National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dioxide nitrous oxide

  1. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the...

  2. The biogeochemistry of marine nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frame, Caitlin H

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide N?O concentrations have been rising steadily for the past century as a result of human activities. In particular, human perturbation of the nitrogen cycle has increased the N?O production rates ...

  3. Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, E.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

  4. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  5. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous110 Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrousproperties have been well studied, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (

  6. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  7. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone J O H N T . W A L K E R , * , C R A I,thoughlargenitrogeninputsanddeoxygenation typical of these systems create the potential for large N2O emissions. We report the first N2O emission measurements from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone (GOMHZ), including an estimate of the emission "pulse

  8. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    gross N 2 O production and consumption rates). Regressionmeasure gross N 2 O production and consumption rates withoutIII. Nitrous oxide production and consumption in a drained

  9. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling On-Board Measurement of...

  10. Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers Dame, Notre Dame, IN, U.S.A. SUMMARY 1. Denitrification, net oxygen consumption and net nitrous oxide. Denitrification, oxygen consumption and N2O flux were measured based on net changes in dissolved gas

  11. New and Renewal SRMs/RMs NIST SRM 1718 Nitrous Oxide in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New and Renewal SRMs/RMs NIST SRM 1718 Nitrous Oxide in Air (Nominal Amount-of-Substance Fraction 1 amount-of-substance of 1.0 µmol/mol Nitrous Oxide (N2O) in Synthetic Air balance. It is used the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the Automobile Industry

  12. MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

  13. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    Method Method 15 N tracer 15N tracer 15 N O pool dilution15N2O pool diltion Acetylene inhibition Acetylene inhibitionthe 15 N-nitrous oxide (N 2 O) pool dilution technique in a

  14. On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

  15. Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A

    1992-06-26

    At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

  16. Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egbert Schwartz

    2008-12-15

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

  17. Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide concentrations of Ozone destruction and creation at different altitudes and concentrations of CH4 and N2O #12;Contents levels have varying conditions and are governed by different chemical regimes We will simulate ozone

  18. Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halevy, Itay

    Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon A. L. ROBERSON,1 J. ROADT,2 are possible during this time. The combined greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O could have pro- vided up to 10 at the beginning of the Proterozoic and still 5% dimmer at its end (Gough, 1981). Greenhouse warm- ing by CO2 and H

  19. Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

    2013-11-22

    Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the results that were obtained.

  20. Nitrous oxide (N?O) isotopic composition in the troposphere : instrumentation, observations at Mace Head, Ireland, and regional modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Katherine Ellison

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N?O) is a significant greenhouse gas and main contributor to stratospheric ozone destruction. Surface measurements of N?O mole fractions have been used to attribute source and sink strengths, but large ...

  1. Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsurao, Takumi

    1994-01-01

    The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering ...

  2. TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial Ryegrass under Different Irrigation Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    80 TITLE: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Three Different Turfgrass Species and from Perennial). effects of irrigation on N2 O emissions from perennial ryegrass AUTHOR: Jason Lewis and Dale Bremer and frequencies, and irrigated with different amounts of water, all of which may affect N2 O emissions

  3. The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with nitrous oxide by molybdenum oxide supported on silica gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Tsong-Jen

    1979-01-01

    or indirectly from 02, thus tne difference between the two oxidants becomes less sig- nificant. Both rates of formation for C2H4 and C0 were enhanced in the presence of a very small amount of oxygen in the mixture of C2B& and N 0. A radical mechanism... process because of the large and expanding demand for alkenes and dialkenes which are used in the manufacture of various chemical prod- ucts such as detergents, plastics, synthetic rubber, anc high octane gasoline. One example of this type of reaction...

  4. Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Eliza

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

  5. Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production requires significant inputs of fertilizer N for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Abstract: Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated-textured, well-drained soils where potatoes are commonly grown. Polymer coated controlled-release ureas (PCU

  6. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  7. SOOT-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    and T. Novakov, "Catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon inThe mechanism of catalytic oxidation on activated carbon;of water in the catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbonaceous

  8. Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

  9. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  10. INVESTIGATING THE MECHANISM FOR THE FORMATION OF NITROUS OXIDE )] IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL ICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) ice mixture was irradiated at 10 K with 5 keV electrons to simulate and infrared spectral regions. As these are our primary methods for remotely iden- tifying rotations

  11. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  12. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  13. Instrument Development and Measurements of the Atmospheric Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrate Radical, and Nitrous Acid by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, David Salvador

    2011-01-01

    UV and these absorption bands have been used for HONO measurements.the UV region and is developed for measurements of nitrousUV and visible region and their absorption bands are exploited for measurements

  14. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser- based- strumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.2747608 Keywords: breath analysis; nitric oxide; carbon dioxide sampling, NO is measured over time during exhalation. Offline sampling has the advantages of remote

  15. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  16. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained.

  17. Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

  18. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    oxidation in limestone slurry scrubbing. Introduction Limestone (CaCO3) slurry scrubbing and lime (Ca

  19. Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature and lower environmental impacts make this the carbon-based fuel of choice well into the twenty-first century chemicals.1 There is additional need for new technologies which can also allow recovery of the many remote

  20. MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

    2001-06-25

    Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

  1. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  2. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  3. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  4. Carbon dioxide fixation by Metallosphaera yellowstonensis and acidothermophilic iron-oxidizing microbial communities from Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Ryan; Whitmore, Laura M.; Moran, James J.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2014-05-01

    The fixation of inorganic carbon (as carbon dioxide) has been documented in all three domains of life and results in the biosynthesis of a diverse suite of organic compounds that support the growth of heterotrophic organisms. The primary aim of this study was to assess the importance of carbon dioxide fixation in high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat communities and in pure cultures of one of the dominant Fe(II)-oxidizing organisms (Metallosphaera yellowstonensis strain MK1) present in situ. Protein-encoding genes of the complete 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3-HP/4-HB) carbon fixation pathway were identified in pure-cultures of M. yellowstonensis strain MK1. Metagenome sequencing from the same environments also revealed genes for the 3-HP/4-HB pathway belonging to M. yellowstonensis populations, as well as genes for a complete reductive TCA cycle from Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales). Stable isotope (13CO2) labeling was used to measure the fixation of CO2 by M. yellowstonensis strain MK1, and in ex situ assays containing live Fe(III)-oxide microbial mats. Results showed that M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 fixes CO2 via the 3-HP/4-HB pathway with a fractionation factor of ~ 2.5 ‰. Direct analysis of the 13C composition of dissolved inorganic C (DIC), dissolved organic C (DOC), landscape C and microbial mat C showed that mat C is comprised of both DIC and non-DIC sources. The estimated contribution of DIC carbon to biomass C (> ~ 35%) is reasonably consistent with the relative abundance of known chemolithoautotrophs and corresponding CO2 fixation pathways detected in metagenome sequence. The significance of DIC as a major source of carbon for Fe-oxide mat communities provides a foundation for examining microbial interactions in these systems that are dependent on the activity of autotrophic organisms such as Hydrogenobaculum and Metallosphaera spp.

  5. Diphosphine Dioxide Cages and Hydrogen Peroxide Adducts of Phosphine Oxides: Syntheses and Applications in Surface Science 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilliard, Casie Renee

    2013-12-09

    Understanding the adsorption of phosphine oxides on silica surfaces has a threefold incentive. (a) Efficiently removing phosphine oxides from reaction mixtures is crucial after many synthetic procedures, for example the ...

  6. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    D. Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium. OECD Nuclear Energyand dioxides from thorium to curium Joaquim Marçalo a,* andmonoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium,

  7. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual

  8. DISSOLUTION OF METAL OXIDES AND SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO2 modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO2 and counter current stripping columns is presented.

  9. Dissolution of metal oxides and separation of uranium from lanthanides and actinides in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quach, D.L.; Wai, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Mincher, B.J. [Idaho National Lab, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO{sub 2} and counter current stripping columns is presented. (authors)

  10. REDUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE AND PROTECTION FROM RE-OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; JOHNSON JM; MOORE WP; HAGERTY KJ; RHODES RN; MOORE RC

    2012-07-11

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-I0S simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table 1 shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit.

  11. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, E.

    The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

  12. THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa Lu.

    2010-01-01

    Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

  13. Low Temperature Deposition of Metal Oxide Thin Films in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide using Metal-organic Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Semiconductor (CMOS) devices, [1,2] magnetic tunnel junctions, [3] and optical coatings.[4] Conventional such as electroplating, [6,7] electroless deposition, [8,9] and in supercritical carbon dioxide for the deposition

  14. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  15. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  16. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  17. Basic Engineering Research for D and D of R Reactor Storage Pond Sludge: Electrokinetics, Carbon Dioxide Extraction, and Supercritical Water Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Matthews; David A. Bruce,; Thomas A. Davis; Mark C. Thies; John W. Weidner; Ralph E. White

    2002-04-01

    Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D and D operations at DOE sites across the country. The standard process for destruction of MLLW is incineration, which has an uncertain future. The extraction and destruction of PCBs from MLLW was the subject of this research Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide with 5% ethanol as cosolvent and Supercritical Waster Oxidation (SCWO) were the processes studied in depth. The solid matrix for experimental extraction studies was Toxi-dry, a commonly used absorbent made from plant material. PCB surrogates were 1.2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 2-chlorobiphenyl (2CBP). Extraction pressures of 2,000 and 4,000 psi and temperatures of 40 and 80 C were studied. Higher extraction efficiencies were observed with cosolvent and at high temperature, but pressure little effect. SCWO treatment of the treatment of the PCB surrogates resulted in their destruction below detection limits.

  18. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2 leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.

