel, but extend the analysis to all sectors of the economies studied. The authors find that emissions reductions in all sectors after 1990 have been slower than in the previous fifteen years, a period that saw emissions reductions in spite of economic growth. Manufacturing and households led the reductions in most cases, but progress has slowed markedly. In almost all cases, emissions from the transportation sector showed the least reduction and indeed some increases. Findings do not give an optimistic view of the recently concluded accords at the Third Conference of Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto, Japan. The authors conclude that the current rate of energy saving and fuel switching must be greatly accelerated if the IEA countries studied here are to affect reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions to meet their Kyoto targets.

Schipper, L.; Unander, F.; Marie, C.; Gorham, R.; Justus, D.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Krackeler, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

An equitable, efficient and implementable scheme to control global carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We design an international scheme to control global externalities in which autonomous regions choose their own emissions levels in anticipation of interregional resource transfers implemented by an internation...

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

158

Carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, industrial structure, and technical efficiency: Empirical evidence from Ghana, Senegal, and Morocco on the causal dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigated the short-run causal relationships and the long-run equilibrium relationships among carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, technical efficiency, and industrial structure for three African countries. Using Bounds cointegration approach the result showed evidence of multiple long-run equilibrium relationships for Ghana and Senegal but a one-way long-run equilibrium relationship for Morocco. The result from the Toda and Yomamoto granger causality test showed a mix of bidirectional, unidirectional, and neutral relationships for all countries. Whilst in Senegal carbon dioxide emission was not found to be a limiting factor to economic growth; it was found to act as a limiting factor to economic growth in Morocco and Ghana. Lastly, the result from the variance decomposition analysis revealed that economic growth contributes largely to changes in future carbon dioxide emissions in Senegal and Morocco whilst in Ghana technical efficiency contributes largely to changes in future variations in carbon dioxide emissions. These results have important policy implications for these countries' energy efficiency systems.

Philip Kofi Adom; William Bekoe; Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah; Justice Tei Mensah; Ebo Botchway

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

A Novel Collaboration Paradigm for Reducing Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Data Centres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research and innovation projects to reduce the energy consumption The Computer...this topic. This research project designed energy-aware optimization policies...an unpredicted renewable energy surplus (typically solar or wind). This low emission......

D. Rincón; A. Agustí-Torra; J.F. Botero; F. Raspall; D. Remondo; X. Hesselbach; M.T. Beck; H. de Meer; F. Niedermeier; G. Giuliani

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from pelletized and nonpelletized poultry litter incorporated into soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While several studies have shown that the addition of animal manures to soil can increase N2O and CO2 emissions, limited information is available on the effect that manure physical characteristics can have on the...

M. L. Cabrera; S. C. Chiang; W. C. Merka; O. C. Pancorbo; S. A. Thompson

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Technologies for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Installations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

All mitigation scenarios proposed to date either tend so slow down the rate of atmospheric CO2 emissions or level out the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. A unique system has been devised which offers a metho...

M. Steinberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations in Santiago de Chile associated with traffic emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO/CO2 ratios have been measured in different locations of Santiago de Chile city. Measurements were carried out in a tunnel (prevailing emissions from cars with catalytic converter) and close to heavy traffic st...

María A. Rubio; Irene Fuenzalida…

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce 2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emissions by an equal percentage (say by 20 per cent), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Leonard D. Hamilton

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors, along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PHEVs and the resulting impact on total U.S. CO2 emissions.

Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for U.S. Coal by Origin and Destination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-ground coal quality data, including C, S, ash, fixed carbon, and heating values, are from COALQUAL (11), IGS (12), and Keystone (13, 14). ... For example, examination of 2082 bituminous Kentucky coals led Sakulpitakphon et al. (28) to reject the notion that a single CO2 emission factor can “be used as typical for any given rank of coal.” ... Quick, J. C.; Tabet, D. E.; Wakefield, S.; Bon, R. L. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants: A GIS Study of Coal Chemistry, ...

Jeffrey C. Quick

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

169

Carbon dioxide emissions under different soil tillage systems in mechanically harvested sugarcane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil tillage and other methods of soil management may influence CO2 emissions because they accelerate the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. This study aimed to quantify the CO2 emissions under conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and reduced tillage (RT) during the renovation of sugarcane fields in southern Brazil. The experiment was performed on an Oxisol in the sugarcane-planting area with mechanical harvesting. An undisturbed or no-till (NT) plot was left as a control treatment. The CO2 emissions results indicated a significant interaction (p??2 of CO2 in CT, and 51.7 and 5.5 g m?2 of CO2 in RT and MT respectively. The amount of C lost in the form of CO2 due to soil tillage practices was significant and comparable to the estimated value of potential annual C accumulation resulting from changes in the harvesting system in Brazil from burning of plant residues to the adoption of green cane harvesting. The CO2 emissions in the CT system could respond to a loss of 80% of the potential soil C accumulated over one year as result of the adoption of mechanized sugarcane harvesting. Meanwhile, soil tillage during the renewal of the sugar plantation using RT and MT methods would result in low impact, with losses of 12% and 2% of the C that could potentially be accumulated during a one year period.

A M Silva-Olaya; C E P Cerri; N La Scala Jr; C T S Dias; C C Cerri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Environment - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Environment - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable &

171

Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

Zeyu Zheng, Kazuko Yamasaki, Joel N. Tenenbaum, and H. Eugene Stanley

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

172

Lessons from Loscoe: the uncontrolled migration of landfill gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the uncontrolled migration of landfill gas G. M. Williams 1 N. Aitkenhead...Environment, 1989. The Control of Landfill Gas. HMSO, London. Doelle, H...1988. Trace constituents in landfill gas. Gas Research Institute. Frost...

G. M. Williams; N. Aitkenhead

173

Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emisssions...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama...

174

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Emissions from marine diesel engines are mainly uncontrolled and affect regional air quality and health of people living near ports. Many emission control strategies are… (more)

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: April 9, 2007 4: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on AddThis.com... Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector began to

176

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from ambient air could compensate for all carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Such capture would, for example, make it possible to use liquid, carbon-based fuels in cars or airplane...

K.S. Lackner

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Potentials for reductions of carbon dioxide emissions of the industrial sector in transitional economies -- A case study of implementation of absorption chiller and co-generation  

SciTech Connect

Central and East European (CEE) countries together with former USSR emitted about 25 percent of the world carbon dioxide emissions, predominantly because of high energy intensity of their industries and dependence on coal. The paper focuses on technologies which would reduce the need for fossil fuel burning by improving energy efficiency in industry. In the process industry, heat demand is usually met by combustion of fossil fuels, cold is produced with electricity. Technical potentials of absorption chillers (AC) and co-generation in the process industry as well as their market penetration potentials are analyses for Slovenia, one of the fastest transforming CEE economies. Technical potentials are not necessarily realized in production. New technology employment in firms depends on several factors. This paper first summarizes the existing models explaining adoption of technology by firms. Then, it focuses selectively on the impact of macro economic and institutional factors and points out which policy instruments could facilitate faster diffusion of the technologies and thereby reduction of energy related carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector.

Remec, J. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Dolsak, N. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Economics]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Adaptation costs for sustainable development and ecological transitions: a presentation of the structural model M3ED with reference to French energy?economy?carbon dioxide emission prospects*  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to assess the adaptation costs associated with the transition to a sustainable development path, taking the example of carbon dioxide emissions in the French economy. The model used is based on systems dynamics modelling and energy input-output analysis. This type of approach has the interesting property of precisely defining the nature of interactions between the different economic sectors, and between the economic sectors and the environment. This provides a framework within which to test different types of economic, technology and environment policy. In effect, according to our interests, it is necessary to measure problems of resources allocation or sequential choices between different alternatives why and how a particular solution comes to be selected from a multiplicity of alternatives. First, we characterise the methodological and conceptual specification of the model. Secondly, we locate specific properties of the model linked with both ecological sustainability and economic feasability constraints. Thirdly, a sensitivity test is applied concerning different control policy scenarios for the case of carbon dioxide emissions in the French economy.

Patrick Schembri

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

184

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

185

Bisphosphine dioxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

Moloy, K.G.

1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

186

Real-world fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions by driving conditions for light-duty passenger vehicles in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The increasing discrepancy between on-road and type-approval fuel consumption for \\{LDPVs\\} (light-duty passenger vehicles) has attracted tremendous attention. We measured on-road emissions for 60 \\{LDPVs\\} in three China's cities and calculated their fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. We further evaluated the impacts of variations in area-averaged speed on relative fuel consumption of gasoline \\{LDPVs\\} for the UAB (urban area of Beijing). On-road fuel consumption under the average driving pattern is 10 ± 2% higher than that normalized to the NEDC (new European driving cycle) cycle for all tested vehicles, and the on-road NEDC-normalized fuel consumption is higher by 30 ± 12% compared to type-approval values for gasoline vehicles. We observed very strong correlations between relative fuel consumption and average speed. Traffic control applied to \\{LDPVs\\} driving within the UAB during weekdays can substantially reduce total fleet fuel consumption by 23 ± 5% during restriction hours by limiting vehicle use and improving driving conditions. Our results confirmed that a new cycle for the type approval test for \\{LDPVs\\} with more real-world driving features is of great necessity. Furthermore, enhanced traffic control measures could play an important role in mitigating real-world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for \\{LDPVs\\} in China.

Shaojun Zhang; Ye Wu; Huan Liu; Ruikun Huang; Puikei Un; Yu Zhou; Lixin Fu; Jiming Hao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In 2007, it accounted for 5% of total global industrial energy consumption and 2% of direct industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. An energy audit is a primary step toward improving energy efficiency at the facility level. This paper describes a plant-wide energy audit aimed at identifying energy conservation and CO2 mitigation opportunities at a paper mill in Guangdong province, China. We describe the energy audit methods, relevant Chinese standards, methods of calculating energy and carbon indicators, baseline energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the audited paper mill, and nine energy-efficiency improvement opportunities identified by the audit. For each of the nine options, we evaluate the energy conservation and associated CO2 mitigation potential. The total technical energy conservation potential for these nine opportunities is 967.8 terajoules (TJ), and the total CO2 mitigation potential is equal to 93,453 tonnes CO2 annually, representing 14.4% and 14.7%, respectively, of the mill’s total energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the audit period.

Lingbo Kong; Lynn Price; Ali Hasanbeigi; Huanbin Liu; Jigeng Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The US department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through beneficial uses of carbon dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Perspective Correspondence to: Darin Damiani, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26507, USA. E-mail: darin.damiani@netl.doe.gov † This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Received June 24, 2011; revised July 26, 2011; accepted July 27, 2011 Published online at Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/ghg.35 The US Department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through benefi cial uses of carbon dioxide † Darin Damiani and John T. Litynski, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of

189

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing

Stanley, H. Eugene

190

State-By-State Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in the United States 1960–2000  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time series of fossil fuel carbon emissions from 1960–2000 for each of the U.S. states and the District of Columbia are presented and discussed. Comparison of the nationally summarized results with other natio...

