Sample records for dioxide flux measurement

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada- relations between surface phenomena and the geothermal reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  2. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  3. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  4. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10.1029/2010JG001390, 2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxesdioxide fluxes of black spruce ecosystems in eastern Northof a stand?replacing fire on ecosystem CO 2 exchange of a

  5. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimageconcentration ARM Dataflux

  7. in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, John

    found to affect oxygen fluxes. We find that ENSO also plays an important role in generating interannualin press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes College, London, UK Abstract. We analyze the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen

  8. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America B. D. Amiro,1 A. G, and New Brunswick). Net ecosystem production (NEP) showed a carbon loss from all ecosystems following a standreplacing disturbance, becoming a carbon sink by 20 years for all ecosystems and by 10 years for most

  9. ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data

  10. Global patterns of landatmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy covariance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    (NEE), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H) based on remote sensing indices, climateGlobal patterns of landatmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived

  11. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We

  12. ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarization ARM DatagovMeasurementsSensible

  13. ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particleSizegovMeasurementsIsotope

  14. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  15. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  16. Summary We analyzed assumptions and measurement er-rors in estimating canopy transpiration (EL) from sap flux (JS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewers, Brent E.

    - tively. Sap flux measured in stems did not lag JS measured in branches, and time and frequency domain. Introduction Stomata respond to environmental variation, regulate water loss and carbon dioxide gain, and thus biosphere­atmosphere exchange of mass and energy. From porometry measure- ments, leaf conductance (gS) can

  17. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  18. NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration NIST Special Publication 250-65 Benjamin K Special Publication 250-65 NIST MEASUREMENT SERVICES: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration Benjamin K. Tsai GAITHERSBURG, MD: 2004 #12;iii PREFACE The calibration and related measurement services of the National

  19. antineutrino flux measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and...

  20. airborne flux measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmospheresurface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to...

  1. Long-Term Assessment of Isotopic Exchange of Carbon Dioxide in a Subalpine Forest (Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux Site)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowling, David [University of Utah

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005 we began a long-term measurement program of CO{sub 2} and its stable isotopes at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site. Measurements are ongoing.

  2. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  3. Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at a high chamber-flushing rate, are likely to yield flux measurements closer to the true values. Citation: Amonette JE, JL Barr, RL Erikson, LM Dobeck, JL Barr, and JA...

  4. Systematic biases in measurement of urban nitrogen dioxide using passive diffusion samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Kirby, C; Cape, Neil

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of nitrogen dioxide using passive diffusion tube over 22 months in Cambridge, U.K. are analysed as a function of sampler exposure time, and compared with NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located ...

  5. Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Sandhya Choubey; Srubabati Goswami; S. T. Petcov

    2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

  6. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.E.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Measurement of intensities of bands in the electronic absorption spectrum of chlorine dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Thomas Louis

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy levels are derived, Twelve bands in the electronic absorption spectrum of chlorine dioxide between the wavelengths 4250 R and 5250 R were photographed and measured. Of these twelve, the vibrational energy levels calculated for nine of them... Calculation of Vibrational Energy Levels . . . . , 35 Estimation of Errors . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 38 CONCLUSIONS Conolusions ~ ~ ~ 47 B IBLI QGRAFEZ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 48 ~INTRGDUGT10 Analysis of thc rotational structure of the chlorine dioxide...

  8. Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux Roel Sniedera) Center for Wave, Cambridge CB3 0EL, United Kingdom ivasconc@gmail.com Abstract: Existing methods for Green's function extraction give the Green's function from the correlation of field fluctuations recorded at those points

  9. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements Stephen T. Dye, and approved November 16, 2007 (received for review July 11, 2007) Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemi- cal model

  10. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.

  11. A Novel Detector for High Neutron Flux Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singo, T. D.; Wyngaardt, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Papka, P. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Nuclear Physics group, iThemba labs, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Dobson, R. T. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring alpha particles from a neutron induced break-up reaction with a mass spectrometer can be an excellent tool for detecting neutrons in a high neutron flux environment. Break-up reactions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C can be used in the detection of slow and fast neutrons, respectively. A high neutron flux detection system that integrates the neutron energy sensitive material and helium mass spectrometer has been developed. The description of the detector configuration is given and it is soon to be tested at iThemba LABS, South Africa.

  12. Suggestions for the measurement and derivation of fluxes and flux divergences from a satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Man-Li C. Wu (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

    1990-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical studies shown here indicate that the best bands to measure and derive the total outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), surface downward flux (SDF), and cooling rates (CRs) using linear regression are (1) the band between 800 and 1,200 cm{sup {minus}1} for OLR, (2) the band between 500 and 660 cm{sup {minus}1} or 660 and 800 cm{sup {minus}1} for SDF, and (3) the band between 660 and 800 cm{sup {minus}1} for CRs. These results are obtained from scatter plots of total fluxes and cooling rates associated with the various bands. The advanced very high resolution radiometer OLR is damped compared with the Nimbus 7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) OLR, which is derived from the broadband, narrow field of view ERB instrument, owing to its use of only one narrow band (centered around the 11-{mu}m window region) measurement.

  13. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  14. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  15. Measuring the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Steel Yoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Klyukhin; N. Amapane; A. Ball; B. Curé; A. Gaddi; H. Gerwig; A. Hervé; M. Mulders; R. Loveless

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux-loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. Fast discharges of the solenoid (190 s time-constant) made during the CMS magnet surface commissioning test at the solenoid central fields of 2.64, 3.16, 3.68 and 4.01 T were used to induce voltages in the flux-loops. The voltages are measured on-line and integrated off-line to obtain the magnetic flux in the steel yoke close to the muon chambers at full excitations of the solenoid. The 3-D Hall sensors installed on the steel-air interfaces give supplementary information on the components of magnetic field and permit to estimate the remanent field in steel to be added to the magnetic flux density obtained by the voltages integration. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The results of the measurements and calculations are presented, compared and discussed.

  16. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  17. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  18. The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

  19. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Blue Springs, MO)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  20. Constructing a database of terrestrial radiocarbon measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trumbore, Susan; Torn, Margaret; Smith, Lydia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    towers that measures carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energymodels to energy exchange mod- els, scaling up tower dataand Energy Fluxes With Optical Measurements FLUXNET and Remote Sensing Open Workshop: Towards Upscaling Flux Information From Towers

  1. Carbon dioxide measurements in tropical east African biomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnell, R.C.; Odh, S.A.; Njau, L.N.

    1981-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    From January 1977 through May 1978 atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured hourly and/or continuously at bimonthly intervals over periods varying from 5 to 8 days at 10 different locations in Kenya, East Africa. During each of these periods, at least two, and in some cases five, vertical profile measurements of CO/sub 2/ concentrations were conducted above different biomes. A large diurnal CO/sub 2/ periodicity was observed over land, with daytime drawdowns to 322 ppm and nighttime buildups to more than 400 ppm observed in savannah regions. In and around tropical rain forests, drawdowns to 310 ppm and buildups to more than 400 ppm were regularly observed. On the higher reaches of Mount Kenya, the diurnal CO/sub 2/ cycle was considerably reduced in amplitude, with variations in the range of 2-6 ppm throughout the 16-month study period. On sunny days, the drawdown of CO/sub 2/ was measurable to heights of at least 4000 m above ground level. Other CO/sub 2/ measurements in air over the Indian Ocean (to distances of up to 450 km upwind of the coast) produced fairly consistent concentrations of about 328.5 ppm which did not fluctuate diurnally. The weekly mean CO/sub 2/ concentrations over Kenya appear to have a bimodal structure, with minima occurring in July and January. On the basis of the data collected during the study it appears likely that regular observations at a high-altitude station on Mount Kenya, either with flask sampling or continuous analyzer measurements, are likely to yield data useful for estimates of CO/sub 2/ concentration backgrounds and trends. Also, there is strong evidence that Mount Kenya would be a good location to measure large-scale interhemispheric CO/sub 2/ exchanges and provide a unique base from which to study the effects of the tropical biome on biogeochemical phenomena. 20 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