  19. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more »leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  20. Ternary Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to Carbon Dioxide: Making Ir Capable of Splitting C-C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Meng; Cullen, David A; Sasaki, Kotaro; Marinkovic, N.; More, Karren Leslie; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2013-01-01

    Splitting the C-C bond is the main obstacle to electroxidation of ethanol (EOR) to CO2. We recently demonstrated that the ternary PtRhSnO2 electrocatalyst can accomplish that reaction at room temperature with Rh having a unique capability to split the C-C bond. In this article we report the finding that Ir can be induced to split the C-C bond as a component of the ternary catalyst. We synthesized, characterized and compared the properties of several ternary electrocatalysts. Carbon-supported nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalysts comprising a SnO2 NP core decorated with multi-metallic nanoislands (MM = PtIr, PtRh, IrRh, PtIrRh) were prepared using a seeded growth approach. An array of characterization techniques were employed to establish the composition and architecture of the synthesized MM /SnO2 NPs, while electrochemical and in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies elucidated trends in activity and the nature of the reaction intermediates and products. Both EOR reactivity and selectivity towards CO2 formation of several of these MM /SnO2/C electrocatalysts are significantly higher compared to conventional Pt/C and Pt/SnO2/C catalysts. We demonstrate that the PtIr/SnO2/C catalyst with high Ir content shows outstanding catalytic property with the most negative EOR onset potential and reasonably good selectivity towards ethanol complete oxidation to CO2. PtRh/SnO2/C catalysts with a moderate Rh content exhibit the highest EOR selectivity, as deduced from infrared studies.

  1. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF’s Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  2. Nitrous Oxide Production in the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Lindsey A.

    2010-10-12

    The Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone is created by strong persistent water stratification and nutrient loading from the Mississippi River which fuels primary production and bacterial decomposition. The Texas-Louisiana shelf ...

  3. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    is from the use of nitrogenous fertilizer in the agricultural sector; others include combustion of fossil radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg pulse emission of CO2. The GWP time horizon must also be specified ­ typically it is 100 yr, but IPCC

  4. The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with nitrous oxide by molybdenum oxide supported by silica gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Mark Branham

    1977-01-01

    ions. This can be accomplished through the formation and subsequent desorption of HHO as follows: No +-QH + (QH ) s ~ No + HpO(g) + 0 (s) slow (g) The catalytic reaction rate can also be affected by the presence of coke on the active surface sites...

  5. Institutionen fr markvetenskap Publikationer 2001 Aktuell 2004-12-09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrous oxide from organic household waste in a compost. 2001. Evalution of growing media containing farmyard manure compost, household waste compost

  6. Air Emissions Operating Permit Regulations for the Purposes of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by including the EPA's Green House Gas Emission standards. Green House Gasses are: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur...

  7. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  8. Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    presented in part I (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 13339). A weak feature at the SO3 mass channel (80 amu to SO3 facilitated by condensed-phase vanadium oxides as catalysts are suggested. I. Introduction for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 (sulfuric acid production, SO2 removal), selective reduction of NOx with NH3

  9. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  10. Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, L.T.

    1995-11-01

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

  11. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  12. The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Alberto, Jr

    2009-01-01

    The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

  13. J. Blunden, D. S. Arndt, and M. O. Baringer, Eds. Associate Eds. K. M.Willett,A. J. Dolman, B. D. Hall, P.W.Thorne, J. M. Levy, H. J. Diamond,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Composition: carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, chloro- fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons dioxide. · Ocean Subsurface: current, carbon. · Terrestrial: soil moisture, permafrost, glaciers and ice*. · Atmospheric Upper Air: earth radiation budget, temperature, water vapor, cloud properties. · Atmospheric

  14. STATE OF THE CLIMATE Jessica Blunden Derek S. Arndt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, chloro- fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons: long-lived green- house gases not listed as fully monitored above. Ocean Surface: carbon dioxide. Ocean Upper Air: earth radiation budget, temperature, water vapor, cloud properties. Atmospheric Composition

  15. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    molybdenum dioxide displays excellent behavior as catalytic material for the oxidative reforming of bothOxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su candidate as an effective catalyst for biodiesel. Few papers have been published on the topic of catalytic

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  17. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  18. BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa L.

    2013-01-01

    Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

  19. Refinement in the ultrasonic velocity data and estimation of the critical parameters for molten uranium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    uranium dioxide Abdul-Majeed Azad * Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University, reliable data on the sound prop- agation velocity in molten uranium dioxide have been obtained. An equation 61:98 ffiffiffiffi T p : ð1Þ For stoichiometric uranium oxide (O/U = 2.00) values of 3070 K [6], 3115

  20. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized...

  1. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Bacon, Diana H. carbon...

  2. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  3. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium...

  4. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  5. IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 011002 (7pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/011002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    2013-01-01

    and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs--methane and nitrous oxide--account for 10 and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead

  6. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  7. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  8. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, P.P.; Takahashi, G.S.; Leshock, D.G.

    1991-10-14

    The fluidized-bed copper oxide process was developed to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas of coal-fired utility boilers. This dry and regenerable process uses a copper oxide sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. Contaminants are removed without generating waste material. (VC)

  9. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    valve (3) was opened so that air from the jar headspace was transferred inside the canister after passing

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    methods for examination of composting and compost, in: J.Smith (Ed. ), The US Composting Council, US Governmentto the field sites and composting facilities. I am also

  11. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    de Biogeoqu?´mica Ambiental, Centro de Energia Nuclear naBiogeoqu?´ mica Ambiental at the Centro de Energia Nuclear

  12. EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE FROM CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    fuel passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. 1. Introduction The use of energy). In most industrialized countries, trans- portation fuel use produces a major fraction of all energy/electric hybrid and fuel cell/electric hybrid drivetrain technologies offers the potential for significant

  13. Nitrous Oxide as a 1,3-Dipole: A Theoretical Study of Its Cycloaddition Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    of N2O emissions have been identified, including biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, industrial and stratospheric ozone loss, so its level should remain as low as possible, and the N2O emissions should be reduced

  14. A STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND MANAGEMENT DRIVERS OF NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS IN AUSTRALIAN AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Paul

    versus stubble retention, conventional cultivation vs direct drilling and crop rotation to determine

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    2009) Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil.municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effectsmunicipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects

  16. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    N 2 production pathway in terrestrial soils, but I showedimportant terrestrial N 2 production pathways. In marine andonly pathway for N 2 production in terrestrial and aquatic

  17. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    cation processes. Plant and Soil 62:413–430. Matson, P. A. ,C. Cerri, and M. Bernoux. 1995. Soil properties under AmazonBigham, editor. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Microbial

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    conductivity, temperature, soil moisture, and microbialmicroorganisms in soil. Applied and Environmental127, in: A. Bouwman (Ed. ), Soils and the Greenhouse Effect,

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    A. (1996) Secondary desertification due to salinization ofIsraeli experience, Desertification in Developed Countries,Dregne H.E. (1983) Desertification of arid lands Harwood

  20. Atmospheric nitrous oxide during the last 140,000 years Adrian Schilt a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland b Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland c Laboratoire de

  1. Nitrous Oxide Nitrification and Denitrification 15N Enrichment Factors from Amazon Forest Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    pica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura/University demica Ambiental, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura/at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) of

  2. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  3. Reducing a Companies Carbon Footprint through Energy Saving Best Practices at a Dairy Manufacturing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortan, Michael J.

    2010-12-17

    these companies with increased sales. These global warming gasses are made up of both naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring gasses. Naturally occurring gasses are carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone gasses while non...

  4. Biological and environmental efficiency of high producing dairy systems through application of life cycle analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Stephen Alexander

    2014-11-27

    Dairy production systems are an important global contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Due to the role GHG play in climate ...

  5. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated 2002

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of updated state-level electricity coefficients for carbon dioxide (CO ), methane (CH ), and nitrous oxide (NO), which represent a three-year weighted average for 1998-2000.

  6. 2006 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in annual energy costs, but will also save 650,000 gallons of diesel fuel and reduce air pollution by 26 tons of sulfur dioxide and 15 tons of nitrous oxide. With the wind...

  7. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  8. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

  9. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  10. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  11. Short-and long-term greenhouse gas and radiative forcing impacts of changing water management in Asian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be a source or sink of carbon dioxide. Changing water management of rice paddies can affect net emissions (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), evaluated as `carbon dioxide equivalent emissions' (Art. 3: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons

  12. Study of the exposure of British mineworkers to nitrous fumes and the effects on their health. Final report August 77-January 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Collings, P.; Gormley, I.P.; Dodgeon, J.

    1981-06-01

    Shift-average exposures to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide have been found to be well within the recommended safety limits in nine British collieries. Differences in the exposures of miners in different collieries and between different locations and occupations within collieries were observed, with diesel locomotive drivers having consistently higher shift-average exposures than other workers. Possible health effects of oxides of nitrogen were investigated by comparing the respiratory health of men with low past exposure against men with higher past exposure to these gases. No differences in forced expired volumes in one second or in the prevalences of cough, phlegm and breathlessness were found between the two population groups.

  13. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  14. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  15. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  16. Doped tantalum oxide high K dielectric thin films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Joseph Patrick

    2000-01-01

    , it was doped with varying amounts of titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The composite oxide films were deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) cc-sputtering of two targets in a variety of oxygen and argon feed gas mixtures. The targets used...

  17. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofper Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($ per Year)Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions

  18. Catalysis by Confinement: Enthalpic Stabilization of NO Oxidation Transition States by Micropororous and Mesoporous Siliceous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    . INTRODUCTION The homogeneous oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with O2 as the oxidant transformation in selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR) by NH3 on metal- exchanged zeolites7-11 and in NOxCatalysis by Confinement: Enthalpic Stabilization of NO Oxidation Transition States

  19. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  20. Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

  1. Application of optical processing for growth of silicon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate is disclosed. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm{sup 2} to about 6 watts/cm{sup 2} for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm{sup 2} for growth of a 100{angstrom}-300{angstrom} film at a resultant temperature of about 400 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface to be very low. 1 fig.

  2. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01

    IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

  3. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  5. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  8. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The National Renewable Energy...