T. J. Blasing; Christine Broniak…

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Effect of encapsulated calcium carbide on dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide emissions from flooded rice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of N use in flooded rice is usually low, chiefly due to gaseous losses. Emission of CH4, a gas implicated in global warming, can also be substantial in flooded rice. In a greenhouse study, the nitr...

K. F. Bronson; A. R. Mosier

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO2 emissions. To date, most...

Anita C. Risch; Sven Wirthner; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Introduction Overview: World Energy Resources and the Need for Biomass for Energy and Lower Fossil Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the world’s petroleum is located in politically unstable ... has continued to decline since 1970 as its reserves are depleted. The resulting large petroleum imports ... emissions. Thus, development and co...

…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Dazzled by diesel? The impact on carbon dioxide emissions of the shift to diesels in Europe through 2009  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper identifies trends in new gasoline and diesel passenger car characteristics in the European Union between 1995 and 2009. By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new vehicle market. While the diesel version of a given car model may have as much as 35% lower fuel use/km and 25% lower CO2 emissions than its gasoline equivalent, diesel buyers have chosen increasingly large and more powerful cars than the gasoline market. As a result, new diesels bought in 2009 had only 2% lower average CO2 emissions than new gasoline cars, a smaller advantage than in 1995. A Laspeyres decomposition investigates which factors were important contributors to the observed emission reductions and which factors offset savings in other areas. More than 95% of the reduction in CO2 emissions per km from new vehicles arose because both diesel and gasoline new vehicle emissions/km fell, and only 5% arose because of the shift from gasoline to diesel technology. Increases in vehicle mass and power for both gasoline and diesel absorbed much of the technological efficiency improvements offered by both technologies. We also observe changes in the gasoline and diesel fleets in eight EU countries and find changes in fuel and emissions intensities consistent with the changes in new vehicles reported. While diesel cars continue to be driven far farther than gasoline cars, we attribute only some of this difference to a “rebound effect”. We conclude that while diesel technology has permitted significant fuel savings, the switch from gasoline to diesel in the new vehicle market contributed little itself to the observed reductions in CO2 emissions from new vehicles.

Lee Schipper; Lew Fulton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis  

SciTech Connect

There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2010 Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2007, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 17 percent. In the IEO2010 Reference case, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from non-OECD countries in 2035 are about double those from OECD countries. Overview Because anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, world energy use continues to be at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2010 Reference case, world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions29 grow from 29.7 billion metric tons in 2007 to 33.8 billion metric tons in 2020 and 42.4 billion metric tons in 2035 (Table 18).30

198

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

199

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. , (2008a). Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions fromstudy of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratoryand modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. All

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Dynamics of nitrogen and greenhouse gas emission under elevated carbon dioxide in semi-arid cropping systems in Australia and China.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Within less than 50 years, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] will likely be double that observed in 1950. In this higher [CO2] world the sustainability… (more)

Lam, Shu Kee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Carbon dioxide emissions and other environmental indicators: contribution to the study of the European situation between 1990 and 2005  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Kyoto Protocol, adopted on 11 December 1997, was elaborated as a means to control the risk of global warming from greenhouse gases, while improving the human condition. This paper is an attempt to answer the following main questions: Does the Protocol signature have any immediate impact on countries behaviour? Is the speed of changes similar to all European countries? Are there any allometric scaling relations between the measure of country's dynamic (CO2 emission or other environmental parameter) and the country's size (population or Gross Domestic Product)? In case of differences among European countries, are these scaling relations relevant to explain the differences? This paper examines the differences between 2 time intervals (i.e., 1990-1997 and 1998-2005), regarding CO2 and other environmental indicators in 15 European countries.

Antonio F. Miguel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

204

Assessing the temporal stability of the population/environment relationship in comparative perspective: a cross-national panel study of carbon dioxide emissions, 1960–2005  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examines the temporal stability of the population/environment relationship. We analyze panel data from 1960 to 2005 to determine whether the national-level association between population and carbon dioxide

Andrew K. Jorgenson; Brett Clark

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the extra emissions that are generated from manufacturing the material used to make CNG tanks); they can amount tc more than 2% of the emissions from 32 the fuel production and...

207

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 8 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2006, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 14 percent. In 2030, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 77 percent. Figure 80. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2006-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 81. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 82. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel in IEO2008 and IEO2009, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (billion metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

208

Role of the opioid system in the behavioral deficit observed after uncontrollable shock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to minimize shock exposure by maintaining a hindlimb in a flexed position. Preexposure to uncontrollable shock (shock independent of leg position) disrupts this learning. Activation of opioid receptors seems to contribute to the expression of the behavioral...

Washburn, Stephanie Nicole

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

209

Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and carbon dioxide. Introduction Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per capita are released annually into the atmosphere.1a,b CarbonStorage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks

Yaghi, Omar M.

210

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: July 16, 2007 8: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on AddThis.com...

211

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Urban Road Transport in Latin America: CO2 Reduction as a Co-Benefit of Transport Strategies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is broad consensus that GHG are warming the planet (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007). Many human activities produce GHG emissions, but roughly two thirds of the total anthropogenic emissions

Lee Schipper; Elizabeth Deakin…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

Fischlin, Andreas

213

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

214

The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

215

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Higher Energy Consumption Forecast Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure 107. Carbn dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2004 and 2030 (million metric tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. Figure data CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at

216

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9: July 23, 2007 9: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479:

217

State Emissions Estimates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Because energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) constitutes over 80 percent of total emissions, the state energy-related CO 2 emission levels provide a good indicator of the relative contribution of individual states to total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) emissions estimates at the state level for energy-related CO 2 are based on data contained in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). 1 The state-level emissions estimates are based on energy consumption data for the following fuel categories: three categories of coal (residential/commercial, industrial, and electric power sector); natural gas; and ten petroleum products including-- asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases

218

Effects of Retrofitting Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy Diesel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline-in the exhaust to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). NO 2 in turn ispollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrous acid (

Millstein, Dev E.; Harley, Robert A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. Bromly, Reduction of Nitrogen Dioxide Emissions from Gasthan 10 ! lm), and nitrogen dioxide ( N0 2) standards areare nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N0 2); although,

Traynor, G.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The emissions policy submodule, part of the integrating module, estimates the energy–related emissions of carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide emissions are dependent on the fossil fuel consumed, the carbon content of the fuel, and the fraction of the fuel consumed in combustion. The product of the carbon dioxide coefficient and the combustion fraction yields a carbon dioxide emission factor. For fuel uses of fossil energy, the combustion fractions are assumed to be 0.99 for liquid fuels and 0.995 for gaseous fuels. The carbon dioxide potential of nonfuel uses of energy, such as asphalt and petrochemical feedstocks, is assumed to be sequestered in the product and not released to the atmosphere. The coefficients for carbon dioxide emissions are updated each year from the Energy Information Administration’s annual, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States.17

222

CO2 displacement mechanisms: phase equilibria effects and carbon dioxide sequestration studies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Supercritical carbon dioxide is injected into underground formations to enhance oil recovery and for subsurface sequestration to minimize the impact of CO2 emissions due to… (more)

Pasala, Sangeetha M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

IEP - Carbon Dioxide: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Regulatory Drivers In July 7, 2009 testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu made the following statements:1 "...Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that carbon dioxide from human activity has increased the atmospheric level of CO2 by roughly 40 percent, a level one- third higher than any time in the last 800,000 years. There is also a consensus that CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have caused our planet to change. Already, we have seen the loss of about half of the summer arctic polar ice cap since the 1950s, a dramatically accelerating rise in sea level, and the loss of over two thousand cubic miles of glacial ice, not on geological time scales but over a mere hundred years.

224

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

225

Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

Hesse, M. A.

226

Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions

227

Communicating potential risks of uncontrolled site development at a Fusrap site  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a particular risk communication challenge at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Site) in Maywood, New Jersey, USA. That challenge is communicating the potential human exposure risks of uncontrolled site development to landowners, tenants, private contractors and public works entities that may engage in construction activities at or adjacent to Site properties. This is of special concern because the Site does not have the authority to establish physical control over most of the properties where contamination is known or suspected to exist. Consequently, a range of communications techniques have been employed to alert property owners and others to the risks of uncontrolled site development. Each technique has its particular limitations, but collectively this multi-channel communication strategy has proved successful in delivering the risk message. (authors)

Roos, A.D. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, New York, NY (United States); Kollar, W. [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Maywood, NJ (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to energy-consuming activities that burn fossil fuels. On a yearly basis, the average Ameri- can produces 22 of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or nearly half of the fossil fuel carbon emissions over this period sea life that depend on the health and avail- ability of these shelled organisms. At present, ocean

229

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth...interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies of 500 Mhz, this amounts...chang-ing the atmospheric carbon dioxide...in the polar areas. Although...The shaded area indicates the...per-missible atmospheric CO2 level might...emission rates are largest between 2000...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

230

Reducing or stopping the uncontrolled flow of fluid such as oil from a well  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The uncontrolled flow of fluid from an oil or gas well may be reduced or stopped by injecting a composition including 2-cyanoacrylate ester monomer into the fluid stream. Injection of the monomer results in a rapid, perhaps instantaneous, polymerization of the monomer within the flow stream of the fluid. This polymerization results in formation of a solid plug that reduces or stops the flow of additional fluid from the well.

Hermes, Robert E

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

231

Viscosity of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy...

234

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Kevin T. Raterman (ratekt@inel.gov; 208-526-5444) Michael McKellar (mgq@inel.gov; 208-526-1346) Anna Podgorney (poloak@inel.gov; 208-526-0064) Douglas Stacey (stacde@inel.gov; 208-526-3938) Terry Turner (tdt@inel.gov; 208-526-8623) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2110 Brian Stokes (bxs9@pge.com; 415-972-5591) John Vranicar (jjv2@pge.com; 415-972-5591) Pacific Gas & Electric Company 123 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Introduction Many analysts 1,2,3 identify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

235

Companies and regulators in emissions trading programs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Much has been written about the economic and environmental performance of US emissions trading programs for “acid rain” (sulfur dioxide ... whether these features are present in the EU Emissions Trading System an...

