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1

Benchmark Results for TraPPE Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Benchmark results for TraPPE Carbon Dioxide. The purpose of these pages is to provide some explicit results from Monte ...

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

2

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report Joint Global Change Research Institute 8400 Baltimore Avenue College Park, Maryland 20740 #12;PNNL-14537

Hultman, Nathan E.

3

Groundwater Chemistry Changes as a Result of Carbon Dioxide Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides final results from a combined field, laboratory, and modeling investigation into whether carbon dioxide (CO2) can have an adverse impact on potable groundwater. The investigation was undertaken by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Montana State University (MSU).

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

4

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Direct Mineral Carbonation: Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration by Direct Mineral Carbonation: Results from Recent Studies and Current Status W.K. OConnor (oconnor@alrc.doe.gov) D.C. Dahlin (dahlin@alrc.doe.gov) D.N Nilsen...

5

Carbon dioxide injection and resultant alteration of Weber Sandstone (Pennsylvanian-Permian), Rangely field, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Geologic interpretations made during the current EOR (enhanced oil recovery) project at Rangely field (Rio Blanco County, Colorado), have made interesting connections between alteration of reservoir mineralogy and texture, changes in produced water composition, and increased production problems. Carbon dioxide is being injected into the Weber Sandstone in portions of Rangely field. The carbon dioxide injection is part of a very successful tertiary recovery project initiated in late 1986. The bottomhole pH of Weber brine has decreased from approximately 7.5 to 4.5 with the addition of CO/sub 2/. Changes in the chemistry of produced water are associated with alteration of reservoir mineralogy. The CO/sub 2/ flood has caused a substantial increase in the concentrations of iron, calcium, magnesium, and strontium in the produced brine. The amount of increase is directly related to the volume of CO/sub 2/ produced in each well. This increase resulted from the dissolution of carbonate cements, authigenic clays, and detrital feldspars. An increase in the calculated scaling potential of the produced water is a result of this change in chemistry. Hypotheses based on the water-chemistry changes were confirmed in pressure-cell and core-flood experiments. Core-flood experiments also indicate no net change in permeability following carbon dioxide injection: the increase in permeability due to the dissolution of carbonate cements is being offset by a decrease caused by migratory clays plugging pore throats. The clays, which coat the authigenic carbonates, are liberated when the carbonates are dissolved.

Bowker, K.A.; Shuler, P.J.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

An Experimental Evaluation of HVAC-Grade Carbon-Dioxide Sensors: Part 2, Performance Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second paper in a four-part series reporting on the test and evaluation of typical carbon-dioxide sensors used in building HVAC applications. Fifteen models of NDIR HVAC-grade CO2 sensors were tested and evaluated to determine the accuracy, linearity, repeatability, and hysteresis of each sensor. This paper describes the performance of the sensors and provides a comparison with the manufacturers specifications. The sensors were tested at 40% relative humidity, 73oF (22.8oC) temperature, 14.70 psia (101.35 kPa) pressure, and at five different CO2 concentrations (400 ppm, 750 ppm, 1100 ppm, 1450 ppm, and 1800 ppm). The test results showed a wide variation in sensor performance among the various manufacturers and in some cases a wide variation among sensors of the same model. In all, 45 sensors were evaluated: three from each of the 15 models. Among the 15 models tested, eight models have a single-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, four models have a dual-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, and three models have a single-lamp, dual-wavelength configuration.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Maxwell, Dr. Gregory [Iowa State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2010 Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2007, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 17 percent. In the IEO2010 Reference case, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from non-OECD countries in 2035 are about double those from OECD countries. Overview Because anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, world energy use continues to be at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2010 Reference case, world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions29 grow from 29.7 billion metric tons in 2007 to 33.8 billion metric tons in 2020 and 42.4 billion metric tons in 2035 (Table 18).30

8

Numerical modeling of carbon dioxide sequestration on the rate of pressure solution creep in limestone: Preliminary results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into an aquifer or a depleted geological reservoir, its dissolution into solution results in acidification of the pore waters. As a consequence, the pore waters become more reactive, which leads to enhanced dissolution-precipitation processes and a modification of the mechanical and hydrological properties of the rock. This effect is especially important for limestones given that the solubility and reactivity of carbonates is strongly dependent on pH and the partial pressure of CO2. The main mechanism that couples dissolution, precipitation and rock matrix deformation is commonly referred to as intergranular pressure solution creep (IPS) or pervasive pressure solution creep (PSC). This process involves dissolution at intergranular grain contacts subject to elevated stress, diffusion of dissolved material in an intergranular fluid, and precipitation in pore spaces subject to lower stress. This leads to an overall and pervasive reduction in porosity due to both grain indent...

Renard, Francois; Hellmann, Roland; Collombet, Marielle; Guen, Yvi Le

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

An Experimental Evaluation of HVAC-Grade Carbon-Dioxide Sensors: Part 3, Humidity, Temperature, and Pressure Sensitivity Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the third paper in a four-part series reporting on the test and evaluation of typical carbon-dioxide sensors used in building HVAC applications. Fifteen models of NDIR HVAC-grade CO2 sensors were tested and evaluated to determine the humidity, temperature, and pressure sensitivity of the sensors. This paper reports the performance of the sensors at various relative humidity, temperature, and pressure levels common to building HVAC applications and provides a comparison with manufacturer specifications. Among the 15 models tested, eight models have a single-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, four models have a dual-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, and three models have a single-lamp, dual-wavelength configuration. The sensors were tested in a chamber specifically fabricated for this research. A description of the apparatus and the method of test are described in Part 1 (Shrestha and Maxwell 2009). The test result showed a wide variation in humidity, temperature, and pressure sensitivity of CO2 sensors among manufacturers. In some cases, significant variations in sensor performance exist between sensors of the same model. Even the natural variation in relative humidity could significantly vary readings of some CO2 sensor readings. The effects of temperature and pressure variation on NDIR CO2 sensors are unavoidable without an algorithm to compensate for the changes. For the range of temperature and pressure variation in an air-conditioned space, the effect of pressure variation is more significant compared to the effect of temperature variation.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Maxwell, Dr. Gregory [Iowa State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: A procedure for estimation and results for 1950-1982. Tellus 36B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (C02) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: 1) updating the 1950 to present time series of C02 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 2) extending this time series back to 1751, 3) gridding the data at 1 ' by 1 ' resolution, and 4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of C02 from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5 % over 1990 levels to 6188 x lo6 metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement wit % two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distriiution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of C02 emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marl; Tom Boden; Steve Bischof

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,922,792 entitled "Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a neutralization/sequestration method that concomitantly treats bauxite residues from aluminum production processes, as well as brine wastewater from oil and gas production processes. The method uses an integrated approach that coincidentally treats multiple industrial waste by-product streams. The end results include neutralizing caustic

12

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

13

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a non-technical review of the problems associated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect. (TEM)

Firestine, M.W. (ed.)

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Carbon Dioxide Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. © C opyright 2009 Carbon Dioxide Compression DOE – EPRI – NIST ... Greenhouse gas sequestration Page 5. 5 © C opyright 2009 ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor September 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Production scale, not lower labor costs, drives China's current advantage in manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, according to a new report released today by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although the prevailing belief is that low labor costs and direct government subsidies for PV manufacturing in China account for that country's dominance in PV manufacturing, the NREL/MIT study shows that a majority of the region's competitive advantage comes from production scale-enabled, in part, through preferred access to capital (indirect

17

New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor September 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Production scale, not lower labor costs, drives China's current advantage in manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, according to a new report released today by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although the prevailing belief is that low labor costs and direct government subsidies for PV manufacturing in China account for that country's dominance in PV manufacturing, the NREL/MIT study shows that a majority of the region's competitive advantage comes from production scale-enabled, in part, through preferred access to capital (indirect

18

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dissolving plutonium dioxide comprises adding silver ions to a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution to significantly speed up dissolution of difficultly soluble plutonium dioxide.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

CYCLIC CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) Cyclic CO 2 stimulation is a single-well operation that is developing as a method of rapidly producing oil....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

22

SRD 134 Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. CARBON DIOXIDE. MW [1]. 44.010. NBP [1]. 194.75 K. TP [1]. 216.59 K. CO 2. Pc [1]. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

23

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

24

BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

Yang, Rosa L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fill Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill DU dioxide in the form of sand may be used to fill the void spaces in the waste package after the package is loaded with SNF. This...

26

METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1-T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853-15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

Schrijvers, Michiel L. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pattje, Wouter J. [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Slagter-Menkema, Lorian [Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H. [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wal, Jacqueline E. van der [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der [Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schuuring, E., E-mail: e.schuuring@umcg.nl [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Available Technologies: Acceleration of Carbon Dioxide ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; ADVANTAGES: Accelerated capture of carbon dioxide; Effective at extremely dilute (nanomolar ...

29

The carbon dioxide dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burning fossil fuels on the global climate is discussed. It may be that as we produce carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels, we create a greenhouse effect which causes temperatures on earth to rise. Implications of changes in global temperatures are discussed.

Edelson, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

32

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

34

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale carbon dioxide...

35

Sonochemical reduction of carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production are responsible for approximately 75% of the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the… (more)

Koblov, Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates or intermediate salts through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that high calcination temperatures decrease the activity of sodium bicarbonate Grade 1 (SBC No.1) during subsequent carbonation cycles, but there is little or no progressive decrease in activity in successive cycles. SBC No.1 appears to be more active than SBC No.3. As expected, the presence of SO{sub 2} in simulated flue gas results in a progressive loss of sorbent capacity with increasing cycles. This is most likely due to an irreversible reaction to produce Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. This compound appears to be stable at calcination temperatures as high as 200 C. Tests of 40% supported potassium carbonate sorbent and plain support material suggest that some of the activity observed in tests of the supported sorbent may be due to adsorption by the support material rather than to carbonation of the sorbent.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

38

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

40

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and thecarbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO 2 ). These results14 3.2.2 Total Carbon Dioxide (CO

Lask, Kathleen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol was investigated. The procedure for the carbon dioxide conversion was carried out using a small scale… (more)

Okpo, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in three cases, 2005-2040 (million metric tons carbon dioxide ...

44

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces Title China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and...

45

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 January Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important...

46

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

47

A New Production Route for Titanium Dioxide Pigment That ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TiO2 pigment is primarily produced by the high temperature chloride process, resulting in considerable CO2 emissions. A new metallurgical process for making  ...

48

A New Production Route for Titanium Dioxide Pigment That ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TiO2 pigment is primarily produced by the high temperature chloride process, resulting in considerable CO2 emissions. A novel hydrometallurgical process for  ...

49

CONFIRMING THE PRIMARILY SMOOTH STRUCTURE OF THE VEGA DEBRIS DISK AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

Clumpy structure in the debris disk around Vega has been previously reported at millimeter wavelengths and attributed to concentrations of dust grains trapped in resonances with an unseen planet. However, recent imaging at similar wavelengths with higher sensitivity has disputed the observed structure. We present three new millimeter-wavelength observations that help to resolve the puzzling and contradictory observations. We have observed the Vega system with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at a wavelength of 880 {mu}m and an angular resolution of 5''; with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and an angular resolution of 5''; and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and angular resolution of 10''. Despite high sensitivity and short baselines, we do not detect the Vega debris disk in either of the interferometric data sets (SMA and CARMA), which should be sensitive at high significance to clumpy structure based on previously reported observations. We obtain a marginal (3{sigma}) detection of disk emission in the GBT data; the spatial distribution of the emission is not well constrained. We analyze the observations in the context of several different models, demonstrating that the observations are consistent with a smooth, broad, axisymmetric disk with inner radius 20-100 AU and width {approx}> 50 AU. The interferometric data require that at least half of the 860 {mu}m emission detected by previous single-dish observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope be distributed axisymmetrically, ruling out strong contributions from flux concentrations on spatial scales of {approx}<100 AU. These observations support recent results from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer indicating that previous detections of clumpy structure in the Vega debris disk were spurious.

Hughes, A. Meredith; Plambeck, Richard; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mason, Brian [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. El Golf 40, Piso 18, Santiago (Chile); Su, Kate [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phil; Devlin, Mark, E-mail: mhughes@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Abstract --The paper introduces a concept for integration of substation IED data, primarily coming from digital protective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract -- The paper introduces a concept for integration of substation IED data, primarily coming from digital protective relays (DPRs) and digital fault recorders (DFRs) . Modern substations similar to that of DFRs. In some recent substation designs there are cases where DFR function is replaced

Kezunovic, Mladen

51

Solubilities of phenols in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium solubilities of pure anthracene at 50 C, 1-naphthol at 35, 45, and 55 C, and hydroquinone at 35 and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about 85--300 bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with an external high-pressure liquid chromatographer. The solubility results, along with those for other phenols reported in the literature, are correlated with the translated-modified Peng Robinson equation of state.

Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Development of a Carbon Dioxide Micro Gas Sensor with Integrated AgCl Reference Electrode.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ăăIn recent years, high carbon dioxide emissions not only result in serious air pollution and greenhouse effect, but also cause water acidification and decrease the… (more)

Hung, Wei-Che

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Novomer's thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Why is this important? By using CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, the process has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously reducing petroleum consumption and producing useful products for American consumers. The world's first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate (PPC) polymer using waste carbon dioxide (CO2) as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy.

54

PHASE I SINGLE CELL ELECTROLYZER TEST RESULTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document reports the results of Phase I Single Cell testing of an SO{sub 2}-Depolarized Water Electrolyzer. Testing was performed primarily during the first quarter of FY 2008 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using an electrolyzer cell designed and built at SRNL. Other facility hardware were also designed and built at SRNL. This test further advances this technology for which work began at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests to further develop the technology of SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis as part of the HyS Cycle. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both thermodynamic efficiency and hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. The anode and cathode are formed by spraying platinum containing catalyst on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). In most testing the material of the PEM was NafionR. The electrolyzer cell active area can be as large as 54.8 cm{sup 2}. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is a sulfuric acid solution containing sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide could be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures could be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell was collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable.

Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

55

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

56

METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

Garner, C.S.

1959-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

57

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries Extended discussion here Carbon emissions per capita 1973 vs. 1991 by major end use. (Denmark comparison is 1972 and 1991) With the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto approaching, there is a great deal of excitement over policies designed to reduce future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels. At COP-3, more than 130 nations will meet to create legally binding targets for CO2 reductions. Accordingly, we have analyzed the patterns of emissions arising from the end uses of energy (and electricity production) in ten industrialized countries, with surprising and, in some cases, worrisome results. The surprise is that emissions in many countries in the early 1990s were lower than in the 1970s in an absolute sense and on a per capita basis; the worry

58

Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Change Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage,Probability of Injected Carbon Dioxide Plumes Encounteringthe probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and

Jordan, P.D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions index, we use conversion factors.conversion factor of pounds of carbon dioxide emitted perappropriate factors to arrive at carbon dioxide emissions.

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions index, we use conversion factors.into carbon dioxide emissions, we continue to use a factorappropriate factors to arrive at carbon dioxide emissions.

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering that supercritical carbon dioxide has recently been paid attention in the field of extraction, separation, and reaction medium, its aptitude for both a reaction solvent and a reactant was examined in zinc glutarate-catalyzed reactions. As a result, it was proved that supercritical carbon dioxide was a suitable substitute for organic solvents in the copolymerization reactions. Great diffusivity of supercritical carbon dioxide into polymer segments was thought to promote carbon dioxide supply to the active sites of the zinc species and to afford alternating polycarbonate production. Low reaction temperature appeared to be advantageous to polycarbonate and cyclic carbonate formation. Apart from zinc glutarate catalyst whose detailed mechanistic studies were hard to perform due to its insolubility, some other zinc compounds were studied. A homogeneous catalyst, bis(ethyl fumarato)zinc, showed similar polycarbonate yield to zinc glutarate, and the method of the catalyst preparation affected its catalytic activity. Only a small amount of the catalyst was considered to be active in the copolymerization process even in the homogeneous systems. In the zinc dicarboxylate complexes, the carbon number between two carboxyl groups and the steric nature in the vicinity of the zinc atom might be important factors for the copolymerization catalysis.

Katsurao, Takumi

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Reaction products of chlorine dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concern over the presence of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinedisinfected drinking water has led to extensive investigations of treatment options for controlling these by-products. Among these treatment options is the use of an alternative disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide. Although chlorine dioxide does not react to produce trihalomethanes, considerable evidence does exist that chlorine dioxide, like chlorine, will produce other organic by-products. The literature describes chlorinated and nonchlorinated derivatives including acids, epoxides, quinones, aldehydes, disulfides, and sulfonic acids that are products of reactions carried out under conditions that are vastly different from those experienced during drinking water treatment. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that some by-products in these categories may be produced. Certain specific volatile aldehydes and halogenated derivatives as determined by the total organic halogen parameter are among those by-products that have been measured.