  9. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Herbert E. Huppert1-3 and Jerome A. Neufeld4 1 FurtherANNUAL REVIEWS #12;1. INTRODUCTION Undeniably, the average global carbon dioxide (CO2) content

  10. Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment Report of an Ad Hoc Study Group on Carbon on Carbon Dioxide and Climate Jule G. Charney, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chairman Akio Arakawa Dioxide and Climate Woods Hole, Massachusetts July 23-27, 1979 to the Climate Research Board Assembly

  11. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  12. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

  13. Cosurfactant and cosolvent effects on surfactant self-assembly in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siperstein, Flor R.

    Cosurfactant and cosolvent effects on surfactant self-assembly in supercritical carbon dioxide the alcohol concentration. Short-chain alcohols are found to concentrate in the surfactant layer=methylene or methyl and E=ethylene oxide with increasing alcohol concentration at all temperatures and CO2 pressures

  14. A MEMS Thin Film AlN Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ya-Mei

    2011-01-01

    and density measurement for carbon dioxide + pentaerythritolfrom supercritical carbon dioxide”, Journal of Crystalwith supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent [

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  17. Spatially Differentiated Trade of Permits for Multipollutant Electric Power Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    regulations to control multiple pollutants. The Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) program). Berlin, Germany: Springer, in press. 1 Introduction Electric power plants emit several different air pollutants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (NOx), and mercury (Hg

  18. Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carried out to determine whether changes in carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a bog stores of soil carbon that need to be protected to avoid the release of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and stores of carbon may be lost if they are planted with trees. The number of bogs being restored

  19. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  20. the carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    today's concerns about human-driven climate change and the need to cut carbon emissions, itthe carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide to come for this process to come to equilibrium. Whenever the carbon dioxide amount is increasing an upper limit

  1. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  2. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

    2011-01-01

    The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

  3. Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane of tables relating to national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (principally carbon dioxide, methane, 1

  4. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions. Environ. Res.Per-capita emissions were compiled by the Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. For 2007 and 2008, increases in fossil fuel emissions

  5. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofThe Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and UrbanTHE GREENNESS OF CITIES: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND URBAN

  6. Instrument Development and Measurements of the Atmospheric Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrate Radical, and Nitrous Acid by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, David Salvador

    2011-01-01

    of 99.9% at 308 nm (Los Gatos, diameter = 2.54 cm, radius ofon an o-ring design (Los Gatos). The disadvantage of thethan the manufacturer (Los Gatos) quoted reflectivity. In

  7. Non-destructive radiocarbon and stable isotopic analyses of archaeological materials using plasma oxidation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steelman, Karen Lynn

    2005-11-01

    Plasma oxidation, an alternative to combustion, is shown to be a non-destructive method for obtaining radiocarbon dates on perishable organic artifacts. Electrically excited oxygen gently converts organic carbon to carbon dioxide. Radiocarbon...

  8. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  9. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA

  10. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in Deep Saline Aquifers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets...

  11. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces in Deep Saline Aquifers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide...

  12. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  13. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2010-02-11

    The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  14. Oriented conductive oxide electrodes on SiO2/Si and glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A thin film structure is provided including a silicon substrate with a layer of silicon dioxide on a surface thereof, and a layer of cubic oxide material deposited upon the layer of silicon dioxide by ion-beam-assisted-deposition, said layer of cubic oxide material characterized as biaxially oriented. Preferably, the cubic oxide material is yttria-stabilized zirconia. Additional thin layers of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide are deposited upon the layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. An intermediate layer of cerium oxide is employed between the yttria-stabilized zirconia layer and the lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide layer. Also, a layer of barium strontium titanium oxide can be upon the layer of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide. Also, a method of forming such thin film structures, including a low temperature deposition of a layer of a biaxially oriented cubic oxide material upon the silicon dioxide surface of a silicon dioxide/silicon substrate is provided.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the thermodynamic properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, there has been international agreement on a vapor pressure equation for the total pressure over UO/sub 2/, new methods have been suggested for the calculation of enthalpy and heat capacity, and a phase change at 2670 K has been proposed. In this report, an electronic term is used in place of the Frenkel defect term in the enthalpy and heat capacity equation and the phase transition is accepted.

  16. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  17. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    a remarkable source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic and industrial activities [4 for indirect reduction (IR) of iron oxides in blast furnaces (BFs), carbon dioxide emissions can be lessened. Motivated from utilizing hydrogen and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in ironmaking, the reaction

  18. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  1. Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Figueiredo, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

  2. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  3. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  4. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01

    DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

  5. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the ...

  6. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-IntensiveEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-Intensive

  7. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from California Go?Figure 1. 2004 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fuel CombustionImproving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the

  8. Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-01-01

    U.S. EPA. 2000. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generationfor Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Combustion ofUS EPA), 2000. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation

  9. As carbon dioxide rises, food quality will decline without careful nitrogen management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Arnold J

    2009-01-01

    exposed to elevated carbon dioxide. Mean of 285 studies (and ambient (365 ppm) carbon dioxide atmospheres, in freeand ambient (366 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations under

  10. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in2007), Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three borealharvest influence carbon dioxide fluxes of black spruce

  11. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  12. Increasing carbon dioxideIncreasing carbon dioxide & its effect on forest& its effect on forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    ecosystem's natural capacity toA forest ecosystem's natural capacity to capture energy, capture energy's natural capacity toA forest ecosystem's natural capacity to capture energy, capture energy, sustain life10/13/2010 1 Increasing carbon dioxideIncreasing carbon dioxide & its effect on forest& its effect

  13. Modeling the Oxidative Capacity of the Atmosphere of the South Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    of the complex chemistry involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx ) nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2))(1).O3 productionisinitiatedbyreactionsthatgenerate HOx radicals Air Basin of California (SoCAB). P(O3) indicates the rapid nature of O3 formation under peak

  14. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  15. Photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol using ZnS microcrystallite as a photocatalyst in the presence of methanol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuwabata, Susumu; Nishida, Kazufumi; Tsuda, Ryo; Inoue, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Hiroshi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-06-01

    Photoinduced reduction of formate to methanol has been achieved using ZnS microcrystalline colloid which contained formate, methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as an electron mediator for MDH, and 2-propanol. This reaction was combined with photoreduction of carbon dioxide to formate on the ZnS microcrystallite which had already been reported to provide a new photosynthetic route for production of methanol from carbon dioxide. The production of methanol showed a saturation tendency when it was accumulated to 0.25 mmol dm[sup [minus]3], probably due to oxidation of the produced methanol at MDH or on the ZnS photocatalyst or both. The concentration of PQQ influenced the amount of formate production but not the methanol production. The quantum efficiency obtained at 280 nm for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol was 5.9%, which is the highest value that has ever been reported for the photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol.

  16. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  17. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  18. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  19. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  1. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN MULTI-PLANT CHEMICAL........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions....................................... 6 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  3. Multimodal Integration of Carbon Dioxide and Other Sensory Cues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multimodal Integration of Carbon Dioxide and Other Sensory Cues Drives Mosquito Attraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) detection to mosquito host- seeking behavior, we mutated the AaegGr3 gene, a subunit

  4. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  5. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    - house gas, but also the hydroperoxide radical (HO2). HO2 converts nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxideContribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide. Chen, K. Carmody, S. Vutukuru, and D. Dabdub (2007), Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile

  6. ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphereORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (423) 574-3645 Oak Ridge National Laboratory URL: http

  7. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and per

  8. Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

  9. Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry, 7 figures, 4 tables. Keywords: metamorphic carbon dioxide; Himalaya; hot springs; carbon cycle, M. J., L. A. Derry, and C. France-Lanord (2008), Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from

  10. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  11. Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (scCO2). Herein we demonstrate that colloids may also be stabilized in CO2 the behavior of steric stabilization in compressed supercritical fluids1-3 including carbon dioxide,4

  12. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  13. Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael C Students #12;- 2 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) separations based on amine sorbents, which

  14. Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  16. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    14 April 2001 A tmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is increas- ing at approximately 1. Annual anthropogenic carbon emissions in the United States total ap- proximately 1.7 billion tons emissions in the United States and around the world. One potential mechanism for re- ducing net carbon

  17. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use climate. With these Guidelines, they can: report current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized

  18. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  19. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  20. Light duty vehicle full fuel cycle emissions analysis. Topical report, April 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    The report provides a methodology for analyzing full fuel cycle emissions of alternative fuels for vehicles. Included in this analysis is an assessment of the following fuel cycles relevant to vehicle use: gasoline, reformulated gasoline, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electric power (with onboard battery storage), ethanol, and methanol fuels. The analysis focuses on basic criteria pollutants (reactive organic gases, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfurous oxides, and particulates less than 10 microns (PM10)). Emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) are also defined. The analysis was conducted for two cases, United States and the State of California and two time frames, current and year 2000.

  1. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  2. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  3. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from Scottish arable agriculture and the potential for biochar to be used as an agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation option 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winning, Nicola Jane

    2015-06-30

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Agriculture is a major source of N2O and in the UK approximately 71 % of ...