Joseph Kruger

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Marketable permits for controlling sulphur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe research sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) into the nature of the auctions described in the bills. The research was undertaken at the request of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce to assess how various provisions in the bills might affect the workings of the market. Because the project called for the analysis of market mechanisms that do not now exist, a laboratory'' approach was applied in which artificial markets are created using computerized trading, volunteer subjects, and cash incentives to mimic the markets being studied. Dr. Mark Isaac, at the University of Arizona, and Dr. Jamie Kruse, at the University of Colorado, led teams that designed and conducted the laboratory experiments. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Hale, D.R. (USDOE Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)); Bjornstad, D.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Marketable permits for controlling sulphur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe research sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) into the nature of the auctions described in the bills. The research was undertaken at the request of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce to assess how various provisions in the bills might affect the workings of the market. Because the project called for the analysis of market mechanisms that do not now exist, a ``laboratory`` approach was applied in which artificial markets are created using computerized trading, volunteer subjects, and cash incentives to mimic the markets being studied. Dr. Mark Isaac, at the University of Arizona, and Dr. Jamie Kruse, at the University of Colorado, led teams that designed and conducted the laboratory experiments. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Hale, D.R. [USDOE Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Bjornstad, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy, as the basic element supporting economic growth, is essential for the survival and development of modern society. During the past few decades, the global economy has witnessed substantial growth. In th...

Yiming Wei; Gang Wu; Hua Liao; Haibo Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Reduction of Automobile Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The automotive industry is one of the major manufacture sectors in developed nations. It accounts for almost 5% of total manufacture value of industrialized countries such as USA, Japan, France and England. The a...

Abdelati Elalem; M. S. EL-Bourawi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Greenhouse Gases and Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have grown rapidly since the beginning of this century. Unless emissions are controlled, the world could face rapid climate changes, incl...

Alice LeBlanc; Daniel J. Dudek

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

1770 emissions trading system [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

envir. pol. (As permitted by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, the sale of unused quotas of carbon dioxide [CO2] emissions to other countries, which can then use them as credits for their own accounts. The...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Characterization of air emissions and residual ash from open burning of electronic wastes during simulated rudimentary recycling operations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air emissions and residual ash samples were collected and analyzed during experiments of open, uncontrolled combustion of electronic waste (e-waste), simulating practices associated with rudimentary e-waste recyc...

Brian K. Gullett; William P. Linak…

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated Carbon dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, although certain industrial processes (e.g., cement manufacture) also emit carbon dioxide. The estimates of energy-related carbon emissions require both data on the energy use and carbon emissions coefficients relating energy use to the amount of carbon emitted. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the main source of data on U.S. energy use. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 used annual data provided by energy suppliers. However, to obtain more detail on how different sectors use energy, the emissions estimates in Energy and GHG Analysis rely data from on surveys of energy users, such as manufacturing establishments and commercial buildings.

245

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

246

Effect of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on recovery from spinal cord injury in rats given uncontrollable stimulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, were given the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.08 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle before receiving either a bout of uncontrollable stimulation or identical treatment without the stimulation itself. Their hindlimb motor activity was monitored for 21 days...

Petrich, Christine

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 9, Number 1, June 2011 Uncontrolled Generation of Traciton Motors in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Traciton Motors in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Xiaofeng Ding 1 , Jinglin Liu 2 , and Chris Mi 3 1 Department Generation of Traciton Motors in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 1460 2. SIMPLE ANALYTICAL MODEL OF UCG 2.1 ModelJournal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 9, Number 1, June 2011 1459 Uncontrolled Generation

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

248

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 80. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 80 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 81. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Liquids Combustion by Region, 1990-2030 Figure 81 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

249

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 Figure 75 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 76 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in IEO2007 and IEO2008, 2005-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

250

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

Barthelat, Francois

251

Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

252

DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations February 19, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations. Geologic storage is considered to be a key technological solution to mitigate CO2 emissions and combat climate change. DOE anticipates making multiple project awards under this FOA and, depending on fiscal year 2009 appropriations, may be able to provide up to $24 million to be distributed among selected recipients. This investment is

253

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Novomer's thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Why is this important? By using CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, the process has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously reducing petroleum consumption and producing useful products for American consumers. The world's first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate (PPC) polymer using waste carbon dioxide (CO2) as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy.

254

Combining geothermal energy with CO2 storage Feasibility study of low temperature geothermal electricity production using carbon dioxide as working and storage fluid.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract One of the emerging solutions for today’s excess of carbon dioxide emissions, which is one of the major causes of global warming, is the… (more)

Janse, D.H.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Carbon Dioxide Storage in Coal Seams with Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery: Geologic Evaluation, Capacity Assessment and Field Validation of the Central Appalachian Basin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane are benefits to sequestering carbon dioxide in coal seams. This is possible because… (more)

Ripepi, Nino Samuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Driving your vehicle can yield both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from your vehicle's tailpipe and GHG emissions related to the production of the fuel used to power your vehicle. For example, activities associated with fuel production such as feedstock extraction, feedstock transport to a processing plant, and conversion of feedstock to motor fuel, as well as distribution of the motor fuel, can all produce GHG emissions. The Fuel Economy and Environment Label provides a Greenhouse Gas Rating, from 1 (worst) to 10 (best), based on the vehicle's tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions only, and this rating does not reflect any GHG emissions associated with fuel production.

257

Carbon Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents sorbent material. Additionally, the design of the system incorporates a cross- flow moving-bed reactor where the gas flows horizontally through a "panel" of solid sorbent that is slowly moving down-wards under gravity flow. With the expanded use of fossil fuels expected throughout the world, the increase in CO 2 emissions may prove to contribute even more significantly to global climate change. To address this problem, carbon sequestration scientists and engineers have proposed a number of methods to remove CO 2 from gas streams, such as chemical absorption with a solvent, membrane separation, and cryogenic fractionation. However, all of these methods are expensive and possibly cost-prohibitive for a specific application.

258

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

259

Micrometeorological Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes at a Municipal Landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micrometeorological Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes at a Municipal Landfill ... Of the global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, more than 10% originates from landfills (1). ... Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic CH4 emissions to the atm. in the US; however, few measurements of whole landfill CH4 emissions have been reported. ...

Annalea Lohila; Tuomas Laurila; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Mika Aurela; Juha Hatakka; Tea Thum; Mari Pihlatie; Janne Rinne; Timo Vesala

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Carbon dioxide capture and utilization in petrochemical industry: potentials and challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an ever-increasing challenge for production units and power plants in view of the global warming concerns. Carbon dioxide capturing from petrochemical process streams ...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

262

EIA - AEO2010 - Emissions projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions Projections Emissions Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Emissions Projections Figure 93. Carbon dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2008 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 94. Sulfur dioxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 95. Nitrogen oxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Growth of carbon dioxide emissions slows in the projections Federal and State energy policies recently enacted will stimulate increased use of renewable technologies and efficiency improvements in the future, slowing the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions through 2035. In the Reference case, emissions do not exceed pre-recession 2007 levels until 2025. In 2035, energy-related CO2 emissions total 6,320 million metric tons, about 6 percent higher than in 2007 and 9 percent higher than in 2008 (Figure 93). On average, emissions in the Reference case grow by 0.3 percent per year from 2008 to 2035, compared with 0.7 percent per year from 1980 to 2008.

263

Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface Chun Ge,1 emission wavelength is modulated by the adsorption of biomolecules, whose greater dielectric permittivity- dimensional volume overlap between the DFBLB resonant mode and the region where biomolecule adsorption can oc

Cunningham, Brian

264

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

265

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

related carbon emissions per unit GDP. Energy intensity: thes per capita emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide weres carbon emissions, per se. On the basis of NBS energy data,

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Refractive index of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dielectric constant of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

26 July 1912 research-article The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide P. Phillips The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation ... Photosynthetic pigments, photosystems, the Calvin cycle, the Hatch-Slack pathway, photorespiration, and photosynthetic yield improvement. ...

Muriel B. Bishop; Carl B. Bishop

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

272

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

273

Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Blundell and Fraser Armstrong Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage Sam...Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a...80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Fact #783: June 10, 2013 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

types and fuels. The results below are from GREET Model 2012 v.2. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (in carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent) are compared for 2035 vehicles,...

276

CO2 emissions, Nuclear energy, Renewable energy and Economic growth in Taiwan.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??When the government decided to energy policy, we must first understand the energy and economic growth with a causal link between carbon dioxide emissions, this… (more)

Lin, Yi-Ching

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Uncertainty analysis of capacity estimates and leakage potential for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The need to address climate change has gained political momentum, and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology that is seen as being feasible for the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. However, there is ...

Raza, Yamama

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Modeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global GeertGeert VinkenVinken11,, FolkertFolkert BoersmaBoersma22, and Daniel J. Jacob, and Daniel J. Jacob33  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global CTMs) emissions 5-7% of global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions 3-4% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Ship 70% of the ship emissions occur within 400 km of land Only industrial sector not regulated under

Haak, Hein

279

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

280

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NETL: Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression Project No.: DE-FE0009395 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is developing a novel supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) advanced power system utilizing pressurized oxy-combustion in conjunction with cryogenic compression. The proposed power system offers a leap in overall system efficiency while producing an output stream of sequestration ready CO2 at pipeline pressures. The system leverages developments in pressurized oxy-combustion technology and recent developments in sCO2 power cycles to achieve high net cycle efficiencies and produce CO2 at pipeline pressures without requiring additional compression of the flue gas.

282

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

284

Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

285

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a small increase of 7 MMTCO2e (0.9 percent) in methane (CH4) emissions, and an increase of 8 MMTCO2e (4.9 percent), based on partial data, in emissions of man-made gases with high global warming potentials (high-GWP gases). (Draft estimates for emissions of HFC and PFC

286

Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

signif- icant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and, in particular, methane to bacteria breaking down organic matter in the water. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

Batiste, Oriol

287

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Emissions from Energy Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions from Energy Use Emissions from Energy Use Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with Projections to 2030 Emissions from Energy Use Figure 97. Carbon dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2006 and 2030 (million metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 98. Carbon dioxide emissions, 1990-2030 (million metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Rising Energy Consumption Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Without capture and sequestration, CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to the carbon content of the fuel. Coal has the highest carbon content and natural gas the lowest, with petroleum in between. In the AEO2008 reference case, the shares of these fuels change

288

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 6 2009 Methane Emissions for U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Production, by Fuel Type (1) Fuel Type Petroleum 0.5 Natural Gas 26.8 Coal 0.3 Wood 0.4 Electricity (2) 50.5 Total 78.5 Note(s): Source(s): MMT CO2 Equivalent 1) Sources of emissions include oil and gas production, processing, and distribution; coal mining; and utility and site combustion. Carbon Dioxide equivalent units are calculated by converting methane emissions to carbon dioxide emissions (methane's global warming potential is 23 times that of carbon dioxide). 2) Refers to emissions of electricity generators attributable to the buildings sector. EIA, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2009, Mar. 2011, Table 18, p. 37 for energy production emissions; EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas

289

Trade, transport, and sinks extend the carbon dioxide responsibility of countries: An editorial essay  

SciTech Connect

Globalization and the dynamics of ecosystem sinks need be considered in post-Kyoto climate negotiations as they increasingly affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Currently, the allocation of responsibility for greenhouse gas mitigation is based on territorial emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, process emissions and some land-use emissions. However, at least three additional factors can significantly alter a country's impact on climate from carbon dioxide emissions. First, international trade causes a separation of consumption from production, reducing domestic pollution at the expense of foreign producers, or vice versa. Second, international transportation emissions are not allocated to countries for the purpose of mitigation. Third, forest growth absorbs carbon dioxide and can contribute to both carbon sequestration and climate change protection. Here we quantify how these three factors change the carbon dioxide emissions allocated to China, Japan, Russia, USA, and European Union member countries. We show that international trade can change the carbon dioxide currently allocated to countries by up to 60% and that forest expansion can turn some countries into net carbon sinks. These factors are expected to become more dominant as fossil-fuel combustion and process emissions are mitigated and as international trade and forest sinks continue to grow. Emission inventories currently in wide-spread use help to understand the global carbon cycle, but for long-term climate change mitigation a deeper understanding of the interaction between the carbon cycle and society is needed. Restructuring international trade and investment flows to meet environmental objectives, together with the inclusion of forest sinks, are crucial issues that need consideration in the design of future climate policies. And even these additional issues do not capture the full impact of changes in the carbon cycle on the global climate system.

