Sample records for dioxide scrubbing system

  1. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  2. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determinedVAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K

  3. Carbon Capture by a Continuous, Regenerative Ammonia-Based Scrubbing Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resnik, K.P.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview: To develop a knowledge/data base to determine whether an ammonia-based scrubbing process is a viable regenerable-capture technique that can simultaneously remove carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, and trace pollutants from flue gas.

  4. Scrubber strategy: the how and why of flue gas desulfurization. [Analysis of 20 US scrubbing systems in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baviello, M.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, INFORM provides facts that will help the non-technical decisionmakers in the US understand a technology that can significantly reduce the polluting effects of burning coal. Those decisionmakers include legislators, regulators and utility executives, public interest groups, concerned community organizations and environmentalists who have been involved in the debate over the broader use of our most abundant fossil fuel - coal. The use of this resource, especially in large industrial and utility plants, has created widespread and intense public controversy. For the past four years INFORM has turned its research capabilities to defining cleaner and more economical ways of using US coal supplies. We have focused on finding out what cleaning coal and using flue gas desulfurization systems (called scrubbers) can contribute to reducing the polluting effects of burning coal in utility plants. All in all, both scrubbers and coal cleaning offer exciting and important possibilities for putting more coal to work in generating power in this country more economically and still meeting critical air quality standards that have been set to protect public health. The need for accurate and clear information concerning these technologies is evident: 80% of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the US now come from utility power plant operations, and over 140 existing oil-fired power plants are candidates for conversion to coal use. We hope that this documentation of the technologies of scrubber systems along with INFORM's companion study of coal cleaning, may help government and business planners and concerned citizens chart intelligent future courses and set realistic goals for meeting our energy needs in an environmentally sound manner.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

  6. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  7. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  8. Removal of impurities from dry scrubbed fluoride enriched alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, L. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wedde, G. [ABB Environmental, Oslo (Norway)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pot-gas from an aluminum electrolytic cell is cleaned by a dry scrubbing process using fresh alumina as a scrubbing agent. This alumina is enriched with fluorides and trace impurities in a closed loop system with the pots. The only significant removal of the impurities is due to metal tapping. An improved technique has been developed that is more effective than earlier stripper systems. The impurity-rich fine fraction (< 10 {micro}m) of the enriched alumina is partly attached to the coarser alumina. That attachment has to be broken. Selective impact milling under special moderate conditions and air classifying have shown to be a cost effective process for the removal of impurities. For iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) about 30--70% can be removed by the separation of 0.5--1% of the alumina. Full scale tests have successfully confirmed these results.

  9. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  10. Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO?) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and ...

  11. Preliminary results from In-Duct Scrubbing Pilot Study testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost, moderate-removal-efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the Department of Energy for demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applied rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. In-Duct Scrubbing technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are (i) adequate mixing of sorbent with the flue gas for efficient reactant contact, (ii) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (iii) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is complete. This paper presents the IDS technology and the status of a jointly sponsored In-Duct Scrubbing Pilot Study that is being tested at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System.

  12. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  13. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  14. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  15. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  16. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  17. Synthesis of Scrub-Oak Ecosystem Responses to Elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hungate, Bruce

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a synthesis project of a long-term global change experiment conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, investigating how increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences the functioning of a fire-dominated scrub-oak ecosystem. The experiment began in 1996 and ended in 2007. Results presented here summarize the effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, soil processes, carbon and nutrient cycling, and other responses. Products include archived data from the experiment, as well as six publications in the peer-reviewed literature.

  18. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the seventh reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Brayton Point Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field testing phase of the project; Baseline testing was completed during the quarter and parametric testing was begun; and A paper summarizing the full-scale tests was written and submitted to A&WMA for presentation at the annual meeting in June 2002. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them are papers published in the A&WMA EM journal and Pollution Engineering. Also, information was provided to the EPA MACT Working Group and a paper was presented at the annual A&WMA meeting.

  19. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2002-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the eighth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field-testing phase of the project; and Baseline testing was completed during the quarter. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them was a paper published in the JAWMA. Also, two papers were presented at the Air Quality III Conference and one at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference.

  20. A Systems Perspective for Assessing Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Systems Perspective for Assessing Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Opportunities by Nisheeth by _________________________________________________________________ Howard Herzog Principal Research Engineer, Lab for Energy & Environment, MIT Thesis Supervisor Accepted. I appreciate the financial support of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology

  1. Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems thermodynamic models. The range in CO2 solubility measured from 100 ­ 120 o C for K+ /PZ mixtures was from (0 and Technology to expand the thermodynamic data of for potassium carbonate/piperazine/CO2 with measurements of CO

  2. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  3. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  4. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  5. Gene Flow in Scrub Jays: Frequency and Direction of Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between coastal and interior Scrub Jay populations. Locality Museum nohef. Description East-west movement NV, Granite Mountains NV, Sutcliffe NV, Ormsby Co., Kings Cyn. NV, Reno NV, Gardnerville CA, Inyo Co., west wall, Owens Valley CA...

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Power Generation Point Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). Novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with either chemical or physical absorption; chemical absorption or adsorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes, including an electrochemical cell device. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses an ammonia-based solvent to absorb carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a pulverized coal-fired power plant. In contrast, a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure is being developed. Solid, regenerable sorbents that can be employed in either flue gas or fuel gas applications are being investigated. These sorbents can be regenerated via a temperature and/or pressure swing, and certain sorbent properties need consideration with respect to the final design system for each respective sorbent. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. In an application for CO2 separation in flue gas, an electrochemical membrane is being developed that can produce a CO2/O2 stream that can be fed to an oxy-fired combustion unit. An overview of the various novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  7. The interaction second virial coefficient for the helium-carbon dioxide system between 230 and 300 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Michael Quealy

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    closed during the entire experiment. After purging the system with the test gas (either helium or carbon dioxide), it was filled to some pressure below the limit of the dead-weight gauge (720 psi). The feed valve was closed and the system was allowed...THE INTERACTION SECOND VIRIAL COEFFICIENT FOR THE HELIUM-CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEM BETWEEN 230 AND 300 K A Thesis by MICHAEL MEALY WATSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  8. EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal Burning Cement Kilns, Passamaquoddy Tribe Thomaston, Maine

  9. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Jolly, Stephen; Patel, Dilip; Hunt, Jennifer; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FE0007634), to efficiently and cost effectively separate carbon dioxide from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The CEPACS system is based on FCE’s electrochemical membrane (ECM) technology utilizing the Company’s internal reforming carbonate fuel cell products carrying the trade name of Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cells offers an innovative approach for separation of CO2 from existing fossil-fuel power plant exhaust streams (flue gases). The ECM-based CEPACS system has the potential to become a transformational CO2-separation technology by working as two devices in one: it separates the CO2 from the exhaust of other plants such as an existing coal-fired plant and simultaneously produces clean and environmentally benign (green) electric power at high efficiency using a supplementary fuel. The overall objective of this project is to successfully demonstrate the ability of FCE’s electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system technology to separate ? 90% of the CO2 from a simulated Pulverized Coal (PC) power plant flue-gas stream and to compress the captured CO2 to a state that can be easily transported for sequestration or beneficial use. Also, a key project objective is to show, through a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study and bench scale testing (11.7 m2 area ECM), that the electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system is an economical alternative for CO2 capture in PC power plants, and that it meets DOE objectives for the incremental cost of electricity (COE) for post-combustion CO2 capture.

  10. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  11. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  12. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) using the Community Earth System Model­Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC). CO2

  13. Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  14. Progress in carbon dioxide capture and separation research for gasification-based power generation point sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.; Luebke, D.; Jones, K.; Myers, C.; Morsi, B.; Heintz, Y.; Ilconich, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate novel approaches, materials, and molecules for the abatement of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the pre-combustion stage of gasification-based power generation point sources. The capture/separation step for CO2 from large point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the Office of Research and Development of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the present research is focused on the capture/separation of carbon dioxide from fuel gas (precombustion gas) from processes such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process. For such applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical sorption, chemical sorption with solid sorbents, and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an “ideal” solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, processes based on dry, regenerable sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Valuable Chemical Products over Composite Catalytic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Hu, Jianli; Jones, Susanne B.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Frye, John G.; White, J. F.; Jiang, Juyuan; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is an experimental study on catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Catalysts having different catalytic functions were synthesized and combined in different ways to enhance selectivity to desired products. The combined catalyst system possessed the following functions: methanol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, water-gas-shift and hydrogenation. Results showed that the methods of integrating these catalytic functions played important role in achieving desired product selectivity. It was speculated that if methanol synthesis sites were located adjacent to the C-C chain growth sites, the formation rate of C2 oxygenates would be enhanced. The advantage of using high temperature methanol catalyst PdZnAl in the combined catalyst system was demonstrated. In the presence of PdZnAl catalyst, the combined catalyst system was stable at temperature of 380oC. It was observed that, at high temperature, kinetics favored oxygenate formation. Results implied that the process can be intensified by operating at high temperature using Pd-based methanol synthesis catalyst. Steam reforming of the byproduct organics was demonstrated as a means to provide supplemental hydrogen. Preliminary process design, simulation, and economic analysis of the proposed CO2 conversion process were carried out. Economic analysis indicates how ethanol production cost was affected by the price of CO2 and hydrogen.

  17. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Johnson; Joan Ogden

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final report, we describe research results from Phase 2 of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture and storage, or alternatively, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, involves capturing CO{sub 2} from large point sources and then injecting it into deep underground reservoirs for long-term storage. By preventing CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, this technology has significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil-based facilities in the power and industrial sectors. Furthermore, the application of CCS to power plants and hydrogen production facilities can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and, thus, can also improve GHG emissions in the transportation sector. This research specifically examines strategies for transitioning to large-scale coal-derived energy systems with CCS for both hydrogen fuel production and electricity generation. A particular emphasis is on the development of spatially-explicit modeling tools for examining how these energy systems might develop in real geographic regions. We employ an integrated modeling approach that addresses all infrastructure components involved in the transition to these energy systems. The overall objective is to better understand the system design issues and economics associated with the widespread deployment of hydrogen and CCS infrastructure in real regions. Specific objectives of this research are to: Develop improved techno-economic models for all components required for the deployment of both hydrogen and CCS infrastructure, Develop novel modeling methods that combine detailed spatial data with optimization tools to explore spatially-explicit transition strategies, Conduct regional case studies to explore how these energy systems might develop in different regions of the United States, and Examine how the design and cost of coal-based H{sub 2} and CCS infrastructure depend on geography and location.

  18. Multimodel Predictive System for Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Saline Formation Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zan; Small, Mitchell J.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The prediction of carbon dioxide solubility in brine at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration (i.e., high temperature, pressure, and salt concentration (T-P-X)) is crucial when this technology is applied. Eleven mathematical models for predicting CO{sub 2} solubility in brine are compared and considered for inclusion in a multimodel predictive system. Model goodness of fit is evaluated over the temperature range 304–433 K, pressure range 74–500 bar, and salt concentration range 0–7 m (NaCl equivalent), using 173 published CO{sub 2} solubility measurements, particularly selected for those conditions. The performance of each model is assessed using various statistical methods, including the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Different models emerge as best fits for different subranges of the input conditions. A classification tree is generated using machine learning methods to predict the best-performing model under different T-P-X subranges, allowing development of a multimodel predictive system (MMoPS) that selects and applies the model expected to yield the most accurate CO{sub 2} solubility prediction. Statistical analysis of the MMoPS predictions, including a stratified 5-fold cross validation, shows that MMoPS outperforms each individual model and increases the overall accuracy of CO{sub 2} solubility prediction across the range of T-P-X conditions likely to be encountered in carbon sequestration applications.

  19. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  20. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  1. Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water. Version 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C. [eds.] [eds.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collection of extensive, reliable, oceanic carbon data is a key component of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). A portion of the US JGOFS oceanic carbon dioxide measurements will be made during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. A science team has been formed to plan and coordinate the various activities needed to produce high quality oceanic carbon dioxide measurements under this program. This handbook was prepared at the request of, and with the active participation of, that science team. The procedures have been agreed on by the members of the science team and describe well tested methods. They are intended to provide standard operating procedures, together with an appropriate quality control plan, for measurements made as part of this survey. These are not the only measurement techniques in use for the parameters of the oceanic carbon system; however, they do represent the current state-of-the-art for ship-board measurements. In the end, the editors hope that this handbook can serve widely as a clear and unambiguous guide to other investigators who are setting up to analyze the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water.

  2. A Parametric Study for Regenerative Ammonia-Based Scrubbing for the Capture of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resnik, K.P.; Garber, W.; Hreda, D.C.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO2 capture is currently being demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO2 from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO2 in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of the continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO2 and N2 gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. Recently, a series of tests have been conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO2 removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied include absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH3 concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. Results from this current testing campaign conducted in the continuous scrubbing unit as well as test results from a 5-cycle semi-batch reactor will be discussed.

  3. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy T

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79.9% was achieved with a stressed algae sample containing 40% algae oil. The effort concluded that producing biodiesel directly from the algae biomass could be an efficient, cost-effective and readily scalable way to produce biodiesel by eliminating the oil extraction process.

  4. Electron Cloud and Scrubbing Studies for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iadarola, G; Baglin, V; Bartosik, H; Esteban Muller, J E; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Zimmermann, F; Dominguez, O; Maury Cuna, GHI

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron cloud build-up resulting from beam-induced multipacting is one of the major limitations for the operation of the LHC with beams with close bunch spacing. Electron clouds induce unwanted pressure rise, heat loads on the beam screens of the superconducting magnets and beam instabilities. Operation with bunch spacing of 50 ns in 2011 and 2012 has required decreasing the Secondary Electron Yield of the beam screens below the multipacting threshold for beams with this bunch spacing. This was achieved by continuous electron bombardment induced by operating the machine with high intensity beams with 50 and 25 ns spacing during dedicated periods at injection energy (450 GeV) and at top energy (3.5 and 4 TeV). The evolution of the Secondary Electron Yield during these periods, in different sections of the machine, can be estimated by pressure rise, heat load and by bunch-by-bunch RF stable phase measurements. The experimental information on the scrubbing process will be discussed and a possible “scrubbing s...

  5. Impact of elevated CO2 on a Florida Scrub-oak Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Bert G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since May of 1996, we have conducted an experiment in Florida Scrub Oak to determine the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling in this important terrestrial ecosystem. Florida scrub oak is the name for a collective of species occupying much of the Florida peninsula. The dominant tree species are oaks and the dwarf structure of this community makes it an excellent system in which to test hypotheses regarding the potential capacity of woody ecosystems to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic carbon. Scrub oak is fire dependent with a return cycle of 10-15 years, a time which would permit an experiment to follow the entire cycle. Our site is located on Cape Canaveral at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. After burning in 1995, we built 16 open top chambers, half of which have been fumigated with pure CO2 sufficient to raise the concentration around the plants to 350 ppm above ambient. In the intervening 10 years we have non destructively measured biomass of shoots and roots, ecosystem gas exchange using chambers and eddy flux, leaf photosynthesis and respiration, soil respiration, and relevant environmental factors such as soil water availability, temperature, light, etc. The overwhelming result from analysis of our extensive data base is that elevated CO2 has had a profound impact on this ecosystem that, overall, has resulted in increased carbon accumulation in plant shoots, roots and litter. Our measurements of net ecosystem gas exchange also indicate that the ecosystem has accumulated carbon much in excess of the increased biomass or soil carbon suggesting a substantial export of carbon through the porous, sandy soil into the water table several meters below the surface. A major discovery is the powerful interaction between the stimulation of growth, photosynthesis, and respiration by elevated CO2 and other environmental factors particularly precipitation and nitrogen. Our measurements focused attention on: stimulation of ecosystem gas exchange by elevated atmospheric CO2; the architecture and distribution of coarse roots using the novel approach of ground penetrating radar; mechanisms for the disturbance of soil carbon pools via the "priming" effect; and how interannual and seasonal variation in precipitation alters the physiological response of key species to elevated CO2. This project was a collaboration between research groups at the Smithsonian Institution, NASA, the Dynamac Corporation, Northern Arizona University, and Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia.