  3. Measurement of the Atmospheric $?_e$ flux in IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IceCube Collaboration; M. G. Aartsen; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; M. Ackermann; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; D. Altmann; K. Andeen; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; V. Baum; R. Bay; K. Beattie; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. Becker Tjus; K. -H. Becker; M. Bell; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; S. Bohaichuk; C. Bohm; D. Bose1; S. Boser; O. Botner; L. Brayeur; A. M. Brown; R. Bruijn; J. Brunner; S. Buitink; M. Carson; J. Casey; M. Casier; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; K. Clark; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; D. F. Cowen; A. H. Cruz Silva; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; S. De Ridder; F. Descamps; P. Desiati; G. de Vries-Uiterweerd; T. DeYoung; J. C. Diaz-Velez; J. Dreyer; J. P. Dumm; M. Dunkman; R. Eagan; B. Eberhardt; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; O. Engdegard; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; J. Feintzeig; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; S. Flis; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; K. Frantzen; T. Fuchs; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glusenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; G. Golup; J. A. Goodman; D. Gora; D. Grant; A. Gross; S. Grullon; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Haj Ismail; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Hanson; D. Heereman; P. Heimann; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; R. Hellauer; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; R. Hoffmann; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; W. Huelsnitz; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; E. Jacobi; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; O. Jlelati; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; J. Klas; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Kohne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Kopke; C. Kopper; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; M. Krasberg; G. Kroll; J. Kunnen; N. Kurahashi; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; R. Lauer; M. Lesiak-Bzdak; J. Lunemann; J. Madsen; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; F. McNally; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Meszaros; T. Meures; S. Miarecki; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; L. Mohrmann; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; R. Nahnhauer; U. Naumann; S. C. Nowicki; D. R. Nygren; A. Obertacke; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; S. Panknin; L. Paul; J. A. Pepper; C. Perez de los Heros; D. Pieloth; N. Pirk; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; G. T. Przybylski; L. Radel; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; M. Richman; B. Riedel; J. P. Rodrigues; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; S. M. Saba; T. Salameh; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; M. Scheel; F. Scheriau; T. Schmidt; M. Schmitz; S. Schoenen; S. Schoneberg; L. Schonherr; A. Schonwald; A. Schukraft; L. Schulte; O. Schulz; D. Seckel; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; C. Sheremata; M. W. E. Smith; M. Soiron; D. Soldin; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; A. Stasik; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; A. Stoss; E. A. Strahler; R. Strom; G. W. Sullivan; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; M. Usner; D. van der Drift; N. van Eijndhoven; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge1; M. Vraeghe; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; M. Walter; R. Wasserman; Ch. Weaver; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; T. R. Wood; K. Woschnagg; C. Xu; D. L. Xu; X. W. Xu; J. P. Yanez; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky; J. Ziemann; S. Zierke; A. Zilles; M. Zoll

    2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496 $\\pm$ 66(stat.) $\\pm$ 88(syst.) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range.

  4. Measurements of excess enthalpy in ultrafine-grained titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, C.D.; Chiang, Y.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential scanning calorimetry has been used to make direct measurements of the excess enthalpy of TiO{sub 2} (rutile) with an initial grain size of 30--70 nm. When the heat released during grain growth is normalized to the change in grain boundary area, the specific excess enthalpy at low temperature sn the fine grain sizes (600--780 C, 30--200 nm) is found to be 0.5--1 J/m{sup 2}, while values averaged over a larger temperature and size range (600--1,300 C, 30 nm-{approximately} 2 {micro}m) are 1.3--1.7 J/m{sup 2}. After exclusion of extraneous contributions from other heat-dissipating processes, origins of a specific grain boundary enthalpy that increases with grain size or temperature are considered, including solute segregation, changes in grain boundary structure, and contributions from grain boundary triple junctions. It is concluded that the most plausible explanation is a size-dependent nonstoichiometry of TiO{sub 2} due to the impingement of space charge layers in the temperature and grain size range of the experiments.

  5. Experimental measurement of gas diffusivity in bitumen: Results for carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upreti, S.R.; Mehrotra, A.K.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new technique is developed to measure the diffusivity of gas in bitumen as a function of composition. Results are presented for a carbon dioxide-bitumen system, which is of considerable industrial relevance. The technique employs transient pressure data obtained from a nonintrusive pressure decay experiment at constant temperature and volume. The underlying theory is presented along with a computational algorithm to calculate diffusivity. Using experimental pressure decay data in the range 25--90 C at 4 MPa, the diffusivity of carbon dioxide in bitumen is calculated. The results are compared with the limited data available in the literature. The approach is straightforward and can be easily applied to other nonvolatile liquid systems.

  6. The flux measure of influence in engineering networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwing, Kyle Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to characterize the influence of individual nodes in complex networks. The flux metric developed here achieves this goal by considering the difference between the weighted outdegree and ...

  7. FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE FLUX OF SOLAR NEUTRINOS FROM THE SUN AT THE SUDBURY NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waltham, Chris

    FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE FLUX OF SOLAR NEUTRINOS FROM THE SUN AT THE SUDBURY NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY for approaching problems that I found to be more generally useful. Godwin Mayers, Chuck Alexander, Jim Cook and with me. v #12; ABSTRACT FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE FLUX OF SOLAR NEUTRINOS FROM THE SUN AT THE SUDBURY

  8. Supplement Table 1. Mean environmental drivers at Brasil flux sites. Precipitation (Prec) from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), for site-specific tower measurement years and a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    Supplement Table 1. Mean environmental drivers at Brasil flux sites. Precipitation (Prec) from #12;Supplement Table 2. Brasil flux sites instrumentation and measuring methods. *: non aspirated

  9. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  10. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  11. Enhancing the precision and accuracy within and among AmeriFlux site measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for AmeriFlux QA/QC at Oregon State University. The major objective of this project is to contribute to the AmeriFlux network by continuing to build consistency in AmeriFlux measurements by addressing objectives stated in the AmeriFlux strategic plan and self evaluation, the North American Carbon Program, and the US Carbon Cycle Science Program. The project directly contributes to NACP and CCSP goals to establish an integrated, near-real time network of observations to inform climate change science.

  12. Spin-lattice coupling in uranium dioxide probed by magnetostriction measurements at high magnetic fields (P08358-E001-PF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Gofryk; M. Jaime

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conclusions Our preliminary magnetostriction measurements have already shown a strong interplay of lattice dynamic and magnetism in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states, and give unambiguous evidence of strong spin- phonon coupling in uranium dioxide. Further studies are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in magnetic and paramagnetic states and details of the spin-phonon coupling.

  13. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Erik

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

  14. A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3 4 Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824 USA.25 #12;RANDOM ERRORS IN ENERGY AND CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENTS Richardson et al. 1 January 13, 2006 Abstract1 Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy

  15. argon carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 10 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  16. applied carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 8 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  17. aqueous carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 12 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  18. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chang Hyoun

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    11. INTRODUCTION Air quality studies overwhelmingly focus on the concentration of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria air pollutants using monitoring and numerical modeling. While the latter uses surface fluxes from emission... chemistry and public health. Urban air pollution sources are related to a multitude of land-uses and human-made structures, which, together with natural and introduced vegetation, make up the urban fabric. To measure pollutant flux over urban terrain, a...

  19. First measurements of the flux integral with the NIST-4 watt balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddad, D; Chao, L S; Cao, A; Sineriz, G; Pratt, J R; Newell, D B; Schlamminger, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 2014, construction of a new watt balance, named NIST-4, has started at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In a watt balance, the gravitational force of an unknown mass is compensated by an electromagnetic force produced by a coil in a magnet system. The electromagnetic force depends on the current in the coil and the magnetic flux integral. Most watt balances feature an additional calibration mode, referred to as velocity mode, which allows one to measure the magnetic flux integral to high precision. In this article we describe first measurements of the flux integral in the new watt balance. We introduce measurement and data analysis techniques to assess the quality of the measurements and the adverse effects of vibrations on the instrument.

  20. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  1. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U S terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Richardson, Andrew [Harvard University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory; Davis, Ken J. [Pennsylvania State University; Hollinger, D. [USDA Forest Service; Wharton, Sonia [University of California, Davis; Falk, Matthias [University of California, Davis; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha [University of California, Davis; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katulk, Gabriel G. [Duke University; Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State University; Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Suyker, A. E. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Sun, G. [USDA Forest Service; McNulty, Steven G. [USDA Forest Service; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University; Bolstad, Paul V [University of Minnesota; Burns, Sean [University of Colorado, Boulder; Monson, Russell K. [University of Colorado, Boulder; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Drake, Bert G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Foster, David R. [Harvard University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hadley, Julian L. [Harvard University; Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Martin, Timothy A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Meyers, Tilden [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN; Oechel, Walter C. [San Diego State University; Schmid, H. P. [Indiana University; Scott, Russell L. [USDA ARS; Torn, Margaret S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr 1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr 1 over the period 2001 2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by 20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  2. DETECTION AND FLUX DENSITY MEASUREMENTS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J2145–0750 BELOW 100 MHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, J.; Taylor, G. B.; Craig, J.; Henning, P. A.; Schinzel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ray, P. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Blythe, J. N. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 3033 (United States)] [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 3033 (United States); Clarke, T.; Helmboldt, J. F. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ellingson, S. W.; Wolfe, C. N. [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)] [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Lazio, T. J. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Stovall, K., E-mail: jdowell@unm.edu [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present flux density measurements and pulse profiles for the millisecond pulsar PSR J2145–0750 spanning 37 to 81 MHz using data obtained from the first station of the Long Wavelength Array. These measurements represent the lowest frequency detection of pulsed emission from a millisecond pulsar to date. We find that the pulse profile is similar to that observed at 102 MHz. We also find that the flux density spectrum between ?40 MHz to 5 GHz is suggestive of a break and may be better fit by a model that includes spectral curvature with a rollover around 730 MHz rather than a single power law.