Peters, Glen P [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Saikku, Laura [University of Helsinki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Weyburn Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration ProjeCt Background Since September 2000, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been transported from the Dakota Gasification Plant in North Dakota through a 320-km pipeline and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. The CO 2 has given the Weyburn field, discovered 50 years ago, a new life: 155 million gross barrels of incremental oil are slated to be recovered by 2035 and the field is projected to be able to store 30 million tonnes of CO 2 over 30 years. CO 2 injection began in October of 2005 at the adjacent Midale oilfield, and an additional 45-60 million barrels of oil are expected to be recovered during 30 years of continued operation. A significant monitoring project associated with the Weyburn and Midale commercial

291

MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

Boyer, Edmond

292

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;CenterTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

293

Preliminary GHG Emissions Inventory for the Slovak Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary results of a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the Slovak Republic. The key gases included are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons are excluded ...

Katarína Mare?kova; Pavol Bielek; Stanislav Kucirek…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tion will be by direct combustion for the generation of power, but an increasing proportion will be con verted to syngas for chemical and fuel uses. Coal gasification is projected to become a major industry in the next decade. For every ton of coal... entering the gasification process, 1.88 lons of carbon dio xide are produced. This carbon dioxide is removed in virtually pure form by existing technology. This same technology can be applied to remove carbon dioxide from stack gases produced by power...

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

DOE to Provide $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

$36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture DOE to Provide $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture July 31, 2008 - 2:40pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that it will provide $36 million for 15 projects aimed at furthering the development of new and cost-effective technologies for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. "Currently, the existing U.S. coal fleet accounts for over half of all electricity generated in this country," U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman said. "The projects announced today will combat climate change and help meet current and future energy needs by curbing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired plants."

296

Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of power stations and from other

298

Just the Basics: Vehicle Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Are Exhaust Are Exhaust Emissions? In most heavily settled areas of the U.S., the personal automobile is the single greatest producer of harmful vehicle exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are generated by the fuel-air mixture burning in internal combus- tion engines, both gasoline-powered and diesel-powered. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation within the vehicle when it is stopped, and again during fueling. The constituents of car (gasoline and diesel) and truck (diesel) emissions vary depending on fuel type and indi- vidual vehicle operating characteris- tics. The bulk of vehicular emissions are composed of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen (in unconsumed air). There are other pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel, and

299

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research ...

John D. Spengler; Benjamin G. Ferris Jr.; Douglas W. Dockery; Frank E. Speizer

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released to the reference case. This option reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector by 35 percent from 2005 to significant gains in public and environmental health. "When power plants limit carbon dioxide emissions

Mather, Patrick T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Optimal Geological Enviornments for Carbon Dioxide Storage in Saline Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

susan D. Hovorka susan D. Hovorka Principal Investigator University of Texas at Austin Bureau of Economic Geology 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg. 130 P.O. Box X Austin, TX 78713 512-471-4863 susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu Optimal GeOlOGical envirOnments fOr carbOn DiOxiDe stOraGe in saline fOrmatiOns Background For carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration to be a successful component of the United States emissions reduction strategy, there will have to be a favorable intersection of a number of factors, such as the electricity market, fuel source, power plant design and operation, capture technology, a suitable geologic sequestration site, and a pipeline right-of-way from the plant to the injection site. The concept of CO 2 sequestration in saline water-bearing formations (saline reservoirs), isolated at

302

Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals  

SciTech Connect

The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions using various thermal systems in a landfill site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from an uncontrolled landfill site filled with Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are compared with those from controlled sites in which collected Landfill Gases (LFG) are utilised by various technologies. These technologies include flaring, conventional electricity generation technologies such as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Gas Turbine (GT) and an emerging technology, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The results show that SOFC is the best option for reducing the GHG emissions among the studied technologies. In the case when SOFC is used, GHG emissions from the controlled site are reduced by 63% compared to the uncontrolled site. This case has a specific lifetime GHG emission of 2.38 tonnes CO2 .eq/MWh when only electricity is produced and 1.12 tonnes CO2.eq/MWh for a cogeneration application.

C. Ozgur Colpan; Ibrahim Dincer; Feridun Hamdullahpur

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy, Climate Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/meth_reg.html Country: United States, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Luxembourg, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Egypt, South Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand

305

Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K. [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Response to “Comment on ‘Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning’ ” [Phys. Plasmas17, 014701 (2010)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-voltage cathode initiates an electron emission resulting in a reduction in the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. Assuming that the observed carbon dioxide reduction is originated from the molecular decomposition the energy needed for the endothermic reaction of this carbon dioxide reduction may stem primarily from the internal energy reduction in the exhaust gas in accordance of the first law of the thermodynamics. An oxygen increase due to the reduction in carbon dioxide in a discharge gas was observed in real time.

Han S. Uhm; Chul H. Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

electricity emission factors | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emission factors emission factors Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

308

Comprehensive study of carbon dioxide adsorption in the metalorganic frameworks M2(dobdc)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are historically slow, the need for mitigation of current CO2 emissions using carbon capture and sequestration (CCSComprehensive study of carbon dioxide adsorption in the metal­organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M ¼ Mg of adsorption in the M2(dobdc)­CO2 adducts. Introduction Currently, 80% of global energy is supplied by carbon

309

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Klaus S. Lackner (kl2010@columbia.edu; 212-854-0304) Columbia University 500 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 Patrick Grimes (pgrimes@worldnet.att.net; 908-232-1134) Grimes Associates Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 Hans-J. Ziock (ziock@lanl.gov; 505-667-7265) Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O.Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Abstract The goal of carbon sequestration is to take CO 2 that would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere and put it in safe and permanent storage. Most proposed methods would capture CO 2 from concentrated sources like power plants. Indeed, on-site capture is the most sensible approach for large sources and initially offers the most cost-effective avenue to sequestration. For distributed, mobile sources like cars, on-board capture at affordable cost would not be

310

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

311

Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,922,792 entitled "Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a neutralization/sequestration method that concomitantly treats bauxite residues from aluminum production processes, as well as brine wastewater from oil and gas production processes. The method uses an integrated approach that coincidentally treats multiple industrial waste by-product streams. The end results include neutralizing caustic

312

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Gas Separation on B80 Fullerene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Gas Separation on B80 Fullerene ... All other clusters show the optimized chemisorbed configurations of CO2 captured on B80. ... Although air capture will cost more than capture at power generating facilities when both are operated under the same economic conditions, air capture allows one to apply industrial economies of scale to small and mobile emission sources and enables a partial decoupling of C capture from the energy infrastructure; advantages which may compensate for the intrinsic difficulty of capturing C from air. ...

Qiao Sun; Meng Wang; Zhen Li; Aijun Du; Debra J. Searles

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

313

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) pyridine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) ethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) water; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,4-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) toluene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Refractive index of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1-methylnapthalene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Viscosity of the mixture (1) 1,3-dioxolane; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Viscosity of the mixture (1) water; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,3-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrofuran; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,2-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Energy Use and Carbon Emissions:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

World Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1980-2001 World Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1980-2001 April 2004 Energy Information Administration Contacts Staff from the Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU), Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) prepared this report. General questions concerning the content of the report may be referred to Mark Rodekohr (Mark.Rodekohr@eia.doe.gov, 202-586-1130), Director of EMCID; or Lowell Feld (Lowell.Feld@eia.doe.gov, 202-586-9502), Leader of the Contingency Information Team. Specific questions about the report should be referred to Nathan Wilson (Nathan.Wilson@eia.doe.gov, 202-586-9883). 1 Table of Contents CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................

326

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Process-Related Emissions in the  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Process-Related Emissions in the Industrial Sector Process-Related Emissions in the Industrial Sector International Energy Outlook 2009 Process-Related Emissions in the Industrial Sector Carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector result from both energy use and production processes. Together, energy- and process-related emissions in the industrial sector account for about one-fourth of global carbon dioxide emissions.a Process-related emissions are a direct byproduct of production. Because releases of carbon dioxide are inherent in the production of iron and steel, cement, and aluminum, the potential for reducing process-related emissions is limited. As a result, carbon abatement will face significant technological challenges in the industrial sector. In addition, there are no economical substitutes for these materials or their production processes, and none is likely be available in the near term.

327

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

wastewater treatment or manure management processes; CO2 from the combustion of biogas collected from biological decomposition of waste in landfills, wastewater treatment or...

328

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nashville, TN Greensboro-Wi~o Oklahoma City~K Charlotte-Gas~areas are in Texas and Oklahoma. There is a strong negativeAngeles to about 32 tons in Oklahoma City and Memphis. The

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Supplementary Material Sulfur Dioxide and Primary Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(-52%-62%) 14 (-52%-63%) Agricultural waste burning 54 (-86%-120%) 51 (-87%-115%) 52 (-85%-116%) 58 burning 12 (-51%-79%) 19 (-46%-65%) 10 (-52%-99%) 13 (-48%-84%) 12 (-46%-69%) Agricultural waste burning%-64%) 1756 (-37%-66%) 1912 (-38%-65%) Forest & savanna burning 14 (-55%-71%) 23 (-54%-71%) 10 (-56%-72%) 14

Meskhidze, Nicholas

330

Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m2 d1 at...

331

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then useof average electricity consumption for Los Angeles homethis household’s electricity consumption would have been if

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) for projecting 21st century climate, but also to the implementation of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) for millennial time scales. These 2 types of models are used in this paper...

Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

thermal gradient in the center of the areas is around 320C m- 1. We estimate total heat loss from the two areas to be about 6.1 and 2.3 MW. Given current thinking on the...

334

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that can inform us about energy usage by bus and trainThis provides us with total energy usage by public transit

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

product (GDP) and energy is measured in Btu to allow for the summing of all energy forms (energyGDP or BtuGDP). On an economy-wide level, it is reflective of both energy...

336

Carbon dioxide emissions from agrogray soils under climate changes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of droughts and drying-wetting cycles on the respiration activity of agrogray soils was studied in field and laboratory experiments. The alternation of drought periods and rains during the vegetatio...

A. A. Larionova; I. N. Kurganova; V. O. Lopes de Gerenyu…

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Global Carbon Cycle, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles and describes the movement of carbon, in its many forms, within the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere. The global carbon cycle involves the earth’...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Drivers of change in Brazil’s carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brazil’s economic development has been underpinned by a diverse and – in a global comparison – unusual set of energy carriers, notably hydroelectricity and ethanol from sugar cane. Its energy mix makes Brazil one...

Manfred Lenzen; Roberto Schaeffer; Jonas Karstensen; Glen P. Peters

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Energy expenditures and carbon-dioxide emissions at blast furnaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction of iron and the material balances of carbon shows that the CO2 levels in the blast-furnace gas may be maintained by lowering the carbon consumption in the direct reduction ...

G. V. Korshikov; V. N. Titov; V. G. Mikhailov

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

MARUSICH, R.M.

1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions For additional terms, refer to: the Glossary of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 for additional greenhouse gas related terms, the Glossary of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for additional manufacturing terms, and Appendix F of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for descriptions of the major industry groups. British Thermal Unit: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. One quadrillion Btu is 1015 Btu, or 1.055 exajoules. Btu: See British Thermal Unit. Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil-fuel combustion as well as other processes. It is considered a greenhouse gas as it traps heat radiated into the atmosphere and thereby contributes to the potential for global warming.

342

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

343

Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-negative voltage at the cathode initiates a dark discharge resulting in a reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. An experiment indicated that nearly 44% of the carbon dioxide in exhaust gas disappears after a high-voltage application to the cathode. The energy needed for the endothermic reaction of the carbon dioxidedissociation corresponding to this concentration reduction is provided mainly by the internal energy reduction of the discharge gas which is nearly 20 times the electrical energy for electron emission.

Han S. Uhm; Chul H. Kim

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Emissions from Energy Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions from Energy Use Emissions from Energy Use Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030 Emissions from Energy Use Figure 81. Carbon diioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2007 and 2030 (million metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 82. Sulfur dioxide emissions from electricity generation, 1995-2030 (million short tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 83. Nitrogen oxide emissions from electricity generation, 1995-2030 (million short tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Rate of Increase in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Slows in the Projections Even with rising energy prices, growth in energy use leads to increasing

345

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Carbon dioxide capture: an assessment of plausible ranges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The projections of energy related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) serve as point of departure for an assessment of plausible ranges of CO2 emissions that could be avoided through CO2 capture and storage measures. Scenario and time dependent, sector and fuel specific capture factors are developed for eleven world regions to estimate the proportion of CO2 resulting from fossil fuel and biomass combustion/conversion that might be practical to capture and store. The capture factors are applied to the original CO2 emissions scenarios at a highly disaggregated level. The results are summed up and presented. The results indicate that it might be possible to capture and store a significant quantity of energy related CO2, especially in the second quarter of this century. Yet the amounts of CO2 still being emitted remain considerable, suggesting that other technologies will also be needed if the threat of climate change requires large reductions of CO2 emissions over the next few decades.

Ferenc L. Toth; Hans-Holger Rogner

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

U.S. zero emission coal alliance techology  

SciTech Connect

For coal to maintain its major role in supplying the world's energy, eventually all emissions to the atmosphere must be eliminated. Not only must conventional pollutants, like sulfur compounds and dust particles be kept out of the air, but also the far larger quantities of carbon dioxide that result from the combustion of carbon. We present a new technology for coal-based power that generates hydrogen from carbon and water, avoids emissions to the atmosphere, and disposes of the carbon dioxide as inert, solid mineral carbonates. Based on the available resources, coal power is sustainable for centuries. Our zero emission technology makes coal energy as clean as renewable energy.

Lackner, K. S. (Klaus S.); Ziock, H. J. (Hans-Joachim)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

portfolios, with buildings being responsible for some 45% of the UK's overall greenhouse gas emissions organisations are facing increasing cost challenges and pressure to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions" provides an holistic approach to maximising cost savings, reducing energy consumption and improving

349

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005 are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price (baseline IGCC), and IGCC with pre-investments that make future retrofit for CO2 capture less expensive (pre

350

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

351

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...1978012175 air atmosphere biosphere carbon...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth, which...synchronization rate of 16 khz and the picture...the interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

353

Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles powered by internal combustion engines, which include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and propane vehicles. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) particulate matter (PM) A number of factors determine the composition of emissions, including the vehicle's fuel, the engine's technology, the vehicle's exhaust aftertreatment system, and how the vehicle operates. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation during fueling or even when vehicles are

354

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sorbents sorbents B-14 Pre-Combustion sorbents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture teChnology for low-rank Coal integrateD gasifiCation CombineD CyCle (igCC) systems primary project goals TDA will investigate the technical and economic advantages of using an integrated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent and water-gas shift (WGS) catalyst system in an integrated gasifi- cation combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, fueled with low-rank coal, and designed to capture more than 90% of the CO 2 emissions. technical goals * TDA will evaluate the physical mix of the sorbent and catalyst pellets within the same

356

NETL: News Release - Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

19, 2004 19, 2004 Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide Researchers Perform Small Scale, Short Term Carbon Sequestration Field Test HOUSTON, TX - In the first U.S. field test to investigate the ability of brine formations to store greenhouse gasses, researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy are closely monitoring 1,600 tons of carbon dioxide that were injected into a mile-deep well in Texas in October. The test is providing unique data to help investigators understand the viability of geologic sequestration as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Frio Brine Pilot experimental site is 30 miles northeast of Houston, in the South Liberty oilfield. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology drilled a 5,753 foot injection well earlier this year, and developed a nearby observation well to study the ability of the high-porosity Frio sandstone formation to store carbon dioxide.

357

Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1 Published The ORNL DAAC is pleased to announce the release of the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1: Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1. Data set prepared by J.T. Randerson, G.R. van der Werf, L. Giglio, G.J. Collatz, and P.S. Kasibhatla. This data set provides monthly burned area, and monthly and annual fire emissions data from July 1996 to February 2012. Emissions data are available for carbon (C), dry matter (DM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), hydrogen (H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), particulate matter 2.5 micron (PM2p5), total particulate matter (TPM), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among others. The C4 fraction of

358

SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

Martin, Randall

359

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

360

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vermont" Vermont" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Petroleum","*","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Electricity generation and emissions reduction decisions under uncertainty : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

Morris, Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

Morris, J.

363

Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions.… (more)

Ruscio, Amanda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions trading is a comparatively new policy instrument which ... electricity systems in Europe. The development of emissions trading thus represents an innovation in its own...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Cost of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in Geologic Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure anD sTorage in geologiC formaTions The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in geologic formations is a viable option for achieving deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions without hindering economic prosperity. Due to the abundance of fossil fuels in the United States and around the globe as compared to other energy sources, there is strong interest in geologic sequestration, but cost is a key issue. The volume of CO 2 emitted from power plants and other energy systems is enormous compared to other emissions of concern. For example, a pulverized coal (PC) boiler operating on Illinois #6 coal (2.5 percent sulfur) may generate 0.03 pounds of sulfur dioxide per kilowatt hour (kWh) and emit CO 2 at a rate of 1.7 pounds per kWh.

367

Recent advances in carbon dioxide capture with metal-organic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U. Wang, Hong-Cai Zhou, Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol, 2: 239-259, 2012 DOI: 10.1002ghg.1296 Abstract: Uncontrolled massive release of the primary greenhouse gas carbon...

368

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What are people doing now to manage CO2? What are people doing now to manage CO2? SECARB's injection operations at the Mississippi test site in Escatawpa, Mississippi SECARB's injection operations at the Mississippi test site in Escatawpa, Mississippi. A combined portfolio of carbon management options is being implemented to reduce current emission levels associated with energy production while enhancing energy security and building the technologies and knowledge base for export to other countries faced with reducing emissions. The U.S. portfolio includes: (1) use fuels with reduced carbon intensity - renewables, nuclear, and natural gas; (2) adopt more efficient technologies on both the energy demand and supply sides; and (3) use carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. CCS is a viable emission management option

369

Poland Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Europe Europe » Poland Poland Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends Carbon dioxide emissions from Poland's use of fossil-fuels and cement production climbed at a remarkably steady rate of 3.9% per year from 1800 until 1980, when they dropped abruptly (11.7%). Fossil-fuel CO2 emissions crept back up throughout the 1980s peaking in 1987 at 127 million metric tons of carbon. Since the 1987 high, CO2 emissions have plummeted 32% to early 1970s levels while per capita emissions have dropped to late 1960s levels. Poland is the world's ninth largest producer of coal and emissions are predominantly from coal burning: 97% in 1950 and 68% in 2008. The drop following 1980 is apparent in rates of liquid fuel burning but releases from consumption of petroleum products have returned and surpassed 1980s

370

Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost open-path Instrument for Low Cost open-path Instrument for monItorIng atmospherIC Carbon DIoxIDe at sequestratIon sItes Background Growing concern over the effect on global climate of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere may lead to the curtailment of CO 2 emissions. One potential course of action by industry to reduce GHG emissions is the subsurface disposal of CO 2 . An important requirement of such disposal is verification that the injected gases remain in place and do not leak to the surface. Perhaps the most direct evidence of a successful sequestration project is the lack of a detectable CO 2 concentration above the background level in the air near the ground. Although measurement of CO 2 concentration can be performed, it is

371

Recovery of Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor Ashok S. Damle * Research Triangle Institute P.O. Box 12194 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Phone: (919) 541-6146 Fax: (919) 541-6965 E-mail: adamle@rti.org Thomas P. Dorchak National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, Mail Stop C04 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Phone: (304) 285-4305 E-mail: tdorch@netl.doe.gov Abstract Increased awareness of the global warming trend has led to worldwide concerns regarding "greenhouse gas" emissions, with CO 2 being the single greatest contributor to global warming. Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) currently supply over 85% of the world's energy needs, and their utilization is the major source of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of

372

The marginal effects of the price for carbon dioxide: quantifying the effects on the market for electric generation in Florida  

SciTech Connect

Greater emphasis on public policy aimed at internalizing the societal cost of carbon dioxide emissions leads to more questions about the economic impacts of that policy. In cooperation with the State of Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the authors have constructed a model to simulate the dispatch of electric generating units to serve electric load in the state - and obtained some counterintuitive results. (author)

Kury, Theodore J.; Harrington, Julie

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

NETL: Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Project No.: DE-FE0007634 FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed a novel system concept for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane. The proposed membrane has its genesis from the company's patented Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) technology. The prominent feature of the DFC membrane is its capability to produce power while capturing CO2 from the flue gas from a pulverized coal (PC) plant. The DFC membrane does not require flue gas compression as it operates on the principles of electrochemistry, resulting in net efficiency gains. The membrane utilizes a fuel (different from the plant flue gas, such as coal-derived syngas, natural gas, or a renewable resource) as the driver for the combined carbon capture and electric power generation. The electrochemical membrane consists of ceramic-based layers filled with carbonate salts, separating CO2 from the flue gas. Because of the electrode's high reaction rates, the membrane does not require a high CO2 concentration in its feed gas. The planar geometry of the membrane offers ease of scalability to large sizes suitable for deployment in PC plants, which is an important attribute in membrane design. The membrane has been tested at the laboratory scale, verifying the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. is advancing the technology to a maturity level suitable for adaption by industry for pilot-scale demonstration and subsequent commercial deployment.