  6. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  7. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel power plants and other industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE-NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focusing on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse and supporting the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} to solid mineral form that can be utilized for enhanced oil recovery, in the manufacturing of concrete or as a benign landfill, in the production of valuable chemicals and/or fuels. This project was selected as a CO{sub 2} reuse activity which would conduct research and development (R&D) at the pilot scale via a cost-shared Cooperative Agreement number DE-FE0001099 with DOE-NETL and would utilize funds setaside by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration R&D,

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - autumn-winter type scrub Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    18 Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading Summary: rural land-use responds to scrub price changes relating to carbon...

  9. Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2013), The Community Earth System Model: A framework forcycle in the CMIP5 Earth System Models, J. Clim. , 26(18),feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth System Models, J. Clim. , 26(15),

  10. Decoding Titanium Dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decoding Titanium Dioxide Decoding Titanium Dioxide Released: December 03, 2010 Scientists advance understanding of remarkable catalyst STM images of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-octoxy...

  11. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  12. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cylic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  13. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Configurations for Use in Concentrating Solar Power Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Z.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research will characterize and evaluate advanced S-CO2 Brayton cycle power generation with a modular power tower CSP system.

  14. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OPTIMIZED FOSSIL ENERGY SYSTEMS WITH CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this third semi-annual progress report, we describe research results from an ongoing study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the six-month period September 2003 through March 2004. The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and attempt to identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We are carrying out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  15. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OPTIMIZED FOSSIL ENERGY SYSTEMS WITH CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this second semi-annual progress report, we describe research results from an ongoing study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the six-month period March 2003 through September 2003. The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and attempt to identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We are carrying out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  16. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final progress report, we describe research results from Phase I of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the period September 2002 through August 2005 The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We carried out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  17. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OPTIMIZED FOSSIL ENERGY SYSTEMS WITH CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2003-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this semi-annual progress report, we describe research results from an ongoing study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the six-month period September 2002 through March 2003. The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and attempt to identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We are carrying out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  18. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Fossil Hydrogen Energy Systems with Carbon Capture andThe Implications Of New Carbon Capture And SequestrationW H SAMMIS WILLOW ISLAND TOTAL Carbon capture In the plant

  19. Comparison of Preanode and Postanode Carbon Dioxide Separation for IGFC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Liese

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the arrangement of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) within a coal gasification cycle, this combination generally being called an integrated gasification fuel cell cycle. This work relies on a previous study performed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that details thermodynamic simulations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems and considers various gasifier types and includes cases for 90% CO2 capture (2007, “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Vol. 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity,” National Energy Technology Laboratory Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281). All systems in this study assume a Conoco Philips gasifier and cold-gas clean up conditions for the coal gasification system (Cases 3 and 4 in the NETL IGCC report). Four system arrangements, cases, are examined. Cases 1 and 2 remove the CO2 after the SOFC anode. Case 3 assumes steam addition, a water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst, and a Selexol process to remove the CO2 in the gas cleanup section, sending a hydrogen-rich gas to the fuel cell anode. Case 4 assumes Selexol in the cold-gas cleanup section as in Case 3; however, there is no steam addition, and the WGS takes places in the SOFC and after the anode. Results demonstrate significant efficiency advantages compared with IGCC with CO2 capture. The hydrogen-rich case (Case 3) has better net electric efficiency compared with typical postanode CO2 capture cases (Cases 1 and 2), with a simpler arrangement but at a lower SOFC power density, or a lower efficiency at the same power density. Case 4 gives an efficiency similar to Case 3 but also at a lower SOFC power density. Carbon deposition concerns are also discussed

  20. Low-Temperature Enhanced Geothermal System using Carbon Dioxide as the Heat-Transfer Fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, Alan D. [GreenFire Energy

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work toward a supercritical CO2-based EGS system at the St. Johns Dome in Eastern Arizona, including a comprehensive literature search on CO2-based geothermal technologies, background seismic study, geological information, and a study of the possible use of metal oxide heat carriers to enhance the heat capacity of sCO2. It also includes cost estimates for the project, and the reasons why the project would probably not be cost effective at the proposed location.

  1. Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambert, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

  2. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

  3. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  4. Scrub-resistance Characteristics of Kitchen and Bathroom Wall-surfacing Materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobgood, Price; Kunze, O. R.; Stewart, B. R.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increase in gloss value within the first 5-minute scrubbing period. 11 CERAMIC TILE ABRASIVE -A- CLEANSER "A' -8- CLEANSER "B" NON-ABRASIVE -C- CLEANSER %' ' 4bo ' sbo ' 1200 ' 1600 ' ndoo ' zioo ' 2800 ' 32bo ' 3600 I REVOLUTIONS Figure 11...

  5. Multistage fluidized bed reactor performance characterization for adsorption of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, S.; Mohanty, C.R.; Meikap, B.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide and its different compounds are generated as primary greenhouse gases from the flue gases of coal-fired thermal power plants, boilers, and other stationary combustion processes. This greenhouse gas causes global warming after being emitted to the environment. To deal with this problem, a new dry scrubbing process was tested in this study. A three-stage countercurrent fluidized bed adsorber was developed, designed, and fabricated. It was used as a removal apparatus and operated in a continuous regime for the two-phase system. The height of each stage was 0.30 m, and the inner diameter was 0.10 m. The paper presents the removal of CO{sub 2} from gas mixtures by chemical sorption on porous granular calcium oxide particles in the reactor at ambient temperature. The advantages of a multistage fluidized bed reactor for high mass transfer and high gas-solid contact can enhance the removal of the gas when using a dry method. The effects of the operating parameters such as sorbent, superficial gas velocity, and the Weir height on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency in the multistage fluidized bed were investigated. The results indicate that the removal efficiency of the carbon dioxide was around 71% at a high solid flow rate corresponding to lower gas velocity at room temperature. In comparison with wet scrubbers, this dry process appears to have lower cost, less complicated configuration, and simpler disposal of used sorbent. The results in this study assume importance from the perspective of use of a multistage fluidized bed adsorber for control of gaseous pollutants at high temperature.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Office of Program Performance and Benefits 2 Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies May 2014...

  7. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  8. EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential alternatives and impacts associated with a proposal to process certain plutonium residues and all of the scrub alloy currently stored at Rocky Flats. While ongoing...

  9. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  10. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

  11. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  12. Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

  13. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  14. Bugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. updated at midnight GMTtoday is friday, november 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    2003 · Fungus catches radioactive fallout 8 May 2002 · Depleted uranium soils battlefields 12 MarchBugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago boost Cold War clean-up Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. 13 October

  15. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  16. A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    ®cance for the design and control of the transcritical carbon dioxide air- conditioning and heat pump systems 7 2000A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles S.M. Liaoa) of transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning cycles. The analysis shows that the COP of the transcritical

  17. Adaptive Geographical Variation in Bill Shape of Scrub Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas and Colorado west to the Pacific coast, with disjunct populations in peninsular Florida and on Santa Cruz Island off the coast of southern California (fig. 1) (Pitelka 1951). Scrub jays exhibit geographical varia- tion in a number of characters....26 ± .21 8.7 ± 1.5 .994 ± .023 F 1 19.91 8.44 9.26 9.0 .981 w o e California, Woodfords M 2 19.43 ± .00 8.68 8.59 ± .39 10.5 ± .5 1.093 ± .010 F 1 20.40 7.86 8.32 10.0 1.067 Mixed woodlands—mostly oak: BCS Baja California Sur, tip M 5 19.79 ± .42 8...

  18. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  19. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  20. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  1. Fabrication and Scale-up of Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Membrane Based System for Precombustion-Based Capture of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala Krishnan; Indira Jayaweera; Angel Sanjrujo; Kevin O'Brien; Richard Callahan; Kathryn Berchtold; Daryl-Lynn Roberts; Will Johnson

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objectives of this project are to (1) demonstrate the performance and fabrication of a technically and economically viable pre-combustion-based CO{sub 2} capture system based on the high temperature stability and permeance of PBI membranes, (2) optimize a plan for integration of PBI capture system into an IGCC plant and (3) develop a commercialization plan that addresses technical issues and business issues to outline a clear path for technology transfer of the PBI membrane technology. This report describes research conducted from April 1, 2007 to March 30, 2012 and focused on achieving the above objectives. PBI-based hollow fibers have been fabricated at kilometer lengths and bundled as modules at a bench-scale level for the separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2} at high temperatures and pressures. Long term stability of these fibers has been demonstrated with a relatively high H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity (35 to 50) and H{sub 2} permeance (80 GPU) at temperatures exceeding 225°C. Membrane performance simulations and systems analysis of an IGCC system incorporating a PBI hollow fiber membrane modules have demonstrated that the cost of electricity for CO{sub 2} capture (<10%) using such a high temperature separator. When the cost of transporting, storing, and monitoring the CO{sub 2} is accounted for, the increase in the COE is only 14.4%.

  2. Process for separating, especially in multiple stages, acid components such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and specifically H/sub 2/S, from gases, especially from coke oven gases, by means of ammonia recirculation scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, H.K.; Otte, E.A.W.

    1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating in multiple stages acid components in coke oven gas such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and particularly H/sub 2/S by ammonia scrubbing wherein the ammonia used in scrubbing is deacidified to remove the acid components and is recirculated to the scrubbing process at least in part as substantially pure liquid ammonia.

  3. The interaction second virial coefficient for the ethane-carbon dioxide system between 250 and 300 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Joseph Glenn

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is precise to I/1000 of an inch of mercury. The dead- weight gauge is more precise but has incremental limitations of 0. 05 psi. The key to the precision of this system is the unique operation of the differential-pressure transducer as described by Holste... from the two secondary windings of the differential transformer. A linear relationship between the ratio transformer reading and the pressure difference was obtained over a range of + 0. 3 psi. The precision achieved with this technique was usually...

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  5. What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory (ORNL) has made an important advancement in understanding a classic transition-metal oxide, vanadium dioxide, by quantifying the thermodynamic forces driving...

  6. Particulate Scrubbing Performance of the High Level Caves Off-Gas System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, G.T.

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance tests were conducted at the ETF using off-gas from the Small Cylindrical Melter (SCM) -2. The purpose of these tests was to develop data for comparing small and full scale equipment performance. This reports discusses those test results.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  8. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  9. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  10. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  12. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  13. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  14. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  15. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  16. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  17. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a biologist at the California State Univer- sity San Marcos, with expertise in the effects of carbon dioxideCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

  19. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

  20. Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, A. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar...

  1. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  2. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  3. argon carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 10 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  4. applied carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 8 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  5. aqueous carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 12 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  6. Application of chlorine dioxide as an oilfield facilities treatment fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaine, J.; Strawser, T.G.; Knippers, M.L.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both mechanical and chemical treatments are used to clean water flood injection distribution systems whose efficiency has been reduced as a result of plugging material such as iron sulfide sludge. Most mechanical treatments rely on uniform line diameter to be effective, while chemical treatments require good contact with the plugging material for efficient removal. This paper describes the design and operation of a new innovative application using chlorine dioxide for the removal of iron sulfide sludge from water flood injection distribution systems. This technology has evolved from the use of chlorine dioxide in well stimulation applications. The use of chlorine dioxide for continuous treatment of injection brines will also be discussed. Exxon USA`s Hartzog Draw facility in Gillette, Wyoming was the site for the application described. 4,500 barrels of chlorine dioxide was pumped in three phases to clean sixty-six miles of the water flood distribution system. Results indicate that chlorine dioxide was effective in cleaning the well guard screens, the injection lines, frac tanks used to collect the treatment fluids and the injection wells.

  7. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation andpredictions from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparisonusing the Community Earth System Model–Biogeochemistry (

  8. Technical status report development of lime based in-duct scrubbing - A cost effective SO/sub 2/ control technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilling, N.Z.; Samuel, E.A.; Pennline, H.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lime Based In-Duct Scrubbing (LIBIDS) was one of the candidate technologies receiving contract awards for pilot demonstration by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Acid Rain Precurser program. The concept as developed by General Electric utilizes rotary atomization of lime slurry directly within flue gas carrying ductwork to remove SO/sub 2/. This promises to be a very low capital cost method of SO/sub 2/ control with capital plus levelized operating cost estimated to be $364/KW. Several significant technical milestones have been passed relative to proof of principle and ultimate commercialization. Based on positive results from a laboratory and supporting analytical work, a detailed engineering design has begun for a pilot plant.

  9. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  11. The surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    relaxation and reconstruction; Surface structure; Morphology; Roughness; Topography Contents 1. IntroductionThe surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold* Department of Physics, Tulane University is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature

  12. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

  13. The vibrational and rotational structure of the 2400 to 1950 A? absorption spectrum of sulfur dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riggs, James Willborn

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -l ap pi ng Or de rs 26 Ex te rn al Op ti cs As so ci at ed wi th Ab so rp ti on Tu be 27 28 Sulfur Dioxide Gas System.-The sulfur dioxide gas system associated with the absorption tube is pictured in Figure 3... fulfillment of' %hm r*tuir??Mi*s f?r %ift ??' m m m m m m & m s t Major Sttfejoott Rupeio* THE VIBRATIONAL AND ROTATIONAL STRUCTURE OP THE 2400 TO 1950 A ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OP SULFUR DIOXIDE A Dissertation 37 James Willborn Riggs, Jr. Approved...

  14. Practical Scrubbing: Getting to the bad sector at the right time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Bianca

    LSEs, commercial storage systems use scrubbers: background processes verifying disk data in implementation, in- cluding guidelines on implementing a scrubber. To lessen this impact, we present an approach]. To protect against data loss due to LSEs, most commercial storage systems use a "scrubber": a background

  15. TVA`s Cumberland Units 1&2 SO{sub 2} removal system - an update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckner, J.H. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Brodsky, I.S. [Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Muraskin, D.J. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tennessee Valley Authority`s Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is a Phase I facility listed under the 1990 CAA Amendments. Units 1 & 2 are two 1300 MWe coal fired units which presently bum an eastern bituminous coal containing approximately 2.8% sulfur. The Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system reduces sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from Units 1 and 2 by means of wet limestone - forced oxidation scrubbing. The absorber modules were provided by ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES) with balance of plant engineering, construction management, and startup provided by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE&C) under a partnership arrangement with TVA. The FGD systems for Unit 1 & 2 were brought on-line October 12, 1994 and December 14, 1994, respectively. This paper will present a brief description of the overall project, the design basis, challenging problems and solutions during construction and initial startup. Specific topics will include: (1) Optimization studies underway; (2) Unique design aspects of the facility; (3) A description of the absorber and supporting systems including the limestone barge unloader, ball mill system for reagent preparation, and draft system upgrades; and (4) Experience gained in management of a large project under the unique partnership agreement.