  3. Methane efflux from boreal wetlands: Theory and testing of the ecosystem model Ecosys with chamber and tower flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    and tower flux measurements R. F. Grant Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton tower at a beaver pond in the BOREAS Northern Study Area. Spatial and temporal variation of CH4 effluxes in the model encompassed that measured by surface chambers and the flux tower. Both modeled and measured CH4

  4. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  5. Shipboard Measurements and Estimations of AirSea Fluxes in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Ship­board Measurements and Estimations of Air­Sea Fluxes in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean E dur­ ing the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean and Atmospheric Response of the surface­layer turbulence properties are compared with those from previous land and ocean results. Momentum

  6. A NOVEL MICROMEGAS DETECTOR FOR IN-CORE NUCLEAR REACTOR NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A NOVEL MICROMEGAS DETECTOR FOR IN-CORE NUCLEAR REACTOR NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENTS S. ANDRIAMONJE Talence Cedex, France Future fast nuclear reactors designed for energy production and transmutation to neutron detection inside nuclear reactor is given. The advantage of this detector over conventional

  7. The Measurement, interpretation and use of unsteady momentum fluxes in two-phase flow.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yih, Tien Sieh

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady and unsteady components of the momentum flux in a two-phase flow have been measured at the exit of a vertical pipe by means of an impulse technique using a turning tee and beam. Different electrical filters have ...

  8. Trapped proton fluxes at low Earth orbits measured by the PAMELA experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Danilchenko, I A; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above > 70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350-610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  9. A Continuous Measure of Gross Primary Production for the Conterminous U.S. Derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Cook, David R.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Wharton, Sonia; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Verma, Shashi B.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Scott, Russell L.; Monson, Russell K.; Litvak, Marcy; Hollinger, David Y.; Sun, Ge; Davis, Kenneth J.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Starr, Gregory; Torn, Margaret S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr{sup -1} for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

  10. Measuring proton energies and fluxes using EIT (SOHO) CCD areas outside the solar disk images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. V. Didkovsky; D. L. Judge; A. R. Jones; E. J. Rhodes, Jr.; J. B. Gurman

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect proton flux measuring tool based on discrimination of the energy deposited by protons in 128 x 128 pixel EIT CCD areas outside the solar disk images is presented. Single pixel intensity events are converted into proton incident energy flux using modeled energy deposition curves for angles of incidence 60 deg in four EIT spatial areas with different proton stopping power. The extracted proton flux is corrected for both the loss of one-pixel events in the range of angles of incidence as well as for the contribution to the single pixel events resulting from scattered middle-energy protons (low-energy or high-energy particles are stopped by the EIT components or pass through them, accordingly). A simple geometrical approach was found and applied to correct for a non-unique relation between the proton-associated CCD output signal and the incident proton energy. With this geometrical approximation four unique proton incident energy ranges were determined as 45--49, 145--154, 297--335, and 390--440 MeV. The indirect proton flux measuring tool has been tested by comparing Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) flux temporal profiles extracted from the EIT CCD frames and downloaded from the GOES database for the Bastille Day (BD) of 2000 July 14 and the more recent 2005 January 20 events. The SEP flux temporal profiles and proton spectra extracted from the EIT in the relatively narrow energy ranges between 45 and 440 MeV reported here are consistent with the related GOES profiles. The four additional EIT extracted ranges provide higher energy resolution of the SEP data.

  11. A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes 2006 Abstract Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy (sensible heat, H, and latent heat, LE of which include ``tall tower'' instrumentation), one grassland site, and one agricultural site, to conduct

  12. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  13. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  14. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  15. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  16. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

  17. PROPOSED MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING Plant community composition, growth, physiology, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    factors that affect carbon stocks and solute yields. MERCURY PROCESSES UNDER ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE drainage from chambers, measurement of water vapor fluxes. · Biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, carbon). · Peat physical properties and geophysical imaging of the surface and subsurface environments

  18. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Ulrich J.

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. ...

  19. 84Unit Conversions Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what property is being

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kilowatt- hour (1 kWh)? Problem 4 ­ How many ergs of energy are collected from a solar panel on a roof, if the sunlight provides a flux of 300 Joules/sec/meter 2 , the solar panels have an area of 27 square feet84Unit Conversions ­ Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what

  20. \\EVIDENCE FOR ELECTRON NEUTRINO FLAVOR CHANGE THROUGH MEASUREMENT OF THE 8 B SOLAR NEUTRINO FLUX AT THE SUDBURY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    \\EVIDENCE FOR ELECTRON NEUTRINO FLAVOR CHANGE THROUGH MEASUREMENT OF THE 8 B SOLAR NEUTRINO FLUX have had in Sudbury. Godwin Mayers, Ron Pearce, and Jim Cook for the wonderful job they have done

  1. Measurement of the Crab Flux Above 60 GeV with the CELESTE Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. De Naurois; J. Holder; R. Bazer-Bachi; H. Bergeret; P. Bruel; A. Cordier; G. Debiais; J-P. Dezalay; D. Dumora; E. Durand; P. Eschstruth; P. Espigat; B. Fabre; P. Fleury; N. Herault; M. Hrabovsky; S. Incerti; R. Le Gallou; F. Munz; A. Musquere; J-F. Olive; E. Pare; J. Quebert; R. C. Rannot; T. Reposeur; L. Rob; P. Roy; T. Sako; P. Schovanek; D. A. Smith; P. Snabre; A. Volte

    2001-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have converted the former solar electrical plant THEMIS (French Pyrenees) into an atmospheric Cherenkov detector called CELESTE, which records gamma rays above 30 GeV (7E24 Hz). Here we present the first sub-100 GeV detection by a ground based telescope of a gamma ray source, the Crab nebula, in the energy region between satellite measurements and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. At our analysis threshold energy of 60 +/- 20 GeV we measure a gamma ray rate of 6.1 +/- 0.8 per minute. Allowing for 30% systematic uncertainties and a 30% error on the energy scale yields an integral gamma ray flux of I(E>60 GeV) = 6.2^{+5.3}_{-2.3} E-6 photons m^-2 s^-1. The analysis methods used to obtain the gamma ray signal from the raw data are detailed. In addition, we determine the upper limit for pulsed emission to be <12% of the Crab flux at the 99% confidence level, in the same energy range. Our result indicates that if the power law observed by EGRET is attenuated by a cutoff of form e^{-E/E_0} then E_0 < 26 GeV. This is the lowest energy probed by a Cherenkov detector and leaves only a narrow range unexplored beyond the energy range studied by EGRET.

  2. Measurement of the Crab Flux Above 60 GeV with the CELESTE Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Naurois, Mathieu; Bazer-Bachi, R; Bergeret, H; Bruel, P; Cordier, A; Debiais, G; Dezalay, J P; Dumora, D; Durand, E; Eschstruth, P T; Espigat, P; Fabre, B; Fleury, P; Herault, N; Hrabovsky, M; Incerti, S; Le Gallou, R; Munz, F; Musquere, A; Olive, J F; Paré, E; Quebert, J; Rannot, R C; Reposeur, T; Rob, L; Roy, P; Sako, T; Schovanek, P; Smith, D A; Snabre, P; Volte, A

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have converted the former solar electrical plant THEMIS (French Pyrenees) into an atmospheric Cherenkov detector called CELESTE, which records gamma rays above 30 GeV (7E24 Hz). Here we present the first sub-100 GeV detection by a ground based telescope of a gamma ray source, the Crab nebula, in the energy region between satellite measurements and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. At our analysis threshold energy of 60 +/- 20 GeV we measure a gamma ray rate of 6.1 +/- 0.8 per minute. Allowing for 30% systematic uncertainties and a 30% error on the energy scale yields an integral gamma ray flux of I(E>60 GeV) = 6.2^{+5.3}_{-2.3} E-6 photons m^-2 s^-1. The analysis methods used to obtain the gamma ray signal from the raw data are detailed. In addition, we determine the upper limit for pulsed emission to be <12% of the Crab flux at the 99% confidence level, in the same energy range. Our result indicates that if the power law observed by EGRET is attenuated by a cutoff of form e^{-E/E_0} then E_0 &l...