Alan A. Stevens

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Weyburn Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration ProjeCt Background Since September 2000, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been transported from the Dakota Gasification Plant in North Dakota through a 320-km pipeline and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. The CO 2 has given the Weyburn field, discovered 50 years ago, a new life: 155 million gross barrels of incremental oil are slated to be recovered by 2035 and the field is projected to be able to store 30 million tonnes of CO 2 over 30 years. CO 2 injection began in October of 2005 at the adjacent Midale oilfield, and an additional 45-60 million barrels of oil are expected to be recovered during 30 years of continued operation. A significant monitoring project associated with the Weyburn and Midale commercial

64

SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

1958-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

65

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

66

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Carbon Dioxide Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Kyoto-Related Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emission...

68

Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Carbon Dioxide, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Carbon Dioxide, and Trifluoromethane Blends: Synergistic ... a straight sided schlieren image which is captured by a ...

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral Autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 Cruise. Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral Autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 Cruise. NDP-052 (1995) data Download the Data and ASCII Documentation files of NDP-052 PDF Download a PDF of NDP-052 image Contributed by Marilyn F. Lamb and Richard A. Feely Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Seattle, Washington and Lloyd Moore and Donald K. Atwood Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Miami, Florida Prepared by Alexander Kozyr* Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. *Energy, Environment, and Resources Center The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 4420 Date Published: September 1995

72

Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The current status and outlook for carbon dioxide in the immediate future has been examined by Kenneth M. Stern of Chem Systems Inc. Stern. Most of the tonnage carbon dioxide being used for EOR comes from natural gas wells. Major projects are now in progress to develop natural carbon dioxide sources and to transport the gas via pipeline to the injection region. These projects and the maximum permissible cost of carbon dioxide at current petroleum prices are discussed. Potential sources include exhaust gases from power plants, natural gas processing plants, chemical plants, and natural carbon dioxide wells.

Not Available

1986-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

73

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

74

Experimental and analytic studies to model kinetics and mass transport of carbon dioxide sequstration in depleted carbonate reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

There is undeniable evidence that concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rising at an increasingly rapid rate primarily as the result of burning fossil fuels. Although the debate continues, most of the scientific community believes that higher levels of atmospheric CO2 will lead to a significant warming of the Earth’s climate and that there is already evidence that this is occurring. There are two ways to ameliorate this problem. One is to significantly reduce production of CO2, which is primarily a political-economic problem, and the other is to remove CO2 from emissions and/or the atmosphere and find some way to sequester it. Several possible ways to sequester CO2 are under investigation or have been suggested. These include removal by chemical reaction, deep seabed disposal, and pumping supercritical CO2 into various subsurface environments. Sequestration of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs appears to be a viable option, with a possible economic spin-off from the recovery of significant gas reserves. At the elevated temperatures and pressures encountered in reservoirs, carbon dioxide behaves as a supercritical fluid. Under these conditions, little was known regarding the, diffusion of carbon dioxide in natural gas, and displacement of natural gas by carbon dioxide. A major objective of this research was to obtain the necessary data to model these processes. Also, the added CO2 will react with reservoir waters that are often chemically complex high ionic strength brines making them more acidic. This can result in the dissolution of calcium carbonate (calcite) that is a common host rock or sandstone cement in reservoirs and lead to potentially serious problems for CO2 injection and the integrity of the reservoir. It was consequently a second major objective of this project to determine calcite solubility and dissolution kinetics in solutions representative of subsurface brines and produce a general dissolution rate equation. Both objectives were accomplished. Reservoir simulations indicated a large amount of CO2 would be sequestered, with the amount depending on reservoir water saturation. Simulation results also indicate a significant amount of natural gas could be produced. For an 80-acre pattern, natural gas production was calculated to be 3.2 BSCF or 63% of remaining gas-in-place for 30% reservoir water saturation. Gas revenues would help defray the cost of CO2 sequestration. Therefore, CO2 sequestration in depleted gas reservoirs appears to be a win-win technology. Considerable effort went into testing and refining the ability to predict calcite solubility in brines using a Pitzer-equation based computer model, with particular difficulties being encountered in solutions with high dissolved calcium concentrations. After that was accomplished, calcite dissolution kinetics were determined a wide range of brine compositions both including and not including potential inhibitors from 25 to 83 oC and a CO2 partial pressure from 0.1 to 1 atm. The reaction was found to be first order for undersaturations of 0.2 to ~1 and was surface controlled. The rate constant was fit to a multiple regression model, thus making it possible to predict calcite dissolution rates over a wide range of solution compositions, partial pressures of CO2 and temperature. Results indicate that equilibrium is likely to be reached relatively quickly in front of an advancing supercritical CO2 fluid.

Morse, John W; Mamora, Daulat

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

77

IEP - Carbon Dioxide: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Regulatory Drivers In July 7, 2009 testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu made the following statements:1 "...Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that carbon dioxide from human activity has increased the atmospheric level of CO2 by roughly 40 percent, a level one- third higher than any time in the last 800,000 years. There is also a consensus that CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have caused our planet to change. Already, we have seen the loss of about half of the summer arctic polar ice cap since the 1950s, a dramatically accelerating rise in sea level, and the loss of over two thousand cubic miles of glacial ice, not on geological time scales but over a mere hundred years.

78

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Klaus S. Lackner (kl2010@columbia.edu; 212-854-0304) Columbia University 500 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 Patrick Grimes (pgrimes@worldnet.att.net; 908-232-1134) Grimes Associates Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 Hans-J. Ziock (ziock@lanl.gov; 505-667-7265) Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O.Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Abstract The goal of carbon sequestration is to take CO 2 that would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere and put it in safe and permanent storage. Most proposed methods would capture CO 2 from concentrated sources like power plants. Indeed, on-site capture is the most sensible approach for large sources and initially offers the most cost-effective avenue to sequestration. For distributed, mobile sources like cars, on-board capture at affordable cost would not be

79

Carbon Dioxide Compression and Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of the art regarding carbon dioxide CO2 compression and transportation in the United States and Canada. The primary focus of the report was on CO2 compression because it is a significant cost and energy penalty in carbon capture and storage CCS. The secondary focus of the report was to document the state of the art of CO2 pipeline transportation in the United States and Canada.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

80

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past century, fossil fuel consumption has added carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at rapidly increasing rates. The prospect of further acceleration of this rate by turning from petroleum to coal has alarmed climatologists because of possible catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar (Photosynthesis) energy, and genetic engineering. Some exciting new developments in genetic engineering will be touched on together with established bio-engineering-aquaculture, hydroponics, yeast, pharmaceutical production, fermentation, single cell protein, etc. A 'bio-factory' will be described, with a feed stream of carbon dioxide, water, nutrients containing sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus and trace elements, and living culture interacting with light under controlled conditions to yield food and raw materials. Candidate products will be suggested and a few of the problems anticipated. Engineering and logistic requirements will be outlined and the economic impact assessed.

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Titanium Dioxide Application Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) are significant corrosion mechanisms affecting the secondary side of PWR steam generator tubing. Laboratory tests have shown that various titanium compounds may be effective at inhibiting stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in caustic environments. The results of those laboratory tests are summarized in this report.

1997-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

82

Carbon dioxide and climate: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography with abstracts presents 394 citations retrieved from the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The citations cover all aspects of the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. These include carbon cycling, temperature effects, carbon dioxide control technologies, paleoclimatology, carbon dioxide sources and sinks, mathematical models, energy policies, greenhouse effect, and the role of the oceans and terrestrial forests.

Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

TABLE OF CONTENTS Carbon Dioxide Reduction Metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Utilization of Sequestered Carbon Dioxide as a. Booster of Hydrogen ... CO2 Capture and Sequestration – Implications for the Metals. Industry.

85

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

86

Carbon Dioxide Transportation and Sequestration Act (Illinois...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

process for the issuance of a certificate of authority by an owner or operator of a pipeline designed, constructed, and operated to transport and to sequester carbon dioxide...

87

Scientists Crack Materials Mystery of Vanadium Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 1, 2010 ... Using a condensed physics theory to explain the observed phase behaviors of vanadium dioxide, ORNL scientists have discovered that the ...

88

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for purposes other than their energy value) create carbon dioxide emissions and also sequester carbon in nonfuel products, ...

89

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

available free of charge - include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon...

90

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Remote sounding of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from a satellite  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide is the most important atmospheric constituent contributing to the greenhouse effect in the earth-atmosphere system. Here, a method is presented for the remote sounding of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from a satellite, including the inversion method and preliminary calculation results. The results indicate that the measurement accuracy of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in 0.25 ppm, calculated according to volume, in ground field of view of 1,127 x 1,162 km[sup 2] for an instrument such as the HIRS-2 on the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellite.

Zhaoxian Zhang (Shangai Inst. of Technical Physics (China))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

96

Contrasting Regional Responses to Increasing Leaf-Level Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a coupled atmosphere–land surface model, simulations were conducted to characterize the regional climate changes that result from the response of stomates to increases in leaf-level carbon dioxide (CO2) under differing conditions of ...

Faye T. Cruz; Andrew J. Pitman; John L. McGregor; Jason P. Evans

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

ORNL DAAC, Effects of Increased Carbon Dioxide, Dec. 11, 2002  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increased Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation The ORNL DAAC announces the release of a data set entitled "Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Litter Chemistry and Decomposition." The...

98

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program...

99

Recovery Act: Re-utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Re-utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material Background Worldwide carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from human activity have...

100

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

102

Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on Facebook icon Twitter icon Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation Jump to: navigation, search Name Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide...

103

Changes related to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon Changes related to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation" Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...

104

Why do carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Why do carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the original fuel? Carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the original fuel because during complete ...

105

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color...

106

THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

Yang, Rosa Lu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California and Spatial Disaggregated Estimate of Energy-related Carbon Dioxide for California...

108

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Title Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in...

109

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry Title Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...

110

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide CaptureSequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) Carbon Dioxide CaptureSequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) Eligibility Commercial Industrial Utility Program...

111

Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form  

SciTech Connect

Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

113

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

114

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most datasets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to atmospheric carbon dioxide data includes: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Isotopes • Atmospheric carbon dioxide records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii • Monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and other data from the NOAA/CMDL continuous monitoring network • Data from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network • Atmospheric CO2 records from continuous measurements at Jubany Station, Antarctica and from 10 sites in the SIO air sampling network • Historical data from the extended Vostok ice core (2003) and the Siple Station ice core (1997) • Historical records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores (1998) • AmeriFlux Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements • Data from the Canadian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network • Flask Samples from at U.S.S.R.-Operated Sites (1991) • The CISIRO (Australia) Monitoring Program from Aircraft for 1972-1981 • CO2 Concentrations in Surface Water and the Atmosphere during 1986-1989 NOAA/PMEL Cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans • Surface Water and Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrous Oxide Observations by Shipboard Automated Gas Chromatography: Results from Expeditions Between 1977 and 1990 (1992) • IPCC Working Group 1, 1994: Modeling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995). New datasets are added when available to the category of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

115

Canada, carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

One of the major contributors to the greenhouse effect is carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Even with its low population density, Canada, on a per capita basis, has the dubious distinction of being the world's fourth largest producer of carbon from carbon dioxide. This paper considers the impact of Canadian carbon dioxide emissions on the greenhouse effect in light of the 1988 Conference on the Changing Atmosphere's recommendations. A computer model has been developed that, when using anticipated Canadian fossil fuel demands, shows that unless steps are taken immediately, Canada will not be able to meet the conference's proposed carbon dioxide reduction of 20 percent of 1988 levels by the year 2005, let alone meet any more substantial cuts that may be required in the future.

Hughes, L.; Scott, S. (Dept. of Mathematics and Computing Science, Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

117

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Coal Seams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide in Coal Seams K. Schroeder (schroede@netl.doe.gov; 412.386.5910) U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236...

118

Carbon Dioxide Variability and Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly values of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) formed the basis for an investigation of concentration fluctuations on daily to monthly time scales. In agreement with earlier studies we found no ...

James C. Sadler; Colin S. Ramage; Arnold M. Hori

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Turning unwanted carbon dioxide into electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and use it as a tool to boost electric power. Turning unwanted carbon dioxide into electricity Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov High Resolution Image The...

120

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

William Watson

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

De Figueiredo, Mark A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage Program:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage Program: Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage Program: Closing Long-Term CO2 Geological Storage Gaps Relevant to Regulatory and Policy Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage Program: Closing Long-Term CO2 Geological Storage Gaps Relevant to Regulatory and Policy Development Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: System & Application Design Website: www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=277910&_user=10&_ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carbon-dioxide-co2-capture-project-ph Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation This paper describes results of Phase 2 of the Storage Program of the

124

Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

127

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reduction of carbon dioxide. IR-SpectroelectrochemicalElectrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide mediated by Re(Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Mediated by (

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Methane– Title: Carbon Dioxide Mixed Hydrates Tae-Hyukof methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposedsequestration of carbon dioxide ( CO 2 ) and/or production

Kwon, T.H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: April 9, 2007 4: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on AddThis.com... Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector began to

131

A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very helpful when time and data resources are limited. The methodology consists of five tasks: 1) select a section of the reservoir with the most detailed geologic, reservoir, and production data, 2) perform material balance analysis for the selected section to determine 001? and the history of total expansion, voidage, and injectage, 3) establish an average 5-spot pattern within the selected section, 4) develop a black oil numerical simulation model for a quarter of the 5-spot pattern and simulate the primary and waterflood recovery processes, and 5) forecast carbon dioxide performance using Shell's Scoping model, Texaco's "PROPHET" model, and VIP miscible simulator. One of the major limitations of the methodology is that details of individual well performance and reservoir pressure and fluid saturation distributions in the project area are not available. Therefore, the forecast is limited to the average pattern and to the reservoir as a whole. Results of the Dollarhide Clearfork simulation study show that 9.7 % to 14.1 % of OOIP may be recovered by C02 flood in the selected section. It would require WAG injection cycles with a total fluid injection of 0.831 HCPV.

Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

133

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems and CO{sub 2} capture processes. Financial models were developed to estimate the capital cost, operations and maintenance cost, cost of electricity, and CO{sub 2} avoidance cost. Results showed that, depending on the plant size and the type of coal burned, CO{sub 2} avoidance cost is between $47/t to $67/t for a PC +MEA plant, between $22.03/t to $32.05/t for an oxygen combustion plant, and between $13.58/t to $26.78/t for an IGCC + Selexol plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact on the CO2 avoidance cost of the heat of absorption of solvent in an MEA plant and energy consumption of the ASU in an oxy-coal combustion plant. An economic analysis of CO{sub 2} capture from an ethanol plant was also conducted. The cost of CO{sub 2} capture from an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 100 million gallons/year was estimated to be about $13.92/t.

M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Kevin T. Raterman (ratekt@inel.gov; 208-526-5444) Michael McKellar (mgq@inel.gov; 208-526-1346) Anna Podgorney (poloak@inel.gov; 208-526-0064) Douglas Stacey (stacde@inel.gov; 208-526-3938) Terry Turner (tdt@inel.gov; 208-526-8623) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2110 Brian Stokes (bxs9@pge.com; 415-972-5591) John Vranicar (jjv2@pge.com; 415-972-5591) Pacific Gas & Electric Company 123 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Introduction Many analysts 1,2,3 identify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

135

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

136

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORITE Chlorine Dioxide CAS # 10049-04-4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about chlorine dioxide and chlorite. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. It is important you understand this information because these substances may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. HIGHLIGHTS: Chlorine dioxide is a gas that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is used to disinfect drinking water and make it safe to drink. Chlorite is formed when chlorine dioxide reacts with water. High levels of chlorine dioxide can be irritating to the nose, eyes, throat, and lungs. Chlorine dioxide and chlorite have not been found in any of the 1,647 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What are chlorine dioxide and chlorite? Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish-yellow manufactured gas. It does not occur naturally in the environment. When

Chlorite Cas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell that has been stored following partial usage and including an alloy of magnesium as the anode, a moist cathode mix of carbon black, manganese dioxide, magnesium hydroxide, barium chromate and lithium chromate as the cathode, and 3.5 to 4.0 normal magnesium perchlorate as the electrolyte. The improvement involves increasing the moisture content of the cathode mix from 34 to 38 percent at the time of making the cell to reduce the self discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

139

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

140

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomers thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a...

142

Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and...

144

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and diesel fuel? About 19.64 pounds of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are produced from burning a gallon of gasoline ...

145

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

146

Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan to submit an annual national greenhouse gas inventory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane

Hughes, Larry

147

Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factorcarbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor

Garcia, Julio Enrique

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural Factors Affecting Energy Use and Carbon DioxideStructural Factors Affecting Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas for Natural Gas Storage  

Carbon dioxide injection during carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery can be carried out to produce the methane while

150

Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy - 2011.