  5. Demonstrating the Greenhouse Effect Demonstrate how the greenhouse effect works.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Demonstrating the Greenhouse Effect Demonstrate how the greenhouse effect works. Difficulty / Time represents the greenhouse layer, which is composed of such gases as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and many others. The temperature was warmer initially for the non-greenhouse effect

  6. Oceanflux ESA Support to Science Element Upwelling Theme Scientific and societal issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are important for understanding the global, chemical, biological, atmosphere-ocean interactions, etc.) interact with each other at different spatial organization, typical of fully developed turbulence. The methodology, based on the Microcanonical Multifractal

  7. Submission : 13583 Thesis proposal CSC 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    , the quantity of CO2 released in this case represents only a tiny fraction of the total CO2 in the atmosphereSubmission : 13583 Thesis proposal CSC 2015 Title: Properties of CO2-N2 thermal plasmas with carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbon molecules (HFCs

  8. Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) caused by emissions from to average emissions results obtained from on-road exhaust analysis using individual vehicle remote sensing based emission ratio. In effect this technique makes use of CO2, and the other usually minor carbon

  9. Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important atmospheric trace gases such as nitric oxide NO , carbon monoxide CO , nitrous ox- ide N2O , formaldehyde H2CO , methane CH4 , and sulfur dioxide SO2 . Applications that require such measurements include- bines high-speed, high-precision, remote sensing capabilities and convenient access to wavelengths

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    ­ 2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of green fore- gone carbon sequestration of 0.2­0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  12. Biogeosciences, 1, 111, 2005 www.biogeosciences.net/bg/1/1/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) model was evaluated for its ability to simulate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide global warming potential (GWP) of 130.93­272.83 Tg CO2 equivalent. Intermittent flood- ing of rice fields The production of rice in South Asia, including India, has increased markedly with the introduction

  13. 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Received 29 Oct 2009 | Accepted 14 Jul 2010 | Published 10 Aug 2010 DOI:10.1038/ncomms1053

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    14 Jul 2010 | Published 10 Aug 2010 DOI:10.1038/ncomms1053 Production of biochar (the carbon (C at the global level. In this paper we estimate the maximum sustainable technical potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide could

  14. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (2007) 53, 344352 doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00133.x 2007 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane, from anthropogenic activities may play ecosystems. In most soils, production or consumption of the three major greenhouse gases is regulated by interactions among soil redox potential, carbon source and electron acceptors. Two classical formulas

  15. Supplanting ecosystem services provided by scavengers raises greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Supplanting ecosystem services provided by scavengers raises greenhouse gas emissions Zebensui to human-induced increments in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most concentrations of some gases such as carbon dioxide, methane or nitrous oxide (globally called greenhouse gases

  16. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  17. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  18. Method for fluorination of uranium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyner, David Smith

    1969-01-01

    Glycogen Determination 62 Amino Acid Determination * . 62 Protein Determination 63 Carbon Dioxide Determination • • # 63 Assay for Avid in 63 Radioactivity Measurements 63 CHEMICAL DEGRADATION PROCEDURES 6h Decarboxylation of Lactate 6lt Formation..., Distribution of the Radioactivities Among Amino Acids in the Growth Medium Following Exposure of L-Cells to C-lU Bicarbonate 90 7. Distribution of the Radioactivities Among Amino Acids in the Trichloroacetic Acid Extract Following Exposure of I/-Cells to C...

  20. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  1. Titanium-dioxide nanotube p-n homojunction diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alivov, Yahya E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu; Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu

    2014-12-29

    Application of semiconductors in functional optoelectronic devices requires precise control over their doping and formation of junction between p- and n-doped semiconductors. While doped thin films have led to several semiconductor devices, need for high-surface area nanostructured devices for photovoltaic, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications has been hindered by lack of desired doping in nanostructures. Here, we show titanium-dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N) and niobium (Nb) as acceptors and donors, respectively, and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes p-n homojunction. This TiO{sub 2}:N/TiO{sub 2}:Nb homojunction showed distinct diode-like behaviour with rectification ratio of 1115 at ±5?V and exhibited good photoresponse for ultraviolet light (??=?365?nm) with sensitivity of 0.19?A/W at reverse bias of ?5?V. These results can have important implications for development of nanostructured metal-oxide solar-cells, photodiodes, LED's, photocatalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.

  2. Diffusion model of the non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Emily, E-mail: emily.moore@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guéneau, Christine, E-mail: christine.gueneau@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocombette, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.crocombette@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-07-15

    Uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), which is used in light water reactors, exhibits a large range of non-stoichiometry over a wide temperature scale up to 2000 K. Understanding diffusion behavior of uranium oxides under such conditions is essential to ensure safe reactor operation. The current understanding of diffusion properties is largely limited by the stoichiometric deviations inherent to the fuel. The present DICTRA-based model considers diffusion across non-stoichiometric ranges described by experimentally available data. A vacancy and interstitial model of diffusion is applied to the U–O system as a function of its defect structure derived from CALPHAD-type thermodynamic descriptions. Oxygen and uranium self and tracer diffusion coefficients are assessed for the construction of a mobility database. Chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen are derived with respect to the Darken relation and migration energies of defects are evaluated as a function of stoichiometric deviation. - Graphical abstract: Complete description of Oxygen–Uranium diffusion as a function of composition at various temperatures according to the developed Dictra model. - Highlights: • Assessment of a uranium–oxygen diffusion model with Dictra. • Complete description of U–O diffusion over wide temperature and composition range. • Oxygen model includes terms for interstitial and vacancy migration. • Interaction terms between defects help describe non-stoichiometric domain of UO{sub 2±x}. • Uranium model is separated into mobility terms for the cationic species.

  3. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  4. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test themore »quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.« less

  5. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  6. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Soil respiration; methane; carbon dioxide; oxygen;response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygenof carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gas

  7. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction AchievedEfficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction PotentialEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Process in U.S.

  8. The Politics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: The Role of Pluralism in Shaping the Climate Change Technology Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the destruction ofat 570. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION causedat 438. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION trucks.

  9. Effect of smoke on subcanopy shaded light, canopy temperature, and carbon dioxide uptake in an Amazon rainforest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doughty, C. E.; Flanner, M. G.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    1997), Measuring and modeling carbon dioxide and water vaportechnique for evalu- ating carbon dioxide exchange rates ofof ecosystem?scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy

  10. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  11. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  12. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Shao, Yixin 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental Processes Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental...

  13. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

  14. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of...

  17. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon...

  19. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  20. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be separated using the sorbent processes currently used to remove sulfur compounds from the synthesis gas is capable of separating up to 90 percent of the carbon dioxide content of raw synthesis gas. The carbon-intensive and would lower the thermal efficiency of coal gasification power plants. Selective separation membrane

  2. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets, Environ.Andres et al. : A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions doi:A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel

  3. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    9 Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S.Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Energy Use inConsumption, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from calcination

  4. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    Li, 2001. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from SteelEnergy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Steel Sector

  5. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    spatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from nationalRotty, R. M. : Carbon-dioxide Emissions From Fossil-fuels –Dis- tribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel

  6. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2010. ” AugustChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in ManufacturingChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    on North American carbon dioxide ex- change: CarbonTracker,A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuelof two US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets,

  8. Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration and separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration ions resulting from dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxid e to weakly disrupt isotachophoretic the hydration and carbamation reaction of dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide, respectively. The width

  9. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    25-51. Tables Cost of Carbon Dioxide (per ton) Three YearsPollutants Table 1: Cost of Carbon Dioxide Estimates VintageImplied Price for Carbon Dioxide ($/tons)! Years Clunkers

  10. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  11. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  12. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  13. Method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H.J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for converting hydrocarbon fuel or an alcohol into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. The apparatus includes a first vessel having a partial oxidation reaction zone and a separate steam reforming reaction zone that is distinct from the partial oxidation reaction zone. The first vessel has a first vessel inlet at the partial oxidation reaction zone and a first vessel outlet at the steam reforming zone. The reformer also includes a helical tube extending about the first vessel. The helical tube has a first end connected to an oxygen-containing source and a second end connected to the first vessel at the partial oxidation reaction zone. Oxygen gas from an oxygen-containing source can be directed through the helical tube to the first vessel. A second vessel having a second vessel inlet and second vessel outlet is annularly disposed about the first vessel. The helical tube is disposed between the first vessel and the second vessel and gases from the first vessel can be directed through second vessel.

  14. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  15. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  16. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  17. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  18. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  19. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  20. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  1. The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski Submitted to the Department capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected into deep geologic reservoirs

  2. Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Uwe

    Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Florian Poppa and Uwe the development of a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) and the experiences stage to prevent potential danger to workforce and material, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS

  3. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been capture, storage, and sensing. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first 3D pillared networks assembled from Ni

  4. FRONTIERS ARTICLE On the hydration and hydrolysis of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    FRONTIERS ARTICLE On the hydration and hydrolysis of carbon dioxide Alice H. England a,b , Andrew M August 2011 a b s t r a c t The dissolution of carbon dioxide in water and the ensuing hydrolysis, carbonic acid and dissolved CO2. The cor- responding carbon K-edge core-level spectra were calculated using

  5. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelc, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  6. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  7. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

  9. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T. Rochelle Dept. of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 ( )Carbon dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall

  10. Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M as a comparison to the piperazine/potassium carbonate solvent currently being tested by the Rochelle research

  11. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black,2,5,6* Abstract Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological a particle's size to the nanometric dimension can greatly modify its properties for applications

  13. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte p losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to the cathode and sustainable energy from wastewaters, replace energy intensive wastewater treatment processes, and produce

  14. Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as the products of normal metabolism and those that have altered owing to disease, and are transported via

  15. Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Stephen

    Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren Laboratory measurements of the absorption. At pressures belowthe triple point (5.2atm), carbon dioxide exists only as a gas or solid. The sublimation in the ultraviolet (50-130-nm wavelength) due to elec- tronic transitions. It is relatively transparent

  16. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  17. Purification of carbon nanotubes by dynamic oxidation in air Nikolay Dementev,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    ) are nanometre-wide hollow carbon structures with exceptional mechanical and elec- tronic properties.1 such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor or ozone. A detailed overview of existing purification techniquesPurification of carbon nanotubes by dynamic oxidation in air Nikolay Dementev,a Sebastian Osswald

  18. KINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Man-Chung

    -type rate model, is found to capture the effect of power input, NOx composition, and residence time. An N for the conversion of nitrogen oxides,1,2,4-10 sulfur dioxide,11 and volatile organic car- bons.12 Despite its a mathematical model that captures transport and reac- tion rates. Such a model is needed to develop new

  19. Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-23

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

  20. The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

  1. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely correlate with real-time, in-use measurement of NH3 and NO under various driving conditions.