  16. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  17. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  18. AEC Lowman Station - coal switching and magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing to lower operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Loper, L. [Alabama Electric Coopreative, Leroy, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. There are three coal-fired boilers at this station. Unit 1 is capable of generating 85 MW without a flue gas desulfurization, FGD, system. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, are equipped with FGD systems. The FGD plant was designed for wet limestone FGD with natural oxidation. Lowman Station burned low sulfur, 1.3 to 1.8% sulfur, coal. In January of 1996 AEC switched Units 2 and 3 from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime FGD operation. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company ran a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime to obtain scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modules while burning a 1.8% sulfur coal. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications due to coal switching, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies, followed by extensive field tests and implemented the plant modifications. This plant continues to operate burning higher sulfur coal with the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD system.

  19. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW. J. E. Santos. 1. , G. B. Savioli. 2. , J. M. Carcione. 3. , D. Gei. 3. 1. CONICET, IGPUBA, Fac.

  20. Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on carbon dioxide Released: March 26, 2014 Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

  1. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  2. Statistical mechanics problem sheet 7 1. The main component of Venus's atmosphere, carbon dioxide, is a linear molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettmann, Carl

    Statistical mechanics problem sheet 7 1. The main component of Venus's atmosphere, carbon dioxide and energy. Show that the system is non-extensive, and find the chemical potential at which system properties

  3. The Anthropogenic Perturbation of Atmospheric CO2 and the Climate System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    of carbon dioxide (CO2), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), are redistributed within the climate system

  4. absorbing sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 158 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  5. amorphous titanium dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 177 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  6. acute sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 82 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  7. addressing chlorine dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 103 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  8. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Abstract: Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were...

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon...

  10. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  11. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers SWRI Logo The Southwest Research...

  12. Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron-sized colloidal carbon spheres via hydrothermal carbonization Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform...

  13. atmospheric sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  14. atmospheric sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  15. Carbon Dioxide for pH Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagonner, R.C.

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

  16. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  17. Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  19. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  20. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

  1. Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials S.D. Bakrania *, C., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA Abstract Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide (SnO2) was studied using: Combustion synthesis; Nanoparticles; Tin dioxide; Metals 1. Introduction Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most

  2. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Carbon Dioxide (December 1980) Olusegun Omole, B. S. , University of Ibadan, Nigeria Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. S. Osoba It has long been recognized that carbon dioxide could be used as an oil recovery agent. Both laboratory and field...- tion. Crude oil from the Foster Field in West Texas, of 7 cp and 34 API, 0 was used as the oil in place. Oil displacements were conducted at pres- sures between 750 psig and 1800 ps1g, and at a temperature of 110 F. 0 Carbon dioxide was injected...

  3. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, S.M.N.; Douglas, P.L.; Croiset, E. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover.

  4. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.M. Nazmul Hassan; Peter L. Douglas; Eric Croiset [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover. 18 refs.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  6. Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Figueiredo, Mark A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

  7. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  8. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under construction, will use the same process chemistry. The Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) expressed an interest in investigating the further optimization of the organic solvent by replacing the BoBCalixC6 extractant with a more efficient extractant. This replacement should yield dividends in improving cesium removal from the caustic waste stream, and in the rate at which the caustic waste can be processed. To that end, EM-31 provided funding for both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRNL wrote a Task Technical Quality and Assurance Plan for this work. As part of the envisioned testing regime, it was decided to perform an ESS test using a simulated waste that simulated a typical envisioned SWPF feed, but with added potassium to make the waste more challenging. Potassium interferes in the cesium removal, and its concentration is limited in the feed to <1950 mg/L. The feed to MCU has typically contained <500 mg/L of potassium.

  9. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of graphene-based titanium dioxide nanocompositesLos Angeles The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based AnodeTHE THESIS The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode

  10. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  11. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle to low reactor power operation: investigations using the coupled anl plant dynamics code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor code system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant progress has been made on the development of a control strategy for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle enabling removal of power from an autonomous load following Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) down to decay heat levels such that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used to cool the reactor until decay heat can be removed by the normal shutdown heat removal system or a passive decay heat removal system such as Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops with DRACS in-vessel heat exchangers. This capability of the new control strategy eliminates the need for use of a separate shutdown heat removal system which might also use supercritical CO{sub 2}. It has been found that this capability can be achieved by introducing a new control mechanism involving shaft speed control for the common shaft joining the turbine and two compressors following reduction of the load demand from the electrical grid to zero. Following disconnection of the generator from the electrical grid, heat is removed from the intermediate sodium circuit through the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, the turbine solely drives the two compressors, and heat is rejected from the cycle through the CO{sub 2}-to-water cooler. To investigate the effectiveness of shaft speed control, calculations are carried out using the coupled Plant Dynamics Code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code for a linear load reduction transient for a 1000 MWt metallic-fueled SFR with autonomous load following. No deliberate motion of control rods or adjustment of sodium pump speeds is assumed to take place. It is assumed that the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery shaft speed linearly decreases from 100 to 20% nominal following reduction of grid load to zero. The reactor power is calculated to autonomously decrease down to 3% nominal providing a lengthy window in time for the switchover to the normal shutdown heat removal system or for a passive decay heat removal system to become effective. However, the calculations reveal that the compressor conditions are calculated to approach surge such that the need for a surge control system for each compressor is identified. Thus, it is demonstrated that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate in the initial decay heat removal mode even with autonomous reactor control. Because external power is not needed to drive the compressors, the results show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used for initial decay heat removal for a lengthy interval in time in the absence of any off-site electrical power. The turbine provides sufficient power to drive the compressors. Combined with autonomous reactor control, this represents a significant safety advantage of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle by maintaining removal of the reactor power until the core decay heat falls to levels well below those for which the passive decay heat removal system is designed. The new control strategy is an alternative to a split-shaft layout involving separate power and compressor turbines which had previously been identified as a promising approach enabling heat removal from a SFR at low power levels. The current results indicate that the split-shaft configuration does not provide any significant benefits for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle over the current single-shaft layout with shaft speed control. It has been demonstrated that when connected to the grid the single-shaft cycle can effectively follow the load over the entire range. No compressor speed variation is needed while power is delivered to the grid. When the system is disconnected from the grid, the shaft speed can be changed as effectively as it would be with the split-shaft arrangement. In the split-shaft configuration, zero generator power means disconnection of the power turbine, such that the resulting system will be almost identical to the single-shaft arrangement. Without this advantage of the split-shaft configuration, the economic benefits of the single-shaft arrangement, provided by just one turbine and lower losses at the design point, are more important to the overall cycle performance. Therefore, the single-shaft

  12. Semiconductor-Based Interfacial Electron-Transfer Reactivity: Decoupling Kinetics from pH-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H-Dependent Band Energetics in a Dye-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution System Susan G. Yan and Joseph T energy of the electron in the electrode). The observed insensitivity to large changes in band-functionalized ruthenium bipyridyl complexes to- gether with high-area nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films.2

  13. Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

  14. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  15. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  16. A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

  17. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  19. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  20. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 This document summarizes the progress of...

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Andreas Weber; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A field test was conducted to examine the extent to which RTI's supported sorbent can be regenerated in a heated, hollow screw conveyor. This field test was conducted at the facilities of a screw conveyor manufacturer. The sorbent was essentially completely regenerated during this test, as confirmed by thermal desorption and mass spectroscopy analysis of the regenerated sorbent. Little or no sorbent attrition was observed during 24 passes through the heated screw conveyor system. Three downflow contactor absorption tests were conducted using calcined sodium bicarbonate as the absorbent. Maximum carbon dioxide removals of 57 and 91% from simulated flue gas were observed at near ambient temperatures with water-saturated gas. These tests demonstrated that calcined sodium carbonate is not as effective at removing CO{sub 2} as are supported sorbents containing 10 to 15% sodium carbonate. Delivery of the hollow screw conveyor for the laboratory-scale sorbent regeneration system was delayed; however, construction of other components of this system continued during the quarter.

  2. Carbon dioxide for the recovery of crude oil. Annual report, November 1978-November 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doscher, T.M.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement of residual oil to waterflooding by miscible fluid injection has been studied using scaled physical models of line-drive systems. The effects of flow rate, mobility ratio, and density ratio, were investigated. This work was a first step in an overall program of studying miscible displacement in particular by carbon dioxide, of residual oil as a process for recovering additional crude oil from reservoirs which had been waterflooded. The ratios of gravitational and viscous forces which exist in tertiary recovery operations, using carbon dioxide as a recovery reagent, were approximated in a scaled physical model at ambient pressure and temperature. The viscosity ratio was now very unfavorable and displacement of moveable water was inefficient. Consequently, the displacement of the residual oil by the solvent, which was simulating the role of carbon dioxide, was also poor. The recovery efficiency could not be improved by reasonable increases in the fluid velocity because the unfavorable mobility-caused viscous fingering was so dominant. Insomuch as carbon dioxide flooding, an imperfectly miscible recovery process, cannot be expected to perform as well as a perfectly miscible recovery process, these experiments point to the need for imposing a strong measure of mobility control if the injection of carbon dioxide is to achieve widespread usage for the recovery of residual oil.

  3. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

  4. Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and Hydrous Ferric Oxide D I M I T R I (HFO) and titanium dioxide exhibit similar strong attachment of many adsorbates including biomolecules on amorphous titanium dioxide. The results indicate that glutamate adsorbs on HFO as a deprotonated divalent

  5. Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    CHAPTER 30 Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications T. A. Miller, S. D) levels for some species. Tin dioxide (also called stannic oxide or tin oxide) semi- conductor gas sensors undergone extensive research and development. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most important material for use

  6. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations C.M. COLINAa,b, *, C and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based: Fluctuations; Carbon dioxide; 2CLJQ; Joule­Thomson coefficient; Speed of sound INTRODUCTION Simulation methods

  7. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  8. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  9. Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide at porous, phthalocyanine-containing electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shembel', E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Danilova, N.P.; Shustov, V.A.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodes containing catalysts, particularly electrodes containing metal chelate compounds, were studied for their effect on reducing cathodic sulfur dioxide. The electrodes were prepared with an iron phthalocyanine polymer deposited onto activated carbon. Fluoropolymer dispersions was used as the binder and electrochemical studies were performed in a glove box under dry argon. Lithium perchlorate solution in propylene carbonate was used as the electrolyte solution. The results indicate that materials with high catalytic activity show promise in raising the discharge voltage in power sources of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system.

  10. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  12. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines Philip in the corrosion related research institutions at IFE and the Ohio University or any other scientific research;#12;Introduction - v - Summary CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus

  13. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  14. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    · Corrosion inhibition very important in the oil industry · Film forming inhibitors containing nitrogenCarbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies Kristin Gilida #12;Outline · Background = Zreal + Zim Rp 1/Corr Rate #12;Tafel · Measures corrosion rate directly · Measures iCORR from A and C

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CARBON DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Program Area Lead Energy Related Environmental Research Linda Spiegel Office Manager Energy Generation Research Office Laurie ten Hope Deputy Director ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION Melissa Jones Research · Energy Systems Integration · Environmentally Preferred Advanced Generation · Industrial

  16. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport reactor systems is planned to demonstrate the feasibility of this process in large scale operations to separate carbon dioxide from flue gas.

  20. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  1. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  2. New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to APS Science Highlights rss feed New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases April 9, 2014 Bookmark and Share The SIFSIX materials in order of increasing...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  4. american carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of relative proximity of those Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 11 The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Geosciences Websites Summary: The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon...

  5. anthropogenic carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps MIT - DSpace Summary: The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (COsubscript 2) in structural and stratigraphic traps is...

  6. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

  7. Gel and process for preventing carbon dioxide break through

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandiford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of carbon dioxide in carbon dioxide break-through fingers in a subterranean formation, the process comprising: (a) introducing a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide and gases containing carbon dioxide into a subterranean deposit containing carbon dioxide break-through fingers; (b) after the carbon dioxide break-through fingers have sorbed a predetermined amount of the gas, stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, (c) after stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into the subterranean formation and into the carbon dioxide break-through fingers, the gel-forming composition being operable, when contacting carbon dioxide break-through fingers containing the brine which has absorbed substantial amounts of carbon dioxide to form a gel in the fingers which is operable for retarding the flow of the gas in the finger. The gel-forming composition comprises: i. an aqueous solution comprising a first substance selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl alcohol copolymers, and mixtures thereof, and ii. an amount of a second substance selected from the group consisting of aldehydes, aldehyde generating substances, acetals, acetal generating substances, and mixtures thereof.

  8. acute nitrogen dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas,...

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas Beneath Mammoth...

  10. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada- relations between surface phenomena and the geothermal reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  11. assisted silicon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide substrates is described. The approach consists of solid such as displays and thin-film polycrystalline solar cells. Particularly important for low- cost thin-film solar...

  12. Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes, carbon dioxide, classical thermodynamics Introduction The increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2

  13. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

  14. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  15. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Julio Enrique

    2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability. Preliminary simulation results show good agreement between classical instability solutions and numerical predictions of finger growth and spacing obtained using different gas/liquid viscosity ratios, relative permeability and capillary pressure models. Further studies are recommended to validate these results over a broader range of conditions.

  16. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  17. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  18. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil

  19. ammonia-water-carbon dioxide mixtures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and n-pentane - n-octane - carbon dioxide... Wirawan, Januar Fitri Santo 2012-06-07 4 Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Engineering...

  20. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    reservoir scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent investigations of underground carbon dioxide storage for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research

  1. actinide-zirconium dioxide solid-solutions: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration...

  2. Experimental measurement of gas diffusivity in bitumen: Results for carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upreti, S.R.; Mehrotra, A.K.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new technique is developed to measure the diffusivity of gas in bitumen as a function of composition. Results are presented for a carbon dioxide-bitumen system, which is of considerable industrial relevance. The technique employs transient pressure data obtained from a nonintrusive pressure decay experiment at constant temperature and volume. The underlying theory is presented along with a computational algorithm to calculate diffusivity. Using experimental pressure decay data in the range 25--90 C at 4 MPa, the diffusivity of carbon dioxide in bitumen is calculated. The results are compared with the limited data available in the literature. The approach is straightforward and can be easily applied to other nonvolatile liquid systems.

  3. Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Uwe

    stage to prevent potential danger to workforce and material, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCSDevelopment of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Florian Poppa and Uwe the development of a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) and the experiences

  4. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  5. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hultman, Nathan E.

    PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report Joint Global Change Research Institute 8400 Baltimore Avenue College Park, Maryland 20740 #12;PNNL-14537

  6. Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M capture using monoethanolamine (MEA). MEA is an appropriate choice for a baseline study since

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman Students #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total1 . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one

  8. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been warming, and the development of efficient methods for capturing CO2 from industrial flue gas has become

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] Carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes embody a group of technologies for the capture of CO2 from powerCarbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431 Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New- and gas-fired power plants.[3­5] Such conven- tional technologies for large-scale capture have been com

  10. Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

  11. ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide. Burtis Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 4777's (DOE) Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER

  12. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black,2,5,6* Abstract Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological a particle's size to the nanometric dimension can greatly modify its properties for applications

  14. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  15. The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski Submitted to the Department capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected into deep geologic reservoirs

  16. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  17. Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions-validation (GCV) and x2 test are compared for the first time under a realistic setting in a mesoscale CO2 estimation, uncertainty quantification, mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions 1. Introduction The atmosphere

  18. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall loading. The absorption rate did not follow pseudo first-order beha®ior except at ®ery low loading. All

  19. The solubility of elemental sulfur in methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wieland, Denton R.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The object of the work reported In this dissertation was to determine the solubility of sulfur in gaseous methane carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide and in mixtures of these gases, at various pressures and temperatures* Sulfur solubility... of methane and propane (which has a critical pressure of approximately the same value of hydrogen sulfide) is 1500 psia. To have liquid in this system at 1500 psia, however, would require a maximum temperature of 20?F which is well below the minimum...

  20. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  1. Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

  2. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  3. Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunstall, M.G. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Graeber, G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO{sub 2} concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse heating offers a further opportunity for utilization of the carbon dioxide present in the fluid. The main difficulty is that plants react adversely to hydrogen sulphide which is invariably mixed, at some concentration, with the CO{sub 2} from geothermal fluids. Even very low H{sub 2}S concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg can have negative effects on the growth of plants (National Research Council, 1979). Therefore, an appropriate purification process for the CO{sub 2} must be used to avoid elevated H{sub 2}S levels in the greenhouses. The use of adsorption and absorption processes is proposed. Two purification processes have been modelled using the ASOEN PLUS software package, using the Geothermal Greenhouses Ltd. Operation Kawerau New Zealand and an example. A greenhouse area of 8,000 m{sup 2}, which would create a demand for approximately 20 kg CO{sub 2} per hour, was chosen based on a proposed expansion at Kawerau. The Kawerau operation currently takes geothermal steam (and gas) from a high temperature 2-phase well to heat an area of 1650 m{sup 2}. Bottled carbon dioxide is utilized at a rate of about 50 kg per day, to provide CO{sub 2} levels of 800 mg/kg when the greenhouse is closed and 300 to 350 mg/kg whilst venting. In England and the Netherlands, CO{sub 2} levels of 1000 mg/kg are often used (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989) and similar concentrations are desired at Kawerau, but current costs of 0.60 NZ$/kg for bottled CO{sub 2} are too high (Foster, 1995).

  4. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  5. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  6. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  7. Helium Migration Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Guillaume; Desgardin, Pierre; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France [CERI, CNRS, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, ORLEANS, 45071 (France); Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaelle [DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance, 13108 (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO{sub 2} sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with {sup 3}He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H reaction. {sup 3}He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900 deg. C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects. (authors)

  8. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

  9. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore »melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  10. An option making for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Youichi; Sawada, Kayo; Shimada, Takashi; Yamamoto, Ichiro [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A four-year-research has been completed as a collaborative work by Nagoya University Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Corporation and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in order to develop a super critical carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) based technology, 'SUPER-DIREX process', for nuclear fuel reprocessing. As a result obtained in Phase II of the Japan's feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems, this technology was evaluated as one of the alternatives for the advanced Purex process for he future FBR fuel cycle. Although further investigation is required for a scaled-up demonstration of processing spent fuels by SUPER-DIREX process, we could conclude that an option has been made for nuclear fuel reprocessing by using supercritical carbon dioxide. (authors)

  11. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  12. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  13. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  14. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; H. Liao; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 1 shows that the systems efficiency, coal (HHV) to power, is 35%. Table 2 summarizes the auxiliary power consumption within the plant. Thermoflex was used to simulate the power block and Aspen Plus the balance of plant. The overall block flow diagram is presented in Figure A1.3-1 and the key unit process flow diagrams are shown in subsequent figures. Stream data are given in Table A1.3-1. Equipment function specifications are provided in Tables A1.3-2 through 17. The overall plant scheme consists of a cryogenic air separation unit supplying 95% purity O{sub 2} to GE type high pressure (HP) total quench gasifiers. The raw gas after scrubbing is treated in a sour shift unit to react the CO with H{sub 2}O to form H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The gas is further treated to remove Hg in a sulfided activated carbon bed. The syngas is desulfurized and decarbonized in a Selexol acid gas removal unit and the decarbonized syngas after humidification and preheat is fired in GE 7H type steam cooled gas turbines. Intermediate pressure (IP) N{sub 2} from the ASU is also supplied to the combustors of the gas turbines as additional diluent for NOx control. A portion of the air required by the ASU is extracted from the gas turbines. The plant consists of the following major process units: (1) Air Separation Unit (ASU); (2) Gasification Unit; (3) CO Shift/Low Temperature Gas Cooling (LTGC) Unit; (4) Acid Gas Removal Unit (AGR) Unit; (5) Fuel Gas Humidification Unit; (6) Carbon Dioxide Compression/Dehydration Unit; (7) Claus Sulfur Recovery/Tail Gas Treating Unit (SRU/TGTU); and (8) Power Block.

  15. ambient sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17...

  16. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  17. Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and several episodes in London (1). All fuels used by humans such as coal, oil, natural gas, peat, wood of absorbing sulfur dioxide either in water or in aqueous slurries

  18. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  19. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  20. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  1. aqueous chlorine dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28 Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets CERN Preprints Summary: 1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of...

  2. Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

  3. Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

  4. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Year) MSA Emissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Electricity (CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions from Driving ElectricityEmissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Suburb-City Difference in Electricity (

  5. Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

  6. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  8. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  9. Optical properties of nanostructured silicon-rich silicon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stolfi, Michael Anthony

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have conducted a study of the optical properties of sputtered silicon-rich silicon dioxide (SRO) thin films with specific application for the fabrication of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers, polarization ...

  10. NMR studies of carbon dioxide sequestration in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Rehan

    2015-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the sub-surface is a potential mitigation technique for global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique, understanding the behaviour of CO2 stored...

  11. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  12. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  13. Diffusion model of the non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Emily, E-mail: emily.moore@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guéneau, Christine, E-mail: christine.gueneau@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocombette, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.crocombette@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), which is used in light water reactors, exhibits a large range of non-stoichiometry over a wide temperature scale up to 2000 K. Understanding diffusion behavior of uranium oxides under such conditions is essential to ensure safe reactor operation. The current understanding of diffusion properties is largely limited by the stoichiometric deviations inherent to the fuel. The present DICTRA-based model considers diffusion across non-stoichiometric ranges described by experimentally available data. A vacancy and interstitial model of diffusion is applied to the U–O system as a function of its defect structure derived from CALPHAD-type thermodynamic descriptions. Oxygen and uranium self and tracer diffusion coefficients are assessed for the construction of a mobility database. Chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen are derived with respect to the Darken relation and migration energies of defects are evaluated as a function of stoichiometric deviation. - Graphical abstract: Complete description of Oxygen–Uranium diffusion as a function of composition at various temperatures according to the developed Dictra model. - Highlights: • Assessment of a uranium–oxygen diffusion model with Dictra. • Complete description of U–O diffusion over wide temperature and composition range. • Oxygen model includes terms for interstitial and vacancy migration. • Interaction terms between defects help describe non-stoichiometric domain of UO{sub 2±x}. • Uranium model is separated into mobility terms for the cationic species.

  14. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  15. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime...

  16. Earth System Models especially those of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, John

    Dioxide Deep Ocean Carbon Dioxide Freshwater Outgasing Deep water Slide courtesy ofSlide courtesy of P.Valdes (Genie)P.Valdes (Genie) What is an Earth System Model ?What is an Earth System Model ? #12;Components-A Coupled Modes? Decadal Modes? ~1 Sea-ice variability #12;Existing EMICS Information from M. Claussen (PIK

  17. atmospheric modeling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Atmosphere and Ocean...

  18. A Brief Technical Critique of Economides and Ehlig-Economides 2010 "Sequestering Carbon Dioxide in a Closed Underground Volume"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In their 2010 paper, “Sequestering Carbon Dioxide in a Close Underground Volume,” authors Ehlig-Economides and Economides assert that “underground carbon dioxide sequestration via bulk CO2 injection is not feasible at any cost.” The authors base this conclusion on a number of assumptions that the peer reviewed technical literature and decades of carbon dioxide (CO2) injection experience have proven invalid. In particular, the paper is built upon two flawed premises: first, that effective CO2 storage requires the presence of complete structural closure bounded on all sides by impermeable media, and second, that any other storage system is guaranteed to leak. These two assumptions inform every aspect of the authors’ analyses, and without them, the paper fails to prove its conclusions. The assertion put forward by Ehlig-Economides and Economides that anthropogenic CO2 cannot be stored in deep geologic formations is refuted by even the most cursory examination of the more than 25 years of accumulated commercial carbon dioxide capture and storage experience.

  19. Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  1. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium. OECD Nuclear Energyand dioxides from thorium to curium Joaquim Marçalo a,* andmonoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium,

  2. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  3. Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an Effective Strategy to Improve the Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Fan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    types of surface titanium and oxygen atoms present. PageRIVERSIDE Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an EffectiveDISSERTATION Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an Effective

  4. Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide with Osmium and Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sauvé, Geneviève

    Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide with Osmium and Ruthenium Polypyridyl synthesized and used to sensitize nanoporous titanium dioxide electrodes to solar illumination. The spectral optimization in operating photoelectrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications. Of the materials

  5. Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohaus, James Harold

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to determining settling velocities of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide aerosols. The change of particle size distribution over time and space can be derived, leading ultimately to an assessment of the dose from an unplanned release of plutonium dioxide....

  6. Solubility of anthracene and anthraquinone in cyclohexanone + carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.J. (National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the processing of an anthracene oil fraction from coal tar, a mixture of anthracene and anthraquinone is required to be separated to obtain products of high purity. The solubilities of anthracene and anthraquinone were measured in cyclohexanone + carbon dioxide as a function of the temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide at 291, 300, and 313 K and from 1.8--12.4 MPa. Average equilibrium solubilities and recoveries of both solids increased with increasing normalized concentration and pressure. The average separation factor of anthracene to anthraquinone, due to the effect of the mixed solvent, was 2.88 [+-] 1.91.

  7. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJuneWaste To Wisdom:EnergyJoshua DeLungEnvironmentalData|

  8. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  9. Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage 07-003 April 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage by 07-003 April 2007 M.A. de Figueiredo, H.J. Herzog, P.L. Joskow, K.A. Oye, and D.M. Reiner #12;#12;Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage M.A. de to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal

  10. An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    a c t This paper discusses the technology of direct capture of carbon dioxide from the atmo- sphereAn idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy- ture,'' which refers to the direct removal of carbon dioxide from the ambient air. Air capture has

  11. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissionsScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT

  12. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) CarbonScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions substantially

  13. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms for COF-5, 65 mg g-1 for COF-6, 87 mg g-1 for COF-8, and 80 mg g-1 for COF-10; carbon dioxide at 298 K

  14. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

  15. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Christopher R. Knittel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Program Christopher R. Knittel of the implied cost of carbon dioxide reductions under the Cash for Clunker program. The estimates suggest pollutants. Conservative estimates of the implied carbon dioxide cost exceed $365 per ton; best case scenario

  16. High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Abstract Titanium dioxide is one, as support in catalysis etc. Common synthesis methods of titanium dioxide typically require a high

  17. CMOS-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Photonic Waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    CMOS-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Photonic Waveguides@ucdavis.edu , sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: We discuss titanium dioxide material development for CMOS compatible fabrication and integration of athermal silicon photonic components. Titanium dioxide overclad ring modulators

  18. CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide Stevan S. Djordjevic,1-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO2) overcladding with a negative thermo-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Waveguides," accepted for publication

  19. Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    materials and properties; KEYWORDS: Mars, gullies, seepage, runoff, carbon dioxide, water Citation: StewartSurface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis Sarah T. Stewart1, S. T., and F. Nimmo, Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation

  20. of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

  1. Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chait, Brian T.

    Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin Brian of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20­25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood

  2. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology [6,7] .carbon dioxide emissions by major fuel, 2009…………….2 Fig.1.4 Schematic of CO 2 capture systems and technologies……………………………..carbon footprint. One unique technique is using in-situ CO 2 capture technology,

  3. INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES H. Lin, A. A. Busnaina, and I. I. Suni T he removal of ionic contaminants from silicon surfaces surface contamination level canM Communications L td. INTRODUCTION with increasing frequency and power, and decreases Contamination removal is one

  4. Properties of Disorder-Engineered Black Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    hydrogen atom could easily bond to a terminal oxygen site13 . The observed hydrogen diffusion into the TiO2Properties of Disorder-Engineered Black Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles through Hydrogenation Xiaobo, on the other hand, can undergo fast diffusion and exchange. The enhanced hydrogen mobility may be explained

  5. Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610°C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

  6. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  7. One-Dimensional Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials: Nanowires, Nanorods, and Nanobelts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xudong

    One-Dimensional Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials: Nanowires, Nanorods, and Nanobelts Xudong Wang Methods P 4.4. Top-down Fabrication Techniques Q 4.4.1. Direct Oxidation of Titanium Sheets Q 4 Nanostructures for Energy Storage AD 5.3.1. Lithium Ion Batteries AD 5.3.2. Supercapacitors AE 5

  8. Hollow hemispherical titanium dioxide aggregates fabricated by coaxial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    hemispherical titanium dioxide aggregates fabricated by coaxial electrospray for dye-sensitized solar cell nanocrystallites were prepared by a coaxial electrospray method and applied to dye- sensitized solar cells (DSCs-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JNP.6.063519] Keywords dye-sensitized solar cells; hollow

  9. Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

  10. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  11. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  12. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    for capture and storage already exists and that the obstacles hindering implementa- tion seem to the gallon and go 10,000 miles next year, you will need to buy 330 gallons-- about a ton--of gasoline. Burning that much gasoline sends around three tons of carbon dioxide out the tailpipe. Al- though CO2

  13. Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbulsky, Martín

    to assessing the global carbon budget in a context of climate change (Ciais et al., 2005; Boisvenue & RunningRemote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest M A R T I´ N F. G A R B U L of the ecology of global change. Current remote sensing methodologies for estimating gross primary productivity

  14. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  15. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  16. Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry at the foot of the Higher Himalaya near the Main Central Thrust (MCT), Nepal Himalaya. We have sampled hot the Nepal Himalaya, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q04021, doi:10.1029/2007GC001796. 1. Introduction [2

  17. High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide Søren Højgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. Høgh + O2 #12;Electrolysis of steam at high temperature Interesting because · Improved thermodynamic of electrolysis of steam Picture taken from E. Erdle, J. Gross, V. Meyringer, "Solar thermal central receiver

  18. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

  19. The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

  20. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Hunt, Jennifer; Patel, Dilip; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric power while capturing CO2 from flue gas, such as from an existing pulverized coal (PC) plant. Laboratory scale testing of the ECM has verified the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Recently, FCE was awarded a contract (DE-FE0007634) from the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the use of ECM to efficiently and cost effectively separate CO2 from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from flue gas of an existing PC plant with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) produced by the plant. The specific objectives and related activities planned for the project include: 1) conduct bench scale tests of a planar membrane assembly consisting of ten or more cells of about 0.8 m2 area each, 2) develop the detailed design for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to an existing PC plant, and 3) evaluate the effects of impurities (pollutants such as SO2, NOx, Hg) present in the coal plant flue gas by conducting laboratory scale performance tests of the membrane. The results of this project are anticipated to demonstrate that the ECM is an advanced technology, fabricated from inexpensive materials, based on proven operational track records, modular, scalable to large sizes, and a viable candidate for >90% carbon capture from existing PC plants. In this paper, the fundamentals of ECM technology including: material of construction, principal mechanisms of operation, carbon capture test results and the benefits of applications to PC plants will be presented.