151

FLAME DENITRATION AND REDUCTION OF URANIUM NITRATE TO URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution to uranium dioxide. The process comprises spraying fine droplets of aqueous uranyl nitrate solution into a hightemperature hydrocarbon flame, said flame being deficient in oxygen approximately 30%, retaining the feed in the flame for a sufficient length of time to reduce the nitrate to the dioxide, and recovering uranium dioxide. (AEC)

Hedley, W.H.; Roehrs, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.

1962-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

152

Cation Adsorption on Manganese Dioxide Impregnated Fibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complete removal of radioactive cations by standard mixed-bed ion-exchange resins is sometimes not achieved in liquid radwaste systems. This report documents an alternative ion adsorption process for the purification of liquid wastes, specifically, the use of manganese dioxide (MnO2) impregnated fibers to remove selected cations from PWR liquid waste streams.

1993-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

153

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

154

Improved magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell, stored following partial usage, is improved by increasing the cathode moisture content at the time of making the cell to reduce the self-discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

155

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Water Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) distributed a portion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to advance technologies for chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from industrial sources. The focus of the research projects is permanent sequestration of CO 2 through mineralization or development

158

Household carbon dioxide production in relation to the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

A survey of 655 households from eastern suburbs of Melbourne was undertaken to determine householders[prime] attitudes to, and understanding of, the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from car, electricity and gas use were computed and household actions which could reduce CO[sub 2] emissions were addressed. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates that householders in this area are aware of, and concerned about, the greenhouse effect, although their understanding of its causes is often poor. Many appreciate the contribution of cars, but are unclear about the relative importance of other household activities. Carbon dioxide emissions from the three sources examined averaged 21[center dot]2 tonnes/year per household and 7[center dot]4 tonnes/year per person. Electricity was the largest contributor (8[center dot]6 tonnes/year), cars the next largest (7[center dot]7 tonnes/year) and gas third (5[center dot] tonnes/year) per household. Emissions varied considerably from household to household. There was a strong positive correlation between availability of economic resources and household CO[sub 2] output from all sources. Carbon dioxide production, particularly from car use, was greater from households which were most distant from a railway station, and from larger households, and numbers of children in the household had little effect on emissions. There were also some economics of scale for households containing more adults. Understanding the causes of the greenhouse bore little relation to change in CO[sub 2] emissions; being concerned about it was associated with a small reduction; but actual actions to reduce car use and household heating, however motivated, produced significant reductions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Stokes, D.; Lindsay, A.; Marinopoulos, J.; Treloar, A.; Wescott, G. (Deakin Univ., Clayton (Australia))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

160

Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

162

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

163

NETL: Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Project No.: DE-FE0007634 FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed a novel system concept for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane. The proposed membrane has its genesis from the company's patented Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) technology. The prominent feature of the DFC membrane is its capability to produce power while capturing CO2 from the flue gas from a pulverized coal (PC) plant. The DFC membrane does not require flue gas compression as it operates on the principles of electrochemistry, resulting in net efficiency gains. The membrane utilizes a fuel (different from the plant flue gas, such as coal-derived syngas, natural gas, or a renewable resource) as the driver for the combined carbon capture and electric power generation. The electrochemical membrane consists of ceramic-based layers filled with carbonate salts, separating CO2 from the flue gas. Because of the electrode's high reaction rates, the membrane does not require a high CO2 concentration in its feed gas. The planar geometry of the membrane offers ease of scalability to large sizes suitable for deployment in PC plants, which is an important attribute in membrane design. The membrane has been tested at the laboratory scale, verifying the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. is advancing the technology to a maturity level suitable for adaption by industry for pilot-scale demonstration and subsequent commercial deployment.

164

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

165

Carbon Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents sorbent material. Additionally, the design of the system incorporates a cross- flow moving-bed reactor where the gas flows horizontally through a "panel" of solid sorbent that is slowly moving down-wards under gravity flow. With the expanded use of fossil fuels expected throughout the world, the increase in CO 2 emissions may prove to contribute even more significantly to global climate change. To address this problem, carbon sequestration scientists and engineers have proposed a number of methods to remove CO 2 from gas streams, such as chemical absorption with a solvent, membrane separation, and cryogenic fractionation. However, all of these methods are expensive and possibly cost-prohibitive for a specific application.

166

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.035 graphics Graphics data Data Investigators R.F. Keeling, S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher and J.S. Walker Carbon Dioxide Research Group Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California La Jolla, California 92093-0444, U.S.A. Period of Record 1958-2008 Methods Air samples at Mauna Loa are collected continuously from air intakes at the top of four 7-m towers and one 27-m tower. Four air samples are collected each hour for the purpose of determining the CO2 concentration. Determinations of CO2 are made by using a Siemens Ultramat 3 nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. This analyzer registers the concentration of CO2 in a stream of air flowing at ~0.5

167

Carbon dioxide utilization and seaweed production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dioxide utilization and seaweed production dioxide utilization and seaweed production V.R.P.Sinha World Bank Project Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Mymensingh, Bangladesh e-mails; vrpsinha@ mymensingh.net, vidyut_s@hotmail.com Lowell Fraley L.D. Fraley & Associates, LLC, P.O. Box 1525, Sugarland, TX 77487, USA, e-mail idf@hia.net BS Chowdhry ISS Consultants, Inc. 13111 Westheimer, Suite 303, Houston, Texas 77077, USA, e-mail bsc@issci.com Abstract: Stronger growth in many plants stimulated by increased CO 2 concentration should lead to greater biological productivity with an expected increase in the photosynthetic storage of carbon. Thus, the biosphere will serve as a sink for CO 2 , though it will also act as a source too, because of respiration. Normally net photosynthesis dominates in summer and

168

OBSERVATION Microbial Electrosynthesis: Feeding Microbes Electricity To Convert Carbon Dioxide and Water to Multicarbon Extracellular Organic Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The possibility of providing the acetogenic microorganism Sporomusa ovata with electrons delivered directly to the cells with a graphite electrode for the reduction of carbon dioxide to organic compounds was investigated. Biofilms of S. ovata growing on graphite cathode surfaces consumed electrons with the reduction of carbon dioxide to acetate and small amounts of 2-oxobutyrate. Electrons appearing in these products accounted for over 85 % of the electrons consumed. These results demonstrate that microbial production of multicarbon organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water with electricity as the energy source is feasible. IMPORTANCE Reducing carbon dioxide to multicarbon organic chemicals and fuels with electricity has been identified as an attractive strategy to convert solar energy that is harvested intermittently with photovoltaic technology and store it as covalent chemical bonds. The organic compounds produced can then be distributed via existing infrastructure. Nonbiological electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has proven problematic. The results presented here suggest that microbiological catalysts may be a robust alternative, and when coupled with photovoltaics, current-driven microbial carbon dioxide reduction represents a new form of photosynthesis that might convert solar energy to organic products more effectively than traditional biomass-based strategies.

Kelly P. Nevin; Trevor L. Woodard; Ashley E. Franks; Zarath M. Summers; Derek R. Lovley

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light Duty Vehicles D A N I E L A . B U R by dynamometer (16), remote sensing (17), and recently by a chase vehicle (18). Results from these studies vary

Denver, University of

170

Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

Jordan, P.D.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers  

SciTech Connect

Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability. Preliminary simulation results show good agreement between classical instability solutions and numerical predictions of finger growth and spacing obtained using different gas/liquid viscosity ratios, relative permeability and capillary pressure models. Further studies are recommended to validate these results over a broader range of conditions.

Garcia, Julio Enrique

2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

172

TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Core specimens and several material samples were collected from two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

Lawrence J. Pekot; Ron Himes

2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Carbon dioxide: friend or foe  

SciTech Connect

The author of this book refutes the US National Academy of Sciences' view that the Earth will suffer from a disastrous climatic warming caused by the greenhouse effect' of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere, resulting from the ever increasing use of fossil fuels. The author finds evidence for great beneficial effects of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural productivity and vegetative water use efficiency and concludes that the accelerating rate of increase of CO/sub 2/ content should be encouraged, not suppressed.

Idso, S.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Historical carbon dioxide: abundances derived from the Smithsonian spectrobolograms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of spectroscopic records offers a method for measuring the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of the sparseness and questionable accuracy of the records of CO/sub 2/ concentration prior to 1957 an effort has been initiated to use archived spectroscopic measurements of the sun an a source of such data. The largest and most significant collection of such spectra was generated during the course of a program to measure the solar constant, supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. This program ran from approximately 1920 to 1958, resulting in the generation of a nearly daily record of the solar and telluric spectrum. A representative sample of Smithsonian spectrobolograms have been analyzed for 1935, 1941, and 1948. The resulting carbon dioxide concentrations for those years are 297.7 +- 5.6, 298.4 +- 6.3, and 308.3 +- 4.6 ppM, respectively. There may be an additional 2 to 3 ppM systematic error in this result because of remaining uncertainties in absolute band strengths and the precise relationship between intergrated column density and surface density measurements. These results also yield an annual increase of 0.59 +- .27 ppM for the average trend for the period of 1935 through 1948. The method of analysis used to obtain these results is described in detail. It appears to be much less sensitive to the sources of error that have plagued earlier analyses of the same data. The results also offer obvious guidance as to steps that may be taken to improve the analysis of the data. 43 references, 24 figures, 10 tables.

Stokes, G.M.; Barnard, J.C.; Pearson, E.W.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Improving Repository Performance by Using DU Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DU Dioxide Fill DU Dioxide Fill Improving Repository Performance by Using DU Dioxide Fill Fills may improve repository performance by acting as sacrificial materials, which delay the degradation of SNF uranium dioxide. Because fill and SNF have the same chemical form of uranium (uranium dioxide), the DU dioxide in a repository is the only fill which has the same behavior as that of the SNF. In the natural environment, some uranium ore deposits have remained intact for very long periods of time. The outer parts of the ore deposit degrade while the inner parts of the deposit are protected. The same approach is proposed herein for protecting SNF. The application could use half or more of the DU inventory in the United States. Behavior of Uranium and Potential Behavior of a Waste Package with SNF and Fill

176

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, 336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's proposal to participate with a group of international organizations in an experiment to evaluate the dispersion and diffusion of liquid carbon dioxide droplets in ocean waters. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Finding of No Significant Impact Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Final Environmental Assessment Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment

177

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants.

Holladay, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Haag, Gary L. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nano-Enabled Titanium Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide

179

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozawa Meida. 2001. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Globalpost-combustion capture of carbon dioxide. ” InternationalIPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage:

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - effect of elevated levels of CO{sub 2} on winter wheat under two moisture regimes  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the second-year (1985-86) findings of an on going experiment with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and under two moisture regimes. The results for the first year are given in the U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide. The purpose of the second year`s experiment was to verify the results of 1984-85. However, based on the performance and the results of 1984-85 experiments, a few modifications were made.

Chaudhuri, U.N.; Burnett, R.B.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Carbon dioxide and global change  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an analysis and review of the many potential consequences of the rapidly rising CO{sub 2} content of Earth's atmosphere. Covering both the physical (climatic) and biological effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment, the book presents an overview of the interrelated aspects of this complex and demanding subject. Focus is on the search for evidence of global warming (the highly speculative climatic greenhouse effect) and global vegetative stimulation (the well established biological greenhouse effect). The pros and cons of all issues related to these phenomena are discussed. The author's estimate of where the world is headed as a result of mankind's great geophysical experiments is offered.

Idso, S.B. (Arizona State Univ. (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

183

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

184

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas ...  

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas ... required for sequestration, an area of research identified as a high priority

185

Segregation of Ru to Edge Dislocations in Uranium Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Segregation of Ru to Edge Dislocations in Uranium Dioxide. Author(s), Anuj Goyal, Bowen Deng, Minki Hong, Aleksandr Chernatynskiy, ...

186

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation ...  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

187

Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SAF. 1958. The strength of coal in triaxial compression.Geomechanical Risks in Coal Bed Carbon Dioxide Sequestrationof leakage of CO 2 from coal bed sequestration projects. The

Myer, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Figure 18. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in three ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 18. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in three cases, 2005-2040 (million metric tons) Extended Policies No Sunset

189

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Prepared by Alexander Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

190

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts Prepared by Alexander Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

192

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

**Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Prepared by Alexander Kozyr*** Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

193

Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage Program September 2010 Summary of the...

194

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/ Reservoir...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Interfaces Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to:...

195

Average prices for spot sulfur dioxide emissions allowances at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The weighted average spot price for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions allowances awarded to winning bidders at Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) annual auction on ...

196

The Structure of Uranium Dioxide Grain Boundaries and its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atomic structures of symmetric ?5 tilt, ?5 twist, and amorphous grain boundaries in uranium dioxide are explored in this work using empirical potentials and ...

197

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion ...  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; ... Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures United States Patent ...

198

EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas EA-1846:...

199

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marine Environmental Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Prepared by Alexander Kozyr1 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis...

200

Bulk separation of carbon dioxide from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

In the bulk separation of carbon dioxide from feedstocks containing same in admixture with relatively nonsorbable gases using a zeolitic molecular sieve to adsorb selectively the carbon dioxide, higher product purity is attained by terminating the adsorption stroke using the feedstock while the bed still has capacity to adsorb more carbon dioxide at the same conditions, then purging the void space hydrocarbons from the bed using product carbon dioxide at a high partial pressure, and finally desorbing the bed by pressure reduction. (3 claims)

Collins, J.J.

1973-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vostok Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciologie...

202

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Siple Station Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators A. Neftel, H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Ltscher, H....

203

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Flask Measurements at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Island Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Flask Measurements at Lampedusa Island graphics Graphics data Data Investigators Paolo Chamard, Luigi Ciattaglia, Alcide di Sarra,...

204

Polyaniline-Based Membranes for Separating Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

Berkeley Lab researchers have optimized polymer membrane technology to more efficiently remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas. The invention ...

205

Available Technologies: Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

206

Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation ...  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

207

Amine Enriched Solid Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,547,854 entitled "Amine Enriched Solid Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture."...

208

EPA's Proposed Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule for Carbon Dioxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPA's Proposed Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule for Carbon Dioxide Injection and Geologic Sequestration Mark de Figueiredo U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RCSP Annual Review...

209

Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

industrial, or other uses, including the use of carbon dioxide for enhanced recovery of oil and gas. The mandates a coordinated statewide program related to the storage...

210

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-intensive and would lower the thermal efficiency of coal gasification power plants. Selective separation membrane from the post- combustion flue gas of a steam-electric power plant or from the synthesis gas fuel of a coal gasification power plant. The separated carbon dioxide can be compressed and transported

211

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2010. ” AugustChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in ManufacturingChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Structural and electronic studies of complexes relevant to the electrocatalyic reduction of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1981) Facile reduction of carbon dioxide by anionic Group 6bReduction of Carbon Dioxide on Mercury Electrode.in Reduction of Carbon-Dioxide. J. Chem. Soc. -Chem.

Benson, Eric Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interface solution for carbon dioxide injection into porousJ.E. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into SalineGeologic storage of carbon dioxide as a climate change

Mukhopadhyay, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Application of gaseous disinfectants ozone and chlorine dioxide for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An assessment of ozone and chlorine dioxide for treatment ofAston, R. ; Synan, J. , “Chlorine dioxide as a bactericide62, 80. 14. Keane, T. , “ Chlorine dioxide – why all the

Aydogan, Ahmet

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Lessons Learned from Natural and Industrial Analogues for Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Geological Formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and E.R. Slatick, Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal,oxygen-deficiency is a factor. CARBON DIOXIDE - CO 2 MSDS (Carbon Dioxide will be reached before oxygen-deficiency is a factor.

Benson, Sally M.; Hepple, Robert; Apps, John; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Lippmann, Marcelo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R

218

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 8 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2006, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 14 percent. In 2030, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 77 percent. Figure 80. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2006-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 81. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 82. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel in IEO2008 and IEO2009, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (billion metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

219

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, alkaline Ca-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum samples were carbonated to a varying extent. These materials ... Keywords: FGD gypsum, carbonation, carbon dioxide

Hongqi Wang; Ningning Sun; Rona J. Donahoe

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

A monitoring and diagnostic expert system for carbon dioxide capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research objective is to design and construct a knowledge-based decision support system for monitoring, control and diagnosis of the carbon dioxide capture process, which is a complicated task involving manipulation of sixteen components and their ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture, Diagnosis, Knowledge-based decision support system, Monitoring

Q. Zhou; C. W. Chan; P. Tontiwachiwuthikul

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Analysis of data for the carbon dioxide capture domain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To tackle the global concern for adverse impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the post combustion carbon dioxide (CO"2) capture technology is commonly adopted for reducing industrial CO"2 emissions, for example, from power generation plants. The ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture, Data modeling, Expert validation, Neural networks, Sensitivity analysis

Yuxiang Wu; Christine W. Chan

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by mineral carbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study investigates the technologies that have the potential to provide feasible reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a reference power plant. Particular focus has been given to mineral carbonation (at 1 bar) in which magnesium (Mg) and/or ... Keywords: carbon dioxide, emissions, mineral carbonation

C. J. Sturgeon; M. G. Rasul; Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Pages that link to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon Pages that link to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation" Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...