374

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants CO2 Emissions Control RD&D Roadmap Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program: Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program Accomplishments DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Presentations DOE/NETL's Monthly Carbon Sequestration Newsletter Program Goals and Targets Pre-Combustion CO2 Control Post-Combustion CO2 Control Advanced Combustion CO2 Compression Other Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Reference Shelf Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from coal-based power plant flue gas or syngas. There are commercially available 1st-Generation CO2

375

Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Sediments 10...efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts...sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment...repositories. Offshore geological repositories...between Scotland and Norway and far out of...

Daniel P. Schrag

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

376

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant Nicolas R?hault 1 and Doreen Kalz 2 1 Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany 2 Fraunhofer Institute... for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany Email: nicolas.rehault@ise.fraunhofer.de Abstract: A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative...

Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

Omole, Olusegun

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Table 2. Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors (Kilograms-carbon equivalent per million Btu) Fuel Type Carbon Dioxide Coefficient at Full Combustion Combustion Fraction Adjusted Emissions Factor Petroleum Motor Gasoline 19.36 0.990 19.17 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Used as Fuel 17.18 0.995 17.09 Used as Feedstock 16.88 0.200 3.38 Jet Fuel 19.33 0.990 19.14 Distillate Fuel 19.95 0.990 19.75 Residual Fuel 21.49 0.990 21.28 Asphalt and Road Oil 20.62 0.000 0.00 Lubricants 20.24 0.600 12.14 Petrochemical Feedstocks 19.37 0.200 3.87 Kerosene 19.72 0.990 19.52 Petroleum Coke 27.85 0.500 13.93 Petroleum Still Gas 17.51 0.995 17.42 Other Industrial 20.31 0.990 20.11 Coal Residential and Commercial 26.00 0.990 25.74 Metallurgical 25.56 0.990 25.30 Industrial Other 25.63 0.990 25.38 Electric Utility1 25.76 0.990 25.50 Natural Gas

379

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) ethane-1,2-diol; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Refractive index of the mixture (1) ethane-1,2-diol; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Refractive index of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors  

SciTech Connect

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Power Plant Emission Reductions Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard by J. Alan Beamon, Tom Leckey, and Laura Martin There are many policy instruments available for reducing power plant emissions, and the choice of a policy will affect compliance decisions, costs, and prices faced by consumers. In a previous analysis, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, assuming a policy instru- ment patterned after the SO 2 allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 1 This report compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard (GPS) as an instrument for reducing CO 2 emissions. 2 In general, the results of the two analyses are similar: to reduce

385

Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use  

SciTech Connect

To address the public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) is actively funding a CO2 management program to develop technologies capable of reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants and other industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE-NETL launched an alternative CO2 mitigation program focusing on beneficial CO2 reuse and supporting the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO2 to solid mineral form that can be utilized for enhanced oil recovery, in the manufacturing of concrete or as a benign landfill, in the production of valuable chemicals and/or fuels. This project was selected as a CO2 reuse activity which would conduct research and development (R&D) at the pilot scale via a cost-shared Cooperative Agreement number DE-FE0001099 with DOE-NETL and would utilize funds setaside by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration R&D,

Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve ... The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this ... . There are thr...

Edwin Woerdman

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter covers a series of operations which are essential for the implementation of an efficient emissions trading market on the domestic and international level. An introduction to how a national emissions trading

Dr. Michael See

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Version 2 Global Fire Emissions Database Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Fire Emissions Database Available Global Fire Emissions Database Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2)." This data set, which supersedes and replaces the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 1 (GFEDv1), consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), molecular hydrogen (H2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), particulate matter (PM2.5), total particulate matter (TPM), total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) for the time period January 1997 - December 2004. For more information or to access this data set, please see the Vegetation

390

nature geoscience | VOL 2 | NOVEMBER 2009 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 737 CO2 emissions from forest loss  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions from forest loss G. R. van der Werf,D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S as a notable carbon dioxide source. P rogrammes that aim to reduce the emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are being considered as a cost-effective way to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions1

Jackson, Robert B.

391

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from cement kilns result from the sulfur in the fuel and the sulfur in the feed materials. Sulfur in the fuel will oxidize to SO2during pyroprocessing and a significant amount is li...

Ravi K. Srivastava; Samudra Vijay…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal  

SciTech Connect

Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The global warming potential, expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents (t e CO2), is determined for seven components of urban inventories: electricity, heating and industrial fuels, industrial processes, ground transportation, aviation, marine, and waste. ... With 92% of South Africa’s electricity generated from combustion of coal, Cape Town has the highest intensity of 969 t e CO2/GWh (Table S1). ... With a warm Mediterranean climate and a dense urban form, Barcelona has the lowest emissions of the ten cities. ...

Christopher Kennedy; Julia Steinberger; Barrie Gasson; Yvonne Hansen; Timothy Hillman; Miroslav Havránek; Diane Pataki; Aumnad Phdungsilp; Anu Ramaswami; Gara Villalba Mendez

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

396

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

It has been ascertained that heating titanium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to temperatures of 500 or 800/sup 0/C alters the composition of the gas phase, causing the advent of carbon monoxide and lowering the oxygen content. Investigation of the thermal stability of titanium polonides in a carbon dioxide medium has shown that titanium mono- and hemipolonides are decomposed at temperatures below 350/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium produced in the decomposition of these polonides in a carbon dioxide medium have been determined by a radiotensimetric method. The enthalpy of the process, calculated from this relationship, is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elementary polonium in vacuo.

Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

399

A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

400

The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics: Market Analysis Website: energyenvironment.pnl.gov/news/pdf/PNNL-19112_Revision_1_Final.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/smart-grid-estimation-energy-and-carb Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Public-Private Partnerships Regulations: "Resource Integration Planning,Mandates/Targets,Enabling Legislation,Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

E-Print Network 3.0 - arterial carbon dioxide Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reactivity. inserm-00495071... , manufactured nanoparticles, especially carbon or titanium dioxide nanoparticles, could be relevant surrogate... of carbon or titanium dioxide...

402

An Analysis of PM and NOx Train Emissions in the Alameda Corridor, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environment. Estimation of Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrationsmatter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - Globalnitrate particles and nitrogen dioxide can reduce visibility

Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

404

Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dioxide Water vapor #12;Atmospheric composition (parts per million by volume) · Nitrogen (N2) 780Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0

Olver, Peter

406

Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and Hydrous Ferric Oxide D I M I T R I (HFO) and titanium dioxide exhibit similar strong attachment of many adsorbates including biomolecules on amorphous titanium dioxide. The results indicate that glutamate adsorbs on HFO as a deprotonated divalent

Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

407

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS KATHARINE HAYHOE. Substitution of natural gas for coal is one means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, natural of coal by natural gas are evaluated, and their modeled net effect on global mean-annual temperature

Jain, Atul K.

408

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Water Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) distributed a portion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to advance technologies for chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from industrial sources. The focus of the research projects is permanent sequestration of CO 2 through mineralization or development

409

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Infiltrating the Ocean Floor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Grant S. Bromhal, Duane H. Smith, US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; M. Ferer, Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered to be a potentially important method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (US DOE, 1999). Oceans are currently the largest atmospheric carbon dioxide sink; and certainly, enough storage capacity exists in the oceans to hold all of the CO 2 that we can emit for many years. Additionally, technologies exist that allow us to pump liquid CO 2 into the oceans at depths between one and two kilometers for extended periods of time and five times that deep for shorter durations. The biggest unknown in the ocean sequestration process, however, is the fate and

410

Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Process for Gas Separation from a Shifted Synthesis Gas Stream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration and Sequestration and Gasification Technologies Carbon DioxiDe HyDrate ProCess for Gas seParation from a sHifteD syntHesis Gas stream Background One approach to de-carbonizing coal is to gasify it to form fuel gas consisting predominately of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This fuel gas is sent to a shift conversion reactor where carbon monoxide reacts with steam to produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrogen. After scrubbing the CO 2 from the fuel, a stream of almost pure hydrogen stream remains, which can be burned in a gas turbine or used to power a fuel cell with essentially zero emissions. However, for this approach to be practical, it will require an economical means of separating CO 2 from mixed gas streams. Since viable options for sequestration or reuse of CO

411

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Global update 2005. Primary sources of air pollutants include combustion products from power generationIntroduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence effects to man and/or the environment". (DEFRA) "Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement

413

Carbon dioxide removal and capture for landfill gas up-grading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the frame of an EC financially supported project - LIFE05 ENV/IT/000874 GHERL (Greenhouse Effect Reduction from Landfill)–a pilot plant was set up in order to demonstrate the feasibility of applying chemical absorption to remove carbon dioxide from landfill gas. After proper upgrading - basically removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and other trace gas compound–the gas might be fed into the distribution grid for natural gas or used as vehicle fuel, replacing a fossil fuel thus saving natural resources and carbon dioxide emissions. Several experiences in Europe have been carried out concerning the landfill gas - and biogas from anaerobic digestion - quality up-grading through CO2 removal, but in all of them carbon dioxide was vented to the atmosphere after separation, without any direct benefit in terms of greenhouse gases reduction. With respect to those previous experiences, in this work the attention was focused on CO2 removal from landfill gas with an effective capture process, capable of removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere, through a globally carbon negative process. In particular, processes capable of producing final solid products were investigated, with the aim of obtaining as output solid compounds which can be either used in the chemical industry or disposed off. The adopted absorption process is based on using aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide, with the final aim of producing potassium carbonate. Potassium carbonate is a product which has several applications in the chemical industry if obtained with adequate quality. It can be sold as a pulverised solid, or in aqueous solution. Several tests were carried out at the pilot plant, which was located at a landfill site, in order to feed it with a fraction of the on-site collected landfill gas. The results of the experimental campaign are reported, explained and commented in the paper. Also a discussion on economic issues is presented.