  2. The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia Flores, Harry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

  3. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  4. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  5. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  6. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  7. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  8. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore »melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  9. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  10. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  11. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 19 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 5 NOVEMBER 2001 Distinct Reaction Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Mechanisms in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on Rh(110): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy for catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a platinum surface [3]. In the latter case, the two different mechanisms calculations, we identify the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide

  12. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  14. OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE­ BAITED VECTOR surveillance trap support was designed as a tripod of polyvinyl chloride pipes to suspend carbon dioxide, vector surveillance, hanging traps, carbon dioxide, mosquito trap Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is common

  15. PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration complex organic molecules being broken down to simpler molecules, such as carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body through respiration. Carbon dioxide content in fresh air

  16. Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage Mike dioxide; Viscous flow; Gravity flow 1. Introduction Disposal of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs;questions about the environmental benefits of this process concern the fate of the carbon dioxide over

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE -CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, CRYOGENIC CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, SOLID Document Number: 001013 PRODUCT USE: For general analytical

  18. Lessons Learned from Natural and Industrial Analogues for Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Geological Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Sally M.; Hepple, Robert; Apps, John; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Lippmann, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Soda Ash Manufacture and Consumption Carbon Dioxide Consumption* Iron and Steel Production** Ammonia

  19. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  20. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  1. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  2. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson (Castro Valley, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  3. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Henry, M. Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-28

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 6–10?nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  4. Production of small uranium dioxide microspheres for cermet nuclear fuel using the internal gelation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Robert T; Collins, Jack Lee; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L; Patton, Kaara K; Hickman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a uranium dioxide (UO2)/tungsten cermet fuel for potential use as the nuclear cryogenic propulsion stage (NCPS). The first generation NCPS is expected to be made from dense UO2 microspheres with diameters between 75 and 150 m. Previously, the internal gelation process and a hood-scale apparatus with a vibrating nozzle were used to form gel spheres, which became UO2 kernels with diameters between 350 and 850 m. For the NASA spheres, the vibrating nozzle was replaced with a custom designed, two-fluid nozzle to produce gel spheres in the desired smaller size range. This paper describes the operational methodology used to make 3 kg of uranium oxide microspheres.

  5. Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

  6. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  7. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  8. Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Week Since 1990, China shows the greatest increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Americas, Europe and Eurasia have about the same CO2 emissions in 2012 as in...

  9. Does carbon dioxide pool or stream in the subsurface?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2014-01-01

    Pools of carbon dioxide are found in natural geological accumulations and in engineered storage in saline aquifers. It has been thought that once this CO2 dissolves in the formation water, making it denser, convection streams would transport it efficiently to depth, but this may not be so. Here, we assess the impact of natural chemical reactions between the dissolved CO2 and the rock formation on the convection streams in the subsurface. We show that, while in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. New laboratory experiments confirm the curtailing of convection by reaction. Wide and narrow streams of dense carbon-rich water are shut-off gradually as reaction strength increases until all transport of the pooled carbon dioxide occurs by slow molecular diffusion. These results show that the complex fluid dynamic and kinetic interactions between pooled carbon dioxide an...

  10. Synthesis of Amides and Lactams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Xiao Yin

    Supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional organic solvents for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic amides. The addition of amines to ketenes generated in ...

  11. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  12. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  13. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions.in accounting for CO 2 from fossil fuels. J. Ind. Ecol. 12,budget. G.M. estimated the fossil fuel emissions and G.P.P.

  14. Identifying and Developing New, Carbon Dioxide Consuming Processes , Sudheer Indalaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    acceptable, catalytic processes have been identified that can use excess high purity carbon dioxide as a raw in the ethylbenzene-to-styrene reaction, and it can be used in dehydrogenation and reforming reactions. The criteria

  15. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  16. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  17. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Power (CSP) SunShot R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power cycle that combines high efficiencies and low...

  18. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a High Efficiency Hot Gas Turbo-expander and Low Cost Heat Exchangers for Optimized CSP Supercritical CO2 Operation 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine - FY13 Q2...

  19. Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

  20. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  1. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  2. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher power-cycle efficiency and cycle components that are more compact.

  3. Seawater pH and Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2013-07-18

    In 2005, the Royal Society published a report titled "Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide". The report's principal conclusion-that average ocean pH could decrease by 0.5 units by 2100-is demonstrated here to be consistent with a linear extrapolation of very limited data. It is also shown that current understanding of ocean mixing, and of the relationship between pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, cannot justify such an extrapolation.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  5. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  6. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  7. Synthesis and Lanthanide Coordination Chemistry of Phosphine Oxide Decorated Dibenzothiophene and Dibenzothiophene Sulfone Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosario-Amorin, Daniel; Ouizem, Sabrina; Dickie, D. A.; Paine, Robert T.; Cramer, Roger E.; Hay, Benjamin; Podair, Julien; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2014-01-01

    Syntheses for new ligands based upon dibenzothiophene and dibenzothiophene sulfone platforms, decorated with phosphine oxide and methylphosphine oxide donor groups, are described. Coordination chem. of 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl) dibenzothiophene (8) , 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl) dibenzothiophene- 5, 5- dioxide (9) and 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoyl) dibenzothiophene- 5, 5- dioxide (10) with lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO3) 3 (H2O) n is outlined, and crystal structure detns. reveal a range of chelation interactions on Ln(III) ions. The HNO3 dependence of the solvent extn. performance of 9 and 10 in 1, 2- dichloroethane for Eu(III) and Am(III) is described and compared against the extn. behavior of related dibenzofuran ligands (2, 3; R = Ph) and n- octyl(phenyl) - N, N- diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (4) measured under identical conditions.

  8. Low-temperature data for carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the empirical data for the vapor pressure (154$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$196 K) and heat capacity (15.52$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$189.78 K) of the solid carbon dioxide. The approach is both theoretical and numerical, using a computer algebra system (CAS). From the latter point of view, we have adopted a cubic piecewise polynomial representation for the heat capacity and reached an excellent agreement between the available empirical data and the evaluated one. Furthermore, we have obtained values for the vapor pressure and heat of sublimation at temperatures below 195 right down to 0 K. The key prerequisites are the: 1) Determination of the heat of sublimation of 26250 J$\\cdot$mol\\textsuperscript{-1} at vanishing temperature and 2) Elaboration of a `linearized' vapor pressure equation that includes all the relevant properties of the gaseous and solid phases. It is shown that: 1) The empirical vapor pressure equation derived by Giauque & Egan remains valid below the assumed lower limit of 154 K (similar argument ...

  9. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  10. Mechanism-Based Design of Green Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybak-Akimova, Elena

    2015-03-16

    In modern era of scarce resources, developing chemical processes that can eventually generate useful materials and fuels from readily available, simple, cheap, renewable starting materials is of paramount importance. Small molecules, such as dioxygen, dinitrogen, water, or carbon dioxide, can be viewed as ideal sources of oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon atoms in synthetic applications. Living organisms perfected the art of utilizing small molecules in biosynthesis and in generating energy; photosynthesis, which couples carbohydrate synthesis from carbon dioxide with photocatalytic water splitting, is but one impressive example of possible catalytic processes. Small molecule activation in synthetic systems remains challenging, and current efforts are focused on developing catalytic reactions that can convert small molecules into useful building blocks for generating more complicated organic molecules, including fuels. Modeling nature is attractive in many respects, including the possibility to use non-toxic, earth-abundant metals in catalysis. Specific systems investigated in our work include biomimetic catalytic oxidations with dioxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and related oxygen atom donors. More recently, a new direction was been also pursued in the group, fixation of carbon dioxide with transition metal complexes. Mechanistic understanding of biomimetic metal-catalyzed oxidations is critical for the design of functional models of metalloenzymes, and ultimately for the rational synthesis of useful, selective and efficient oxidation catalysts utilizing dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide as terminal oxidants. All iron oxidases and oxygenases (both mononuclear and dinuclear) utilize metal-centered intermediates as reactive species in selective substrate oxidation. In contrast, free radical pathways (Fenton chemistry) are common for traditional inorganic iron compounds, producing hydroxyl radicals as very active, non-selective oxidants. Recent developments, however, changed this situation. Growing families of synthetic iron complexes that resemble active sites of metalloenzymes produce metal-based intermediates (rather than hydroxyl radicals) in reactions with oxygen donors. These complexes are very promising for selective oxygen and peroxide activation. In order to understand the mechanisms of metal-based small molecule activation, kinetically competent metal-oxygen intermediates must be identified. One of the grand challenges identified by the Department of Energy workshop "Catalysis for Energy" is understanding mechanisms and dynamics of catalyzed reactions. The research summarized herein focuses on detailed characterization of the formation and reactivity of various iron-peroxo- and iron-oxo intermediates that are involved in catalysis. Rates of rapid reactions were studied at low temperatures by a specialized technique termed cryogenic stopped-flow spectrophotometry. These measurements identified reaction conditions which favor the formation of catalytically competent oxidants. Chemical structures of reactive complexes was determined, and new, efficient catalysts for hydrocarbon oxidation were synthesized. Importantly, these catalysts are selective, they promote oxidation of hydrocarbons at a specific site. The catalysts are also efficient and robust, hundreds of cycles of substrate oxidation occur within minutes at room temperature. Furthermore, they enable utilization of environmentally friendly oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, which produces water as the only byproduct. Mechanistic insights uncovered the role of various acid-containing additives in catalytic oxidations. Proton delivery to the active catalytic sites facilitated oxidations, similarly to the catalytic pathways in metal-containing enzymes. Under certain conditions, two metals in one complex can act in concert, modeling the reactivity of a bacterial enzyme which converts methane into methanol. In related studies, a family of nickel complexes that react with carbon dioxide at the rates comparable to enzyme carbonic anhydrase, was discovered. Sequestration and che

  11. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

  12. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    1960 through 2001, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , OakAtmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide models, Science, 282,Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , Oak

  13. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  14. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  15. In vivo imaging of immune cell dynamics in skin in response to zinc-oxide nanoparticle exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    in cosmetic and sunscreen products which are applied topically to the skin. Despite their widespread use of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide- and zinc oxide-based sunscreens," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 61(4), 685 by cosmetic pigments and sunscreen agents under solar exposure and artificial UV illumination," J. Oleo Sci

  16. Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dima Bolmatov; D. Zav'yalov; M. Gao; M. Zhernenkov

    2014-06-06

    The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterogeneity shell in providing a mechanism for diffusion in the supercritical carbon dioxide on an intermediate length scale. Finally, we discuss important implications for answering the intriguing question whether Venus may have had carbon dioxide oceans and urge for an experimental detection of this persistent local order heterogeneity.