225

Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal ... which can split carbon dioxide as well as water molecules by abstracting ...

226

Mechanistic Modeling of an Underbalanced Drilling Operation Utilizing Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mechanistic modeling of an underbalanced drilling operation using carbon dioxide has been developed in this research. The use of carbon dioxide in an underbalanced drilling… (more)

ALAdwani, Faisal Abdullah

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Funding for 12 projects to test innovative concepts for the beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) was announced by the U.S. Department of Energy. The awards are part of $1.4 billion in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for projects that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources. These 12 projects will engage in a first phase feasibility study that will examine beneficial uses in a variety of ways, including mineralization to carbonates directly through conversion of CO2 in flue gas; the use of CO2 from power plants or industrial applications to grow algae/biomass; and conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Each project will be subject to

228

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

229

Microbial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Conversion to Methane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent conversion to Methane By Nirupam Pal Associate Professor California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Email : npal@calpoly.edu Phone : (805) 756-1355 INTRODUCTION The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been of growing concern in recent years. The increasing levels of carbon dioxide, the most dominant component of greenhouse gases, contribute to global warming and changing global weather patterns which could potentially lead to catastrophic events that could threaten life in every form on this planet. The level of carbon dioxide in the worlds atmosphere has increased from about 280 ppm in 1850 to the current level of approximately 350 ppm. There are several natural sources and sinks of

230

DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands May 14, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) underneath millions of acres of Federal lands. The report, Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands, estimates and characterizes the storage potential that lies beneath some of the more than 400 million acres of Federal land available for lease.

231

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O' Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

232

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haverford College Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemistry, Hopper Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. Image by Joshua Schrier, Haverford College. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels for energy and

233

North American CO2 exchange: Inter comparison of modeled estimates with results from a fine scale atmospheric inversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monitoring  Division  Tall  Tower  Network,   http://These  include  two  tall  towers  with  a  height  of  dioxide  on  very  tall   towers:    Results  of  the  NOAA/

Gourdji, Sharon M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations  

SciTech Connect

BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

235

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

237

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

Information Center

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Role of Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) Deposition in Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the role of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in microbiologically influenced corrosion.

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Capture Retrofit Options: Duke Edwardsport Integrated-Gasification Combined-Cycle Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a project supported by Duke Energy using tailored collaboration funds to study the potential impact to plant performance of retrofitted carbon dioxide (CO2) capture on the Duke Edwardsport integrated-gasificationcombined-cycle (IGCC) plant. The Duke Edwardsport IGCC plant is under construction and scheduled to begin operation in September 2012. Details on the project have been published in a 2010 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report, Duke Edwardsport Gener...

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

242

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

243

Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

Depleted Uranium Dioxide as SNF Waste Package Fill: A Disposal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AS SNF WASTE PACKAGE FILL: A DISPOSAL OPTION Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6179 Tel: (865)...

245

Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use March 17, 2011 - 2:09pm Addthis A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. JoAnn Milliken What does this project do? GreenFire Energy will conduct the first field demonstration of a CO2-based geothermal system. Getting geothermal power with CO2 instead of water would be particularly beneficial in the arid Southwestern U.S., where water is scarce. Geothermal power holds enormous opportunities to provide affordable, clean energy that avoids greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2). That's

246

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/biogenic_emissions.html Cost: Free References: EPA, 40 CFR Part 60[1] Tailoring Rule[2] Biogenic Emissions[3] The 'EPA Climate Change - Green House Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide

247

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Higher Energy Consumption Forecast Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure 107. Carbn dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2004 and 2030 (million metric tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. Figure data CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at

248

DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations February 19, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations. Geologic storage is considered to be a key technological solution to mitigate CO2 emissions and combat climate change. DOE anticipates making multiple project awards under this FOA and, depending on fiscal year 2009 appropriations, may be able to provide up to $24 million to be distributed among selected recipients. This investment is

249

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) Carbon Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Environmental Regulations Fees Safety and Operational Guidelines Siting and Permitting The purpose of this law is to: Establish a legal and regulatory framework for the permitting of carbon dioxide sequestration operations; Designate a state agency responsible for establishing standards and

250

Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

NETL: News Release - DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 2009 DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas Field U.S. World-Acclaimed Marine Institutes Partner with Europeans in North Sea Washington,...

252

Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million metric tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008...

253

Figure 5. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in four ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Reference High Oil/Gas Resouce CO2$15 CO2$15HR Released: May 2, 2013 Figure 5. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in four ...

254

Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

255

Cardiac Responses to Carbon Dioxide in Developing Zebrafish (Danio rerio) .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The ontogeny of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing in zebrafish (Danio rerio) has not been studied. In this thesis, CO2-mediated increases in heart rate were used… (more)

Miller, Scott

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

257

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

259

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions down in 2011 - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Annual energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions fell 2.4% in 2011 compared to the level in 2010. Several factors combined to produce this drop, including slower ...

260

Synthesis of Amides and Lactams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional organic solvents for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic amides. The addition of amines to ketenes generated in ...

Mak, Xiao Yin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

Information Center

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

262

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2012 October 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2013 U.S. Energy...

263

Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to...

264

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined in 2012 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions in 2012 were the lowest in the United States since 1994, at 5.3 billion metric tons of CO 2 (see figure above).

265

Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide and CO2-Rich Mixtures...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions; and will help maintain the nation's leader- ship in the export of gas turbine equipment. In this NETL-managed project, the National Institute of...

266

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions....................................... 6 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources............................................................... 3 B. Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change............................................. 4 1

Pike, Ralph W.

267

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Carbon DioxiDe Capture from flue Gas usinG Dry reGenerable sorbents Background Currently...

268

Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide by Microwave Solid State Method and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, titanium dioxide was synthetized by microwave solid-state ... Properties of Low-Carbon High-strength and Low-yield Ratio Bainitic Steels ... New Methodology of Enhancing Etching Factor of Copper Pattern for Advanced Packages.

269

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: cdn.globalccsinstitute.com/sites/default/files/publications/15536/carb Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carbon-dioxide-capture-and-storage-de Policies: "Deployment Programs,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This report discusses the value of carbon capture and storage (CCS)

270

New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control October 4, 2013 - 4:23pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for carbon dioxide (CO2) demand ventilation control within the Federal sector. Benefits Demand ventilation control systems modulate ventilation levels based on current building occupancy, saving energy while still maintaining proper indoor air quality (IAQ). CO2 sensors are commonly used, but a multiple-parameter approach using total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter (PM), formaldehyde, and relative humidity (RH) levels can also be used. CO2 sensors control the outside air damper to reduce the amount of outside air that needs to be conditioned and supplied to the building when

271

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products Background Many industrial processes contribute large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the earth's atmosphere. In an effort to reduce the amount of CO 2 released to the atmosphere, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding efforts to develop CO 2 capture and storage technologies. In addition to permanent storage of CO 2 in underground reservoirs, some

272

DOE/NETL CarbON DiOxiDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CarbON DiOxiDE CapTurE aND STOragE rD&D rOaDmap DECEmbEr 2010 ii u.S. DEparTmENT Of ENErgy CarbON DiOxiDE CapTurE aND STOragE rD&D rOaDmap Disclaimer This report was prepared as an...

273

HIGH-DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE S.G. Ermichev, V.I. Shapovalov, N.V.Sviridov (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia) V.K. Orlov, V.M. Sergeev, A. G. Semyenov, A.M. Visik, A.A. Maslov, A. V. Demin, D.D. Petrov, V.V. Noskov, V. I. Sorokin, O. I. Uferov (VNIINM, Moscow, Russia) L. Dole (ORNL, Oak Ridge, USA) Abstract - Russia is researching the production and testing of concretes with ceramic aggregate based on depleted uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). These DU concretes are to be used as structural and radiation-shielded material for casks for A-plant spent nuclear fuel transportation and storage. This paper presents the results of studies aimed at selection of ceramics and concrete composition, justification of their production technology, investigation of mechanical properties, and chemical stability.

274

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative components and the continuous optimization of their operation. A German food retail chain developed a new supermarket concept combining several innovative solutions for the refrigeration, lighting and heating/ventilation with the goal to reduce the energy consumption by about 30% compared to a standard subsidiary. A highly insulated building envelope, the use of daylight and covered refrigeration units contribute jointly to reach the goals. The key component of the concept is a carbon dioxide refrigeration plant with waste heat recovery. To reduce the efficiency losses in supercritical operation, carbon dioxide is cooled through a borehole heat exchanger using the ground as a heat sink. In the paper the design concept, the results of simulation studies and of the first monitoring year are presented and discussed.

Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Carbon dioxide sequestration: When and how much  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze carbon dioxide (CO sequestration as a strategy to manage future climate change in an optimal economic growth framework. We approach the problem in two ways: first, by using a simple analytical model, and second, by using a numerical optimization model which allows us to explore the problem in a more realistic setting. CO sequestration is not a perfect substitute for avoiding CO2 production because CO2 leaks back to the atmosphere and hence imposes future costs. The “efficiency factor ” of CO2 sequestration can be expressed as the ratio of the avoided emissions to the economically equivalent amount of sequestered CO2 emissions. A simple analytical model in terms of a net-present value criterion suggests that short-term sequestration methods such as afforestation can be somewhat ( 60 %) efficient, while long term sequestration (such as deep aquifer or deep ocean sequestration) can be very ( 90%) efficient. A numerical study indicates that CO2 sequestration methods at a cost within the range of present estimates reduce the economically optimal CO2 concentrations and climate related damages. The potential savings associated with CO2 sequestration is equivalent in our utilitarian model to a one-time investment of several percent of present gross world product. 1 1

Klaus Keller; Zili Yang; Matt Hall; David F. Bradford

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE Lucia M. Petkovic, Harry W. Rollins, Daniel M. Ginosar, and Kyle C. Burch Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas often associated with global warming, have increased considerably since the beginning of the industrial age.1 In the U.S., stationary CO2 sources, such as electricity generation plants, produce about one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 generation. Reports2 indicate that the power required to recover 90% of the CO2 from an integrated coal-fired power-plant is about 10% of the power-plant capacity. This energy requirement can be reduced to less than 1% if the recovered CO2 is applied to the production of synthetic fuels. However, the lack of efficient catalysts along with the costs of energy and hydrogen has prevented the development of technologies for direct hydrogenation of CO2.3 Although the cost of hydrogen for hydrogenating CO2 is not economically attractive at present, the future production of hydrogen by nuclear power sources could completely change this scenario.2 Still, an efficient catalyst will be essential for commercial application of those processes. The objective of the work presented here was the development of hybrid catalysts for one-step carbon dioxide hydrogenation to liquid fuels. The hybrid catalysts, which were prepared by two novel techniques, included a copper/zinc oxide catalytic function distributed within an acidic zeolitic matrix. Results of catalyst activity and selectivity studies at atmospheric pressure are presented in this contribution. Experimental Catalysts were prepared by two novel techniques and under several different conditions to produce copper/zinc oxide/zeolite materials. Once synthesized, samples were pelletized and the fraction between 40-60 mesh was utilized for the experiments. Two hundred milligrams of catalyst were loaded in a U-tube stainless steel reactor and a flow of 100 cm3/min of a 10:90 H2:Ar mixture was passed through the catalyst bed while the temperature was increased from room temperature to 513 K at 1.8 K/min and held at 513 K for 15 h. A reactant gas mixture composed by 10 cm3/min of CO2 and 30 cm3/min of H2 was then passed through the catalyst bed and the reaction products monitored by on-line gas chromatographic analyses using an SRI Multiple Gas Analyzer #2 equipped with 3 columns (MoleSieve 13X, Hayesep-D, and MXT-1) and 3 detectors (TCD, FID, and FID-methanizer). This GC system allowed for quantification of inert gases, CO, CO2, methanol, dimethylether, higher alcohols, water, and hydrocarbons up to C20. One hundred milligrams of a commercial syngas-to-methanol catalyst along with the same amount of a commercial zeolite catalyst was utilized under the same reaction conditions for comparison purposes. These catalysts were utilized either in two-layers (Com1) or mixed together (Com2). Results and Discussion Under the conditions applied in this study, the main reaction products were CO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, and H2O. Methanol and dimethylether production rates and selectivities with respect to CO formation are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Although the activity of the synthesized catalysts did not surpass the commercial catalysts, the selectivity to oxygenates with respect to CO on most of the synthesized catalysts were better than on the commercial catalysts. For example, cat

Licia M. Petkovic; Harry W. Rollins; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The marginal effects of the price for carbon dioxide: quantifying the effects on the market for electric generation in Florida  

SciTech Connect

Greater emphasis on public policy aimed at internalizing the societal cost of carbon dioxide emissions leads to more questions about the economic impacts of that policy. In cooperation with the State of Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the authors have constructed a model to simulate the dispatch of electric generating units to serve electric load in the state - and obtained some counterintuitive results. (author)

Kury, Theodore J.; Harrington, Julie

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Combining Carbon Dioxide Flooding Technologies with Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies in Order To Sequester Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The need for more energy as our population grows results in an increase in the amount of CO2 introduced into the atmosphere. The effect of this introduction is currently debated intensely as to the severity of the effect of this. The bjective of this investigation was to determine if the production of more energy (i.e. petroleum) and the sequestration of CO2 could be coupled into one process. Carbon dioxide flooding is a well-established technique that introduces Compressed CO2 into a subsurface oil-bearing formation to aide in liquefying harder to extract petroleum and enhancing its mobility towards the production wells.

Todd French; Lew Brown; Rafael Hernandez; Magan Green; Lynn Prewitt; Terry Coggins

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

282

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called ?chloride process?. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to be extremely effective in achieving these targets. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO{sub 2} per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A flow sheet was developed and a mass and energy balance was performed. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicate that implementation of the new process in the US would result in a 21% decrease in energy consumption, an annual energy savings of 42.7 million GJ. The new process would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% in comparison to the chloride process, an annual reduction of 2.70 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Since the process equipment employed in the new process is well established in other industrial processes and the raw materials for the two processes are identical we believe the capital, labor and materials cost of production of pigment grade TiO{sub 2} using the new method would be at least equivalent to that of the chloride process. Additionally, it is likely that the operating costs will be lower by using the new process because of the reduced energy consumption. Although the new process technology is logical and feasible based on its chemistry, thermodynamic principles, and experimental results, its development and refinement through more rigorous and comprehensive research at the kilogram scale is needed to establish it as a competitive industrial process. The effect of the recycling of process streams on the final product quality should also be investigated. Further development would also help determine if the energy efficiency and the environmental benefits of the new process are indeed significantly better than current commercial methods of pigment manufacture.

Fang, Zhigang Zak [University of Utah] [University of Utah

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

284

Marcellus natural gas pipeline projects to primarily ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. ... ...

285

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information about the past and present concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and variations in climate can be obtained from measurements of stable isotopes in tree rings; specifically carbon-13, oxygen-18 and deuterium. The analysis of these stable isotopes in tree rings is a relatively new and rapidly developing field. This proceedings volume contains most of the papers presented at the meeting. The first paper gives an overview of the status of carbon-13 research. Papers relating to carbon-13 are in section I and grouped separately from the contributions on carbon-14. Although the meeting was primarily concerned with stable isotopes, all carbon isotopic analysis may be helpful in understanding the carbon-13 record in tree rings. The papers on hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies are in sections II and III respectively. The remaining sections contain papers that consider more than one isotope at a time, general topics related to isotopes, atmospheric changes and tree growth, and methods of isotopic analysis.

Jacoby, G. (ed.)

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115?C (239?F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66?C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 ?m diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly extends the number of oil fields in which MPPM can be implemented.

Darrel Schmitz; Lewis Brown F. Leo Lynch; Brenda Kirkland; Krystal Collins; William Funderburk

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality regulates the underground storage of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Prior to the use of any underground reservoir for the storage of natural gas and prior to the exercise of eminent domain by any person, firm, or corporation having such right under laws of the state of Louisiana, the commissioner, shall have found all of the following:

290

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities. The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen

291

NETL: News Release - DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2009 4, 2009 DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands Newly Released Document Complements 2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas Washington, D.C. - As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) underneath millions of acres of Federal lands. MORE INFO Read the report The report, Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands, estimates and characterizes the storage potential that lies beneath some of the more than 400 million acres of Federal land available for lease.