Lidia Lombardia; Andrea Corti; Ennio Carnevale; Renato Baciocchi; Daniela Zingaretti

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Near-Zero Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Project No.: DE-NT0005341 Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment. Praxair Inc. will develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing coal-fired power plants retrofit with oxy-combustion technology. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mercury (Hg) will be reduced by at least 99 percent, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions will be reduced by greater than 90 percent without the need for wet flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Two separate processes are proposed depending on the sulfur content of the coal. For high-sulfur coal, SO2 and NOx will be recovered as product sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, and Hg will be recovered as

416

CDIAC::Carbon Emission::Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction Introduction Each year the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) generates estimates of carbon releases from fossil-fuel consumption and cement production. Emissions from fossil-fuel burning represent the largest anthropogenic source of carbon to the atmosphere and are an important contributor to elevated atmospheric CO2 levels. CDIAC produces annual fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series at global and national scales and these time series serve as building blocks for other data products including gridded (1 x 1) emission time series. Details regarding the methods used to produce these time series and data products may be found on the CDIAC website. This new interface allows users to query, visualize, and download the latest CDIAC fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates. In the future, additional

417

Optimal structure of Nigeria's energy sector under carbon-dioxide reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy requirements in Nigeria will continue to increase as a result of an expanding economy and a rapidly growing population. Although the country has abundant natural energy resources, substantial financial commitments will be required to put the necessary supply infrastructure in place in order to meet the growing requirements. Furthermore, there is the need for a carefully planned consumption pattern in view of the growing awareness of the environmental problems posed by continued consumption of these resources. This paper discusses a study of the optimal structure of the Nigerian energy sector over a period of 40 years, based on the least-cost path and carbon-dioxide emission reduction. The emission reduction strategies take the form of linear annual reductions, reaching 20% and 40% respectively below the year 2030 baseline emissions. The effects of these constraints on fuel mix in the supply and demand structure of the energy system are presented.

F.I. Ibitoye; J-F.K. Akinbami; A.O. Adegbulugbe

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

419

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

SciTech Connect

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Evaluation of the reduction of CO2 emissions from a coal-to-liquids utilities plant by incorporating PBMR energy / M.M. Gouws.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to the constantly growing environmental concerns about global warming, there is immense pressure on the coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry to lower carbon dioxide emissions. This… (more)

Gouws, Marizanne Michele

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.035 graphics Graphics data Data Investigators R.F. Keeling, S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher and J.S. Walker Carbon Dioxide Research Group Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California La Jolla, California 92093-0444, U.S.A. Period of Record 1958-2008 Methods Air samples at Mauna Loa are collected continuously from air intakes at the top of four 7-m towers and one 27-m tower. Four air samples are collected each hour for the purpose of determining the CO2 concentration. Determinations of CO2 are made by using a Siemens Ultramat 3 nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. This analyzer registers the concentration of CO2 in a stream of air flowing at ~0.5

423

Carbon dioxide utilization and seaweed production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dioxide utilization and seaweed production dioxide utilization and seaweed production V.R.P.Sinha World Bank Project Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Mymensingh, Bangladesh e-mails; vrpsinha@ mymensingh.net, vidyut_s@hotmail.com Lowell Fraley L.D. Fraley & Associates, LLC, P.O. Box 1525, Sugarland, TX 77487, USA, e-mail idf@hia.net BS Chowdhry ISS Consultants, Inc. 13111 Westheimer, Suite 303, Houston, Texas 77077, USA, e-mail bsc@issci.com Abstract: Stronger growth in many plants stimulated by increased CO 2 concentration should lead to greater biological productivity with an expected increase in the photosynthetic storage of carbon. Thus, the biosphere will serve as a sink for CO 2 , though it will also act as a source too, because of respiration. Normally net photosynthesis dominates in summer and

424

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

425

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions  

SciTech Connect

A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Instrument Development and Measurements of the Atmospheric Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrate Radical, and Nitrous Acid by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. , A method of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxidedetermination of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in theDOAS) have measured nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrate

Medina, David Salvador

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: MOBILE6 Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.epa.gov/oms/m6.htm Cost: Free References: http://www.epa.gov/oms/m6.htm MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for predicting gram per mile emissions of Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Particulate Matter (PM), and toxics from cars, trucks, and motorcycles under various conditions. MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for predicting gram per mile emissions of Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon

429

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, 336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's proposal to participate with a group of international organizations in an experiment to evaluate the dispersion and diffusion of liquid carbon dioxide droplets in ocean waters. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Finding of No Significant Impact Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Final Environmental Assessment Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment

430

Improving Repository Performance by Using DU Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DU Dioxide Fill DU Dioxide Fill Improving Repository Performance by Using DU Dioxide Fill Fills may improve repository performance by acting as sacrificial materials, which delay the degradation of SNF uranium dioxide. Because fill and SNF have the same chemical form of uranium (uranium dioxide), the DU dioxide in a repository is the only fill which has the same behavior as that of the SNF. In the natural environment, some uranium ore deposits have remained intact for very long periods of time. The outer parts of the ore deposit degrade while the inner parts of the deposit are protected. The same approach is proposed herein for protecting SNF. The application could use half or more of the DU inventory in the United States. Behavior of Uranium and Potential Behavior of a Waste Package with SNF and Fill

431

Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nano-Enabled Titanium Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide

432

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

433

Polyamine-Tethered Porous Polymer Networks for Carbon Dioxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyamine-Tethered Porous Polymer Networks for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Julian P. Sculley, Daqiang Yuan, Rajamani Krishna, Zhangwen Wei,...

434

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key...

435

Synthesis, Structure, and Carbon Dioxide Capture Properties of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthesis, Structure, and Carbon Dioxide Capture Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks Previous Next List Anh Phan, Christian J. Doonan, Fernando J. Uribe-Romo, Carolyn B....

436

Carbon dioxide sequestration underground laser based detection system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is a known greenhouse gas. Due to the burning of fossil fuels by industrial and power plants the atmospheric concentration of… (more)

Barr, Jamie Lynn.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Los Alamos probes mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of nuclear materials into the hands of terrorists and other non-state actors. The depleted uranium dioxide crystals used for the thermal conductivity measurements were...

438

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

Energy and environmental issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). State emissions are significant on a global scale. CO2 and CO are the main \\{GHGs\\} associated with global warning. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30–40% of the world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. SO2 and \\{NOx\\} contribute to acid rain. Carbon assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide emissions while raising revenue. In 1992, Turkish Ministry of Environment issued a regulation providing for emissions testing for cars, trucks and vans.

Ayhan Demirba?

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young high and would subject young people, future generations and nature to irreparable harm. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel use must be reduced rapidly to avoid irreversible consequences

Hansen, James E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Ã?Â?Ã?¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Energy, Carbon-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Dioxide-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

442

Neutron reflectometry characterization of interface width between sol-gel titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to directly measure the interface width between a titanium dioxide and a silicon dioxide film deposited by sol-gel processing. In a bilayer heated to 450 C, NR measurements showed that the interface width is 0.8 nm. This width is the same as the roughness of a sol-gel silicon dioxide surface after the same heat treatment, suggesting no interdiffusion or mixing at the bilayer interface.

Keddie, J.L.; Norton, L.J.; Kramer, E.J.; Giannelis, E.P. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

444

Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

Srinivasachar, Srivats

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

445

Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Carbon dioxide capture and storage: Seven years after the IPCC special report  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) entails separating carbon dioxide from coal-, biomass- or gas ... or other large industrial sources, transporting the carbon dioxide by pipeline, injecting it deep undergr...

Haroon Kheshgi; Heleen de Coninck…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

448

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures Nitrogen Dioxide and Nitric Oxide Print a copy and insert into your laboratory the precautions and safe handling procedures for the use of Nitrogen Dioxide

Cohen, Ronald C.

449

Radon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-Wendy Barnaby (August 28) writes on the problem of radon emission from the tailings of uranium milling in Sweden. This problem would arise from ... that has to be treated. She describes Professor Robert O. Pohl's report that "radon can escape more easily from the broken ground of a mine than from an undisturbed ...

SVEN-ERIC BRUNNSJO

1975-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

450

Carbon dioxide adsorption and methanation on ruthenium  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a ruthenium-silica catalyst were studied using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature-programmed reaction (TPR). Carbon dioxide adsorption was found to be activated; CO/sub 2/ adsorption increased significantly as the temperature increased from 298 to 435 K. During adsorption, some of the CO/sub 2/ dissociated to carbon monoxide and oxygen; upon hydrogen exposure at room temperature, the oxygen reacted to water. Methanation of adsorbed CO and of adsorbed CO/sub 2/, using TPR in flowing hydrogen, yielded a CH/sub 4/ peak with a peak temperature of 459 K for both adsorbates, indicating that both reactions follow the same mechanism after adsorption. This peak temperature did not change with initial surface coverage of CO, indicating that methanation is first order in CO coverage. The desorption and reaction spectra for Ru/SiO/sub 2/ were similar to those previously obtained for Ni/SiO/sub 2/, but both CO/sub 2/ formation and CH/sub 4/ formation proceeded faster on Ru. Also, the details of CO desorption and the changes in CO/sub 2/ and CO desorptions with initial coverage were different on the two metals. 5 figures, 3 tables.

Zagli, E.; Falconer, J.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been warming, and the development of efficient methods for capturing CO2 from industrial flue gas has become

Paik Suh, Myunghyun

452

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman Students #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total1 . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one

453

Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M capture using monoethanolamine (MEA). MEA is an appropriate choice for a baseline study since

Rochelle, Gary T.

454

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431 Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New] Carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes embody a group of technologies for the capture of CO2 from power to the atmosphere could be reduced by 80­90% for a modern conventional power plant equipped with carbon capture

455

Exhaust Gas Sensor Based On Tin Dioxide For Automotive Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exhaust Gas Sensor Based On Tin Dioxide For Automotive Application Arthur VALLERON a,b , Christophe, Engineering Materials Department The aim of this paper is to investigate the potentialities of gas sensor based on semi-conductor for exhaust gas automotive application. The sensing element is a tin dioxide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

456

Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

457

Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

458

Method for Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Bacteriological Incubators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Method for Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in...Method for Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in...experience with water-jacket incubators...that the area of water used be the maximum...does not create condensation. For culturing...was made of the recovery of Mycobacterium...

Alfred G. Karslon; Patrick E. Caskey

1969-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

Rust, Bert W.