  1. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Germann, 1969. Physical properties of hydrogen sulfide waterequilibrium properties of system carbon dioxide-hydrogenA thermodynamic property model for fluid phase hydrogen

  2. Thermal Property Evaluation of Cerium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Magnesium Oxide Powders for Testing Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOYT, R C

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and mixtures of CeO{sub 2} -magnesium oxide (MgO) have been utilized at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) as surrogate materials to represent plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and impure PuO{sub 2} containing impurities such as MgO during verification tests on PFP's stabilization furnaces. Magnesium oxide was selected during furnace testing as the impurity of interest since much of the impure PuO{sub 2} to be stabilized and packaged at the PFP contains significant amounts of MgO from solution stabilization work. The issue being addressed in this study is whether or not heating the surrogate materials to 950 C adequately simulates heating PuO{sub 2} powders to 950 C. This paper evaluates some of the thermal properties of these oxides, as related to the heating of powders of these materials where heat transfer within the powders is governed primarily by conduction. Detailed heat transfer modeling was outside the scope of this paper.

  3. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONSUMPTION DATA LIST (CDL) Utility Exhaust air (to production hall) Scrubbed Exhaust General Exhaust Environment Heat

  4. Parametric study of solid amine sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Gray; J.S. Hoffman; D.C. Hreha; D.J. Fauth; S.W. Hedges; K.J. Champagne; H.W. Pennline [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid amine sorbents were prepared using mixtures of linear and branched primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. These amines were immobilized within polystyrene (PS)-, silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2})-, or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based substrates at various weight ratios. Testing was conducted in various reactor systems, where the reactive water required for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was tracked during the adsorption/desorption cycles by mass spectrometer gas analysis. The water management for these sorbents was quantified and used to assess the technical feasibility of the operating conditions for the capture of CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas streams. In addition, the heats of reaction and performance capture loading capacities of these sorbents were also determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGAs), respectively, in both dry and humidified CO{sub 2} gas streams. The regenerable solid amine sorbents investigated in this study exhibit acceptable CO{sub 2}-capture loading capacities of 2.5-3.5 mol of CO{sub 2}/kg of sorbent by TGA and a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. These sorbents were stable over the adsorption/desorption temperature range of 25-105{sup o}C for 10 cyclic tests. According to the DSC analysis, the heat of reaction generated by these sorbents was in the range of 400-600 Btu/lb. CO{sub 2}, which will require a reactor with heat management capabilities. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Performance of immobilized tertiary amine solid sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.; Fauth, D.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a simulated flue gas stream was achieved by utilizing immobilized tertiary amine solid sorbents. The tertiary amine immobilized in these solid substrates was 1, 8 Diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) and it has the stoichiometric capability of capturing carbon dioxide at a 1:1 R-NH2:CO2 molar ratio. This is a unique feature compared to other primary and secondary amines which capture CO2 at a 2:1 molar ratio, thus making the immobilized DBU solid sorbents competitive with existing commercially available sorbents and liquid amine-based capture systems. The immobilized DBU solid sorbents prepared in this study exhibit acceptable CO2 capture capacities of 3.0 mol CO2/kg sorbent at 298 K; however, at the critical operational temperature of 338 K, the capacity was reduced to 2.3 mol/kg sorbent. The DBU sorbents did exhibit acceptable stability over the adsorption/desorption temperature range of 298–360 K based on XPS and TGA analyses.

  6. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson (Castro Valley, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  7. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  8. ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  10. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  11. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  12. Application of optical processing for growth of silicon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate is disclosed. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm{sup 2} to about 6 watts/cm{sup 2} for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm{sup 2} for growth of a 100{angstrom}-300{angstrom} film at a resultant temperature of about 400 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface to be very low. 1 fig.

  13. Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

  14. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  15. Intensities of electronic transitions in sulfur dioxide vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCray, James Arthur

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Relation between Oscillator Strength and Probability Coefficient of Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 V. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sulfur Dioxide Gas . . . . . . 22 ) VI. Experimental Procedure and Computations . . . . . . . . . 23 U A... where )(e is defined as the dielectric constant of the medium. This equation holds for radiation which has a frequency sufficiently dif- ferent from that of the resonant frequencies of'the molecules of the medium, The polarizability o( of a molecule...

  16. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  17. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyner, David Smith

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHODS 52 Cell Characteristics 52 Orowth Media 53 Methods Used in Olli Bicarbonate Incorporation Studies 53 Methods Used in Chemical Fractionation of the Cells 55 Methods Used in Preparing Cell Extracts and in Isolating Mitochondria 55 SEPARATION... in the Culture System 78 Fractionation of the Used Growth Media 85 Fractionation of the TCA Extract 9U Degradation of Lactate and Glutamate 96 ENZYME CHARACTERISTICS • 10U Assays for Enzymes • 10li Isolation of Mitochondria 105 Extraction of Cell Protein...

  19. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  20. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  2. Geochemistry of silicate-rich rocks can curtail spreading of carbon dioxide in subsurface aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, S. S. S.; Andres, J. T. H.

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of carbon sequestration and dissolution rates in the subsurface, suggesting that pooled carbon dioxide may remain in the shallower regions of the formation for hundreds to thousands of years. The deeper regions of the reservoir can remain virtually carbon... interests. References 1. Marini, L. Geochemical Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. (Elsevier 2007). 2. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, edited by Metz B. et al. (Cambridge University Press, UK and New York, USA, 2005). 3. Falkowski...

  3. Development of a differential equation of state to describe subcritical isotherms of carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontenot, Charles Edward

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processors Association, the National Science Eoundation, the Texas Engineering Experiment Station and Texas A&&i University for providing the funds for this work The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. K, R. Hall for his guidance... Pressures of Carbon Dioxide 28 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Vapor Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . . 30 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Liquid Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . 31 Plot of the Slope of fR...

  4. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  5. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reactions with anatase titanium(IV) oxide. Chem. Phys. Lett.of defective sites in titanium(IV) oxide photocatalystTransfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide A Dissertation

  6. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Benefits Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics:...

  7. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  8. A Comparison of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Configurations with an Emphasis on CSP Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T.; Turchi, C.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research suggests that an emerging power cycle technology using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) operated in a closed-loop Brayton cycle offers the potential of equivalent or higher cycle efficiency versus supercritical or superheated steam cycles at temperatures relevant for CSP applications. Preliminary design-point modeling suggests that s-CO2 cycle configurations can be devised that have similar overall efficiency but different temperature and/or pressure characteristics. This paper employs a more detailed heat exchanger model than previous work to compare the recompression and partial cooling cycles, two cycles with high design-point efficiencies, and illustrates the potential advantages of the latter. Integration of the cycles into CSP systems is studied, with a focus on sensible heat thermal storage and direct s-CO2 receivers. Results show the partial cooling cycle may offer a larger temperature difference across the primary heat exchanger, thereby potentially reducing heat exchanger cost and improving CSP receiver efficiency.

  9. Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

  10. hybrid vehicle systems | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , .,Shreve; University67Hybrid and Vehicle Systems

  11. systems-studies | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, ,Development1U C L E A R E N ERamgenSystems and

  12. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  13. The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, William Bell

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ional to the per cent of carbon dioxi. de 1n the flue gas for a constant total gas flow rate. REFE REN CES l. Andrews, R. V, , Hanford Works Eocument (1952), 2. Andrews, R. V. & J. A. W. W. A, , ~46 82 (1954). 3. Andrews, R. V, , Personal Communication 4... of the reciuire . ents for the dedree of iliASTER OF SCIENCE Janus', 1956 Major Subject: Chemi. cal Engineering TH PRODUCTION OP ACTIVATED SILICA 7iIITH CARBON DIOXIDE GAS A Thesis William Bell Hayes III Approved as to style and content by: Chairmen...

  14. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Selective Membranes: A Topical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dushyant Shekhawat; David R. Luebke; Henry W. Pennline

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide selective membranes provide a viable energy-saving alternative for CO2 separation, since membranes do not require any phase transformation. This review examines various CO2 selective membranes for the separation of CO2 and N2, CO2 and CH4, and CO2 and H2 from flue or fuel gas. This review attempts to summarize recent significant advances reported in the literature about various CO2 selective membranes, their stability, the effect of different parameters on the performance of the membrane, the structure and permeation properties relationships, and the transport mechanism applied in different CO2 selective membranes.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems and CO{sub 2} capture processes. Financial models were developed to estimate the capital cost, operations and maintenance cost, cost of electricity, and CO{sub 2} avoidance cost. Results showed that, depending on the plant size and the type of coal burned, CO{sub 2} avoidance cost is between $47/t to $67/t for a PC +MEA plant, between $22.03/t to $32.05/t for an oxygen combustion plant, and between $13.58/t to $26.78/t for an IGCC + Selexol plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact on the CO2 avoidance cost of the heat of absorption of solvent in an MEA plant and energy consumption of the ASU in an oxy-coal combustion plant. An economic analysis of CO{sub 2} capture from an ethanol plant was also conducted. The cost of CO{sub 2} capture from an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 100 million gallons/year was estimated to be about $13.92/t.

  16. Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating between the turbine stages. Analyses carried out as part of the current investigation confirm the possibilities of improving the cycle efficiency that have been identified in previous investigations. The options in this group include: increasing the heat exchanger and turbomachinery sizes, raising of the cycle high end pressure (although the improvement potential of this option is very limited), and optimization of the low end temperature and/or pressure to operate as close to the (pseudo) critical point as possible. Analyses carried out for the present investigation show that significant cycle performance improvement can sometimes be realized if the cycle operates below the critical temperature at its low end. Such operation, however, requires the availability of a heat sink with a temperature lower than 30 C for which applicability of this configuration is dependent upon the climate conditions where the plant is constructed (i.e., potential performance improvements are site specific). Overall, it is shown that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle efficiency can potentially be increased to 45 %, if a low temperature heat sink is available and incorporation of larger components (e.g.., heat exchangers or turbomachinery) having greater component efficiencies does not significantly increase the overall plant cost.

  17. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  18. Energetics of the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution Interface: Approximate Conduction Band Edge Variations between H0 ) -10 and H-) +26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energetics of the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide/Aqueous Solution Interface: Approximate). Here we report on the dependence of the conduction band edge energy of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

  19. Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Brentan R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfn; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of December 2004, 11.39 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 242 MCFD. Vent losses were excessive during June as ambient temperatures increased. Installation of smaller plungers in the carbon dioxide injection pump reduced the recycle and vent loss substantially. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May and in the second production well in August. No channeling of carbon dioxide was observed. The GOR has remained within the range of 3000-4000 for most the last six months. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.35 B/D for the six month period between July 1 and December 31. Cumulative oil production was 814 bbls. Neither well has experienced increased oil production rates expected from the arrival of the oil bank generated by carbon dioxide injection.

  1. January 2, 2008 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    January 2, 2008 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide sequestration on the rate souterrain de dioxyde de carbone sur la déformation des calcaires par dissolution sous contrainte: résultats;Abstract When carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into an aquifer or a depleted geological reservoir, its

  2. An experimental investigation of convection heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide in miniature tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    dioxide in heated horizontal and vertical miniature tubes are reported in this paper. Stainless steel horizontal and upward flow was enhanced. The experimental results further indicate that in all the flow transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide in both horizontal and vertical miniature heated tubes. Ó 2002

  3. Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

  4. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  5. Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang Tianjin, People's Republic of China Received 1 June 2003 Abstract In this paper, a comparative study is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve

  6. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  7. Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    LETTERS Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year , Yiqi Luo5 & David S. Schimel6 Terrestrial ecosystems control carbon dioxide fluxes to and from and heterotrophic respira- tion, that determines whether an ecosystem is sequestering carbon or releasing

  8. Research projects for 2014 Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    commercialising our recently patented technology for carbon dioxide capture.3 Carbon dioxide in Synthesis. Our underway, summarised below. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key strategy for reducing atmospheric CO2 chemistry similar to that which occurs in carbon capture processes for CCS, in the purification of high

  9. Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation and annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation, flaking Abstract. High helium contents will be generated within minor actinide doped uranium dioxide blankets which could be used in fourth generation reactors. In this framework, it is essential to improve

  10. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  11. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  12. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration Philip C. Myint, Laurence Rongy, Kjetil B. Haugen, Abbas Firoozabadi Department. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels that have been

  14. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

  15. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Klaus

    Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford + Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component fossil fuel requirement of CO2 sequestration, and the growth rate of carbon taxes. In this analytical

  17. Using tracer experiments to determine deep saline aquifers caprocks transport characteristics for carbon dioxide storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for carbon dioxide storage P. Bachaud1,2 , Ph. Berne1 , P. Boulin1,3,4 , F. Renard5,6 , M. Sardin2 , J caprocks from a deep saline aquifer in the Paris basin. Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep bubble. Determination of the diffusion properties is also required since they will govern how dissolved

  18. Dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles and microfluidic multiphase flows Ruopeng Sun and Thomas Cubaud*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    Dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles and microfluidic multiphase flows Ruopeng Sun and Thomas the dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles into common liquids (water, ethanol, and methanol) using microfluidic devices. Elongated bubbles are individually produced using a hydrodynamic focusing section into a compact

  19. ORNL/CDIAC-128 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S.A. Prepared by Alexander Kozyr1 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center 1 Energy, Environment of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Activity Numbers KP 12 04 01 0 and KP#12;ORNL/CDIAC-128 NDP-075 CARBON DIOXIDE, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND CHEMICAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE R

  20. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas A Boden (CDIAC Di-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas A Boden (CDIAC Di of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) PARTNERS: National Aeronautic and Space Administra- tion's (NASA://cdiac.ornl.gov/ PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate -change

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar less expensive (pre-investment IGCC). All coal-fired power plants can be retrofitted to capture CO2

  2. Photo-assisted electrodeposition of an electrochemically active polypyrrole layer on anatase type titanium dioxide nanotube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    titanium dioxide nanotube arrays E. Ngaboyamahinaa,b , H. Cacheta,b , A. Paillereta,b , E.M.M. Suttera,b* a of pyrrole from aqueous electrolytic solutions on titanium oxide NTAs, a well-known large specific area n-type semiconductor substrate. As titanium dioxide is known to be poorly conducting in the anodic potential range, we

  3. Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin,§ and Richard I. Masel*, Dioxide Materials, 60 Hazelwood Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, United States properties for CO2 conversion. INTRODUCTION The discovery and development of efficient catalysts for CO2

  4. Evaluation of Polymer-Supported Rhodium Catalysts in 1-Octene Hydroformylation in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Hanan E.