  17. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  18. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  19. Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolmatov, Dima; Gao, M; Zhernenkov, M

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterog...

  20. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  1. New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition Supporting Information to Chapter 17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition S2 Cartesian

  2. Synthesis of fluorinated alkoxyamines and alkoxyamine-initiated nitroxide-mediated precipitation polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide†polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide (PREDICI simulations for the styrene/TIPNO system are used to

  3. Research projects for 2014 Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    Research projects for 2014 ­ Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner c.m.rayner@leeds.ac.uk, phone: 0113 343 6579 http://www.chem.leeds.ac.uk/People/Rayner.html Carbon Dioxide Chemistry The current

  4. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  5. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  6. Supercritical-carbon dioxide-assisted cyclic deposition of metal oxide and metal thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    by a cyclic adsorption/reaction processes using supercritical CO2 solvent. Precursors included Al hfac 3, Al applications.1­4 Most pre- vious work from supercritical CO2 sc CO2 has been per- formed in a continuous growth typical ALD processes. Because the density of sc CO2 critical temperature 31 °C and critical pressure 7

  7. Novel metal oxide nanocomposites for oxygen storage, sulfur dioxide adsorption and hydrogen sulfide absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, Jason T. (Jason Thomas), 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly stringent regulations on automotive emissions have resulted in the need for improved pollution control technology. To reduce mobile emissions, researchers have investigated alternatives such as lean-bum engines ...

  8. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  9. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential equipment...

  10. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  11. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  12. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  13. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  14. Article published September 08, 2010 UT professor's work in carbon dioxide gets coveted award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    of sustainable technologies. As well as focusing on ways to use carbon dioxide, he will be researching methodsArticle published September 08, 2010 UT professor's work in carbon dioxide gets coveted award with the problem of excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, University of Toledo professor Abdul- Majeed Azad

  15. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks efficient systems to capture carbon dioxide. Additionally, we have a long-standing collaboration with BASF, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms

  16. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide ................................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 APPROACHES TO REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy

  17. ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office provides funding to Charles D. Keeling to begin monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) at the South Pole and Mauna-seasonal data on carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases in a region where rapid climate

  18. Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

  19. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research reservoir scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent investigations of underground carbon dioxide storage

  20. Kinetics of the Homogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Olefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Using a Fluoroacrylate Copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Hanan E.

    Kinetics of the Homogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Olefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide a fluoroacrylate copolymer grafted rhodium catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) are reported field of chemical reaction engineering.3-8 Specifically, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2

  1. Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog covariance measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE) were taken at an ombrotrophic covariance, carbon dioxide Citation: Lafleur, P. M., N. T. Roulet, J. L. Bubier, S. Frolking, and T. R. Moore

  2. Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

  3. Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability A) to highlight the importance of convective mixing in inducing anomalous air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (2007), Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

  4. Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    LETTERS Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation Eric D , John R. Southon6 & Roger Francois1 Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower the surface waters above but only a small increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration8 . We speculate

  5. Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems) with piperazine (PZ) have shown potential for use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture [1]. This work was initiated at low loadings. Keywords: vapor-liquid, equilibrium, piperazine, carbon dioxide Introduction CO2

  6. Carbon Dioxide Evolution from the Floor of Three Minnesota Forests Author(s): W. A. Reiners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Carbon Dioxide Evolution from the Floor of Three Minnesota Forests Author(s): W. A. Reiners and extend access to Ecology. http://www.jstor.org #12;Late Spring 1968 CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION RATES 471. Germination behavior of some halc- phytes. Bull. Res. Council Israel (D) 6: 187-188. CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION

  7. Convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers Jerome A. Neufeld,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers Jerome A. Neufeld,1 Marc A. Hesse,2 of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22404, doi:10.1029/2010GL044728. [2] The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations has been proposed as a technological means

  8. Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

  9. Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms The accumulation of carbon of the carbon dioxide release is an important objective in the near future. Various strategies are discussed or storage of produced carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, applications based on fossil fuels cannot be improved

  10. SIMPLIFYING THE MARTIAN CARBON DIOXIDE CYCLE: AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTING SURFACE PRESSURE. Paul Withers1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    SIMPLIFYING THE MARTIAN CARBON DIOXIDE CYCLE: AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTING SURFACE PRESSURE and spatial variations in martian surface pressure are strongly influenced by the exchange of carbon dioxide of polar cap processes. Many studies of martian polar energy balance and the carbon dioxide cycle use

  11. Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences plant water relations and often pref- erentially

  12. Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve attracted considerable attention. As one of the natural refrigerants, carbon dioxide has many excellent

  13. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000800,000 years before present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    LETTERS High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000­800,000 years before present Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition provided a composite record of atmo- spheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years1­4 . Here we

  14. Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales Philip-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure carbon dioxide on centennial timescales, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2006GB002810

  15. Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Sea of carbon dioxide in the oceans. Version 2 -- September 1994 (version 2.1 is only available electronically of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water; version 2, A

  16. Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a , M. Keswani damage Sonoluminescence Carbon dioxide Acoustic cavitation Cavitation threshold a b s t r a c t Megasonic processing of wafers. In this study, the ability of carbon dioxide to quench sonolumi- nescence generation

  17. Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    LETTERS Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming Shilong Piao in the future8 . Here we analyse interannual variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentra- tion data and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes. We find that atmo- spheric records from the past 20 years show a trend

  18. of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

  19. Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    materials and properties; KEYWORDS: Mars, gullies, seepage, runoff, carbon dioxide, water Citation: StewartSurface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis Sarah T. Stewart1, S. T., and F. Nimmo, Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES MARY ANNE McGUIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES by MARY ANNE McGUIRE (Under the Direction of Robert O. Teskey) ABSTRACT The importance of carbon dioxide in the xylem of trees was examined, stem respiration, xylem CO2 concentration #12;CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES

  1. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff

    interprets in situ observations of carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean and atmosphere with transportA joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 1. Methods and global March 2007. [1] We have constructed an inverse estimate of surface fluxes of carbon dioxide using both

  2. Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    LETTERS Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs Bo for other members of this materials family3 , both ZIFs selectively capture carbon dioxide from several at ameliorating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Since the initial observation4 that crystalline

  3. Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized-9) × 10-9 cm2/s. Carbon dioxide, as both a reactant in and a product of large- scale reactions, is the focus of much current research activity. Millions of tons of carbon dioxide are used every year

  4. Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using and Structure: Instruments and techniques; KEYWORDS: carbon dioxide, column mean, column integral, COBRA, flask, Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete

  5. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry

    2014-09-30

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 ?m to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900oC and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a membrane tube of given dimensions that would treat coal syngas with targeted performance. The calculation results show that the dual-phase membrane reactor could improve IGCC process efficiency but the cost of the membrane reactor with membranes having current CO2 permeance is high. Further research should be directed towards improving the performance of the membranes and developing cost-effective, scalable methods for fabrication of dual-phase membranes and membrane reactors.

  6. Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments Kurt Zenz House* , Daniel P. Schrag, Cambridge, MA 02138; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139; and §Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

  7. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  8. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  9. Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbulsky, Martín

    Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest M A R T I´ N F. G A R B U L Science and Environment, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy Abstract The estimation of the carbon of the ecology of global change. Current remote sensing methodologies for estimating gross primary productivity

  10. Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    (cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

  11. INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES H. Lin, A. A. Busnaina, and I. I. Suni T he removal of ionic contaminants from silicon surfaces surface contamination level canM Communications L td. INTRODUCTION with increasing frequency and power, and decreases Contamination removal is one

  12. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering Practice Abstract In the light1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman B. Chem. Eng. Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, 2005 M.S. Chemical Engineering

  14. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  15. Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610°C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

  16. Our industrial civilization has been pouring carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    to the pass to millions of travellers and visitors per year. It is now home to the world's largest avalanche that started near the summit of mount Cheops · "Tremendous amounts of human energy and money are spent holding. By the year 2000 we will have added 70 percent more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. If it remained, it would

  17. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis

  18. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    . A new, large (1,000-mega- watt-generating) coal-fired power plant produces six million tons of the gas the CO2 output of a stationary coal-burning power plant. It is little wonder, then, that today's capture-and-storage efforts focus on those power plants, the source of one quarter of the world's carbon dioxide emissions

  19. 2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon Emissions and Flavor in Onion P. W. Paré, R of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and sulfur derivatives. Odd-chain ketones are emitted from onion-through chambers, volatile hydrocarbons from undamaged plants can be collected under different environmental

  20. Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D in NO2 and ozone in a number of cities in Europe. For instance, he shows a very strong correlation;Air Pollution XVI 248 The DPF is an extremely effective means to achieve particle reduction goals

  1. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based properties of CO2 at supercritical conditions. The molecular simulation results are compared to an analytical on Monte Carlo simu- lations in the isothermal­isobaric ensemble. We model CO2 as a quadrupolar two

  2. Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux Paul G. Falkowski The discovery 0960-9822 Photosynthesis in the world oceans accounts for approximately 40% of the global carbon fixed each year on Earth [1]. The vast majority of photosynthetic carbon fixation, by far, is carried out

  3. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  4. SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

    2009-10-01

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

  5. The tropospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide: A new source of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, I.; Becker, K.H.; Patroescu, I. [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)] [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    The authors present the results of laboratory measurements of the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}) mediated by OH. They observe the formation of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and carbonyl sulfide. The latter branching ratio represents a previously unreported source of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). It is significant because OCS is the major reservoir of gaseous sulfur in the earth`s atmosphere.