460

The surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold* Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA Manuscript received in final form 7 October 2002 Abstract Titanium dioxide is reviewed on the adsorption and reaction of a wide variety of inorganic molecules (H2, O2, H2O, CO, CO2, N2

Diebold, Ulrike

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide uncontrolled emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall loading. The absorption rate did not follow pseudo first-order beha®ior except at ®ery low loading. All

Rochelle, Gary T.

462

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE Lucia M. Petkovic, Harry W. Rollins, Daniel M. Ginosar, and Kyle C. Burch Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas often associated with global warming, have increased considerably since the beginning of the industrial age.1 In the U.S., stationary CO2 sources, such as electricity generation plants, produce about one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 generation. Reports2 indicate that the power required to recover 90% of the CO2 from an integrated coal-fired power-plant is about 10% of the power-plant capacity. This energy requirement can be reduced to less than 1% if the recovered CO2 is applied to the production of synthetic fuels. However, the lack of efficient catalysts along with the costs of energy and hydrogen has prevented the development of technologies for direct hydrogenation of CO2.3 Although the cost of hydrogen for hydrogenating CO2 is not economically attractive at present, the future production of hydrogen by nuclear power sources could completely change this scenario.2 Still, an efficient catalyst will be essential for commercial application of those processes. The objective of the work presented here was the development of hybrid catalysts for one-step carbon dioxide hydrogenation to liquid fuels. The hybrid catalysts, which were prepared by two novel techniques, included a copper/zinc oxide catalytic function distributed within an acidic zeolitic matrix. Results of catalyst activity and selectivity studies at atmospheric pressure are presented in this contribution. Experimental Catalysts were prepared by two novel techniques and under several different conditions to produce copper/zinc oxide/zeolite materials. Once synthesized, samples were pelletized and the fraction between 40-60 mesh was utilized for the experiments. Two hundred milligrams of catalyst were loaded in a U-tube stainless steel reactor and a flow of 100 cm3/min of a 10:90 H2:Ar mixture was passed through the catalyst bed while the temperature was increased from room temperature to 513 K at 1.8 K/min and held at 513 K for 15 h. A reactant gas mixture composed by 10 cm3/min of CO2 and 30 cm3/min of H2 was then passed through the catalyst bed and the reaction products monitored by on-line gas chromatographic analyses using an SRI Multiple Gas Analyzer #2 equipped with 3 columns (MoleSieve 13X, Hayesep-D, and MXT-1) and 3 detectors (TCD, FID, and FID-methanizer). This GC system allowed for quantification of inert gases, CO, CO2, methanol, dimethylether, higher alcohols, water, and hydrocarbons up to C20. One hundred milligrams of a commercial syngas-to-methanol catalyst along with the same amount of a commercial zeolite catalyst was utilized under the same reaction conditions for comparison purposes. These catalysts were utilized either in two-layers (Com1) or mixed together (Com2). Results and Discussion Under the conditions applied in this study, the main reaction products were CO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, and H2O. Methanol and dimethylether production rates and selectivities with respect to CO formation are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Although the activity of the synthesized catalysts did not surpass the commercial catalysts, the selectivity to oxygenates with respect to CO on most of the synthesized catalysts were better than on the commercial catalysts. For example, cat

Licia M. Petkovic; Harry W. Rollins; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

ORNL/CDIAC-143 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge

464

Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitrogen dioxide based on a widely tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitrogen dioxide based on a widely tunable external cavity quantum: Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy, external-cavity quantum cascade laser, nitrogen dioxide, trace

465

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide /...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Interfaces Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Interfaces...

466

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

468

Microbial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Conversion to Methane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent conversion to Methane By Nirupam Pal Associate Professor California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Email : npal@calpoly.edu Phone : (805) 756-1355 INTRODUCTION The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been of growing concern in recent years. The increasing levels of carbon dioxide, the most dominant component of greenhouse gases, contribute to global warming and changing global weather patterns which could potentially lead to catastrophic events that could threaten life in every form on this planet. The level of carbon dioxide in the worlds atmosphere has increased from about 280 ppm in 1850 to the current level of approximately 350 ppm. There are several natural sources and sinks of

469

DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands May 14, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) underneath millions of acres of Federal lands. The report, Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands, estimates and characterizes the storage potential that lies beneath some of the more than 400 million acres of Federal land available for lease.

470

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Funding for 12 projects to test innovative concepts for the beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) was announced by the U.S. Department of Energy. The awards are part of $1.4 billion in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for projects that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources. These 12 projects will engage in a first phase feasibility study that will examine beneficial uses in a variety of ways, including mineralization to carbonates directly through conversion of CO2 in flue gas; the use of CO2 from power plants or industrial applications to grow algae/biomass; and conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Each project will be subject to

471

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

472

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haverford College Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemistry, Hopper Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. Image by Joshua Schrier, Haverford College. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels for energy and

473

International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM LAYER HOUSES IN IOWA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Among the air contaminants produced in poultry buildings al. (2003). MATERIALS AND METHODS Housing Description and Management Two types of laying hen houses

Kentucky, University of

474

Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast states that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 megawatts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part II: Assessment of exposure to nitrogen dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Repeated measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained from 1988 to 1991 in the homes of 1,205 infants living in Albuquerque, NM. Passive diffusion samplers were used to obtain a series of two-week integrated measurements from the home of each infant for use in a cohort study of the relation of residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses. Information on stove use and time spent inside the residence was collected at two-week and two-month intervals, respectively. During the winter, in the bedrooms of homes with gas cooking stoves, mean nitrogen dioxide concentrations were 21 parts per billion (ppb); mean concentrations in the living room and kitchen were 29 ppb and 34 ppb, respectively. In homes with electric cooking stoves, the mean bedroom concentration was 7 ppb during the winter. Lower indoor concentrations were observed during the summer in homes with both gas and electric stoves. On average, infants spent approximately 12.3 hours per day in their bedrooms, 7.3 hours in the living rooms, 35 minutes in the kitchens, and 3.8 hours out of their homes. (As a condition of participation, none of the infants spent more than 20 hours per week in day care outside of their homes). The mean time infants spent in the kitchen during cooking was approximately nine minutes per day. We tested whether exposures of infants living in homes with gas stoves could be reasonably estimated by measurements in the bedroom in comparison with time-weighted average concentrations based on time-activity data and simultaneous nitrogen dioxide measurements in the kitchen, living room, and bedroom. In 1,937 two-week intervals from 587 infants, 90% of time-weighted exposure (on the three-level classification used in this study) estimates were in agreement with estimates based on bedroom concentrations alone.

Lambert, W.E.; Samet, J.M.; Hunt, W.C.; Skipper, B.J.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

477

The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Intraosseous Venography with Carbon Dioxide in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Carbon Dioxide Retention in Renal Veins  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of gas retention in the renal vein following carbon dioxide intraosseous venography in the prone position and, while citing references, to examine its onset mechanisms. All percutaneous vertebroplasties performed at our hospital from January to December 2005 were registered and retrospectively analyzed. Of 43 registered procedures treating 79 vertebrae, 28 procedures treating 54 vertebrae were analyzed. Vertebral intraosseous venography was performed using carbon dioxide as a contrast agent in all percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures. In preoperative and postoperative vertebral CT, gas retention in the renal vein and other areas was assessed. Preoperative CT did not show gas retention (0/28 procedures; 0%). Postoperative CT confirmed gas retention in the renal vein in 10 of the 28 procedures (35.7%). Gas retention was seen in the right renal vein in 8 procedures (28.6%), in the left renal vein in 5 procedures (17.9%), in the left and right renal veins in 3 procedures (10.7%), in vertebrae in 22 procedures (78.6%), in the soft tissue around vertebrae in 14 procedures (50.0%), in the spinal canal in 12 procedures (42.9%), and in the subcutaneous tissue in 5 procedures (17.9%). In conclusion, in our study, carbon dioxide gas injected into the vertebra frequently reached and remained in the renal vein.

Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: kome64@yo.rim.or.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Tokuda, Takanori; Nomura, Motoo; Terada, Jiro; Kamata, Minoru; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products July 22, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into useful products such as fuel, plastics, cement, and fertilizers. Funded with $106 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -matched with $156 million in private cost-share -today's selections demonstrate the potential opportunity to use CO2 as an inexpensive raw material that can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while producing useful by-products that Americans

482

Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products July 22, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into useful products such as fuel, plastics, cement, and fertilizers. Funded with $106 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -matched with $156 million in private cost-share -today's selections demonstrate the potential opportunity to use CO2 as an inexpensive raw material that can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while producing useful by-products that Americans

483

Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products July 22, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into useful products such as fuel, plastics, cement, and fertilizers. Funded with $106 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -matched with $156 million in private cost-share -today's selections demonstrate the potential opportunity to use CO2 as an inexpensive raw material that can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while producing useful by-products that Americans

484

Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis  

SciTech Connect

Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008 2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy.

Peters, Glen P. [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Le Quere, Corinne [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Canadell, Josep [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

1994-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

487

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona" Arizona" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",113,117,119,122,129,113,113,118,96,72,68,66,64,63,55,48,45,51,44,33,33 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*",1,1,"*","*","*","*","*",1,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

490

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota" Dakota" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",28,30,29,28,30,32,15,24,22,24,13,13,23,11,13,10,11,8,12,11,12 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","-","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

491

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota" Dakota" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",133,172,133,134,139,191,162,162,178,174,139,142,128,128,137,125,119,125,124,121,116 " Petroleum",1,1,1,1,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

492

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oregon" Oregon" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",7,10,15,14,15,6,6,7,13,16,13,16,11,12,12,11,8,13,10,10,14 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

493

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wyoming" Wyoming" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",98,77,78,74,86,103,96,98,104,97,79,86,93,84,84,87,84,83,83,76,67 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*",1,1,1,"*",1,21,16,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*"

494

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mexico" Mexico" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",54,46,53,52,57,69,71,75,74,67,63,57,46,46,35,28,28,24,20,17,15 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

495

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Utah" Utah" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",29,26,27,30,27,30,30,30,30,28,31,32,30,32,34,31,34,25,22,30,25 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

496

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado" Colorado" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",93,89,92,90,98,88,86,92,91,84,82,85,83,70,59,58,59,59,55,43,45 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

497

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Idaho" Idaho" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",6,3,6,6,5,3,3,3,3,3,3,1,3,3,4,2,2,4,3,1,3 " Petroleum","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

498

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

499

Assessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the formation and transport of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter and other species throughout EuropeAssessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS Date 18 March 2013, climate and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen availability is in turn determined by N-deposition from

Haak, Hein

500

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric * Hydroelectric reservoirs cover an area of 3.4 Ã? 105 km2 and comprise about 20% of all reservoirs. In addition dioxide and methane from hydroelectric reservoirs, on the basis of data from 85 globally distributed