    Carbon Dioxide Zulema K. Lopez-Castillo, Roberto Flores, Ibrahim Kani,,§ John P. Fackler Jr., and Aydin employed in homogeneous cataly- sis. The most common benign solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). It is nonflammable, inert, and inexpensive, is readily available at high purity, and has low critical properties

  5. The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali basalts: an experimental PRISCILLE LESNE 1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali basalts: an experimental study PRISCILLE LESNE 1 in both fluid and melt is required since, because of its low solubility, carbon dioxide is usually a major in silicate melts dramatically influence the physical properties of magmas, such as density, viscosity

  6. GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    1 GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES SHENG F. YEN1 of an approach to reduce the high-frequency capacitive feedthrough and dielectric leakages of carbon nanotubes grown on silicon dioxide micro bridges suspended over silicon substrates. The microwave reflection

  7. MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

  8. Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH Devin T and characterization of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. The use of gas. Furthermore, the versatility of the microfluidic reactor enables rapid evaluation of catalysts under different

  9. Adsorption of carbon dioxide and methane and their mixtures on an activated carbon: Simulation and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuchel, M.; Davies, G.M.; Buss, E.; Seaton, N.A.

    1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to predict the adsorption of pure-component and binary mixtures of methane and carbon dioxide in a specific activated carbon, A35/4, using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation. Methane is modeled as one-center Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid and carbon dioxide as a two-center LJ plus point quadrupole fluids. Experimental adsorption data for the system have been obtained with a new flow desorption apparatus. The pore size distribution (PSD) for the carbon was determined from both of the experimental CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} isotherms at 293 K. To extract numerically the PSD, GCMC-simulated isotherms for both pure components in slit-shaped pores ranging from 5.7 to 72.2 {angstrom} were used. Using only pure experimental CO{sub 2} isotherm data, it was not possible to determine a PSD that allowed a reasonable prediction of the pure methane adsorption. However, with both experimental data sets for the pure components, it was possible to derive a PSD that allowed both experimental pure-component isotherms to be fitted. With this PSD and the simulated adsorption densities in single pores, it was possible to predict in good agreement with experiment (1) the adsorption of binary mixtures of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and (2) the adsorption of both pure components at higher temperatures. However, the model was unable to reproduce precisely the experimental pressure dependence of the CO{sub 2} selectivity.

  10. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  11. A Combined Experimental-Computational Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Capture in a Series of Isoreticular Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    for their carbon dioxide capture and gas separation properties.2 However, little is known about the factors. Here, we report the synthesis, structure and carbon dioxide uptake properties of a series of ZIFsA Combined Experimental-Computational Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Capture in a Series

  12. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C9, suppt6ment au nolZ, Tome 41, novembre 1980, page cg-351 A REPETITIVELY PULSED CARBON DIOXIDE LASER WITH MEAN POWER OUTPUT IN EXCESS OF 3 0 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Abstract.- A pulsed electron beam sustained atmospheric pressure carbon dioxide laser with an active volume of 17 l i t r e s has been incorporated i n a closed cycle gas recirculation system. Gas flow and e l e window design, and the mechanical s t a b i l i t y of the optical cavity. The effect of gas purity, gas

  13. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  14. Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques. Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP), Scanning Electron Microsco-py SEM, and Sedigraph measurements are used to assess the pore-throat-size distribu-tion, sorting, texture, and grain size of the samples. Also, displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation (Pd) and graphically derived threshold pressure (Pc) were deter-mined by MIP technique. SEM images were used for qualitative study of the minerals and pores texture of the core samples. Moreover, EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spec-trometer), BET specific surface area, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements were performed to study various parameters and their possible effects on sealing capaci-ty of the samples. We found that shales have the relatively higher average sealing threshold pressure (Pc) than carbonate and sandstone samples. Based on these observations, shale formations could be considered as a promising caprock in terms of retarding scCO{sub 2} flow and leak-age into above formations. We hypothesized that certain characteristics of shales (e.g., 3 fine pore size, pore size distribution, high specific surface area, and strong physical chemical interaction between wetting phase and mineral surface) make them an effi-cient caprock for sealing super critical CO{sub 2}. We found that the displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation could not be the ultimate representative of the sealing capacity of the rock sample. On the other hand, we believe that graphical method, introduced by Cranganu (2004) is a better indicator of the true sealing capacity. Based on statistical analysis of our samples from Oklahoma Panhandle we assessed the effects of each group of properties (textural and compositional) on maximum supercriti-cal CO{sub 2} height that can be hold by the caprock. We conclude that there is a relatively strong positive relationship (+.40 to +.69) between supercritical CO{sub 2} column height based on Pc and hard/ soft mineral content index (ratio of minerals with Mohs hardness more than 5 over minerals with Mohs hardness less than 5) in both shales and limestone samples. Average median pore rad

  16. 9780199573288 13-Helm-c13 Helm Hepburn (Typeset by SPi, Chennai) 263 of 283 June 21, 2009 12:8 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :8 13 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Howard Herzog I. INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is the capture and secure storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) that would otherwise be emitted 12:8 264 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage discusses the future of CCS in the context of climate

  17. Inorganic origin of carbon dioxide during low temperature thermal recovery of bitumen: Chemical and isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutcheon, I.; Abercrombia, H.J.; Krouse, H.R. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide, produced at low temperatures, is the dominant gaseous species evolved during steam-assisted thermal recovery of bitumen at the Tucker Lake pilot, Cold Lake, Alberta. Two possible sources for the produced CO{sub 2} are considered: pyrolysis of bitumen and dissolution of carbonate minerals. Data from natural systems and experiments by other authors suggest that clay-carbonate reactions are the dominant source of CO{sub 2}. Bitumen pyrolysis may contribute small amounts of CO{sub 2}, probably by decarboxylation, early in the production cycle but cannot contribute significant volumes. The recognition of production of CO{sub 2} by reactive calcite destruction at temperatures between 70 and 220{degree}C suggests that this process may be responsible for the production of large quantities of CO{sub 2} in natural systems, particularly in lithofeldspathic sands and shales with high carbonate content and abundant clays. Organic acids have been suggested to be the source of CO{sub 2} in diagenetic fluids, but the results presented here suggest that this hypothesis requires more complete investigation.

  18. Comparison of Spectroscopic Data with Cluster Calculations of Plutonium, Plutonium Dioxide and Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Ryzhkov, M V; Mirmelstein, A

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using spectroscopic data produced in the experimental investigations of bulk systems, including X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), the theoretical results within for UO{sub 2}{sup 6}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 6} and Pu{sup 7} clusters have been evaluated. The calculations of the electronic structure of the clusters have been performed within the framework of the Relativistic Discrete-Variational Method (RDV). The comparisons between the LLNL experimental data and the Russian calculations are quite favorable. The cluster calculations may represent a new and useful avenue to address unresolved questions within the field of actinide electron structure, particularly that of Pu. Observation of the changes in the Pu electronic structure as a function of size suggests interesting implications for bulk Pu electronic structure.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  20. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  1. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, Michael E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); UCL Energy Institute, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell, E-mail: r.binions@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  2. Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. ...

  3. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  4. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  5. Experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigation focused mainly on assessing condensation onset during rapid expansion of CO? into the two-phase ...

  6. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10.1029/2010JG001390, 2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxesdioxide fluxes of black spruce ecosystems in eastern Northof a stand?replacing fire on ecosystem CO 2 exchange of a

  7. Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

  8. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard R. (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Bowman, Lawrence E. (Richland, WA); Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent.

  9. Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity applying the iterative Bayesian shrinkage procedure. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; Bayesian shrinkage estimator; Heterogeneity JEL classification: O13

  10. Influence of zirconium and niobium on cathodic deposition of uranium dioxide from alkali chloride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.; Martem`yanova, Z.S. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrocrystallization of uranium dioxide from molten chloride electrolytes in the presence of zirconium(IV) and niobium(V) was studied by voltammetry. Zirconium(IV) was found to react with uranium dioxide according to exchange mechanism to form (1 - x)UO{sub 2}{center_dot}xZrO{sub 2} solid solutions. Niobium(IV), a product of cathodic reduction of niobium(V), enters into the exchange reaction with uranium dioxide to yield (1 - y)UO{sub 2{center_dot}y}NbO{sub 2} solid solutions. In the case of simultaneous presence of Nb(V) and Zr(IV) in electrolyte, ternary (1 - x - y)UO{sub 2 {center_dot}x}ZrO{sub 2{center_dot}y}NbO{sub 2} solid solutions are obtained at the cathode surface. Nucleation of the solid solutions phase was shown to occurs at the most active sites of the crystalline precipitate of uranium dioxide.

  11. Carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plants : a real potions analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekar, Ram Chandra

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal ...

  12. Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohaus, James Harold

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic shape factors of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-spherical objects were estimated with computational methods. Leith's empirical methods were used to modify classical Stokes's law for aerosol dynamics (1987). The dynamic shape...

  13. Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO?) ...

  14. An Exploration of the Effect of Temperature on Different Alloys in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlevy, Michael William

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the constant effort to increase efficiency, safety margins, and lower cost, a new breed of nuclear reactors, Generation IV, is being developed in which supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO?) is a prime coolant candidate. ...

  15. Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality regulates the underground storage of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Prior to the use of any underground reservoir for the...

  16. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  17. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andresdioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission

  18. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this project was to understand asphaltene precipitation in General and carbon dioxide induced precipitation in particular. To this effect, thermodynamic and kinetic experiments with the Rangely crude oil were conducted and thermodynamic and reservoir models were developed.

  19. DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide storage in geologic formations.

  20. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide" [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214507 (2005)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid quilibrium properties.Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  1. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    TR-42 1972 Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  2. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Yonker, C.R.; Hallen, R.R.; Baker, E.G.; Bowman, L.E.; Silva, L.J.

    1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent. 3 figs.

  3. Systematic biases in measurement of urban nitrogen dioxide using passive diffusion samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Kirby, C; Cape, Neil

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of nitrogen dioxide using passive diffusion tube over 22 months in Cambridge, U.K. are analysed as a function of sampler exposure time, and compared with NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located ...

  4. Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

  5. Measurement of intensities of bands in the electronic absorption spectrum of chlorine dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Thomas Louis

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy levels are derived, Twelve bands in the electronic absorption spectrum of chlorine dioxide between the wavelengths 4250 R and 5250 R were photographed and measured. Of these twelve, the vibrational energy levels calculated for nine of them... Calculation of Vibrational Energy Levels . . . . , 35 Estimation of Errors . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 38 CONCLUSIONS Conolusions ~ ~ ~ 47 B IBLI QGRAFEZ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 48 ~INTRGDUGT10 Analysis of thc rotational structure of the chlorine dioxide...

  6. Oil recovery by carbon dioxide injection into consolidated and unconsolidated sandstone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Fwu-Jin Frank

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a displacement effic1ency approaching 100 percent. (3) Carbon Dioxide neither achieves direct miscible displacement at practical reservoir pressures, like LPG, nor depend upon the presence of light hydrocarbons in the reservoir oil. A f1eld... strong function of pore size dis- tribution, probably contributed a great effect on the oil displacement effic1enc1es between the consolidated sandstone core and the unconsolidated sand pack. 4. No significant over-riding effect of carbon dioxide...

  7. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  8. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  9. Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system) constraints across the United States. Finally, a representative scenario for a 1,800 MW subcritical coal fired power plant (amongst other types including supercritical coal, integrated gasification combined cycle, natural gas turbine and natural gas combined cycle) can look to existing and new carbon capture, transportation, compression and sequestration technologies along with a suite of extracting and treating technologies for water to assess the system's overall physical and economic viability. Thus, this particular plant, with 90% capture, will reduce the net emissions of CO{sub 2} (original less the amount of energy and hence CO{sub 2} emissions required to power the carbon capture water treatment systems) less than 90%, and its water demands will increase by approximately 50%. These systems may increase the plant's LCOE by approximately 50% or more. This representative example suggests that scaling up these CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies to many plants throughout the country could increase the water demands substantially at the regional, and possibly national level. These scenarios for all power plants and saline formations throughout U.S. can incorporate new information as it becomes available for potential new plant build out planning.

  10. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  11. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  12. Global Carbon Budget from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the carbon cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the carbon cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the carbon cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The Global Carbon Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.

  13. Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Shropshire

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

  14. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. (Tennessee Valley Authority (US)); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (US)); Cropp, J.W. (Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau, Chattanooga, TN (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  16. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2013-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  17. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. An Assessment of the Commercial Availability of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies as of June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, there is considerable confusion within parts of the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technical and regulatory communities regarding the maturity and commercial readiness of the technologies needed to capture, transport, inject, monitor and verify the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in deep, geologic formations. The purpose of this technical report is to address this confusion by discussing the state of CCS technological readiness in terms of existing commercial deployments of CO2 capture systems, CO2 transportation pipelines, CO2 injection systems and measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) systems for CO2 injected into deep geologic structures. To date, CO2 has been captured from both natural gas and coal fired commercial power generating facilities, gasification facilities and other industrial processes. Transportation via pipelines and injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface are well established commercial practices with more than 35 years of industrial experience. There are also a wide variety of MMV technologies that have been employed to understand the fate of CO2 injected into the deep subsurface. The four existing end-to-end commercial CCS projects – Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah and Weyburn – are using a broad range of these technologies, and prove that, at a high level, geologic CO2 storage technologies are mature and capable of deploying at commercial scales. Whether wide scale deployment of CCS is currently or will soon be a cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is largely a function of climate policies which have yet to be enacted and the public’s willingness to incur costs to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the Earth’s climate. There are significant benefits to be had by continuing to improve through research, development, and demonstration suite of existing CCS technologies. Nonetheless, it is clear that most of the core technologies required to address capture, transport, injection, monitoring, management and verification for most large CO2 source types and in most CO2 storage formation types, exist.

  19. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in established West Texas carbon dioxide floods. The project is not economic.

  20. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SO2-O2 System. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System. Abstract: Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic...

  1. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  2. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sulfur dioxide smelting reduction smelting reduction iron three-dimensional tonne top-gas recycling blast furnace tonnes per day ultra-low-

  3. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, W.

    1990-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal for continuation of research on net ecosystem carbon dioxide and methane flux and sampling and analysis of soil samples from arctic tundra regions is presented.