  6. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balazs, G.B.; Lewis, P.R.

    1999-07-06

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components. 2 figs.

  7. The Effects of Oxy-firing Conditions on Gas-phase Mercury Oxidation by Chlorine and Bromine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, Paula; Silcox, Geoffrey

    2010-06-30

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted in a quartz-lined, natural gas-fired reactor with the combustion air replaced with a blend of 27 mole percent oxygen, with the balance carbon dioxide. Quench rates of 210 and 440 K/s were tested. In the absence of sulfur dioxide, the oxy-firing environment caused a remarkable increase in oxidation of mercury by chlorine. At 400 ppm chlorine (as HCl equivalent), air-firing results in roughly 5 percent oxidation. At the same conditions with oxy-firing, oxidation levels are roughly 80 percent. Oxidation levels with bromine at 25 and 50 ppm (as HBr equivalent) ranged from 80 to 95 percent and were roughly the same for oxy- and air-firing conditions. Kinetic calculations of levels of oxidation at air- and oxy-conditions captured the essential features of the experimental results but have not revealed a mechanistic basis for the oxidative benefits of oxy-firing conditions. Mixtures of 25 ppm bromine and 100 and 400 ppm chlorine gave more than 90 percent oxidation. At all conditions, the effects of quench rate were not significant. The presence of 500 ppm SO2 caused a dramatic decline in the levels of oxidation at all oxy-fired conditions examined. This effect suggests that SO2 may be preventing oxidation in the gas phase or preventing oxidation in the wetconditioning system that was used in quantifying oxidized and elemental mercury concentrations. Similar effects of SO2 have been noted with air-firing. The addition of sodium thiosulfate to the hydroxide impingers that are part of wet conditioning systems may prevent liquid-phase oxidation from occurring.

  8. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  9. A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere-atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere, carbon dioxide, biosphere, regional-scale modeling, missing sink, carbon dioxide fluxes Citation), A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere

  10. Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, A; Gardel, EJ; Vidoudez, C; Parra, EA; Girguis, PR

    2014-02-26

    Oxidation-reduction reactions underlie energy generation in nearly all life forms. Although most organisms use soluble oxidants and reductants, some microbes can access solid-phase materials as electron-acceptors or -donors via extracellular electron transfer. Many studies have focused on the reduction of solid-phase oxidants. Far less is known about electron uptake via microbial extracellular electron transfer, and almost nothing is known about the associated mechanisms. Here we show that the iron-oxidizing photoautotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 accepts electrons from a poised electrode, with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source/electron acceptor. Both electron uptake and ruBisCo form I expression are stimulated by light. Electron uptake also occurs in the dark, uncoupled from photosynthesis. Notably, the pioABC operon, which encodes a protein system essential for photoautotrophic growth by ferrous iron oxidation, influences electron uptake. These data reveal a previously unknown metabolic versatility of photoferrotrophs to use extracellular electron transfer for electron uptake.

  11. A crossover design study to evaluate the effectiveness of appliance inspection and servicing for lowering indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colome, S.D. ); Billick, I.H. ); Baker, P.E.; Beals, S.A.; Rubio, S.A.; Cunningham, S.J. ); Wilson, A.L. )

    1988-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that natural gas appliances are significant contributors to indoor air pollution. Indoor unvented combustion appliances, such as gas-fired ranges, unvented space heaters, and portable kerosene space heaters, have been associated with a wide variety of pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), formaldehyde (HCHO), and respirable particles. Previous indoor air quality studies have demonstrated that indoor NO{sub 2} concentrations often exceed outdoor ambient levels when gas- burning appliances are used. Cooking with gas has been the focus of many of these studies, although other unvented appliances, such as space-heaters, have also been associated with elevated NO{sub 2} concentrations. Some epidemiologic studies of exposure to NO{sub 2} in homes with gas ranges have indicated a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illness. However, other studies contradicted these findings and failed to show any significant effects associated with gas cooking.

  12. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  13. Strained Ge channel p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors grown on Siâ?â??xGex/Si virtual substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Minjoo L.

    We have fabricated strained Ge channel p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) on Siâ??.â??Geâ??.â?? virtual substrates. The poor interface between silicon dioxide (SiOâ??) and the Ge channel ...

  14. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO2 levels: The added value of the isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH4 is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH4 oxidation., 1998). The main com- ponents of biogas are CH4 (50­60%) and carbon dioxide (CO2; 40­50%). A major

  15. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  16. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  17. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  18. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  19. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  20. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  1. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  2. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01

    SUPERMARKET WITH GROUND COUPLED CARBON DIOXIDE REFRIGERATION PLANT Dipl.-Ing. Nicolas R?hault Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE ICEBO 2012 Manchester, 25.10.2012 ? Fraunhofer ISE 2 AGENDA 1. Background on supermarkets, energy...- conditioning: Insulation and air tightness to Passivhaus Standard CO2 refrigeration plant as only energy supply No use of fossil fuels Use of ground to sub-cool refrigerant and as heat source for heat pump Use of covers and night curtains LED...

  3. Extraction of iron and calcium from low rank coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwai, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Ohta, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-03-15

    Iron and calcium were extracted from low rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetyl acetone, ethanol and acetic acid, or acetyl acetone and water entrainers at 313.2 K and 15.0 MPa. The low rank coal used in this study was Berau coal from Indonesia. The addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetic acid entrainers in supercritical carbon dioxide showed very limited effect on enhancement of the recovery rates of Fe. The recovery rates of Fe from dried coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with acetyl acetone were low however, the addition of acetyl acetone with water in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Fe. Water seems to play an important role in extracting Fe from coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and acetyl acetone. On the other hand, the extraction rates of Ca with supercritical carbon dioxide and water, methanol, ethanol, and acetyl acetone entrainers were very low. The addition of acetic acid with or without water in supercritical carbon dioxide slightly enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The addition of acetic acid with ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate and coal particle size on the recovery rates of Fe were examined. The recovery rate of Fe increased with increasing carbon dioxide flow rate and with decreasing particle size of the low rank coal.

  4. Undoped and doped poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) as sensitive material for an impedimetric nitrogen dioxide gas dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, I.; Moos, R.; Neumann, K.; Thelakkat, M.

    2014-09-29

    This article presents a nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) detecting gas dosimeter based on poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) poly(TPD) as nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) sensitive layer. Gas dosimeters are suitable devices to determine reliably low levels of analytes over a long period of time. During NO{sub x} exposure, the analyte molecules are accumulated irreversibly in the sensing layer of the dosimeter enhancing the conductivity of the hole conducting poly(TPD), which can be measured by impedance spectroscopy. Due to their possibility for low cost production by simple printing techniques and very good physical, photochemical, and electrochemical properties, poly(TPD)s are suitable for application in gas dosimeters operated at room temperature. We studied the effect of doping with a Co(III)-complex in combination with a conducting salt on the dosimeter behavior. Compared to the undoped material, a strong influence of the doping can be observed: the conductivity of the sensing material increases significantly, the noise of the signal decreases and an unwanted recovery of the sensor signal can be prevented, leading to a NO{sub x} detection limit <10?ppm.

  5. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. • Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. • Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase – TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

  6. electronic reprint Acta Crystallographica Section D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fülöp, Vilmos

    catalytic centre; it catalyses the terminal step, reduction of nitrous oxide to nitrogen, of the bacterial nitrogen cycle in which nitrate is reduced via nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to nitrogen gas of nitrous oxide reduction and the presumed role of copper presents an

  7. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  8. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  9. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  10. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  11. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice O and 13 C18 O), carbon dioxide (12 C16 O2, 12 C18 O16 O, 12 C18 O2, 13 C16 O2, 13 C18 O16 O, and 13 and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition

  12. Development of a differential equation of state to describe subcritical isotherms of carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontenot, Charles Edward

    1980-01-01

    Processors Association, the National Science Eoundation, the Texas Engineering Experiment Station and Texas A&&i University for providing the funds for this work The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. K, R. Hall for his guidance... Pressures of Carbon Dioxide 28 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Vapor Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . . 30 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Liquid Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . 31 Plot of the Slope of fR...

  13. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  14. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy flux densities, Bull.et al. (2006), Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and

  15. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    by the Institute for Industrial Productivity through theL ABORATORY China’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions inproceedings, ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, Arnhem, the

  16. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs

  17. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  18. Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Kevin

    Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE USING OPTIMALITY...............................................................................................1 I. A REVIEW OF REMOTE SENSING MODELS........................................................7...............................................................7 Remote Sensing Models

  19. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  20. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation"...

  1. Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding...

  2. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  3. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  4. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide catalytic systems.12,13 On the other hand, the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is functionalized graphene Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO

  5. Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is compatible with much of the existing fuel infrastructure.

  6. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

  7. Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Camillo, Nicole G.

    2011-01-01

    and storage tanks, where it results in emission of air pollutants-nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia,

  8. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon dioxide turbo-expander and heat exchangers project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop a megawatt-scale s-CO2 hot-gas turbo-expander optimized for the highly transient solar power plant profile. The team is also working to optimize novel printed circuit heat exchangers for s-CO2 applications to drastically reduce their manufacturing costs.

  10. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  11. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 -Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing

  12. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelementPatent:subsectionsMethod for carbon dioxide

  13. High temperature behavior of metallic inclusions in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.L.

    1980-08-01

    The object of this thesis was to construct a temperature gradient furnace to simulate the thermal conditions in the reactor fuel and to study the migration of metallic inclusions in uranium oxide under the influence of temperature gradient. No thermal migration of molybdenum and tungsten inclusions was observed under the experimental conditions. Ruthenium inclusions, however, dissolved and diffused atomically through grain boundaries in slightly reduced uranium oxide. An intermetallic compound (probably URu/sub 3/) was formed by reaction of Ru and UO/sub 2-x/. The diffusivity and solubility of ruthenium in uranium oxide were measured.