  3. Spirometer techniques for measuring molar composition in argon carbon dioxide mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chonde, Daniel Burje

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines a new technique for measuring gas composition through the use of a spirometer. A spirometer is high precision pressure transducer which measures the speed of sound in a gas through the emission and ...

  4. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Bolte, N. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Marsili, P. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Roche, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  5. Isochoric measurements of an equimolar mixture of carbon dioxide and ethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidd, Michael William

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obtained from Burnett and pycnometer measurements to provide experimental information about PVT behavior, vapor pressures and the phase boundaries of the mixture. The PVT measurements are used to calculate residual energies and entropies at five... from a Reference State at 250 K and 25 bar. . 139 ix LIST OF FIGURES' Figure page Pressure-Temperature Diagram for a Mixture. Schematic of The Low Pressure Isochoric Apparatus. 13 Low Pressure Isochoric Measurement Cell. 15 Schematic...

  6. Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons by Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    1999-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 614 upward through-going muons of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 537 detector live days. The measured muon flux is 1.74+/-0.07(stat.)+/-0.02(sys.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1} compared to an expected flux of 1.97+/-0.44(theo.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}. The absolute measured flux is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. However, the zenith angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muon flux does not agree with no-oscillation predictions. The observed distortion in shape is consistent with the \

  7. Monte Carlo Method for Calculating Oxygen Abundances and Their Uncertainties from Strong-Line Flux Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianco, Federica B; Oh, Seung Man; Fierroz, David; Liu, Yuqian; Kewley, Lisa; Graur, Or

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the open-source Python code pyMCZ that determines oxygen abundance and its distribution from strong emission lines in the standard metallicity scales, based on the original IDL code of Kewley & Dopita (2002) with updates from Kewley & Ellison (2008), and expanded to include more recently developed scales. The standard strong-line diagnostics have been used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium through various emission line ratios in many areas of astrophysics, including galaxy evolution and supernova host galaxy studies. We introduce a Python implementation of these methods that, through Monte Carlo (MC) sampling, better characterizes the statistical reddening-corrected oxygen abundance confidence region. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, our code produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 13 metallicity scales simultaneously, as well as for E(B-V), and estimates their median values and their 66% confidence regions. In additi...

  8. Magnetization measurements of uranium dioxide single crystals (P08358-E002-PF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Gofryk; V. Zapf; M. Jaime

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conclusions Our preliminary magnetic susceptibility measurements of UO2 point to complex nature of the magnetic ordering in this material, consistent with the proposed non-collinear 3-k magnetic structure. Further extensive magnetic studies are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states.

  9. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. High Field Magnetization measurements of uranium dioxide single crystals (P08358- E003-PF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Gofryk; N. Harrison; M. Jaime

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conclusions: Our preliminary high field magnetic measurements of UO2 are consistent with a complex nature of the magnetic ordering in this material, compatible with the previously proposed non-collinear 3-k magnetic structure. Further extensive magnetic studies on well-oriented (<100 > and <111>) UO2 crystals are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states at high fields.

  11. Measurement of the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of carbon dioxide in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotope ratio method has been developed which permits measurement of the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of solutes in solution. Diffusion is conducted in a diaphragm cell of the type usually used for tracer diffusion measurements. The difference in isotopic composition of the solute before and after the diffusion process is measured by means of an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This difference is then used to calculate the ratio of diffusion coefficients for the two isotopic species. By this method the isotope fractionation associated with diffusion of CO/sub 2/ dissolved in water has been found to be D(/sup 12/CO/sub 2/)/D(/sup 13/CO/sub 2/) = 1.0007 +/- 0.0002 at 25/sup 0/C. The same series of experiments also produced a value of 1.0011 for the ratio of solubilities of /sup 12/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ in water at 30/sup 0/C, in excellent agreement with the published value. 23 references, 1 table.

  12. Application of conditional sampling for measuring ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide exchange in coastal wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobos, Douglas Russell

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. 6 mm LD. Teflon tubing (Cole Parmer Instrument Company, Vernon Hills, IL) at a rate of 0. 5 L/min before reaching the 100T. Wind data from the sonic anemometer were output 123 ms after wind velocity was measured. This delay combined with other... proper separation of updrafls and downdrafts (McInnes et al. 1998). Afler separation, the samples were filtered (Acro 50, Gelman Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI) before being routed through 12 mm I. D. Bev IV tubing (Cole Parmer Instrument Company...

  13. The following are typical equations and conversions for calculating flux densities of sensible, latent and carbon dioxide from eddy covariances presented by Kevin Tu, St. Louis (10/97). The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Kevin

    , latent and carbon dioxide from eddy covariances presented by Kevin Tu, St. Louis (10/97). The properties

  14. Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements attention on the importance of understanding the rates and mechanisms of CaCO3 formation so that changes can be monitored and feedbacks predicted. We present a method for determining the rate of CaCO3 production using

  15. Measurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics and Nevis Laboratory, New York, New York, USA 6) University of New Mexico, Department of PhysicsMeasurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High of Utah, Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 2

  16. Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Ola

    Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget P. Ola G. Persson,1 Christopher W. Fairall,2 Edgar L. Andreas,3 Peter S. Guest,4

  17. Measurements of fluxes of water vapour, CO2 and pCO2 are obtained from a coastal site in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurements of fluxes of water vapour, CO2 and pCO2 are obtained from a coastal site in Sweden study national reports UK The first eleven SOLAS projects supported by the Natural Environment Research the atmosphere, including biological interactions affecting DMS production and the role of upwelling in trace gas

  18. Effect of aerosols and NO2 concentration on ultraviolet actinic flux near Mexico City during MILAGRO: Measurements and model calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Lefer, Barry; Hall, Samual R.; Shaw, William J.; Corr, Chelsea A.; Herndon, Scott C.; Slusser, J. R.; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) actinic ?uxes (AF) measured with three Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers (SAFS) are compared with the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) model v.5 in order to assess the effects of aerosols and NO2 concentrations on the radiation. Measurements were made during the MILAGRO campaign near Mexico City in March 2006, at a ground-based station near Mexico City (the T1 supersite) and from the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. At the surface, measurements are typically smaller by up to 25 % in the morning, 10% at noon, and 40% in the afternoon, than actinic flux modeled for clean, cloud-free conditions. When measurements of PBL height, NO2 concentration and aerosols optical properties are included in the model, the agreement improves to within ±10% in the morning and afternoon, and ±3% at noon. Based on daily averages, aerosols account for 68%, NO2 for 25%, and residual uncertainties for 7% of these AF reductions observed at the surface. Several overpasses from the C-130 aircraft provided the opportunity to examine the actinic flux perturbations aloft, and also show better agreement with the model when aerosol and NO2 effects are included above and below the flight altitude. TUV model simulations show that the vertical structure of the actinic flux is sensitive to the choice of the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) at UV wavelengths. Typically, aerosols caused enhanced AF above the PBL and reduced AF near the surface. However, for highly scattering aerosols (SSA > 0.95), enhancements can penetrate well into the PBL, while for strongly absorbing aerosols (SSA<0.7) reductions in AF are computed in the free troposphere as well as in the PBL. Additional measurements of the SSA at these wavelengths are needed to better constrain the effect of aerosols on the vertical structure of the actinic flux.

  19. Measuring Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions in October, 2010 Catastrophic Eruption from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Volcano in Java, Indonesia with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) José A. Morales-Collazo Geology This paper discusses sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud emissions from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia during, Indonesia. In October 26th , 2010, a catastrophic eruption was reported from Merapi causing nearly 386

  20. Field measurements of a swell band, shore normal, flux divergence reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Shmuel G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout this thesis we will discuss the theoretical background and empirical observation of a swell band shore normal flux divergence reversal. Specifically, we will demonstrate the existence and persistence of the ...

  1. Investigation of Flux Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched Reluctance Motors and Permanent Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Kaiyuan

    motors without starting cages, changing stator current, induces no rotor current. This implies that most with the winding inductance to determine the instantaneous flux linkage profile. Comparison with the static torque

  2. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux dependence of photosynthesis and respiration. This observation provides empirical validation of efforts consideration of the temperature dependence of respiration and photosynthesis are likely to carry significant

  3. Blade dynamics and flux measurements for model seagrass blades in waves and currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Erin Grace

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex interactions between flow conditions, blade posture, and mass transport processes, represent a challenge to fully understanding the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the flux of nutrients to the blade surface ...