292

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities. The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen

293

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Background: The U.S. DOE's Sequestration Program began with a small appropriation of $1M in 1997 and has grown to be the largest most comprehensive CCS R&D program in the world. The U.S. DOE's sequestration program has supported a number of projects implementing CO2 injection in the United States and other countries including, Canada, Algeria, Norway, Australia, and Germany. The program has also been supporting a number of complementary R&D projects investigating the science of storage, simulation, risk assessment, and monitoring the fate of the injected CO2 in the subsurface.

294

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Means and method for reducing carbon dioxide to a product  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for reducing carbon dioxide to a product comprising the steps of: providing carbon dioxide to a catholyte chamber of a reaction cell; providing water to an anolyte section of the reaction cell, forming a passageway through the reaction cell with a dual porosity cathode between the passageway and catholyte chamber and with a porous anode between the passageway and anolyte chamber; provides an electrolyte in a manner so that it passes through the passageway; and provides a direct current voltage across the dual porosity cathode and anode so as to cause a reduction of the carbon dioxide in cooperation with the electrolyte and hydrogen ions passing through the anode. This passes to a product contained within the electrolyte and causes oxygen to be emitted from the anolyte chamber.

Ang, P.G.P.; Sammels, A.F.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

296

Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System - Methodology and Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon factor is aCarbon Factor – Electricity carbon dioxide emissions are

McNeil, Michael A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Carbon dioxide blasting as a nondestructive method for nuclear material decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Many traditional methods of decontamination use chemicals that are inherently harmful and can be direct environmental hazards. These methods may generate large volumes of mixed waste and high disposal costs. Sandblasting grit disposal costs have dramatically increased. Also, the additional volume of contaminated waste generated by sandblasting affects facilities disposal quotas. Water blasting now requires expensive processing procedures. State and federal governments are developing regulations that restrict the use of these methods; therefore, alternative technologies are becoming increasingly important. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) blasting is an important break-through for nuclear decontamination because of its superior environmental characteristics. The CO{sub 2} blasting method is waterless, waste free, noncorrosive, and nonreactive. Commercial CO{sub 2} is primarily produced as a salvaged waste gas from the production of other industrial gases. In the blasting operation, the frozen CO{sub 2} pellet is transformed into its gaseous state, which is a normal component of the earth's atmosphere. The CO{sub 2} blasting system can solve many of the environmental and cost problems now facing managers responsible for nuclear contamination.

Norton, C.J. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., West Chesterfield, NH (United States)); Campbell, R.A. (Hot Cell Services Corp., Kent, WA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of sulphur dioxide in non-aqueous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electroreduction of sulfur dioxide has been studied using three solvents and six supporting electrolytes. Electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements indicate that several follow-on reactions occur after the initial electron transfer step. The results are interpreted in terms of equilibria between SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup -/ and S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2-/. It has been found that both the solvent and supporting electrolyte have a strong influence on the distribution of products. These results indicate that ion-pairing plays an important role in determining the course of the reduction process. 11 refs.

Gardner, C.L.; Fouchard, D.T.; Laman, F.C.; Fawcett, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Field test results of the physical solvent N-Formyl morpholine for gas treating applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing gas processing technology that will reduce gas processing costs for current production and allow subquality gas to be economically produced that would have been otherwise, not produced. The experimental program has primarily focused on the evaluation of N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM) as a physical solvent for the cost-effective upgrading of subquality natural gas to pipeline quality. The selection of NFM for this program was based on previous work conducted by IGT in the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide from coal gasifier effluents. That work showed that the use of NFM resulted in a significant cost advantage over 107 other solvents for that application. The project approach for the development of NFM process has been divided into following main categories: obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium, physical properties and additional published literature data; obtain mass-transfer coefficients using 2 inch absorber/stripper apparatus and calculate equation of state parameters and binary interaction parameters using VLE data; develop a gas processing model using Aspen Plus simulation program and evaluate economic advantages of the NFM process compared to commercial physical solvent; and design a pilot plant skid mounted field test unit and conduct field test experiments.

Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year that it will be available for CO2 storage. The modeling framework and assumptions used to assess the impact of the timing of CO2 storage resource availability on the region’s deployment of CCS technologies is also described. The purpose of this report is to describe the data and methodology for examining the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage capacity resource of a major hydrocarbon province incorporating estimated depletion dates for its oil and gas fields with the largest CO2 storage capacity. This allows the development of a projected timeline for CO2 storage availability across the basin and enables a more realistic examination of potential oil and gas field CO2 storage utilization by the region’s large CO2 point sources. The Alberta Basin of western Canada was selected for this initial examination as a representative mature basin, and the development of capacity and depletion date estimates for the 227 largest oil and gas pools (with a total storage capacity of 4.7 GtCO2) is described, along with the impact on source-reservoir pairing and resulting CO2 transport and storage economics. The analysis indicates that timing of storage resource availability has a significant impact on the mix of storage reservoirs selected for utilization at a given time, and further confirms the value that all available reservoir types offer, providing important insights regarding CO2 storage implementation to this and other major oil and gas basins throughout North America and the rest of the world. For CCS technologies to deploy successfully and offer a meaningful contribution to climate change mitigation, CO2 storage reservoirs must be available not only where needed (preferably co-located with or near large concentrations of CO2 sources or emissions centers) but also when needed. The timing of CO2 storage resource availability is therefore an important factor to consider when assessing the real opportunities for CCS deployment in a given region.

Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

2007-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

302

SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components

303

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potter. 1996. Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis. DB-1015. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of...

304

THE PATH OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS. X. CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION IN PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

48 The Fath of Carbon i n Photosynthesis X. Carbon Dioxide658 THE PATH O CBRBQM I N PHOTOSYNTHESIS F x CA~ON DIOXIDEr e a c t i o n s of photosynthesis (phosphoglycera t e and

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net  

SciTech Connect

Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Economic Impacts of Carbon Taxes: Detailed Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the possibility that rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases might cause undesirable climate change, policies to restrict emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, have been proposed. Such proposals frequently take the form of carbon taxes. This report presents the detailed results of an examination of the economic costs of carbon taxes, including where and how the U.S. economy would be impacted.

1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

307

VEMAP 2: Selected Model Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model Results Model Results The ORNL DAAC announces the release of two data sets from Phase 2 of the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP). The two data sets contain monthly and annual results, respectively, from experiments conducted to compare the ecological responses of the suite of VEMAP models to projected transient scenarios of climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide for the period 1994 to 2100. The models investigated included five biogeochemical cycling models, which simulate plant production and nutrient cycles but rely on a static land-cover type, and two dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), which combine biogeochemical cycling processes with dynamic biogeographical processes including succession and fire simulation. VEMAP was an international project studying the response of biogeochemical

308

of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

Zare, Richard N.

309

Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

310

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

Lovley, Derek

311

DEVELOPMENT AND MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF THE CHROMIUM TETRAMETHYLTETRAAZAANNULENE CATALYST SYSTEM FOR THE COPOLYMERIZATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND EPOXIDES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A prominent goal of scientists is to develop products and processes to meet the ever-growing needs of society. Today's needs include products that are economical, specialized, and made through processes with minimal impact on the environment. One such product that serves an important and widespread need is poly(bisphenol A carbonate) for its physical properties and ease of synthesis and processing. However, this polymer does not meet the growing need of being environmentally benign as production involves carcinogenic, chlorinated solvents and toxic monomers that can leach out from the polymer product. An answer to this new demand is the development of a different process for the production of polycarbonate plastics utilizing carbon dioxide and epoxides. Carbon dioxide is an attractive monomer that is cheap and nontoxic, and its utilization signifies an important contribution to counteract global greenhouse emissions. The stability of carbon dioxide has posed a significant and complex challenge towards its utilization. Epoxides are attractive since they are synthesized from a wide variety of olefins, both naturally occurring and those derived from petroleum. The exploration of catalysts to facilitate the coupling of epoxides to carbon dioxide to afford polycarbonates has been under investigation in the Darensbourg lab for fifteen years, and has lead to the development of several successful systems such as zinc bisphenoxides and chromium salens. This dissertation focuses on the development of another successful catalyst system, chromium tetramethyltetraazaannulene, and further elucidation of the mechanism by which polycarbonates are formed. Herein, aspects of the copolymerization process using this system will be discussed in detail, such as cocatalyst and pressure dependence, catalyst derivatization, and kinetic and mechanistic investigations. The end result of these investigations is the development of the most active chromium-based catalyst for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and carbon dioxide and a better understanding of how the copolymer product is produced.

Fitch, Shawn

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 Figure 75 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 76 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in IEO2007 and IEO2008, 2005-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

313

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more common fluid for extracting volatile oil and fragrance compounds from various raw materials that are used in perfumery. Furthermore, its use as a heat transmission fluid is very attractive because of the greater uptake capability of heat from hot reservoir rock, compared with that of water. However, one concern was the reactivity of CO2 with clay and rock minerals in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. So if this reaction leads to the formation of water-soluble carbonates, such formation could be detrimental to the integrity of wellbore infrastructure.

314

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 80. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 80 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 81. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Liquids Combustion by Region, 1990-2030 Figure 81 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

315

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or biodiesel use in Europe. Nevertheless, the EU directive sets a target for the use of biofuels15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed mandatory blends and utilization targets as policy measures that can provide incentives for expanded

317

Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

Stallinga, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610°C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Regulation and Permitting of Carbon Dioxide Geologic Sequestration Wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update of the United States’ regulations and project experiences associated with permitting injection wells used for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). This report is an update of a previous Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study on this subject published in December 2008 when the draft regulations governing geologic sequestration were first published.BackgroundSeparating ...

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Search Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Search Results. CAS Number, Formula, Name, State, JANAF Table, Links. 7439-97-6, Hg, Mercury, ref, view, ... 7439-97-6, Hg, Mercury, cr,l, view, ...

324

GLODAP Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Results Evaluation of Inorganic Carbon Quality Carbon Thermodynamics Anthropogenic CO2 Radio Carbon Gridded Carbon Fields Click the map to enlarge. Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean...

325

Search Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Search Results. CAS Number, Formula, Name, State, JANAF Table, Links. 7440-33-7, W, Tungsten, cr,l, view, ... 7440-33-7, W, Tungsten, cr, view, ...

326

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestering of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology is providing a performance and economic baseline against which to compare innovative technologies. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget is 1 kg of CO{sub 2} per kilowatt-hour (electric). The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 454 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.835 kg/kWhe. Two additional life-cycle energy balances for emerging technologies were considered: (1) high-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, and (2) ambient-temperature facilitated-transport polymer membranes for acid-gas removal.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

North American CO2 exchange: Inter comparison of modeled estimates with results from a fine scale atmospheric inversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on  North  American  carbon  dioxide   exchange:  net  terrestrial  carbon  dioxide  exchange   constrained  Project  -­?   Carbon  Dioxide  (2010).  CD-­?ROM,   NOAA  

Gourdji, Sharon M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Resting and Post Bronchial Challenge Testing Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure in Individuals with and without Asthma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective: There is conflicting evidence about resting carbon dioxide levels in asthmatic individuals. We wanted to determine if transcutaneously measured carbon dioxide levels prior and during bronchial provocation testing differ according to asthma status reflecting dysfunctional breathing. Methods: We investigated active firefighters and policemen by means of a validated questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, spirometry, bronchial challenge testing with methacholine (MCT) and measurement of transcutaneous blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO 2) at rest prior performing spirometry, one minute and five minutes after termination of MCT. A respiratory physician blinded to the PtcCO2 results assigned a diagnosis of asthma after reviewing the available study data and the files of the workers medical screening program. Results: The study sample consisted of 128 male and 10 female individuals. Fifteen individuals (11%) had physiciandiagnosed asthma. There was no clinically important difference in median PtcCO 2 at rest, one and five minutes after recovery from MCT in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (35.6 vs 35.7 mmHg, p = 0.466; 34.7 vs 33.4 mmHg, p = 0.245 and 37.4 vs 36.4 mmHg, p = 0.732). The median drop in PtcCO2 during MCT and the increase after MCT was lower in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (0.1 vs 3.2 mmHg, p = 0.014 and 1.9 vs 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.025). Conclusions: PtcCO2 levels at rest prior and during recovery after MCT do not differ in individuals with or without physician

David Miedinger; Anja Jochmann; Lucia Schoenenberger; Prashant N. Chhajed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

SEARCH RESULTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home | search results Please enter one or more search words. ADVANCED SEARCH with all the words with the exact phrase with at least one of the words without the words File Format...

330

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

331

Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China  

SciTech Connect

This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Two gas storage fields were studied for this project. Overisel field, operated by Consumer's Energy, is located near the town of Holland, Michigan. Huntsman Storage Unit, operated by Kinder Morgan, is located in Cheyenne County, Nebraska near the town of Sidney. Wells in both fields experienced declining performance over several years of their annual injection/production cycle. In both fields, the presence of hydrocarbons, organic materials or production chemicals was suspected as the cause of progressive formation damage leading to the performance decline. Core specimens and several material samples were collected from these two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

Lawrence J. Pekot

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

333

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: July 16, 2007 8: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on AddThis.com...

334

DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes the methodology and results for a probabilistic risk analysis of research, development, and demonstration work-primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program.

Young, K. R.; Augustine, C.; Anderson, A.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Evaluation and Enhancement of Carbon Dioxide Flooding Through Sweep Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide displacement is a common improved recovery method applied to light oil reservoirs (30-45{degrees}API). The economic and technical success of CO{sub 2} floods is often limited by poor sweep efficiency or large CO{sub 2} utilization rates. Projected incremental recoveries for CO{sub 2} floods range from 7% to 20% of the original oil in place; however, actual incremental recoveries range from 9% to 15% of the original oil in place, indicating the potential for significant additional recoveries with improved sweep efficiency. This research program was designed to study the effectiveness of carbon dioxide flooding in a mature reservoir to identify and develop methods and strategies to improve oil recovery in carbon dioxide floods. Specifically, the project has focused on relating laboratory, theoretical and simulation studies to actual field performance in a CO{sub 2} flood in an attempt to understand and mitigate problems of areal and vertical sweep efficiency. In this work the focus has been on evaluating the status of existing swept regions of a mature CO{sub 2} flood and developing procedures to improve the design of proposed floods. The Little Creek Field, Mississippi has been studied through laboratory, theoretical, numerical and simulation studies in an attempt to relate performance predictions to historical reservoir performance to determine sweep efficiency, improve the understanding of the reservoir response to CO{sub 2} injection, and develop scaling methodologies to relate laboratory data and simulation results to predicted reservoir behavior. Existing laboratory information from Little Creek was analyzed and an extensive amount of field data was collected. This was merged with an understanding of previous work at Little Creek to generate a detailed simulation study of two portions of the field – the original pilot area and a currently active part of the field. This work was done to try to relate all of this information to an understanding of where the CO{sub 2} went or is going and how recovery might be improved. New data was also generated in this process. Production logs were run to understand where the CO{sub 2} was entering the reservoir related to core and log information and also to corroborate the simulation model. A methodology was developed and successfully tested for evaluating saturations in a cased-hole environment. Finally an experimental and theoretical program was initiated to relate laboratory work to field scale design and analysis of operations. This work found that an understanding of vertical and areal heterogeneity is crucial for understanding sweep processes as well as understanding appropriate mitigation techniques to improve the sweep. Production and injection logs can provide some understanding of that heterogeneity when core data is not available. The cased-hole saturation logs developed in the project will also be an important part of the evaluation of vertical heterogeneity. Evaluation of injection well/production well connectivities through statistical or numerical techniques were found to be as successful in evaluating CO{sub 2} floods as they are for waterfloods. These are likely to be the lowest cost techniques to evaluate areal sweep. Full field simulation and 4D seismic techniques are other possibilities but were beyond the scope of the project. Detailed simulation studies of pattern areas proved insightful both for doing a “post-mortem” analysis of the pilot area as well as a late-term, active portion of the Little Creek Field. This work also evaluated options for improving sweep in the current flood as well as evaluating options that could have been successful at recovering more oil. That simulation study was successful due to the integration of a large amount of data supplied by the operator as well as collected through the course of the project. While most projects would not have the abundance of data that Little Creek had, integration of the available data continues to be critical for both the design and evaluation stages of CO{sub 2} floods. For cases w

Hughes, Richard

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Production Test IP-358-AC: Replacement of carbon dioxide with nitrogen as a constituent of the K reactor atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Compensation for the positive long-term reactivity transient associated with Hanford reactor may be accomplished in two ways: The addition of a poisonous material (rods, splines, etc.) to the reactor, or cooling the moderator by changing the gas composition. The objective of this study is to investigate the reactivity and temperature effects and the associated operating problems if any, resulting from the use of nitrogen instead of carbon dioxide as a constituent of the reactor atmosphere.

Bailey, G.F.; Benoliel, R.W.