  4. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  5. Carbon dioxide source development, northeast Jackson Dome, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studlick, J.R.J.; Shew, R.D.; Basye, G.L.; Ray, J.R.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot conducted at Little Creek field Mississippi, in the 1970s indicated that the injection of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) could lead to the successful recovery of additional oil reserves even after waterflood operations. It was realized early that a large volume of CO/sub 2/ would be required for enhanced oil recovery operations Little Creek and other prospective fields. Shell's search for CO/sub 2/ in the area began in the early 1970s. Exploratory drilling for hydrocarbons as early as 1950 had indicated high concentrations of CO/sub 2/ present in central Mississippi. These occur in salt-generated structures north and east of the intrusive Jackson igneous dome; the area is therefore termed the N.E. Jackson Dome Source Area. CO/sub 2/ generation is believed to have occurred by the thermal metamorphism associated with the intrusion of Jurassic-age carbonates. The CO/sub 2/ migrated updip and is concentrated in the Buckner, Smackover, and Norphlet Formations at depths of 14,000 to 17,000 ft. The objectives are sandstones and dolomites that are interpreted as dune and sabkha deposits. Reservoir quality is variable (abundant illite locally in the Norphlet and highly compacted sandstones in the Buckner) but generally good. Rates of 20 MMCFGD have been tested from these wells. Many salt-related structures have been defined in the source area by seismic data. Leasing began in 1973 and drilling in 1977. Eight structures have been tested, with all but one encountering commercial CO/sub 2/ accumulations. Shell has drilled 15 wells (13 successful, 1 junked and abandoned, and 1 dry hole) on 640- and 1280-ac spacing. Gas compositions vary: Smackover CO/sub 2/ is sour and will require treatment, whereas the Buckner and Norphlet sands contain sweet and semisweet CO/sub 2/, respectively. Industry reserves in N.E. Jackson Dome exceed 6 tcf of gas.

  6. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel; Browers, Bruce

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO2 capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO2 by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO2 capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO2 and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO2/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO2/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO2 and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO2 capture achieved using the 2-bed configuration with recirculation in both beds was 65-70% with a high flue gas CO2 loading (~7%) and up to 85% with a low flue gas CO2 loading (~4%). A sorbent regenerator system consisting of a pre-heater, desorber, and cooler is used to heat the CO2-rich sorbent with direct and indirect steam producing a nearly 100% pure stream of CO2. Parametric testing of the regenerator system demonstrated the impact of process conditions on both desorption rate and the heat of regeneration. Clear evidence of the use of specific process conditions that lower the overall energy of desorption was identified. This observation validates measurements made at the laboratory-scale. Several longer-term continuous tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the sorbent/process as a function of time. Using a 2-bed configuration, sustained capture efficiency of 40-60% with a high flue gas CO2 loading (~8%) and 70-80% with a low flue gas CO2 loading (~4%) were achieved. However, sorbent working capacity was found to be considerably lower than laboratory-scale measurements. The low working capacity is attributed to insufficient sorbent/gas contact time in the adsorber. Sorbent properties that had a significant impact on CO2 capture performance were identified. The results show that controlling these sorbent properties substantially improves CO2 capture performance, with preliminary estimates indicating that relative improvement of ~30% is possible. Testing culminated with an operationally trouble-free test of 15 hours with sustainable performance. Overall, several practical strategies to increase performance of the sorbent and process were identified. The initial technical and economic assessment of the CACHYS™ process estimated the cost of CO2 capture was $36.19/ton with a 48.6% increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the 550 MWe net plant. Using additional data gathered over the course of the project, and with revised technical and economic assumptions, the estimated cost of CO2 capture with the CACHYS™ process is $39/ton (only includes the cost of the CO2 capture system

  7. Evaluation and Enhancement of Carbon Dioxide Flooding Through Sweep Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Richard

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide displacement is a common improved recovery method applied to light oil reservoirs (30-45{degrees}API). The economic and technical success of CO{sub 2} floods is often limited by poor sweep efficiency or large CO{sub 2} utilization rates. Projected incremental recoveries for CO{sub 2} floods range from 7% to 20% of the original oil in place; however, actual incremental recoveries range from 9% to 15% of the original oil in place, indicating the potential for significant additional recoveries with improved sweep efficiency. This research program was designed to study the effectiveness of carbon dioxide flooding in a mature reservoir to identify and develop methods and strategies to improve oil recovery in carbon dioxide floods. Specifically, the project has focused on relating laboratory, theoretical and simulation studies to actual field performance in a CO{sub 2} flood in an attempt to understand and mitigate problems of areal and vertical sweep efficiency. In this work the focus has been on evaluating the status of existing swept regions of a mature CO{sub 2} flood and developing procedures to improve the design of proposed floods. The Little Creek Field, Mississippi has been studied through laboratory, theoretical, numerical and simulation studies in an attempt to relate performance predictions to historical reservoir performance to determine sweep efficiency, improve the understanding of the reservoir response to CO{sub 2} injection, and develop scaling methodologies to relate laboratory data and simulation results to predicted reservoir behavior. Existing laboratory information from Little Creek was analyzed and an extensive amount of field data was collected. This was merged with an understanding of previous work at Little Creek to generate a detailed simulation study of two portions of the field – the original pilot area and a currently active part of the field. This work was done to try to relate all of this information to an understanding of where the CO{sub 2} went or is going and how recovery might be improved. New data was also generated in this process. Production logs were run to understand where the CO{sub 2} was entering the reservoir related to core and log information and also to corroborate the simulation model. A methodology was developed and successfully tested for evaluating saturations in a cased-hole environment. Finally an experimental and theoretical program was initiated to relate laboratory work to field scale design and analysis of operations. This work found that an understanding of vertical and areal heterogeneity is crucial for understanding sweep processes as well as understanding appropriate mitigation techniques to improve the sweep. Production and injection logs can provide some understanding of that heterogeneity when core data is not available. The cased-hole saturation logs developed in the project will also be an important part of the evaluation of vertical heterogeneity. Evaluation of injection well/production well connectivities through statistical or numerical techniques were found to be as successful in evaluating CO{sub 2} floods as they are for waterfloods. These are likely to be the lowest cost techniques to evaluate areal sweep. Full field simulation and 4D seismic techniques are other possibilities but were beyond the scope of the project. Detailed simulation studies of pattern areas proved insightful both for doing a “post-mortem” analysis of the pilot area as well as a late-term, active portion of the Little Creek Field. This work also evaluated options for improving sweep in the current flood as well as evaluating options that could have been successful at recovering more oil. That simulation study was successful due to the integration of a large amount of data supplied by the operator as well as collected through the course of the project. While most projects would not have the abundance of data that Little Creek had, integration of the available data continues to be critical for both the design and evaluation stages of CO{sub 2} floods. For cases w

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Water injection will continue to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  9. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC (180�ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  10. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  11. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  12. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  13. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  14. Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part I: Health outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide increases the incidence and severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. Between January 1988 and June 1990, 1,315 infants were enrolled into the study at birth and followed with prospective surveillance for the occurrence of respiratory infections and monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in their homes. The subjects were healthy infants from homes without smokers; they were selected with stratification by type of cooking stove at a ratio of four to one for gas and electric stoves. Illness experience was monitored by a daily diary of symptoms completed by the mother and a telephone interview conducted every two weeks. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as involving the lower respiratory tract; all other respiratory illnesses were designated as involving the upper respiratory tract. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was estimated by two-week average concentrations measured in the subjects' bedrooms with passive samplers. This analysis is limited to the 1,205 subjects completing at least one month of observation; of these, 823 completed the full protocol, contributing 82.8% of the total number of days during which the subjects were under observation. Incidence rates for all respiratory illnesses, all upper respiratory illness, all lower respiratory illnesses, and lower respiratory illness further divided into those with any wheezing, or wet cough without wheezing, were examined within strata of nitrogen dioxide exposure at the time of the illness, nitrogen dioxide exposure during the prior month, and type of cooking stove. Consistent trends of increasing illness incidence rates with increasing exposure to nitrogen dioxide were not evident for either the lagged or unlagged exposure variables.

  17. Master index for the carbon dioxide research state-of-the-art report series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, M P [ed.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four State of the Art (SOA) reports, ''Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle,'' ''Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation,'' ''Detecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and ''Projecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and two companion reports, ''Characterization of Information Requirements for Studies of CO/sub 2/ Effects: Water Resources, Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests and Human Health'' and ''Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Sea Level: Effect of a CO/sub 2/-Induced Climatic Change,'' were published by the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Division. Considerable information on atmospheric carbon dioxide and its possible effects on world climate is summarized in these six volumes. Each volume has its own index, but to make the information that is distributed throughout the six volumes more accessible and usable, comprehensive citation and subject indexes have been compiled. The subject indexes of the individual volumes have been edited to provide a uniformity from volume to volume and also to draw distinctions not needed in the separate volumes' indexes. Also, the comprehensive subject index has been formatted in a matrix arrangement to graphically show the distribution of subject treatment from volume to volume. Other aids include cross references between the scientific and common names of the animals and plants referred to, a glossary of special terms used, tables of data and conversion factors related to the data, and explanations of the acronyms and initialisms used in the texts of the six volumes. The executive summaries of the six volumes are collected and reproduced to allow the readers interested in the contents of one volume to rapidly gain information on the contents of the other volumes.

  18. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture in the Presence of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture preservation of the IRMOF structure. Carbon dioxide capture from combustion sources such as flue gas in power this carbon capture challenge. The preferred method for measuring the efficiency of a given material

  19. 157Recent Events: A Perspective on Carbon Dioxide On March 21, 2010 the Eyjafjalla Volcano in Iceland erupted, and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the combustion process. Problem 1 ­ The Gulf Oil Spill is predicted to generate 200,000 gallons of crude oil if the combustion of 1 gallon of oil generates 10 kg of carbon dioxide? Problem 2 ­ Scientists have estimated are generated if the combustion of 1 gallon of oil generates 10 kg of carbon dioxide? Answer: 200,000 gallons

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic Prioritization of Research Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic and Policy Program #12;- 2 - #12;Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry must be developed for capturing CO2 from power plants. Current CO2 capture technology is expensive

  1. House Committee on Natural Resources The Future of Fossil Fuels: Geological and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Howard Herzog Principal Research Engineer Massachusetts Institute to the Technical Group of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (see www.cslforum.org). Just two weeks ago, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Carbon Dioxide (CO2) geological

  2. in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, John

    found to affect oxygen fluxes. We find that ENSO also plays an important role in generating interannualin press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes College, London, UK Abstract. We analyze the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen

  3. THE ABUNDANCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE ICE IN THE QUIESCENT INTRACLOUD MEDIUM D. C. B. Whittet,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerakines, Perry

    THE ABUNDANCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE ICE IN THE QUIESCENT INTRACLOUD MEDIUM D. C. B. Whittet,1,2 S. S: ISM: lines and bands -- ISM: molecules 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide (CO2) has proven to be a common embedded sources. Key properties include abundance relative to other ice constituents and dust extinction

  4. Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the poten-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3 gases (greenhouse gases) altered by human activities (IPCC 2007), only carbon dioxide (CO2 vegeta- tion properties affect local and regional climate, as well as how atmospheric forcing

  5. 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b, , Lilin inorganic and organic solutes (including 56 hydrocarbons) and gaseous species (e.g. carbon dioxide, CO2, the chemical and physical properties of the solid and fluid phases collectively dictate how fluid 35molecules

  6. Carbon dioxide fixation by Metallosphaera yellowstonensis and acidothermophilic iron-oxidizing microbial communities from Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Ryan; Whitmore, Laura M.; Moran, James J.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fixation of inorganic carbon (as carbon dioxide) has been documented in all three domains of life and results in the biosynthesis of a diverse suite of organic compounds that support the growth of heterotrophic organisms. The primary aim of this study was to assess the importance of carbon dioxide fixation in high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat communities and in pure cultures of one of the dominant Fe(II)-oxidizing organisms (Metallosphaera yellowstonensis strain MK1) present in situ. Protein-encoding genes of the complete 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3-HP/4-HB) carbon fixation pathway were identified in pure-cultures of M. yellowstonensis strain MK1. Metagenome sequencing from the same environments also revealed genes for the 3-HP/4-HB pathway belonging to M. yellowstonensis populations, as well as genes for a complete reductive TCA cycle from Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales). Stable isotope (13CO2) labeling was used to measure the fixation of CO2 by M. yellowstonensis strain MK1, and in ex situ assays containing live Fe(III)-oxide microbial mats. Results showed that M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 fixes CO2 via the 3-HP/4-HB pathway with a fractionation factor of ~ 2.5 ‰. Direct analysis of the 13C composition of dissolved inorganic C (DIC), dissolved organic C (DOC), landscape C and microbial mat C showed that mat C is comprised of both DIC and non-DIC sources. The estimated contribution of DIC carbon to biomass C (> ~ 35%) is reasonably consistent with the relative abundance of known chemolithoautotrophs and corresponding CO2 fixation pathways detected in metagenome sequence. The significance of DIC as a major source of carbon for Fe-oxide mat communities provides a foundation for examining microbial interactions in these systems that are dependent on the activity of autotrophic organisms such as Hydrogenobaculum and Metallosphaera spp.

  7. Microbial and objective quality of whole muscle beef cuts packaged in film containing chlorine dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Timothy David

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with beef. . . . 25 26 C~R Page IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 27 EfFect of chlorine dioxide containing fihns on the microbial quality ofbeef. & EfFect of chlorine dioxide containing films on the color of beef. Changes in the myoglobin concentration... atmosphere for 60min prior to measuring. Hunter a* values were measured using a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300 equipped with a DP-301 data processor (Minolta, Inc. , Japan). The measurements were taken perpendicular to the beef surface and standardized using...

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  9. The effect of carbon dioxide-oxygen mixtures on oil recovery by in-situ combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Neal Joseph

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CARBON DIOXIDE-OXYGEN MIXTURES ON OIL RECOVERY BY IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by NEAL J. BROUSSARD7 JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1970 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECT OF CARBON DIOXIDE-OXYGEN MIXTURES ON OIL RECOVERY BY IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by NEAL J. BROUSSARD) JR. Approved as to style and content by Chp r an o ommrttee m er...

  10. Morbidity And Sulfur Dioxide: Evidence From French Strikes At Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Neidell; Emmanuelle Lavaine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in France on health outcomes at a census track level. To do so, we use recent strikes affecting oil refineries in France, in October 2010, as a natural experiment. Our work offers several contributions. We first show that a temporal shut down in the refining process leads to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentration. We then use this narrow time frame exogenous shock to assess the impact of a change in air pollution concentration on respiratory outcomes. Our estimates suggest that daily variation in SO2 air pollution has economically significant health effects at levels below the current standard. 0

  11. Oil recovery by carbon dioxide injection into consolidated and unconsolidated sandstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Fwu-Jin Frank

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and field in the past decade. The analysis of these tests indicated that additional oil beyond that obtained by normal water flooding could be recovered with carbon d1oxide. The c1tations on the following pages follow the style of the Journal.... Yon Gonten The use of carbon dioxide as an oil recovery agent in petro- leum reservoirs has been investigated for many years. Both la- boratory and field studies have established that carbon dioxide can be an efficient oil displacing agent...

  12. Biological and environmental efficiency of high producing dairy systems through application of life cycle analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Stephen Alexander

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy production systems are an important global contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Due to the role GHG play in climate ...

  13. Dynamic response of the supercritical C0? Brayton recompression cycle to various system transients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trinh, Tri Q. (Tri Quang)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC0?) power conversion system has been suggested for use with many of the Generation IV nuclear reactors. The SC0? cycle is highly attractive because of its low operating temperatures and ...

  14. Evaluation of ethane as a power conversion system working fluid for fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A supercritical ethane working fluid Brayton power conversion system is evaluated as an alternative to carbon dioxide. The HSC® chemical kinetics code was used to study thermal dissociation and chemical interactions for ...

  15. Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550°C and 750°C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550°C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550°C versus 850°C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550°C and 750°C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved.