  4. Advances in measurements of particle cycling and fluxes in the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Stephanie Anne

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sinking flux of particles is an important removal mechanism of carbon from the surface ocean as part of the biological pump and can play a role in cycling of other chemical species. This work dealt with improving methods ...

  5. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  6. Observation of the proton aurora with IMAGE FUV imager and simultaneous ion flux in situ measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Observation of the proton aurora with IMAGE FUV imager and simultaneous ion flux in situ satellite images the aurora in three different spectral regions. One of the channels of the spectrographic to spectrally discriminate between the proton and electron FUV aurora and to globally map the energetic protons

  7. Systematic Uncertainties in the Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron-Star Masses and Radii from Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts. III. Absolute Flux Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guver, Tolga; Marshall, Herman; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Guainazzi, Matteo; Diaz-Trigo, Maria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826-238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE/PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE/PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE/PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0$\\pm$0.3% less flux than the RXTE/PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared to EPIC-MOS1, MOS2 and ACIS-S detectors. We also address the calibration uncertainty in the RXTE/PCA int...

  8. Decoding Titanium Dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decoding Titanium Dioxide Decoding Titanium Dioxide Released: December 03, 2010 Scientists advance understanding of remarkable catalyst STM images of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-octoxy...

  9. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  10. Depositional fluxes of metals and phytoplankton in Windermere as measured by sediment traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Willis, M.; Reynolds, C.S.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly sediment trap samples collected from a deep water station (42 m) in Windermere for a period of 1 year were analyzed for 0.5 M HCl extractable and total Fe, Mn, Al, Pb, Cu, Zn, total C, N, and total solids. Concomitant algal counts showed the year to be fairly typical in terms of the known sequence of phytoplankton. The annual depositional fluxes are compared with previously determined values based on sediment studies. The ratio of the annual trap to sediment flux for Al indicates the absence of local sediment resuspension. The ratios for Fe, Pb, and Zn suggest some possible biogeochemical cycling at the sediment-water interface. The deposition of Fe, Al, and Pb is predominantly associated with detrital material and occurs mainly during winter. The behavior of Zn is largely independent of other variables examined. The ratios for C, total solids, and Cu are all significantly >1. The major influence on the deposition and recycling of Mn is its well-known redox cycle involving oxidative precipitation and reductive remobilization. Cu undergoes an independent deposition-remobilization cycle, probably related to uptake by diatoms and their rapid microbial decomposition after sedimentation.

  11. A Measurement of the Flux of Cosmic Ray Iron at 5 x 10^13 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Clem; W. Droege; P. A. Evenson; H. Fischer; G. Green; D. Huber; H. Kunow; D. Seckel

    2001-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from the initial flight of our Balloon Air CHerenkov (BACH) payload. BACH detects air Cherenkov radiation from cosmic ray nuclei as coincident flashes in two optical modules. The flight (dubbed PDQ BACH) took place on April 22, 1998 from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. During an exposure of 2.75 hours, with a typical threshold energy for iron nuclei of 2.2$\\times10^{13}$ eV, we observed several events cleanly identifiable as iron group nuclei. Analysis of the data yields a new flux measurement that is fully consistent with that reported by other investigations.

  12. A MULTI-ELEMENT SILICON DETECTOR FOR X-RAY FLUX MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, A.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P, Wilson S, Rubenstein E, Thompson A C and Walton 0 T, IEEEFLUX MEASUREMENTS A.C. Thompson, F.S. Goulding, H.A. Sommer,MEASUREMENTS LBL-12746 A. C. Thompson, F.S. Goulding» H» A.

  13. Direct measurements of the energy flux due to chemical reactions at the surface of a silicon sample interacting with a SF6 plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dussart, Remi; Pichon, Laurianne E; Bedra, Larbi; Semmar, Nadjib; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Mathias, Jacky; Tessier, Yves; 10.1063/1.2995988

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy exchanges due to chemical reactions between a silicon surface and a SF6 plasma were directly measured using a heat flux microsensor (HFM). The energy flux evolution was compared with those obtained when only few reactions occur at the surface to show the part of chemical reactions. At 800 W, the measured energy flux due to chemical reactions is estimated at about 7 W.cm\\^{-2} against 0.4 W.cm\\^{-2} for ion bombardment and other contributions. Time evolution of the HFM signal is also studied. The molar enthalpy of the reaction giving SiF4 molecules was evaluated and is consistent with values given in literature.

  14. A measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flux and oscillation parameters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonley, Thomas John

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through-going muon events are analyzed as a function of their direction of travel through the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Based on simulations and previous measurements, muons with a zenith angle of 1 < cos([theta]zenith) ...

  15. The Lyman-? forest in three dimensions: measurements of large scale flux correlations from BOSS 1st-year data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institut de Cičncies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Fac. Cičncies, torre C5 parell 2, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Pieri, Matthew M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Rich, James; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Charlassier, Romain [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aubourg, Éric; Busca, Nicolas; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Carithers, Bill; Cortęs, Marina; Ho, Shirley; McDonald, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Croft, Rupert [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [University of Utah, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Lee, Khee-Gan; Lupton, Robert [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Medolin, Bumbarija, E-mail: anze@bnl.gov [104-20 Queens Blvd 17A, Forest Hills, NY 11375 (United States); and others

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a sample of approximately 14,000 z > 2.1 quasars observed in the first year of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), we measure the three-dimensional correlation function of absorption in the Lyman-? forest. The angle-averaged correlation function of transmitted flux (F = e{sup ??}) is securely detected out to comoving separations of 60 h{sup ?1}Mpc, the first detection of flux correlations across widely separated sightlines. A quadrupole distortion of the redshift-space correlation function by peculiar velocities, the signature of the gravitational instability origin of structure in the Lyman-? forest, is also detected at high significance. We obtain a good fit to the data assuming linear theory redshift-space distortion and linear bias of the transmitted flux, relative to the matter fluctuations of a standard ?CDM cosmological model (inflationary cold dark matter with a cosmological constant). At 95% confidence, we find a linear bias parameter 0.16 < b < 0.24 and redshift-distortion parameter 0.44 < ? < 1.20, at central redshift z = 2.25, with a well constrained combination b(1+?) = 0.336±0.012. The errors on ? are asymmetric, with ? = 0 excluded at over 5? confidence level. The value of ? is somewhat low compared to theoretical predictions, and our tests on synthetic data suggest that it is depressed (relative to expectations for the Lyman-? forest alone) by the presence of high column density systems and metal line absorption. These results set the stage for cosmological parameter determinations from three-dimensional structure in the Lyman-? forest, including anticipated constraints on dark energy from baryon acoustic oscillations.

  16. Measurements with the high flux lead slowing-down spectrometer at LANL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    slow down by scattering interactions with the lead and thus enable measurements of neutron.40.Sc Keywords: Lead-slowing-down spectrometer; Lithium; Alpha; Cross section; Neutron reactions 1.elsevier.com/locate/nimb Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 261 (2007) 953­955 NIM BBeam Interactions

  17. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  18. 31. 4-GHz flux density measurements of a complete sample of sources from the 5-GHz S5 survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Kuehr, H.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements at 31.4-GHz (9.5-mm) are presented for the complete sample of 66 radio sources with declinations greater than +70/sup 0/ and 5-GHz flux densities greater than 0.5 Jy. About half the sources have the flat radio spectra characteristic of objects with compact components radiating most strongly in the mid-centimeter wavelength range, and about one third show evidence of very compact components (theta< or approx. =0.//0001) radiating at short centimeter wavelengths regardless of morphological type. The median spectral index of all the sources, the quasars alone, and the galaxies alone tends to flatten with increasing frequency for steep spectrum sources, whereas a steepening was found with increasing frequency for the flat spectrum sources.

  19. Method and apparatus for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux for analysis of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denton, M. Bonner (Tucson, AZ); Sperline, Roger (Tucson, AZ), Koppenaal, David W. (Richland, WA), Barinaga, Charles J. (Richland, WA), Hieftje, Gary (Bloomington, IN), Barnes, IV, James H. (Santa Fe, NM); Atlas, Eugene (Irvine, CA)

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle detector and method are disclosed providing for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux in a measurement cycle. The detector provides multiple and independently selectable levels of integration and/or gain in a fully addressable readout manner.

  20. A Numerical Study of the Influence of a Clearcut on Eddy-Covariance Fluxes of CO2 Measured Above a Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weiguo; Davis, Kenneth J.