1960-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

337

Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric power while capturing CO2 from flue gas, such as from an existing pulverized coal (PC) plant. Laboratory scale testing of the ECM has verified the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Recently, FCE was awarded a contract (DE-FE0007634) from the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the use of ECM to efficiently and cost effectively separate CO2 from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from flue gas of an existing PC plant with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) produced by the plant. The specific objectives and related activities planned for the project include: 1) conduct bench scale tests of a planar membrane assembly consisting of ten or more cells of about 0.8 m2 area each, 2) develop the detailed design for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to an existing PC plant, and 3) evaluate the effects of impurities (pollutants such as SO2, NOx, Hg) present in the coal plant flue gas by conducting laboratory scale performance tests of the membrane. The results of this project are anticipated to demonstrate that the ECM is an advanced technology, fabricated from inexpensive materials, based on proven operational track records, modular, scalable to large sizes, and a viable candidate for >90% carbon capture from existing PC plants. In this paper, the fundamentals of ECM technology including: material of construction, principal mechanisms of operation, carbon capture test results and the benefits of applications to PC plants will be presented.

Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Hunt, Jennifer; Patel, Dilip; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Selected genomic and phenotypic responses of Salmonella serovars to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and cetylpyridinium chloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars continue to be the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in United States. Chlorine, chlorine related, and quaternary compounds are generally used for disinfecting carcasses and equipment in processing industries. The current study was aimed at understanding the inactivation kinetics of four Salmonella serovars to chlorine, chlorine dioxide and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The transcriptomic responses to oxidative stress was investigated in stationary and log phase cells of S. Typhimurium. The study was also aimed at understanding the effect of the chemicals on the expression of virulence genes associated with the Salmonella Pathogenecity Island 1 (SPI1). The possible induction of the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in Salmonella due to CPC was also investigated. The inactivation parameters for each serovar and the chemical were estimated based on the Hom's model, ln (N/N0) = -k C^n T^m and it appeared that while disinfectant contact time was significant, biocide concentration in the overall disinfection was insignificant. This was true especially for chlorine and CPC with subtle differences observed between the serovars. The inactivation efficacy was, however, dependent on both concentration and the exposure time for chlorine dioxide. The highest degree of inactivation was obtained with chlorine followed by chlorine dioxide and CPC. Transcriptomic responses of S. Typhimurium revealed significant downregulation of several metabolic processes such as tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid biosynthesis in both log and stationary phase cells. Several stress related genes such as usp, rpoS and ompR were upregulated in the stationary phase cells. Majority of the virulence genes associated with the SPI1 were found to be downregulated for all the treatments. While treatment with chlorine and CPC caused downregulation of all the virulence genes, treatment with chlorine dioxide caused significant upregulation of few (hilC, invC, sipA and sipB) genes associated with the SPI1. Finally, the induction of VBNC state was not concluded as a result of treatment with CPC. However, significant percentage of cells (45 percent) with intact membrane was established based on the BacLight assayTM.

Kakani, Grihalakshmi

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Microbial and objective quality of whole muscle beef cuts packaged in film containing chlorine dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The microbial and objective quality of top round steak treated with two deferent prototype chlorine dioxide containing films were evaluated deleing 14 days of refrigerated storage. The films were designed to deliver different dose rates of chlorine dioxide when in contact with tissue. A high dose rate film in combination with dip treatments resulted in a 1.0 log?? reduction of total hemophilic aerobes, total coliforms, and total lactic acid bacteria. However, this same film caused undesirable characteristics including the rapid loss of the red color associated with fresh beef and the development of a green colored pigment. This color change corresponded to a decrease in Hunter a* values. Ascorbic acid treatments slightly inhibited the development of green color after 2 days of storage, but the protective effect was not evident after 6 days of storage and the color remained undesirable. Chlorine dioxide released from the high dose rate film penetrated immediately into the surface of the beef to a depth of 1mm into the surface of the beef after 6 days of storage, and did not penetrate more than 2mm deep after 14 days of storage. The concentration of myoglobin in extracts of the treated samples decreased sharply after 2 days storage, suggesting oxidative degradation and possibly the formation of a compound similar to the green pigment cholemyoglobin. The TBA values of beef treated with the high dose rate film increased during storage but remained blow 1.0. A low chlorine dioxide dose rate film did not produce any microbiological or objective changes in the beef. The dose rate for the high dose rate film was 32ppm/h, as determined by neutron activation analysis. It decreased rapidly to 0ppm/h after 10 days storage and was not constant during the test period. Based on the unacceptable attributes produced by the high dose rate film, it may be better suited for low fat cuts of pork, ash, or chicken that are less susceptible to color changes and quality losses associated with undesirable oxidative changes.

Knight, Timothy David

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Credits in Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities K. Thomas Klasson and Brian H. Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6226 Presentation First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 14-17, 2001 Washington, DC "The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 1 Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities

342

Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Methodology for the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage Program September 2010 Summary of the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide 2 Authors: U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D John Litynski U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D/Sequestration Division Dawn Deel Traci Rodosta U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Office of Research and Development George Guthrie U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/

343

Cermet Waste Packages Using Depleted Uranium Dioxide and Steel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERMET WASTE PACKAGES USING DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AND STEEL CERMET WASTE PACKAGES USING DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AND STEEL Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6180 Tel: (865) 574-6783 Fax: (865) 574-9512 Email: forsbergcw@ornl.gov Manuscript Number: 078 File Name: DuCermet.HLWcon01.article.final Article Prepared for 2001 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference American Nuclear Society Las Vegas, Nevada April 29-May 3, 2001 Limits: 1500 words; 3 figures Actual: 1450 words; 3 figures Session: 3.6 Disposal Container Materials and Designs The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution,

344

Optimal Geological Enviornments for Carbon Dioxide Storage in Saline Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

susan D. Hovorka susan D. Hovorka Principal Investigator University of Texas at Austin Bureau of Economic Geology 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg. 130 P.O. Box X Austin, TX 78713 512-471-4863 susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu Optimal GeOlOGical envirOnments fOr carbOn DiOxiDe stOraGe in saline fOrmatiOns Background For carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration to be a successful component of the United States emissions reduction strategy, there will have to be a favorable intersection of a number of factors, such as the electricity market, fuel source, power plant design and operation, capture technology, a suitable geologic sequestration site, and a pipeline right-of-way from the plant to the injection site. The concept of CO 2 sequestration in saline water-bearing formations (saline reservoirs), isolated at

345

Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology titled "Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Carbon sequestration entails a multi-step process in which CO 2 is first separated / captured from gas streams followed by permanent storage. Carbon capture represents a critical step in the process and accounts for a considerable portion of the overall cost. Newly developed, high capacity amine-based sorbents offer many advantages over existing technology including increased CO

346

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Modelling interactions of carbon dioxide, forests, and climate  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising and forests and climate is changing! This combination of fact and premise may be evaluated at a range of temporal and spatial scales with the aid of computer simulators describing the interrelationships between forest vegetation, litter and soil characteristics, and appropriate meteorological variables. Some insights on the effects of climate on the transfers of carbon and the converse effect of carbon transfer on climate are discussed as a basis for assessing the significance of feedbacks between vegetation and climate under conditions of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Three main classes of forest models are reviewed. These are physiologically-based models, forest succession simulators based on the JABOWA model, and ecosystem-carbon budget models that use compartment transfer rates with empirically estimated coefficients. Some regression modeling approaches are also outlined. Energy budget models applied to forests and grasslands are also reviewed. This review presents examples of forest models; a comprehensive discussion of all available models is not undertaken.

Luxmoore, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Baldocchi, D.D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

NETL: Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression Project No.: DE-FE0009395 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is developing a novel supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) advanced power system utilizing pressurized oxy-combustion in conjunction with cryogenic compression. The proposed power system offers a leap in overall system efficiency while producing an output stream of sequestration ready CO2 at pipeline pressures. The system leverages developments in pressurized oxy-combustion technology and recent developments in sCO2 power cycles to achieve high net cycle efficiencies and produce CO2 at pipeline pressures without requiring additional compression of the flue gas.

349

Regulation and Permitting of Carbon Dioxide Transport and Geologic Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive review and analysis of United States (U.S.) regulations that will have a direct impact on permitting and commercial-scale deployment of carbon dioxide (CO2) transport and sequestration projects. The report focuses on specific regulations associated with CO2 transport and sequestration, including pipeline regulations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) proposed rules for characterizing, operating, monitoring, and closing CO2 geologic sequestration we...

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

350

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

351

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Extraction of iron and calcium from low rank coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainers  

SciTech Connect

Iron and calcium were extracted from low rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetyl acetone, ethanol and acetic acid, or acetyl acetone and water entrainers at 313.2 K and 15.0 MPa. The low rank coal used in this study was Berau coal from Indonesia. The addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetic acid entrainers in supercritical carbon dioxide showed very limited effect on enhancement of the recovery rates of Fe. The recovery rates of Fe from dried coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with acetyl acetone were low however, the addition of acetyl acetone with water in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Fe. Water seems to play an important role in extracting Fe from coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and acetyl acetone. On the other hand, the extraction rates of Ca with supercritical carbon dioxide and water, methanol, ethanol, and acetyl acetone entrainers were very low. The addition of acetic acid with or without water in supercritical carbon dioxide slightly enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The addition of acetic acid with ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate and coal particle size on the recovery rates of Fe were examined. The recovery rate of Fe increased with increasing carbon dioxide flow rate and with decreasing particle size of the low rank coal.

Iwai, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Ohta, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

restructuring policies, resulting in a decline in coal production and consump- tion. Although China found a net increase in coal-bed emissions from 5.58 Tg CH4 in 1990 to 6.75 Tg in 1996, falling to 5 is that they are increasing steadily, because of the large quantities of coal being used to fuel a fast-growing industrial

Nur, Amos

354

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not counted as part of emissions inventories, and biomass energy is sometimes referred to as being 'carbon neutral.' But what happens when a forest is harvested for fuel but takes 60 years to regrow or when biomass is harvested in a country that is not party to an international accord but is burned in a country that is party to an international accord? Biomass energy is only truly 'carbon neutral' if we get the system boundaries right. They need to make sure that the accounting methodology is compatible with our needs and realities in management and policy.

Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Nanoporous Materials for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global climate change is one of the most challenging problems that human beings are facing. The large anthropogenic emission of CO2 in the atmosphere is one of the major causes for the climate change. Coal-fired power plants are the single-largest anthropogenic emission sources globally, accounting for approximately one third of the total CO2 emissions. It is therefore necessary to reduce CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. Current technologies for the post-combustion CO2 capture from flue gas streams can be broadly classified into the three categories: absorption, adsorption, and membrane processes. Despite challenges, CO2 capture by adsorption using solid sorbents and membranes offers opportunities for energy-efficient capture and storage of CO2. Nanoporous materials have attracted tremendous interest in research and development due to their potential in conventional applications such as catalysis, ion-exchange, and gas separation as well as in advanced applications such as sensors, delivery, and micro-devices. In the first part of this dissertation, we will study the synthesis of membranes using an emerging class of nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for carbon dioxide (CO2) separations. Due to the unique chemistry of MOFs which is very different from that of zeolites, the techniques developed for the synthesis of zeolite membranes cannot be used directly. In order to overcome this challenge, a couple of novel techniques were developed: 1) "thermal seeding" for the secondary growth and 2) "surface modification" for the in situ growth. Membranes of HKUST-1 and ZIF-8, two of the most important MOFs, were prepared on porous ?-alumina supports using thermal seeding and the surface modification techniques, respectively. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates a simple and commercially viable application of nanoporous materials (zeolite 5A and amine-functionalized mesoporus silica), storing CO2 as a micro-fire extinguishers in polymers. Materialist is observed that by dispersing these highly CO2-philic nanoporous materials in polymer matrices, the propagation of flame was greatly retarded and extinguished. This flame retarding behavior is attributed to the fact that CO2 released from the sorbents (zeolite 5A and mesoporous silica), blocks the flow of oxygen, therefore causing the fire to be effectively extinguished. Our results suggest that the binding strength of CO2 on sorbents play an important role. If the binding strength of CO2 is too low, CO2 releases too early, thereby ineffective in retarding the flame.

Varela Guerrero, Victor

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

PREPARATION OF SPHERICAL URANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to the preparation of high-density, spherical UO/sub 2/ particles 80 to 150 microns in diameter. Sinterable UO/sub 2/ powder is wetted with 3 to 5 weight per cent water and tumbled for at least 48 hours. The resulting spherical particles are then sintered. The sintered particles are useful in dispersion-type fuel elements for nuclear reactors. (AEC)

Levey, R.P. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

358

Thermodynamics of the liquid mixture carbon dioxide + butane below 285 K topical report  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide and butane are frequently encountered as minor components of natural gas. These will liquefy first as it is cooled, so a knowledge of their vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior, especially at low temperatures, is desirable. However, only one isotherm of vapor-liquid equilibrium data below 250 K is available in the literature. Models of phase equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the excess Gibbs free energy, and the temperature dependence of the excess Gibbs free energy is related to the excess enthalpy. Thus measurements of excess enthalpy may be combined with phase equilibrium measurements to produce a model that gives reliable vapor-liquid equilibrium predictions. Under the contract, measurements of the heat of mixing of liquid n-butane with liquid carbon dioxide were performed at two temperatures below 250 K in a flow calorimeter. A maximum likelihood method was used to combine these calorimetric results with available vapor-liquid equilibrium data to produce a model of the nonideality in this system that gives much more reliable estimates of the phase equilibrium pressures, compositions, and enthalpies than had been available before.

Hall, E.J.; Guedes, H.J.R.; Zollweg, J.A.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Performance characteristics and modeling of carbon dioxide absorption by amines in a packed column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) is widely recognized as a major greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To mitigate the global warming problem, removal of CO[sub 2] from the industrial flue gases is necessary. Absorption of carbon dioxide by amines in a packed column was experimentally investigated. The amines employed in the present study were the primary mono-ethanolamine (MEA) and tertiary N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), two very popular amines widely used in the industries for gas purification. The CO[sub 2] absorption characteristics by these two amines were experimentally examined under various operating conditions. A theoretical model was developed for describing the CO[sub 2] absorption behavior. Test data have revealed that the model predictions and the observed CO[sub 2] absorption breakthrough curves agree very well, validating the proposed model. Preliminary regeneration tests of exhausted amine solution were also conducted. The results indicated that the tertiary amine is easier to regenerate with less loss of absorption capacity than the primary one.

Lin, S.H.; Shyu, C.T. (Yuan Ze Univ., Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION THROUGH CONTROLLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research was undertaken to meet the need for a robust portfolio of carbon management options to ensure continued use of coal in electrical power generation. In response to this need, the Ohio Coal Research Center at Ohio University developed a novel technique to control the emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants by growing organisms capable of converting CO{sub 2} to complex sugars through the process of photosynthesis. Once harvested, the organisms could be used in the production of fertilizer, as a biomass fuel, or fermented to produce alcohols. In this work, a mesophilic organism, Nostoc 86-3, was examined with respect to the use of thermophilic algae to recycle CO{sub 2} from scrubbed stack gases. The organisms were grown on stationary surfaces to facilitate algal stability and promote light distribution. The testing done throughout the year examined properties of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, light intensity, and light duration on process viability and the growth of the Nostoc. The results indicate that the Nostoc species is suitable only in a temperature range below 125 F, which may be practical given flue gas cooling. Further, results indicate that high lighting levels are not suitable for this organism, as bleaching occurs and growth rates are inhibited. Similarly, the organisms do not respond well to extended lighting durations, requiring a significant (greater than eight hour) dark cycle on a consistent basis. Other results indicate a relative insensitivity to CO{sub 2} levels between 7-12% and CO levels as high as 800 ppm. Other significant results alluded to previously, relate to the development of the overall process. Two processes developed during the year offer tremendous potential to enhance process viability. First, integration of solar collection and distribution technology from Oak Ridge laboratories could provide a significant space savings and enhanced use of solar energy. Second, the use of translating slug flow technology to cool the gas stream and enhance bicarbonate concentrations could both enhance organism growth rates and make the process one that could be applied at any fossil-fired power generation unit. These results were augmented by measurements of CO{sub 2} loss from the bioreactor test section. The corresponding mass balance was resolved to within 2%, which is remarkable for the low level of CO{sub 2} actually absorbed by the cyanobacteria. The net result was approximately 10.2 g of CO{sub 2} absorbed of the original 2.97 m{sup 3} of circulating flue gas, (or about 19% of the original CO{sub 2}). While this result in no way predicts the ability of the system to remove CO{sub 2} over the long term in a full-scale operating system, it appears to give credence to the workability of the system.