  14. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  15. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  16. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  17. Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Brentan R

    2007-01-01

    Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

  18. Carbon dioxide on the satellites of Saturn: Results from the Cassini VIMS investigation and revisions to the VIMS wavelength scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide on the satellites of Saturn: Results from the Cassini VIMS investigation of C­O in carbon dioxide (CO2) at or near the nominal solid-phase laboratory wavelength of 4.2675 lm

  19. Structural and mechanistic studies into the copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides catalyzed by chromium salen complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackiewicz, Ryan Michael

    2006-08-16

    . For over a decade now the Darensbourg Research Laboratories have focused on utilizing another simple molecule: carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a cheap, inert, nontoxic starting material that appears to be an ideal monomer. Although simplistic, CO2 is also...

  20. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide from a boreal forest fire: Inferring carbon loss from measurements and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuur, Edward A. G; Trumbore, Susan E; Mack, Michelle C; Harden, Jennifer W

    2003-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959 – 1999, Can. J.and O. N. Krankina, Forest fires in Russia: Carbon dioxideDIOXIDE FROM A BOREAL FOREST FIRE Park, R. , and S. Epstein,

  1. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 104303 (2011) The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 104303 (2011) The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2; published online 8 September 2011) The electronic spectrum of a cold molecular beam of zirconium dioxide, Zr

  2. A Computational Study on the Thermal-Hydraulic Behavior of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Various Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger Designs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuo, Bryce

    2013-02-04

    and concentrated solar power generation. Two main advantages of having supercritical carbon dioxide are the large property variations and component size associated with power cycle. Forced convection heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide in printed circuit...

  3. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  4. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  5. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar and Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation

  7. Net ecosystem methane and carbon dioxide exchanges in a Lake Erie coastal marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Net ecosystem methane and carbon dioxide exchanges in a Lake Erie coastal marsh and a nearby ecosystem carbon dioxide (FCO2) and methane (FCH4) exchanges were measured by using the eddy covariance ) at the cropland. At the seasonal scale, soil temperature associated with methane (CH4) production provided

  8. Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 fromHighly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported

  9. How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    climate efficiency as the amount of carbon dioxide emissions per generated added value. This conceptHow Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Relation to Its Added Value Diploma Thesis Department of Environmental Sciences ETH Zurich Ana

  10. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Klaus

    Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford + Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component fossil fuel requirement of CO2 sequestration, and the growth rate of carbon taxes. In this analytical

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration Philip C. Myint, Laurence Rongy, Kjetil B. Haugen, Abbas Firoozabadi Department. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels that have been

  13. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley of energy, the solar panels, can also harvest energy 100 times more effectively than plants. Other

  14. Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH Devin T and characterization of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. The use of gas submitted January 27, 2010; revised manuscript received April 7, 2010. Published June 29, 2010. Carbon

  15. Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic Framework Adsorbents Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering The steady rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting to the economy that is heavily relied on fossil fuels. Although the transition of the existing carbon

  16. Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames W.G. Bessler a , C. Schulz a; in final form 16 May 2003 Published online 10 June 2003 Abstract Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of carbon dioxide is investigated with excitation between 215 and 255 nm with spectrally resolved detection in 5

  17. DOI: 10.1002/celc.201402182 Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Cu/CuO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    DOI: 10.1002/celc.201402182 Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Cu/CuO Core/Shell Catalysts Yangchun Lan,[a, b] Chao Gai,[c] Paul J. A. Kenis,*[b] and Jiaxing Lu*[a] 1. Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most notorious greenhouse gas, which is released by both natural and artificial

  18. October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 BioScience 895 Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 · BioScience 895 Articles Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 reduce the concen- tration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes of the 21st century (IPCC 2001a). Management of vegetation and soils for terrestrial carbon sequestration

  19. January 2, 2008 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    January 2, 2008 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide sequestration on the rate souterrain de dioxyde de carbone sur la déformation des calcaires par dissolution sous contrainte: résultats;Abstract When carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into an aquifer or a depleted geological reservoir, its

  20. Using tracer experiments to determine deep saline aquifers caprocks transport characteristics for carbon dioxide storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for carbon dioxide storage P. Bachaud1,2 , Ph. Berne1 , P. Boulin1,3,4 , F. Renard5,6 , M. Sardin2 , J caprocks from a deep saline aquifer in the Paris basin. Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep. This technique is applied to measure the transport properties of a carbonate caprock with permeability lower than

  1. The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali basalts: an experimental PRISCILLE LESNE 1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali basalts: an experimental study PRISCILLE LESNE 1 in both fluid and melt is required since, because of its low solubility, carbon dioxide is usually a major in silicate melts dramatically influence the physical properties of magmas, such as density, viscosity

  2. GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    1 GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES SHENG F. YEN1 of an approach to reduce the high-frequency capacitive feedthrough and dielectric leakages of carbon nanotubes grown on silicon dioxide micro bridges suspended over silicon substrates. The microwave reflection

  3. Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide Richard E the inorganic hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in aqueous solution cause reduced stable carbon and oxygen of the carbon and oxygen kinetic isotope fractionation (KIF) during hydration of CO2. Here I use transition

  4. Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification Rachael M. Heuer* and Martin Grosell*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification on fish Rachael M. Heuer, Grosell M. Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification on fish. Am J Physiol in dynamic regulation of acid-base transport pathways across species, exposure levels, and exposure duration

  5. Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world P. Parekh,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world P. Parekh,1,2 S. Dutkiewicz,1 M. J. Follows,1, P., S. Dutkiewicz, M. J. Follows, and T. Ito (2006), Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty would favor reduced dust transport and lower iron supply to the oceans. Near-future climate change

  6. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions of the separation of CO2 from the emissions stream from fossil-fuel combustion, transporting it to a storage

  7. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff

    A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results Andrew atmospheric CO2 gradients and transport simulations are combined with observations of ocean interior carbon (2007), A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results

  8. Estuaries Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 381-390 June 1997 Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    should be net sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or should transport excess CO, (as either COEstuaries Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 381-390 June 1997 Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Atmospheric Hudson, or total dissolved inorganic carbon [DIG] ) into the coastal zone. Exchanges of CO, between the water

  9. Assessing various carbon dioxide flow rates to minimize distress during laboratory mouse euthanasia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Assessing various carbon dioxide flow rates to minimize distress during laboratory mouse euthanasia, University of British Columbia · Laboratory rodents are commonly euthanized by exposure to carbon dioxide (CO Carly Moody, Beverly Chua, I. Joanna Makowska, Daniel M. Weary Faculty of Land and Food Systems

  10. MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

  11. Fabrication technique for filling-factor tunable titanium dioxide colloidal crystal replicas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrication technique for filling-factor tunable titanium dioxide colloidal crystal replicas; accepted 1 October 2002 Filling-factor tunable titanium dioxide replicas of colloidal crystals were was formed in voids of latex colloidal crystals, the latex was removed by calcination. By applying the LPD

  12. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  16. Interfacial tension in high-pressure carbon dioxide mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, B.S.; Wilkinson, G.T.

    1995-12-01

    High-pressure interfacial- and surface-tension phenomena govern the migration and recovery of oil and gas from hydrocarbon reservoirs. The phenomena are of particular relevance to phase separation and mass transfer in light hydrocarbon fractionation plants and in propane deasphalting in lubricating oil refining. Interfacial tensions of carbon dioxide-water-alcohol mixtures were measured at temperatures in the range 5--71 C and pressures 0.1--18.6 MPa, using the capillary rise method. The alcohols were methanol (0.136 mf), ethanol (to 0.523 mf), and isopropyl alcohol (to 0.226 mf). Interfacial tension (IFT) decreased linearly with both temperature and pressure din the low-pressure range (gaseous CO{sub 2}) but was largely independent of pressure at high pressure (liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2}). There was a zone in the vicinity of the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}-as much as 20 C below and 10 C above the carbon dioxide critical temperature--where IFT became small. This is attributed to the formation of a second CO{sub 2}-rich phase. The isotherms exhibited a crossover pressure near 3 MPa for all systems examined.

  17. Effect of electron collecting metal oxide layer in normal and inverted structure polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, A.; Liu, X.; Sun, Y. C.; Djuriši?, A. B. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, P. R. (China); Ng, A. M. C. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, P. R. China and Nanostructure Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Division of Physical Sciences, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen (China); Chan, W. K. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, P. R. (China)

    2013-12-04

    We performed a systematic study of the effect of electron collecting metal oxide layer on the performance of P3HT: PCBM solar cells. Zinc oxide (ZnO) or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) buffer layers were prepared by either e-beam evaporation or solution processing method. We also compared the photovoltaic performance of inserting the buffer layer between indium tin oxide (ITO) and the polymer layer for the inverted structure (ITO/ ZnO or TiO{sub 2}/P3HT:PCBM/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Au) as well as inserting the buffers layers between the polymer and the aluminum electrode for the conventional structure (ITO/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/P3HT:PCBM/ZnO or TiO{sub 2}/Al). The results are shown in detail.

  18. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA); Frost, David G. (Maynard, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  19. Electronic structure and ionicity of actinide oxides from first principles L. Petit,1,2,* A. Svane,1 Z. Szotek,2 W. M. Temmerman,2 and G. M. Stocks3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svane, Axel Torstein

    that the Pu could be reprocessed from the spent fuel and used as alter- native fuel in a new generation the spent fuel, these ac- tinides can either be incorporated in durable ceramic waste for safe long. INTRODUCTION Actinide oxides play a dominant role in the nuclear fuel cycle.1 For many years, uranium dioxide

  20. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.