    2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the contributions of unit source fluxes over a clear-cutting area in a forest and over the contiguous forested area to the eddy-covariance (EC) flux of CO2 measured at a tower standing in the center of the clearcut under daytime convective conditions. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is used to simulate the dispersion and transport of two conservative and passive tracers that are released from the clearcut and from the forested area, respectively. The time series of the LES-generated vertical velocity and the mixing ratios of both tracers on all the levels at the tower location are recorded every model time step during the last hour of each LES run; this somewhat mimics real EC flux measurements at the tower. The contribution of the unit surface flux over the clearcut relative to that over the forested area decreases exponentially with increasing measurement height, decreasing convective boundary layer depth, increasing atmospheric stability, and decreasing size of the clearcut. LES-derived results are fitted to an empirical relation and applied to flux measurements at the 447-m tall tower in Wisconsin, USA. The contribution of the unit flux over the clearcut on the EC flux measured at the 30-m level of the tower is larger than 50% of that over the forested area under most unstable conditions, while smaller than 2.5% at the 396-m level. Existing analytical footprint models are inappropriate to address the clearcut influence due to clearcut-induced heterogeneity of the turbulent flow in the tower area.

  1. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, W.

    1990-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal for continuation of research on net ecosystem carbon dioxide and methane flux and sampling and analysis of soil samples from arctic tundra regions is presented.

  2. Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose-zone VOC Sources: Flow-cell Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mainhagu, Jon; Morrison, C.; Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Brusseau, Mark

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method termed vapor-phase tomography has recently been proposed to characterize the distribution of volatile organic contaminant mass in vadose-zone source areas, and to measure associated three-dimensional distributions of local contaminant mass discharge. The method is based on measuring the spatial variability of vapor flux, and thus inherent to its effectiveness is the premise that the magnitudes and temporal variability of vapor concentrations measured at different monitoring points within the interrogated area will be a function of the geospatial positions of the points relative to the source location. A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to evaluate this premise. A well-defined source zone was created by injection and extraction of a non-reactive gas (SF6). Spatial and temporal concentration distributions obtained from the tests were compared to simulations produced with a mathematical model describing advective and diffusive transport. Tests were conducted to characterize both areal and vertical components of the application. Decreases in concentration over time were observed for monitoring points located on the opposite side of the source zone from the local–extraction point, whereas increases were observed for monitoring points located between the local–extraction point and the source zone. The results illustrate that comparison of temporal concentration profiles obtained at various monitoring points gives a general indication of the source location with respect to the extraction and monitoring points.

  3. Harmonic Analysis of Time Variations Observed in the Solar Radio Flux Measured at 810 MHz from 1957 to 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zieba; J. Maslowski; A. Michalec; G. Michalek; A. Kulak

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-running measurements of the solar radio flux density at 810 MHz were processed. Based on the least-squares method and using modified periodograms and an iterative technique of fitting and subtracting sinusoids in the time domain, frequency, amplitude, and phase characteristics of any analyzed time series were obtained. Solar cycles 20, 21, and 22 and shorter segments around solar minima and maxima were examined separately. Also, dynamic studies with 405, 810, and 1620 day windows were undertaken. The harmonic representations obtained for all these time series indicate large differences among solar cycles and their segments. We show that the solar radio flux at 810 MHz violates the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule for the pair of cycles 22-23. Analyzing the period 1957-2004, the following spectral periods longer than 1350 days were detected: 10.6, 8.0, 28.0, 5.3, 55.0, 3.9, 6.0, 4.4, and 14.6 yr. For spectral periods between 270 and 1350 days the 11 yr cycle is not recognized. We think that these harmonics form ``impulses of activity'' or a quasi-biennial cycle defined in the Benevolenskaya model of the ``double magnetic cycle.'' The value of about 0.09 is proposed for the interaction parameter (between the low- and high-frequency components) of this model. We confirm the intermittent behavior of the periodicity near 155 days. Correlation coefficients between the radio emission at 810 MHz and sunspot numbers, as well as the radio emission at 2800 MHz calculated for 540 day intervals, depend on the solar cycle phase.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  5. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these experiments were of particular importance because they provide extensive information which can be directly applied to the design of large LMFBR’s. It should be recognized that the data presented in the initial report were evaluated only to the extent necessary to ensure that adequate data were obtained. Later reports provided further interpretation and detailed comparisons with prediction techniques. The conclusion of the isothermal physics measurements was that the FFTF nuclear characteristics were essentially as designed and all safety requirements were satisfied. From a nuclear point of view, the FFTF was qualified to proceed into power operation mode. The FFTF was completed in 1978 and first achieved criticality on February 9, 1980. Upon completion of the isothermal physics and reactor characterization programs, the FFTF operated for ten years from April 1982 to April 1992. Reactor operations of the FFTF were terminated and the reactor facility was then defueled, deactivated, and placed into cold standby condition. Deactivation of the reactor was put on hold from 1996 to 2000 while the U.S. Department of Energy examined alternative uses for the FFTF but then announced the permanent deactivation of the FFTF in December 2001. Its core support basket was later drilled in May 2005, so as to remove all remaining sodium coolant. On April 17, 2006, the American Nuclear Society designated the FFTF as a “National Nuclear Historic Landmark”.

  6. Validation of a Monte Carlo based depletion methodology via High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU post-irradiation examination measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to validate a Monte Carlo based depletion methodology by comparing calculated post-irradiation uranium isotopic compositions in the fuel elements of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core to values measured using uranium mass-spectrographic analysis. Three fuel plates were analyzed: two from the outer fuel element (OFE) and one from the inner fuel element (IFE). Fuel plates O-111-8, O-350-1, and I-417-24 from outer fuel elements 5-O and 21-O and inner fuel element 49-I, respectively, were selected for examination. Fuel elements 5-O, 21-O, and 49-1 were loaded into HFIR during cycles 4, 16, and 35, respectively (mid to late 1960s). Approximately one year after each of these elements were irradiated, they were transferred to the High Radiation Level Examination Laboratory (HRLEL) where samples from these fuel plates were sectioned and examined via uranium mass-spectrographic analysis. The isotopic composition of each of the samples was used to determine the atomic percent of the uranium isotopes. A Monte Carlo based depletion computer program, ALEPH, which couples the MCNP and ORIGEN codes, was utilized to calculate the nuclide inventory at the end-of-cycle (EOC). A current ALEPH/MCNP input for HFIR fuel cycle 400 was modified to replicate cycles 4, 16, and 35. The control element withdrawal curves and flux trap loadings were revised, as well as the radial zone boundaries and nuclide concentrations in the MCNP model. The calculated EOC uranium isotopic compositions for the analyzed plates were found to be in good agreement with measurements, which reveals that ALEPH/MCNP can accurately calculate burn-up dependent uranium isotopic concentrations for the HFIR core. The spatial power distribution in HFIR changes significantly as irradiation time increases due to control element movement. Accurate calculation of the end-of-life uranium isotopic inventory is a good indicator that the power distribution variation as a function of space and time is accurately calculated, i.e. an integral check. Hence, the time dependent heat generation source terms needed for reactor core thermal hydraulic analysis, if derived from this methodology, have been shown to be accurate for highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel.

  7. Constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters from the measurement of day-night solar neutrino fluxes at Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration; :; Y. Fukuda; T. Hayakawa; E. Ichihara; K. Inoue

    1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for day-night variations in the solar neutrino flux resulting from neutrino oscillations has been carried out using the 504 day sample of solar neutrino data obtained at Super-Kamiokande. The absence of a significant day-night variation has set an absolute flux independent exclusion region in the two neutrino oscillation parameter space.

  8. ARM - Measurement - Actinic flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhen Floating Ice

  9. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery

  10. Measurement and Partitioning of in situ Carbon Fluxes in Turfgrasses D.J. Bremer*, J.M. Ham, and K. Su*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    procedure was developed that accounted for this small soil flux. Licor6400 Custom Chamber FlowMeter Voltage) that illustrate the design of a pressurized chamber system. A variable flow air pump and manometer were used. 1). · Measurements collected at Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center, Manhattan, KS. · Soil type

  11. Carbon Dioxide Daily Variations and Atmospheric Fluxes over the Open Waters of the Great Bahama Bank and Norman's Pond Using a Novel Autonomous Measuring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyron, Mark

    ..................................................................................................Lindsey M. Hower and S. Blair Hedges 298 Roles of Visual, Acoustic, and Chemical Signals in Social

  12. Fission-chamber-compensated self-powered detector for in-core flux measurement and reactor control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neissel, J.P.