Unknown

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

363

Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system  

SciTech Connect

A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9: July 23, 2007 9: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479:

365

Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the present study was to determine the performance of CO{sub 2} microchannel evaporators and gas coolers in operational conditions representing those of residential heat pumps. A set of breadboard prototype microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was developed and tested. The refrigerant in the heat exchangers followed a counter cross-flow path with respect to the airflow direction. The test conditions corresponded to the typical operating conditions of residential heat pumps. In addition, a second set of commercial microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was tested for a less comprehensive range of operating conditions. The test results were reduced and a comprehensive data analysis, including comparison with the previous studies in this field, was performed. Capacity and pressure drop of the evaporator and gas cooler for the range of parameters studied were analyzed and are documented in this report. A gas cooler performance prediction model based on non-dimensional parameters was also developed and results are discussed as well. In addition, in the present study, experiments were conducted to evaluate capacities and pressure drops for sub-critical CO{sub 2} flow boiling and transcritical CO{sub 2} gas cooling in microchannel heat exchangers. An extensive review of the literature failed to indicate any previous systematic study in this area, suggesting a lack of fundamental understanding of the phenomena and a lack of comprehensive data that would quantify the performance potential of CO{sub 2} microchannel heat exchangers for the application at hand. All experimental tests were successfully conducted with an energy balance within {+-}3%. The only exceptions to this were experiments at very low saturation temperatures (-23 C), where energy balances were as high as 10%. In the case of evaporators, it was found that a lower saturation temperature (especially when moisture condensation occurs) improves the overall heat transfer coefficient significantly. However, under such conditions, air side pressure drop also increases when moisture condensation occurs. An increase in airflow rate also increases the overall heat transfer coefficient. Air side pressure drop mainly depends on airflow rate. For the gas cooler, a significant portion of the heat transfer occurred in the first heat exchanger module on the refrigerant inlet side. The temperature and pressure of CO{sub 2} significantly affect the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics due to some important properties (such as specific heat, density, and viscosity). In the transcritical region, performance of CO{sub 2} strongly depends on the operating temperature and pressure. Semi-empirical models were developed for predictions of CO{sub 2} evaporator and gas cooler system capacities. The evaporator model introduced two new factors to account for the effects of air-side moisture condensate and refrigerant outlet superheat. The model agreed with the experimental results within {+-}13%. The gas cooler model, based on non-dimensional parameters, successfully predicted the experimental results within {+-}20%. Recommendations for future work on this project include redesigning headers and/or introducing flow mixers to avoid flow mal-distribution problems, devising new defrosting techniques, and improving numerical models. These recommendations are described in more detail at the end of this report.

Zhao, Y.; Ohadi, M.M.; Radermacher, R.

2001-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

Hobbs, David T. (1867 Lodgepole Ave., N. Augusta, SC 29841)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Carbon Dioxide Storage: Geological Security and Environmental Issues – Case Study on the Sleipner Gas Field in Norway Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one option for mitigatining atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby contributes in actions for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Carbon dioxide storage in geological formations has been in practice since early 1970s. Information and experience gained from the injection and/or storage of CO2 from a large number of existing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects indicate that it is feasible to safely store CO2 in geological formations as a CO2 mitigation option. Industrial analogues, including underground natural gas storage projects around the world and acid gas injection projects, provide additional indications that CO2 can be safely injected and stored at well-characterized and properly managed sites. Geological storage of CO 2 is in practice today beneath the North Sea, where nearly 1 MtCO2 has been successfully injected annually in the Utsira formation at the Sleipner Gas Field since 1996. The site is well characterized and the CO 2 injection process was monitored using seismic methods and this provided insights into the geometrical distribution of the injected CO 2. The injected CO2 will potentially be trapped geochemically pressure build up as a result of CO2 injection is unlikely to occur. Solubility and density dependence of CO2-water composition will become the controlling fluid parameters at Sleipner. The solubility trapping has the effect of eliminating the buoyant forces that drive CO2 upwards, and through time it can lead to mineral trapping, which is the most permanent and secure form of geological storage. Overall, the study at the Sleipner area demonstrates the geological security of carbon dioxide storage. The monitoring tools strengthen the verification of safe injection of CO2 in the Utsira formation. This proves that CO2 capture and storage is technically feasible and can be an effective method for greenhouse mitigation provided the site is well characterized and monitored properly. 1

Semere Solomon; The Bellona Foundation

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements  

SciTech Connect

The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

Sebastien Biraud

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

369

Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

Steinberg, M.; Albanese, A.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

Sebastien Biraud

371

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The emissions policy submodule, part of the integrating module, estimates the energy–related emissions of carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide emissions are dependent on the fossil fuel consumed, the carbon content of the fuel, and the fraction of the fuel consumed in combustion. The product of the carbon dioxide coefficient and the combustion fraction yields a carbon dioxide emission factor. For fuel uses of fossil energy, the combustion fractions are assumed to be 0.99 for liquid fuels and 0.995 for gaseous fuels. The carbon dioxide potential of nonfuel uses of energy, such as asphalt and petrochemical feedstocks, is assumed to be sequestered in the product and not released to the atmosphere. The coefficients for carbon dioxide emissions are updated each year from the Energy Information Administration’s annual, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States.17

372

Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. 9 Includes electric power sector use of ...

373

Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. 8 Fuel ethanol minus denaturant. 2 Carbo ...

374

Experimental investigation of carbon dioxide trapping due to capillary retention in deep saline aquifers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon dioxide (CO2) is by far the most significant greenhouse gas released by human activities through fossil fuel combustion. In order to minimize CO2 emissions… (more)

Li, Xinqian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Table 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review September 2013 159 Table 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source

376

Synthesis and reactivity of pyridinediimine iron complexes : for the breakdown of carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The increase of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), has been recognized by the scientific, industrial, and political communities. The increase in… (more)

Thammavongsy, Zachary

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Livscykelanalys för koldioxidutsläpp frĺn flerbostadshus; Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Residential Buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Today, about 15 to 20 percent of Sweden’s total emission of carbon dioxide can be traced to the household sector. By examining apartment blocks… (more)

Palmborg, Sofia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Metal Organic Frameworks (Synthesis, Testing and Modeling).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is essential to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas because it is considered one of the main causes of global warming. Several materials and… (more)

Sabouni, Rana

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The design, synthesis, and optimization of nanomaterials fabricated in supercritical carbon dioxide .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents investigations into the design and synthesis of nanomaterials in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO?) as well as novel experimental design methodologies. First, the… (more)

Casciato, Michael John

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2 Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy consumption are excluded from total emissions in this table. ... non-combustion use of fossil fuels.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of ... other biomass. 3 Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels.

382

Table 11.2a Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

table. See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. R=Revised. P=Preliminary.

383

METHOD OF DISSOLVING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE IN NITRIC ACID USING CERIUM IONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is descnibed for catalyzing the dissolution of plutenium dioxide in nitric acid with small amounts of cerium ions. (AEC)

Wilson, A.S.

1961-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

384

S&TR | May 2005: Locked in Rock: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

abundant greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2). Many climate research studies focus on developing technologies to greatly reduce the atmospheric levels of CO2. One approach...

385

Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. 10 Wood and wood-derived fuels.

386

Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. R=Revised. P=Preliminary. ... 6 Wood and wood-derived fuels.

387

Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

9 Wood and wood-derived fuels. 2 Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy consumption are excluded from total emissions in this ... non-combustion use of fossil ...

388

Table 11.2a Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

6 Wood and wood-derived fuels. ... See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. R=Revised. P=Preliminary.

389

Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

8 Wood and wood-derived fuels. ... table. See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section.

390

Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

9 Wood and wood-derived fuels. ... table. See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section.

391

Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wood 6: Waste 7: Total: ... See Note, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. R=Revised. P=Preliminary.

392

A Framework for viewing theoretical, technological, economic and market potential of carbon dioxide capture and storage  

SciTech Connect

Paper presents an intelectual framework for viewing how the theoretical, technological, economic and market potentials of carbon dioxide capture and storage are related to each other.

Dooley, James J.

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

393

Feasibility of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as a Drilling Fluid for Deep Underbalanced Drilling Operations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Feasibility of drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide to serve the needs of deep underbalanced drilling operations has been analyzed. A case study involving underbalanced drilling… (more)

Gupta, Anamika

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Overview. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions vary significantly across states (Figure 1), whether considered on an absolute or per capita basis.

395

Sorption of Carbon Dioxide from Oxy-fuel Combustion by Lithium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials for CO2 Capture and Conversion. Presentation Title, Sorption of Carbon Dioxide from Oxy-fuel Combustion by Lithium Orthosilicate.

396

Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Emission Factors Applicable to Wastewater Wet Wells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transport of wastewater in sewer networks causes potential problems associated with gases which include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and methane, in regard… (more)

Mudragaddam, Madhuri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

398

EIA - AEO2010 - Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass [75] to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in AEO2010. According to current international convention [76], carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time [77]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

399

Polymerization of Carbon Dioxide: A Chemistry View of Molecular-to-Nonmolecular Phase Transitions  

SciTech Connect

Under high pressure, simple molecular solids transform into nonmolecular (extended) solids as compression energies approach the energies of strong covalent bonds in constituent chemical species. Unlike molecular and extended phase transitions, these exhibit path dependent phases, phase boundaries, phase metastabilities, and structural distortions that lead to large uncertainties in both experimental and theoretical phase diagrams. Here we present experimental and theoretical evidence that carbon dioxide polymerizes to extended phase V at 20 GPa, indicating a substantially lower equilibrium phase boundary than previously suggested. Clearly, these results indicate extended structures are inherently more stable above 20 GPa and the presence of a strong activation barrier hindering the polymerization in the intermediate pressure region between 20 and 40 GPa. Further, the present results advocate a chemistry view of molecular to nonmolecular phase transitions governed by constraints to kinetics and local energy minima that go beyond thermodynamics and are analogous to the graphite-diamond transition.

Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Tse, John S. (WSU); (Saskatchewan)

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

400

Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System - Methodology and Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kaya, Y. , Impact of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth:energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions mitigation.paid for by consumers. Carbon dioxide forms the majority of

McNeil, Michael A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

406

Table 22. Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual (million metric tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 AEO 1983 AEO 1984 AEO 1985 AEO 1986 AEO 1987 AEO 1989* AEO 1990 AEO 1991 AEO 1992 AEO 1993 5009 5053 5130 5207 5269 5335 5401 5449 5504 5562 5621 5672 5724 5771 5819 5867 5918 5969 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441.3 5489.0 5551.3 5621.0 5679.7 5727.3 5775.0 5841.0 5888.7 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 AEO 1997 5295 5381 5491 5586 5658 5715 5781 5863 5934 6009 6106 6184 6236 6268 AEO 1998 5474 5621 5711 5784 5893 5957 6026 6098 6192 6292 6379 6465 6542 AEO 1999 5522 5689 5810 5913 5976 6036 6084 6152 6244 6325 6418 6493 AEO 2000

407

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. RTI has produced laboratory scale batches (approximately 300 grams) of supported sorbents (composed of 20 to 40% sodium carbonate) with high surface area and acceptable activity. Initial rates of weight gain of the supported sorbents when exposed to a simulated flue gas exceeded that of 100% calcined sodium bicarbonate. One of these sorbents was tested through six cycles of carbonation/calcination by thermogravimetric analysis and found to have consistent carbonation activity. Kinetic modeling of the regeneration cycle on the basis of diffusion resistance at the particle surface is impractical, because the evolving gases have an identical composition to those assumed for the bulk fluidization gas. A kinetic model of the reaction has been developed on the basis of bulk motion of water and carbon dioxide at the particle surface (as opposed to control by gas diffusion). The model will be used to define the operating conditions in future laboratory- and pilot-scale testing.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Ultracompact Vanadium Dioxide Dual-Mode Plasmonic Waveguide Electroabsorption Modulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subwavelength modulators play an indispensable role in integrated photonic-electronic circuits. Due to weak light-matter interactions, it is always a challenge to develop a modulator with a nanometer scale footprint, low switching energy, low insertion loss and large modulation depth. In this paper, we propose the design of a vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator using a metal-insulator-VO$_2$-insulator-metal (MIVIM) waveguide platform. By varying the index of vanadium dioxide, the modulator can route plasmonic waves through the low-loss dielectric insulator layer during the "on" state and high-loss VO$_2$ layer during the "off" state, thereby significantly reducing the insertion loss while maintaining a large modulation depth. This ultracompact waveguide modulator, for example, can achieve a large modulation depth of ~10dB with an active size of only 200x50x220nm$^3$ (or ~{\\lambda}$^3$/1700), requiring a drive-voltage of ~4.6V. This high performance plasmonic modulator co...

Ooi, Kelvin J A; Chu, Hong Son; Ang, Lay Kee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Fluid bed adsorption of carbon dioxide on immobilized polyethyenimine (PEI): kinetic analysis and breakthrough behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by immobilized polyethylenimine (PEI) on mesoporous silica was investigated in a fluid bed. The tests were performed to determine breakthrough behavior with varying bed temperature, flow rates and feed concentrations. Experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using a theoretical 1D model developed by Bohart and Adams. The results showed that Bohart-Adams model was suitable for the normal description of breakthrough curve for the temperature ranges of 40-90{degree}C. The maximum capacity increased with temperature up to 70{degree}C and then decreased. The adsorption rate constant exhibited a negative temperature dependence decreasing as the temperature increased. Parameters characteristic of a fluid bed adsorber were inferred from these breakthrough curves including the breakthrough time, saturation time, critical reactor length, and length of mass transfer zone LMTZ. These parameters can be used to design fluid bed adsorption system without resolving the mechanistic contributions of dispersion, mixing, and intraparticle diffusion.

Monazam, Esmail R.; Spenik,, James; Shadle, Lawrence J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Comparison of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Configurations with an Emphasis on CSP Applications (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Recent research suggests that an emerging power cycle technology using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) operated in a closed-loop Brayton cycle offers the potential of equivalent or higher cycle efficiency versus supercritical or superheated steam cycles at temperatures relevant for CSP applications. Preliminary design-point modeling suggests that s-CO2 cycle configurations can be devised that have similar overall efficiency but different temperature and/or pressure characteristics. This paper employs a more detailed heat exchanger model than previous work to compare the recompression and partial cooling cycles, two cycles with high design-point efficiencies, and illustrates the potential advantages of the latter. Integration of the cycles into CSP systems is studied, with a focus on sensible heat thermal storage and direct s-CO2 receivers. Results show the partial cooling cycle may offer a larger temperature difference across the primary heat exchanger, thereby potentially reducing heat exchanger cost and improving CSP receiver efficiency.

Neises, T.; Turchi, C.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

An Overview of hydrogen production from KRW oxygen-blown gasification with carbon dioxide recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All the process elements are commercially available to operate coal gasification so that it can produce electricity, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide while delivering the same quantity of power as without H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recovery. To assess the overall impact of such a scheme, a full-energy cycle must be investigated (Figure 1). Figure 2 is a process flow diagram for a KRW oxygen-blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant that produces electricity, H{sub 2}, and supercritical CO{sub 2}. This system was studied in a full-energy cycle analysis, extending from the coal mine to the final destination of the gaseous product streams [Doctor et al. 1996, 1999], on the basis of an earlier study [Gallaspy et al. 1990]. The authors report the results of updating these studies to use current turbine performance.

Doctor, R. D.; Brockmeier, N. F.; Molburg, J. C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Chess, K. L.

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

A data analysis decision support system for the carbon dioxide capture process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the development process of an expert decision support system for pre-filtering and analysis of data from the carbon dioxide (CO"2) capture process. Chemical absorption has become one of the dominant CO"2 capture technologies because ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture process, Data filtering, Expert decision support system

Yuxiang Wu; Christine W. Chan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar and Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation

414

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce. Early age carbonation curing of concrete is an effective measure to sequester recovered CO2 in lime

Barthelat, Francois

415

Development of a dissolved carbon dioxide sensor with a HPTS-incorporated polymer membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study a dissolved carbon dioxide sensor is made by using the fluorescent dye, HPTS incorporated into a polymer matrix, polyHEMA-co-EGDA. The HPTS-incorporated polymer membrane soaking in sodium bicarbonate buffer solution is put into a well in ... Keywords: carbon dioxide, fermentation, fluorescence, polymer membrane, sensor

Ok-Jae Sohn; Jong Il Rhee

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Void-free micro-pattern of nickel fabricated by electroplating with supercritical carbon dioxide emulsion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Void-free micro-pattern of nickel was fabricated electrochemically by applying supercritical carbon dioxide emulsion (Sc-CO"2-E). Evolution of hydrogen gas bubbles is usually the cause of defect and pinholes for microstructures fabricated electrochemically ... Keywords: Micro-pattern, Microstructure, Nickel, Supercritical carbon dioxide emulsion, Void-free

Tso-Fu Mark Chang; Toshikazu Tasaki; Chiemi Ishiyama; Masato Sone

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide treatment on bending properties of micro-sized SU-8 Specimens  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bending properties of micro-sized photoresist patterns are quantitatively evaluated using micro-sized SU-8 cantilever type test specimens to clarify the effects of supercritical carbon dioxide-treatment (ScCO"2-treatment). The SU-8 specimens were ... Keywords: Bending strength, Degree of crosslinking, Micro-sized materials, Photoresist, SU-8, Supercritical carbon dioxide

Chiemi Ishiyama; Tso-Fu Mark Chang; Masato Sone

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions. The model uses generation dispatch algorithms, efficiency levels, and capacity factorsemissions factors for fuel and electricity. Table A-3.3.2 Energy Savings, Costs, and Carbon Dioxide

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. Thermal distillation uses boiling water to steam strip solid sorbents - the steam is recovered as fresh water. We anticipate that our method will compete favorably with current chemical stripping systems used for CO{sub 2} separation at power plants, which incur a 35% energy penalty. Thus we expect to offer a dramatically improved solution for removing carbon from hydrocarbon combustion. Our method can be demonstrated on small sources, which will enable us to conduct the demonstrations required to build confidence in the method. If successful, we will be in a position to advance a follow-on proposal for a demonstration at the 10-MW scale.