  16. OPTIMAL GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE DISPOSAL IN SALINE AQUIFERS IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan D. Hovorka

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research and applications have demonstrated technologically feasible methods, defined costs, and modeled processes needed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline-water-bearing formations (aquifers). One of the simplifying assumptions used in previous modeling efforts is the effect of real stratigraphic complexity on transport and trapping in saline aquifers. In this study we have developed and applied criteria for characterizing saline aquifers for very long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing matches between CO{sub 2} sources and nearby saline formations that can be used for sequestration. This project identified 14 geologic properties used to prospect for optimal locations for CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline-water-bearing formations. For this demonstration, we digitized maps showing properties of saline formations and used analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) to extract areas that meet variably specified prototype criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Through geologic models, realistic aquifer properties such as discontinuous sand-body geometry are determined and can be used to add realistic hydrologic properties to future simulations. This approach facilitates refining the search for a best-fit saline host formation as our understanding of the most effective ways to implement sequestration proceeds. Formations where there has been significant drilling for oil and gas resources as well as extensive characterization of formations for deep-well injection and waste disposal sites can be described in detail. Information to describe formation properties can be inferred from poorly known saline formations using geologic models in a play approach. Resulting data sets are less detailed than in well-described examples but serve as an effective screening tool to identify prospects for more detailed work.

  17. Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures up to 300 MPa and 600 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures for the phase coexistence of carbon dioxide + benzene + water ternary mixtures. Phase coexistence was observed exceptions are the systematic studies6-9 of ternary mixtures containing carbon dioxide with large alkanes

  18. Spray dryer/baghouse system testing - CRADA 92-001. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)]|[Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of seven tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of scrubbing both NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer/baghouse system. The operating conditions specified were a high spray dryer inlet temperature (500{degrees}F), and a high spray dryer outlet temperature (250 to 300 {degrees}F). The data required to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of this technology is enclosed. Discussion of some of the variables as well as an itemized list of the testing information is part of the report.

  19. Factors in reactor design for carbon dioxide capture with solid, regenerable sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, J.S.; Richards, G.A.; Pennline, H.W.; Fischer, Daniel (Mid-Atlantic Technology Research & Innovation Center, South Charleston, WV); Keller, George (Mid-Atlantic Technology Research & Innovation Center, South Charleston, WV)

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fossil-fuel burning power plants, which produce a substantial amount of electric power within the United States, are point sources that can emit significant quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2). In a carbon sequestration scenario, the CO2 must first be captured from the point source, or flue gas, and then be permanently stored. Since the capture/separation step dominates the cost of sequestration, various capture/separation technologies are being investigated, and regenerable, solid sorbents are the basis for one promising technique for capturing CO2 from flue gas. The solid sorbent must be able to absorb the CO2 in the first step and then be regenerated by releasing the CO2 in the second step. Due to the low operating pressure of a conventional pulverized coal-fired combustor and its subsequent low partial pressure of CO2, it is envisioned that temperature swing absorption is applicable to the sorbent capture technology. Various CO2 capture sorbents are being examined in this research area, for example physical adsorbents as well as chemical absorbents. However, with respect to process development, various reactor configurations are presently being considered. The reactor designs range from stationary beds of sorbent to those systems where the sorbent is transported between the absorber and regenerator. Emphasis is placed on design implications of employing a regenerable solid sorbent system. Key sorbent parameters required for the sorbents have been identified, including the heat of adsorption, heat capacity of the solid, delta CO2 loading between the absorption and regeneration steps, and any role co-sorption of competitive gases, such as moisture, may play. Other sorbent properties, such as the effect of acid gases within the flue gas or the attrition of the sorbent, must be considered in the reactor design. These factors all impact the reactor design for a particular type of sorbent. For a generic sorbent, reactor designs have been formulated, including a stationary, isothermal reactor, a fluidized bed, and a moving bed. Through calculations, benefits and disadvantages of the designs have been outlined. The implication of the sorbent properties (and thus desired experimental information) on sorbent reactor design are described, and recommendations for operation of these types of capture systems are discussed.

  20. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Dioxide-Limestone Sequestration in the Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan; Stephen Pennell; Carl Lawton; Peter Swett; Devinder Arora; John Hannon; Michael Woods; Huishan Duan; Tom Lawlor

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Research under this Project has proven that liquid carbon dioxide can be emulsified in water by using very fine particles as emulsion stabilizers. Hydrophilic particles stabilize a CO{sub 2}-in-H{sub 2}O (C/W) emulsion; hydrophobic particles stabilize a H{sub 2}O-in-CO{sub 2} (W/C) emulsion. The C/W emulsion consists of tiny CO{sub 2} droplets coated with hydrophilic particles dispersed in water. The W/C emulsion consists of tiny H{sub 2}O droplets coated with hydrophobic particles dispersed in liquid carbon dioxide. The coated droplets are called globules. The emulsions could be used for deep ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Liquid CO{sub 2} is sparsely soluble in water, and is less dense than seawater. If neat, liquid CO{sub 2} were injected in the deep ocean, it is likely that the dispersed CO{sub 2} droplets would buoy upward and flash into vapor before the droplets dissolve in seawater. The resulting vapor bubbles would re-emerge into the atmosphere. On the other hand, the emulsion is denser than seawater, hence the emulsion plume would sink toward greater depth from the injection point. For ocean sequestration a C/W emulsion appears to be most practical using limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) particles of a few to ten ?m diameter as stabilizing agents. A mix of one volume of liquid CO{sub 2} with two volumes of H{sub 2}O, plus 0.5 weight of pulverized limestone per weight of liquid CO{sub 2} forms a stable emulsion with density 1087 kg m{sup -3}. Ambient seawater at 500 m depth has a density of approximately 1026 kg m{sup -3}, so the emulsion plume would sink by gravity while entraining ambient seawater till density equilibrium is reached. Limestone is abundant world-wide, and is relatively cheap. Furthermore, upon disintegration of the emulsion the CaCO{sub 3} particles would partially buffer the carbonic acid that forms when CO{sub 2} dissolves in seawater, alleviating some of the concerns of discharging CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. Laboratory experiments showed that the CaCO{sub 3} emulsion is slightly alkaline, not acidic. We tested the release of the CO{sub 2}-in-H{sub 2}O emulsion stabilized by pulverized limestone in the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory High Pressure Water Tunnel Facility (HPWTF). Digital photographs showed the sinking globules in the HPWTF, confirming the concept of releasing the emulsion in the deep ocean. We modeled the release of an emulsion from the CO{sub 2} output of a 1000 MW coal-fired power plant at 500 m depth. The emulsion would typically sink several hundred meters before density equilibration with ambient seawater. The CO{sub 2} globules would rain out from the equilibrated plume toward the ocean bottom where they would disintegrate due to wave action and bottom friction. Conceptual release systems are described both for an open ocean release and a sloping seabed release of the emulsion.

  1. Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effects of global warming. In this article we describe a process which producesa lowProducing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks the electricity production cost by one third. The secondprovides hydrogenor a hydrogen-rich fuel gas

  2. Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic Framework Adsorbents requires drastic modifications to the current energy infrastructure. Thus, carbon capture and sequestration for use as carbon capture adsorbents. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) estimates of CO2 selectivity

  3. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America B. D. Amiro,1 A. G, and New Brunswick). Net ecosystem production (NEP) showed a carbon loss from all ecosystems following a standreplacing disturbance, becoming a carbon sink by 20 years for all ecosystems and by 10 years for most

  4. Metal Catalyzed Formation of Aliphatic Polycarbonates Involving Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide as Monomers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncada, Adriana I.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts for Ring-Opening Polymerization of Six-Membered Cyclic Carbonates .......................................................................... 8 Aliphatic Polycarbonates from Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide...... 15 Metal Salen Complexes... in TCE. Slope = -8910.7 with R2 = 0.9997 ......................................................................................... 56 II-15 1H NMR spectrum in CDCl3 of poly(TMC) obtained by way of oxetane/CO2 in the presence of (salen...

  5. September 25, 2006 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    September 25, 2006 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide sequestration on the rate souterrain de dioxyde de carbone sur la déformation des calcaires par dissolution sous contrainte: résultats@obs.ujf- grenoble.fr, marielle.collombet@ujf-grenoble.fr, yleguen@lgit.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr. #12;Abstract When carbon

  6. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFRIGERATED SEAWATER COMPARED WITH PINK SHRIMP HELD IN ICE FERN A. BULLARD AND JEFF COLLINSl ABSTRACT Pink ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days refrigerated seawater were acceptable up to 9.5 days and those held in ice up to 6.5 days. Data on weight

  7. Determination of the Effect of Geological Reservoir Variability on Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Determination of the Effect of Geological Reservoir Variability on Carbon Dioxide Storage Using'expériences -- Dans le contexte de l'étude du stockage géologique du dioxyde de carbone dans les réservoirs al. (2007) Energy Convers. Manage. 48, 1782-1797; Gunter et al. (1999) Appl. Geochem. 4, 1

  8. PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    inadequate ventilation. The American Society of Heating,Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAEPIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration is approximately 400 parts per million. In this study, we investigate the relationship between ventilation

  9. A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide Nael N State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 CO2 was used to break several water-in-crude oil density and mole fraction. The proposed mechanism by which CO2 destabilizes water-in-crude oil emulsions

  10. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken to understand fundamental aspects of carbon dioxide (CO2) induced asphaltene precipitation. Oil and asphaltene samples from the Rangely field in Colorado were used for most of the project. The project consisted of pure component and high-pressure, thermodynamic experiments, thermodynamic modeling, kinetic experiments and modeling, targeted corefloods and compositional modeling.

  11. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  12. DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide underneath millions of acres of Federal lands.

  13. Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy on Rodent Euthanasia using Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Office of the Vice President for Research UGA IACUC Policy on Rodent Euthanasia using Carbon with this guidance and to ensure effective euthanasia of rodents used in research. Rodents must be euthanized source of carbon dioxide for euthanasia. The use of compressed gas and handling gas cylinders can

  14. Potential for storage of carbon dioxide in the rocks beneath the East Irish Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    strategy towards renewable and new energy technologies. The East Irish Sea Basin, which lies between Research and British Geological Survey Keyworth Nottingham NG12 5GG Email: klsh@bgs.ac.uk Tyndall Centre carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in the East Irish Sea Basin, UK was assessed as part of the Tyndall Centre

  15. Mixed uranium dicarbide and uranium dioxide microspheres and process of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fuel microspheres are made by sintering microspheres containing uranium dioxide and uncombined carbon in a 1 mole percent carbon monoxide/99 mole percent argon atmosphere at 1550.degree. C. and then sintering the microspheres in a 3 mole percent carbon monoxide/97 mole percent argon atmosphere at the same temperature.

  16. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    180 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two firms with operations in Nevada and Oregon% of the titanium metal used was in aerospace applications. The remaining 40% was used in the armor, chemical

  17. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    172 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by three operations in Nevada and Utah. Ingot was produced. In 2011, an estimated 66% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining 34

  18. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    180 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two firms with operations in Nevada and Oregon produced titanium forgings, mill products, and castings. In 1996, an estimated 65% of the titanium metal

  19. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    182 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two firms with operations in Nevada and Oregon% of the titanium metal used was in aerospace applications. The remaining 35% was used in the chemical process

  20. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    180 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two firms with operations in Nevada and Oregon produced titanium forgings, mill products, and castings. In 1997, an estimated 65% of the titanium metal

  1. Most of the world's titanium output is refined into titanium dioxide (TiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Most of the world's titanium output is refined into titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), which is used to give.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supports science to understand · How and where titanium resources form and concentrate in the Earth's crust · How titanium resources interact with the environment to affect human

  2. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    180 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two operations in Nevada and Utah. Ingot was made forged components, mill products, and castings. In 2005, an estimated 65% of the titanium metal was used

  3. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    176 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two firms with operations in Nevada and Oregon% of the titanium metal used was in aerospace applications. The remaining 40% was used in armor, chemical processing

  4. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    178 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two operations in Nevada and Utah. Ingot was made forged components, mill products, and castings. In 2004, an estimated 60% of the titanium metal was used

  5. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    178 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two firms with operations in Nevada and Utah. Ingot to produce forged components, mill products, and castings. In 2001, an estimated 65% of the titanium metal

  6. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    176 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by three operations in Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Ingot and castings. In 2006, an estimated 72% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining

  7. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    172 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by three operations in Nevada and Utah. Ingot was produced. In 2012, an estimated 72% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining 28

  8. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    170 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by three operations in Nevada and Utah. Titanium ingot and castings. In 2013, an estimated 73% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining

  9. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    180 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by three operations in Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Ingot and castings. In 2007, an estimated 76% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining

  10. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    178 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two firms in Nevada and Oregon. Ingot was made by the two sponge producers and by nine other firms in seven States. About 30 companies produced titanium forgings, mill

  11. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    180 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two operations in Nevada and Utah. Ingot was made forged components, mill products, and castings. In 2002, an estimated 65% of the titanium metal used

  12. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    172 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by four operations in Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Ingot and castings. In 2010, an estimated 75% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining

  13. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    176 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by three operations in Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Ingot and castings. In 2008, an estimated 79% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining

  14. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    178 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by two operations in Nevada and Utah. Ingot was made forged components, mill products, and castings. In 2003, an estimated 55% of the titanium metal used

  15. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    174 TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Titanium sponge metal was produced by three operations in Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. A fourth, an estimated 76% of the titanium metal was used in aerospace applications. The remaining 24% was used in armor

  16. Preparation of Inclusion Complex of Piroxicam with Cyclodextrin by Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    or the temperature. Moreover, additional advantages lie in the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) which properties of non with CO2 at 150°C and 15 MPa. Keywords: piroxicam; cyclodextrin; complex; ternary agent; supercritical-toxicity and mild critical conditions make it an ideal substitute to organic solvents. CO2 is gaseous at ambient

  17. Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide Kwanyong properties that are determined by the chirality1 and diameter of carbon nanotubes. One way to overcome@skku.ac.kr Application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to various electronic devices such as field emission displays, gas

  18. Retrievals of Carbon Dioxide from GOSAT: Validation, model comparison and approach development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retrievals of Carbon Dioxide from GOSAT: Validation, model comparison and approach development properties of aerosol and cirrus particles. 3. Model Comparison Retrievals of XCO2 were performed on cloud and compared to the CarbonTracker model. The retrieval averaging kernels were applied to Carbon

  19. Mar., 1955 GASIFICATIONOF CARBONRODSWITH CARBONDIOXIDE 241 GASIFICATION OF CARBON RODS WITH CARBON DIOXIDE1*2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    commercial carbons and their gasification rates with carbon dioxide at a series of temperatures between 900 and 1300" has been investigated. The following properties of the carbons have been determined: yantitative. No general correlation between these properties and the carbon gasification rates was found. Introduction

  20. Comprehensive study of carbon dioxide adsorption in the metalorganic frameworks M2(dobdc)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comprehensive study of carbon dioxide adsorption in the metal­organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M ¼ Mg and Craig M. Brown*bl Analysis of the CO2 adsorption properties of a well-known series of metal and single crystal X-ray di raction experiments are used to unveil the site-speci c binding properties of CO2