    1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for in-core flux measurement and nuclear reactor control consisting of: a self-powered rhodium neutron detector for producing an output signal corresponding to reactor power level; first amplifier means having an input for receiving the neutron detector output signal, and the first amplifier means producing a corresponding first amplifier output signal (V/sub 1/); a fission chamber for producing an output signal corresponding to reactor power level; second amplifier means having an input for receiving the fission chamber output signal, the second amplifier means producing a corresponding second amplifier output signal; first differentiating means coupled to the output of the second amplifier means including a resistor and a capacitor coupled to provide a time constant T/sub 1//1n 2 where T/sub 1/ is the half-life of the ground state of Rh/sup 104/; third amplifier means having an input for receiving the second amplifier means output signal, the third amplifier means having a voltage gain of (1-c)/c; second differentiating means coupled to the output of the third amplifying means and including a capacitor and resistor providing a time constant T/sub 2//1n 2 where T/sub 2/ is the half-life of the isomeric state of Rh/sup 104/; and fourth amplifier means including corresponding inputs for receiving the output of the first amplifier means, a processed output from the first differentiating circuit, and a processed output from the second differentiating circuit, and for producing a corresponding summed output signal.

  13. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y., E-mail: shibata.yoshihide@jaea.go.jp; Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ?4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  14. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  15. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  16. Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    LETTERS Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year , Yiqi Luo5 & David S. Schimel6 Terrestrial ecosystems control carbon dioxide fluxes to and from and heterotrophic respira- tion, that determines whether an ecosystem is sequestering carbon or releasing

  17. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  18. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (??,??)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity ? of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from ?(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that themore »glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although ? elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.« less

  19. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (??,??)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity ? of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from ?(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that the glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although ? elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    · Corrosion inhibition very important in the oil industry · Film forming inhibitors containing nitrogenCarbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies Kristin Gilida #12;Outline · Background = Zreal + Zim Rp 1/Corr Rate #12;Tafel · Measures corrosion rate directly · Measures iCORR from A and C

  1. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, M.

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is ...

  2. Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water. Version 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C. [eds.] [eds.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collection of extensive, reliable, oceanic carbon data is a key component of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). A portion of the US JGOFS oceanic carbon dioxide measurements will be made during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. A science team has been formed to plan and coordinate the various activities needed to produce high quality oceanic carbon dioxide measurements under this program. This handbook was prepared at the request of, and with the active participation of, that science team. The procedures have been agreed on by the members of the science team and describe well tested methods. They are intended to provide standard operating procedures, together with an appropriate quality control plan, for measurements made as part of this survey. These are not the only measurement techniques in use for the parameters of the oceanic carbon system; however, they do represent the current state-of-the-art for ship-board measurements. In the end, the editors hope that this handbook can serve widely as a clear and unambiguous guide to other investigators who are setting up to analyze the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water.

  3. Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

  4. Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Cao

    2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understanding of the correlation of uncertainties is required for $\\theta_{13}$ experiments. Precise determination of reactor neutrino flux will also improve the sensitivity of the non-proliferation monitoring and future reactor experiments. We will discuss the flux calculation and recent progresses.

  5. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  6. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall loading. The absorption rate did not follow pseudo first-order beha®ior except at ®ery low loading. All

  7. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  8. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms for COF-5, 65 mg g-1 for COF-6, 87 mg g-1 for COF-8, and 80 mg g-1 for COF-10; carbon dioxide at 298 K

  9. of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

  10. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were checked by re- running the signal-loss measurement withrunning—is not used for solar neutrino analysis. Other losses

  11. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  12. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  13. Early-Time Flux Measurements of SN 2014J Obtained with Small Robotic Telescopes: Extending the AAVSO Light Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poppe, B; Zheng, W; Shivvers, I; Itagaki, K; Filippenko, A V; Kunz, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, early-time photometry of supernova (SN) 2014J is presented, extending the AAVSO CCD database to prediscovery dates. The applicability of NASA's small robotic MicroObservatory Network telescopes for photometric measurements is evaluated. Prediscovery and postdiscovery photometry of SN 2014J is measured from images taken by two different telescopes of the network, and is compared to measurements from the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope and the Itagaki Observatory. In the early light-curve phase (which exhibits stable spectral behavior with constant color indices), these data agree with reasonably high accuracy (better than 0.05 mag around maximum brightness, and 0.15 mag at earlier times). Owing to the changing spectral energy distribution of the SN and the different spectral characteristics of the systems used, differences increase after maximum light. We augment light curves of SN 2014J downloaded from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) online database with these dat...

  14. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  15. Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions for future research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Gill; Vargas, Rodrigo; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Turetsky, Merritt

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Rewetting of dry soils and thawing of frozen soils are short-term, transitional phenomena in terms of hydrology and thermodynamics in soil systems. The impact of these short-term phenomena on larger-scale ecosystem fluxes has only recently been fully appreciated, and a growing number of studies show that these events affect various biogeochemical processes including fluxes of biogenic gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and nitric oxide (NO). Global climate models predict that future climatic change is likely to alter the frequency and intensity of drying-rewetting events and thawing of frozen soils, highlighting the importance of understanding how rewetting and thawing will influence biogenic gas fluxes. Here we summarize findings in an acquired database from 338 studies conducted from 1956-2010, and propose future research questions. Studies have reported conflicting results, ranging from large increases in gas fluxes to non-significant changes following rewetting and thawing in various terrestrial ecosystems. An analysis of published data revealed that CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes increase 7.6 (standard error 1.1) times following rewetting and thawing with no significant difference between these events. We explore possible mechanisms and controls that regulate flux responses, and note that there is a lack of studies on variation of CH{sub 4}, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes following rewetting and thawing events. High temporal resolution of flux measurements is critical to capture rapid changes in the gas fluxes after these soil perturbations. Finally, we propose that future studies should investigate the interactions between biological (i.e., microbial community) and physical (i.e., gas production, flux, and dissolution) changes in biogenic gas fluxes, and explore synergistic experimental and modelling approaches.

  16. au flux diffus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contribution of the GRB prompt and scattered emissions to the measured extragalactic gamma-ray flux. To estimate this contribution we optimistically require that the energy flux...

  17. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

  18. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Law, Beverly E.; Litvak, Marcy; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Starr, Gregory; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Paw, Kyaw; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a modified regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using eddy flux NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE well (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day interval in 2005 using spatially explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE as determined from measurements and the literature. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets over large areas.

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  20. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  1. What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory (ORNL) has made an important advancement in understanding a classic transition-metal oxide, vanadium dioxide, by quantifying the thermodynamic forces driving...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  3. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  4. The effect of absorbent grid preparation method on precision and accuracy of ambient nitrogen dioxide measurements using Palmes passive diffusion tubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A few studies have suggested that the precision and accuracy of measurement of NO2 by Palmes-type passive diffusion tube (PDT) are affected by the method of preparation of the triethanolamine (TEA) absorbent coating on the ...

  5. The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at SIRTA Atmospheric Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriaco, M.; Vautard, R.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Wanherdrick, Y.; Morille, Y.; Protat, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice clouds play a major role in the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system (Liou 1986). Their radiative effect is governed primarily by the equilibrium between their albedo and greenhouse effects. Both macrophysical and microphysical properties of ice clouds regulate this equilibrium. For quantifying the effect of these clouds onto climate and weather systems, they must be properly characterized in atmospheric models. In this paper we use remote-sensing measurements from the SIRTA ground based atmospheric observatory (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique, http://sirta.lmd.polytechnique.fr). Lidar and radar observations taken over 18 months are used, in order to gain statistical confidence in the model evaluation. Along this period of time, 62 days are selected for study because they contain parts of ice clouds. We use the ''model to observations'' approach by simulating lidar and radar signals from MM5 outputs. Other more classical variables such as shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes are also used. Four microphysical schemes, among which that proposed by Reisner et al. (1998) with original or modified parameterizations of particle terminal fall velocities (Zurovac-Jevtic and Zhang 2003, Heymsfield and Donner 1990), and the simplified Dudhia (1989) scheme are evaluated in this study.

  6. Precision Measurement of the (e[superscript +] + e[superscript ?) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, M.

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e[superscript +] + e[superscript -]) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e[superscript +] + e[superscript -]) events collected by AMS. The ...

  7. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  8. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  9. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  10. MECHANISMS CONTROLLING THE AIR-SEA FLUX IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    -sea flux of carbon is controlled by the disequilibrium in partial pres- sure of carbon dioxide between describe the distribution of carbon in the Atlantic basin and its relation to other water-mass properties increase of atmospheric Ą§¦©¨ . Fig. 1 illustrates the annual mean air- sea flux of carbon, , estimated

  11. Estimation of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange for the Conterminous UnitedStates by Combining MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Law, Beverly E.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Chen, Jiquan; Oren, Ram; Starr, Gregory; Noormets, Asko; Ma, Siyan; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Litvak, Marcy; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board NASA's Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE reasonably well at the site level. We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day period in 2005 using spatially-explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets for large areas.