Aines, R; Bourcier, W

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking research into nano-enabled titanium dioxide (TiO2) ultraviolet (UV) protective layers for cool-color roofing applications. Project Description This project entails optimizing and scaling up silicon dioxide-coated TiO2 nanocrystal synthesis and functionalization in aqueous solution in order to formulate a 10 gallon waterborne clear UV protective nanocomposite coating material. Project Partners This project is being undertaken between DOE and Nanotrons, a Massachusetts-based company that uses nano-engineering technologies to

422

Implications of surface seepage on the effectiveness of geologic storage of carbon dioxide as a climate change mitigation strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) will become an important climate change mitigation strategy will depend on a number of factors,

Hepple, Robert P.; Benson, Sally M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Technology Search Results | Brookhaven Technology ...  

One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory ...

424

Technology Search Results | Brookhaven Technology ...  

One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National ...

425

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Ligands for Extracting Actinide Metal Ions from Porous Solids  

SciTech Connect

Numerous types of actinide-bearing waste materials are found throughout the DOE complex. Most of these wastes consist of large volumes of non-hazardous materials contaminated with relatively small quantities of actinide elements. Separation of these wastes into their inert and radioactive components would dramatically reduce the costs of stabilization and disposal. For example, the DOE is responsible for decontaminating concrete within 7000 surplus contaminated buildings. The best technology now available for removing surface contamination from concrete involves removing the surface layer by grit blasting, which produces a large volume of blasting residue containing a small amount of radioactive material. Disposal of this residue is expensive because of its large volume and fine particulate nature. Considerable cost savings would result from separation of the radioactive constituents and stabilization of the concrete dust. Similarly, gas diffusion plants for uranium enrichment contain valuable high-purity nickel in the form of diffusion barriers. Decontamination is complicated by the extremely fine pores in these barriers, which are not readily accessible by most cleaning techniques. A cost-effective method for the removal of radioactive contaminants would release this valuable material for salvage. The objective of this project is to develop novel, substituted diphosphonic acid ligands that can be used for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of actinide ions from solid wastes. Specifically, selected diphosphonic acids, which are known to form extremely stable complexes with actinides in aqueous and organic solution, are to be rendered carbon dioxide-soluble by the introduction of appropriate alkyl- or silicon-containing substituents. The metal complexation chemistry of these new ligands in SC-CO2 will then be investigated and techniques for their use in actinide extraction from porous solids developed.

Dietz, Mark L.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

427

Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that fluorescence emission induced by strong field tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from its lower-lying orbitals exhibits a peculiar molecular alignment dependence. The experimentally measured alignment-dependence of the fluorescence agrees with the alignment-dependence of the ionization probability calculated in the framework of the strong field approximation. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an all-optical approach for shedding more light on the ionization mechanisms of molecules from their lower-lying orbitals in tunnel ionization regime.

Yao, Jinping; Jia, Xinyan; Hao, Xiaolei; Zeng, Bin; Jing, Chenrui; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Zhao, Zengxiu; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Separation and Fixation of Carbon Dioxide Using Polymeric Membrane Contactor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Natural Science Foundation of China. National Natural Science Foundation of China. Separation and Fixation of Carbon Dioxide Using Polymeric Membrane Contactor Zhikang XU, Jianli WANG, Wei CHEN, Youyi XU Institute of Polymer Science, Zhejiang University, 310027, Hangzhou, P. R. China Tel: +86-571-7951342-8218, E-mail: xuzk@ipsm.zju.edu.cn ABSTRACT: Polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (PPHFM) contactor, with aqueous solution absorbent such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA), was designed and used to separate and fix CO 2 from CO 2 /N 2 gas mixtures. The factors that influence the separation properties of CO 2 /N 2 were investigated. It was found that the CO 2 removal efficiency is the best by using MEA solution as absorbent. The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) increases

429

Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accessibility Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b,⇑ , Lilin He a , Richard Sakurovs c,⇑ , Arkady L. Kholodenko d , Tomasz Blach e , 4 Maria Mastalerz f , Andrzej P. Radlin ´ ski e,f , Gang Cheng g,h , David F.R. Mildner i 5 a Neutron Scattering Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA 6 b Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA 7 c CSIRO Energy Technology, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, 2113 NSW, Australia 8 d 375 H.L. Hunter Laboratories, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973, USA 9 e Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan 4111, Brisbane, Australia 10 f Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208, USA 11 g Sandia National Laboratories, Q1 Livermore, CA 94551, USA 12 h Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque,

430

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Novel Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.doe Richard Willis Principal Investigator UOP LLC 50 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, IL 60016 847-391-3190 Richard.Willis@uop.com Carbon DioxiDe Separation with novel MiCroporouS Metal organiC FraMeworkS Background UOP LLC, in collaboration with Vanderbilt University and the University of Edinburgh, is working to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated process for the removal of CO 2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. This innovative project will exploit the latest discoveries in an extraordinary class of materials (MOFs) having extremely high adsorption capacities. MOFs have previously exhibited

431

Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage of Captured Carbon Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands May 8, 2009 DOE/NETL-2009/1358 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The

432

Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System - Methodology and Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity Carbon Factor – Electricity carbon dioxideconsumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon factor is a

McNeil, Michael A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov October 2012 Significance * Energy mixing is maximized * Mobilizing of the particulates is complete * No "dead zones" exist * Packing of material is minimized * Eroding effects are significantly reduced Applications * Mixing nuclear waste at Hanford * Any similar industrial process involving heavy solids in a carrier fluid Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from

435

Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

Hobbs, D.T.

1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

436

Proton conduction in electrolyte made of manganese dioxide for hydrogen gas sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose a network model of oxygen-pairs to store and conduct protons on the surface of manganese dioxide with a weak covalent bond like protons stored in pressured ice. The atomic distances of oxygen-pairs were estimated between 2.57 and 2.60 angstroms in crystal structures of ramsdellite-type and lambda-type manganese dioxides by using protonated samples and inelastic neutron scattering measurements. Good properties for a hydrogen gas sensor using electrolytes made of manganese dioxides that contain such oxygen-pairs were confirmed experimentally.

Koyanaka, Hideki [Kyoto University, Japan; Ueda, Yoshikatsu [Kyoto University, Japan; Takeuchi, K [Tokyo University of Science, Oshamanbe Hokkaido, Japan; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Notification to Mirant by the Commonwealth of Virginia of Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2005 9, 2005 Lisa D. Johnson, President Mirant Potomac River, LLC 8711 Westphalia Road Upper Marlboro, Maryland 20774 Dear Ms. Johnson: DEQ is in receipt of the results of Mirant's "downwash" modeling provided by Mirant to DEQ pursuant to the consent special order between the State Air Pollution Control Board and Mirant Potomac River, LLC. A cursory review of the modeling reveals that emissions from the Potomac River Generating Station result in, cause or substantially contribute to serious violations of the primary national ambient air quality standards or "NAAQS" for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and PM 10 . NAAQS are established by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at concentrations necessary to protect human health with an adequate margin of safety.

438

Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Comparison of Spectroscopic Data with Cluster Calculations of Plutonium, Plutonium Dioxide and Uranium Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using spectroscopic data produced in the experimental investigations of bulk systems, including X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), the theoretical results within for UO{sub 2}{sup 6}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 6} and Pu{sup 7} clusters have been evaluated. The calculations of the electronic structure of the clusters have been performed within the framework of the Relativistic Discrete-Variational Method (RDV). The comparisons between the LLNL experimental data and the Russian calculations are quite favorable. The cluster calculations may represent a new and useful avenue to address unresolved questions within the field of actinide electron structure, particularly that of Pu. Observation of the changes in the Pu electronic structure as a function of size suggests interesting implications for bulk Pu electronic structure.

Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Ryzhkov, M V; Mirmelstein, A

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

membranes membranes B-370 Post-Combustion membranes u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 eleCtroChemiCal membrane for Carbon DioxiDe CaPture & Power generation primary project goals FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing an electrochemical membrane (ECM)-based Combined Electric Power and Carbon Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture that also provides additional electrical power generation. The project includes bench-scale testing of an 11.7 m 2 -area ECM (molten carbonate fuel cell) system for CO 2 capture, purification, and compression. technical goals * Perform contaminant effect testing to establish maximum permissible concentrations of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

442

Depleted Uraniuim Dioxide as a Spent-Nuclear-Fuel-Waste Package...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

15 DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AS A SPENT-NUCLEAR-FUEL WASTE-PACKAGE PARTICULATE FILL: FILL BEHAVIOR Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge,...

443

Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO?) ...

Lacy, Rodolfo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

By incorporating amines inside clay containing quaternary ammonium salts (organoclay) minerals, this invention has created a way to prepare sorbents that capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from low temperature and low pressure gas streams. In this process, ...

445

Metal-Semiconductor Transitions in Nanoscale Vanadium Dioxide - Thin Films, Subwavelength Holes, and Nanoparticles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Large-volume (bulk) vanadium dioxide (VO2) is an unusual material that undergoes a critical transition from insulating-like to metal-like when the temperature is raised above approximately… (more)

Donev, Eugenii U.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Report #: DOE/EIA-0573(2005) Released Date: November 2006 Next Release Date: Not applicable Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing Mark Schipper 1 , Energy Information Administration (EIA) Abstract Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

447

DOE to Provide $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

$36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture DOE to Provide $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture July 31, 2008 - 2:40pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that it will provide $36 million for 15 projects aimed at furthering the development of new and cost-effective technologies for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. "Currently, the existing U.S. coal fleet accounts for over half of all electricity generated in this country," U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman said. "The projects announced today will combat climate change and help meet current and future energy needs by curbing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired plants."

448

Advanced Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases by Shrikar Chakravarti (shrikar_chakravarti@praxair.com; 716-879-4760) Amitabh Gupta (ami_gupta@praxair.com; 716-879-2194) Balazs Hunek (balazs_hunek@praxair.com; 716-879-2250) Praxair, Inc. Process & Systems R&D, CO 2 Technology 175 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14150 USA key words: flue gas, carbon dioxide, separation, amine absorption, oxygen tolerant process, amine blends First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 15-17, 2001 Copyright 2001, Praxair Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 Abstract Cost effective carbon sequestration schemes have been identified as a key need for dealing with carbon dioxide's (CO 2 ) impact on global climate change. Two main

449

EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration 46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas Overview DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2 Use . Based on the analyses in the EA DOE determined that its proposed action - awarding a grant to Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. to design and demonstrate a state-of-the-art system to concentrate carbon dioxide (CO,) from two steam

450

Underground Storage of Carbon Dioxide-as a Solid | U.S. DOE Office of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Underground Storage of Carbon Dioxide-as a Solid Underground Storage of Carbon Dioxide-as a Solid Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) News & Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301) 903-4846 E: sc.ascr@science.doe.gov More Information » July 2012 Underground Storage of Carbon Dioxide-as a Solid Nanoscale features in rocks enable more carbon dioxide to be trapped as a solid carbonate material underground. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

451

Modern Records of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and a 2000-year Ice-core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) » Ice Cores Carbon Dioxide (CO2) » Ice Cores Modern Records of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing many currently active stations. Records since about 1960 (depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote stations, which represent changing global atmospheric concentrations rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year record ending with the most recent data. A

452

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,908,497 entitled "Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures." Disclosed in this patent is a new low-cost carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. Researchers have developed a new method to prepare these sorbents by treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether in a way that either one comprises at least 50 weight percent of the sorbent. The sorbent captures compounds contained in gaseous fluids through chemisorptions and/or

453

DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas Field DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas Field May 21, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- In a newly awarded project, researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are partnering with European scientists to track injected carbon dioxide (CO2) in the world's first and longest running carbon storage operation located at the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea. The researchers--from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) in New York--will conduct surveys on the seafloor to monitor injected CO2 in the 1 kilometer-deep reservoir, where more than

454

Transient Response of a Global Ocean-Atmosphere Model to a Doubling of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transient response of climate to an instantaneous increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been investigated by a general circulation model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system with global geography and annual ...

Syukuro Manabe; Kirk Bryan; Michael J. Spelman

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

The Predictive Uncertainty of Land Surface Fluxes in Response to Increasing Ambient Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the land surface and the atmosphere plays an important role in numerical weather forecasting and climate change prediction using general circulation models. In this study, a typical ...

Karsten Schulz; Andrew Jarvis; Keith Beven; Henrik Soegaard

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Figure 111. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in three cases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 111. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in three cases with three levels of emissions fees, 2000-2040 (million metric tons)

457

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

teChnology uPDate, may 2013 eleCtroChemiCal membrane for Carbon DioxiDe CaPture & Power generation primary project goals FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing an...

458

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the development of an advanced chemical looping combustion (CLC) system for coal-fired power generation that removes greater than 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with a...

459

Carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plants : a real potions analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal ...

Sekar, Ram Chandra

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

An Exploration of the Effect of Temperature on Different Alloys in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the constant effort to increase efficiency, safety margins, and lower cost, a new breed of nuclear reactors, Generation IV, is being developed in which supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO?) is a prime coolant candidate. ...

Dunlevy, Michael William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide result primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Large-Scale Changes of Soil Wetness Induced by an Increase in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The change in soil wetness in response to an increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is investigated by two versions of a climate model which consists of a general circulation model of the atmosphere and a static mixed layer ...

S. Manabe; R. T. Wetherald

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

Vidhi, Rachana [University of South Florida, Tampa; Goswami, Yogi D. [University of South Florida, Tampa; Chen, Huijuan [University of South Florida, Tampa; Stefanakos, Elias [University of South Florida, Tampa; Kuravi, Sarada [University of South Florida, Tampa; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent. 3 figs.

Fulton, J.L.; Yonker, C.R.; Hallen, R.R.; Baker, E.G.; Bowman, L.E.; Silva, L.J.

1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

464

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cement Industry, An Energy Perspective", U.S. Department ofDioxide Emissions for Energy Use in U.S. Cement Production (3. Primary Energy Consumption in U.S. Cement Production by

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Storage Program of the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project (CCP), a coalition of eight oil and gas companies and two associate members that are working together to reduce carbon...

466

Venting of Heat and Carbon Dioxide from Urban Canyons at Night  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide and sensible heat were observed in the surface layer of the weakly convective nocturnal boundary layer over the center of the city of Marseille, France, during the Expérience sur Sites pour Contraindre les ...

J. A. Salmond; T. R. Oke; C. S. B. Grimmond; S. Roberts; B. Offerle

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Ti3+ in the surface of titanium dioxide: generation, properties and photocatalytic application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most investigated crystalline oxide in the surface science of metal oxides. Its physical and chemical properties are dominantly determined by its surface condition. Ti3+ surface defect (TSD) is one ...

Liang-Bin Xiong; Jia-Lin Li; Bo Yang; Ying Yu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamic shape factors of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-spherical objects were estimated with computational methods. Leith's empirical methods were used to modify classical Stokes's law for aerosol dynamics (1987). The dynamic shape factor equations described by Leith were solved as functions of applicable curvilinear coordinates for objects resembling HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide. Shapes modeled included six-sided hedron, right disk, oblate spheroid, and right-elliptical cone. Dynamic shape factors are plotted as a function of those curvilinear coordinates, within the full range of applicability. Experimental validity of the Leith dynamic shape factors ranged from 0.5 to 5 for each object modeled. This research is critical to determining settling velocities of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide aerosols. The change of particle size distribution over time and space can be derived, leading ultimately to an assessment of the dose from an unplanned release of plutonium dioxide.

Lohaus, James Harold

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO?) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard R. (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Bowman, Lawrence E. (Richland, WA); Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dioxide Removal from Coal-Fired Power Plants”, Ph.D. thesis,widely used today in coal-fired power plants, and good siteswidely used today in coal-fired power plants, and good sites

Ogden, Joan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions beGoulden. 2008. Where do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissionsof season-averaged fossil fuel CO 2 emissions (Riley et

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z