  12. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a biologist at the California State Univer- sity San Marcos, with expertise in the effects of carbon dioxideCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

  14. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

  15. Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, A. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar...

  16. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  17. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  18. The Solar Wind Energy Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chat, G Le; Meyer-Vernet, N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar-wind energy flux measured near the ecliptic is known to be independent of the solar-wind speed. Using plasma data from Helios, Ulysses, and Wind covering a large range of latitudes and time, we show that the solar-wind energy flux is independent of the solar-wind speed and latitude within 10%, and that this quantity varies weakly over the solar cycle. In other words the energy flux appears as a global solar constant. We also show that the very high speed solar-wind (VSW > 700 km/s) has the same mean energy flux as the slower wind (VSW < 700 km/s), but with a different histogram. We use this result to deduce a relation between the solar-wind speed and density, which formalizes the anti-correlation between these quantities.

  19. Ozone fluxes in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem are dominated by non-stomatal processes: Evidence from long-term continuous measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone fluxes in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem are dominated by non-stomatal processes: Evidence from and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands 1. Introduction Ozone is considered one of the most dangerous oxidant molecules for plants (UNECE, 2004; EPA, 2007). Ozone concentra- tion

  20. Using model analyses and surface-atmosphere exchange measurements from the Howland AmeriFlux Site in Maine, USA, to improve understanding of forest ecosystem C cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, David Y.; Davidson, Eric A.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Dail, D. B.; Scott, N.

    2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary of research carried out under Interagency Agreement DE-AI02-07ER64355 with the USDA Forest Service at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site in central Maine. Includes a list of publications resulting in part or whole from this support.

  1. ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimageconcentration ARM Data

  3. Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruizenga, A. [Sandia National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO{sub 2} Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO{sub 2} flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................... 3 2.3 Energy Efficiency Technologies and Measures with gas turbine at Cascades Inc. ............................................... 34 3.5 Boiler blowdown Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Steel Industry .......................5 Table 2.3 Energy Efficiency

  5. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  6. The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

  7. Solubility of anthracene and anthraquinone in cyclohexanone + carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.J. (National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the processing of an anthracene oil fraction from coal tar, a mixture of anthracene and anthraquinone is required to be separated to obtain products of high purity. The solubilities of anthracene and anthraquinone were measured in cyclohexanone + carbon dioxide as a function of the temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide at 291, 300, and 313 K and from 1.8--12.4 MPa. Average equilibrium solubilities and recoveries of both solids increased with increasing normalized concentration and pressure. The average separation factor of anthracene to anthraquinone, due to the effect of the mixed solvent, was 2.88 [+-] 1.91.

  8. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  9. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determinedVAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K

  10. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  11. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  12. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  13. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  14. Heisenberg groups and noncommutative fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, Daniel S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 (United States)]. E-mail: dafr@math.utexas.edu; Moore, Gregory W. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Segal, Graeme [All Souls College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a group-theoretical approach to the formulation of generalized abelian gauge theories, such as those appearing in string theory and M-theory. We explore several applications of this approach. First, we show that there is an uncertainty relation which obstructs simultaneous measurement of electric and magnetic flux when torsion fluxes are included. Next, we show how to define the Hilbert space of a self-dual field. The Hilbert space is Z{sub 2}-graded and we show that, in general, self-dual theories (including the RR fields of string theory) have fermionic sectors. We indicate how rational conformal field theories associated to the two-dimensional Gaussian model generalize to (4k+2)-dimensional conformal field theories. When our ideas are applied to the RR fields of string theory we learn that it is impossible to measure the K-theory class of a RR field. Only the reduction modulo torsion can be measured.

  15. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  16. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture in the Presence of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture preservation of the IRMOF structure. Carbon dioxide capture from combustion sources such as flue gas in power this carbon capture challenge. The preferred method for measuring the efficiency of a given material

  17. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 ?m to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900oC and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a membrane tube of given dimensions that would treat coal syngas with targeted performance. The calculation results show that the dual-phase membrane reactor could improve IGCC process efficiency but the cost of the membrane reactor with membranes having current CO2 permeance is high. Further research should be directed towards improving the performance of the membranes and developing cost-effective, scalable methods for fabrication of dual-phase membranes and membrane reactors.

  18. Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern for the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern South), respectively, the monthly pCO2 fields were computed. The derived pCO2 was compared with the shipboard pCO2

  19. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  20. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  1. Helium Migration Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Guillaume; Desgardin, Pierre; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France [CERI, CNRS, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, ORLEANS, 45071 (France); Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaelle [DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance, 13108 (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO{sub 2} sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with {sup 3}He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H reaction. {sup 3}He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900 deg. C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects. (authors)

  2. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore »melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  3. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  4. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  5. Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

  6. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW. J. E. Santos. 1. , G. B. Savioli. 2. , J. M. Carcione. 3. , D. Gei. 3. 1. CONICET, IGPUBA, Fac.

  7. Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on carbon dioxide Released: March 26, 2014 Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

  8. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  9. absorbing sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 158 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  10. amorphous titanium dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 177 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  11. acute sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 82 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  12. addressing chlorine dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 103 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  13. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Abstract: Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were...

  14. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon...

  15. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  16. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers SWRI Logo The Southwest Research...

  17. Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron-sized colloidal carbon spheres via hydrothermal carbonization Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform...

  18. atmospheric sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  19. atmospheric sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  20. Carbon Dioxide for pH Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagonner, R.C.

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  2. Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

  3. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  4. Application of optical processing for growth of silicon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate is disclosed. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm{sup 2} to about 6 watts/cm{sup 2} for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm{sup 2} for growth of a 100{angstrom}-300{angstrom} film at a resultant temperature of about 400 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface to be very low. 1 fig.

  5. Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

  6. Unsteady momentum fluxes in two-phase flow and the vibration of nuclear reactor components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yih, Tien Sieh

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady and unsteady components of the momentum flux in a twophase flow have been measured at the exit of a vertical pipe. Measured momentum flux data has been machine processed by standard random vibration techniques ...

  7. Microbial and objective quality of whole muscle beef cuts packaged in film containing chlorine dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Timothy David

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with beef. . . . 25 26 C~R Page IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 27 EfFect of chlorine dioxide containing fihns on the microbial quality ofbeef. & EfFect of chlorine dioxide containing films on the color of beef. Changes in the myoglobin concentration... atmosphere for 60min prior to measuring. Hunter a* values were measured using a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300 equipped with a DP-301 data processor (Minolta, Inc. , Japan). The measurements were taken perpendicular to the beef surface and standardized using...

  8. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  9. Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems thermodynamic models. The range in CO2 solubility measured from 100 ­ 120 o C for K+ /PZ mixtures was from (0 and Technology to expand the thermodynamic data of for potassium carbonate/piperazine/CO2 with measurements of CO

  10. Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials S.D. Bakrania *, C., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA Abstract Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide (SnO2) was studied using: Combustion synthesis; Nanoparticles; Tin dioxide; Metals 1. Introduction Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most

  11. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Carbon Dioxide (December 1980) Olusegun Omole, B. S. , University of Ibadan, Nigeria Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. S. Osoba It has long been recognized that carbon dioxide could be used as an oil recovery agent. Both laboratory and field...- tion. Crude oil from the Foster Field in West Texas, of 7 cp and 34 API, 0 was used as the oil in place. Oil displacements were conducted at pres- sures between 750 psig and 1800 ps1g, and at a temperature of 110 F. 0 Carbon dioxide was injected...

  12. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  13. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  15. Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Figueiredo, Mark A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

  16. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  17. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of graphene-based titanium dioxide nanocompositesLos Angeles The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based AnodeTHE THESIS The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode

  18. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  19. Short-range atmospheric dispersion of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortis, A.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical study aimed at quantifying the effects of concentration-dependent density on the spread of a seeping plume of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere such as could arise from a leaking geologic carbon sequestration site. Results of numerical models can be used to supplement field monitoring estimates of CO{sub 2} seepage flux by modelling transport and dispersion between the source emission and concentration-measurement points. We focus on modelling CO{sub 2} seepage dispersion over relatively short distances where density effects are likely to be important. We model dense gas dispersion using the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with density dependence in the gravity term. Results for a two-dimensional system show that a density dependence emerges at higher fluxes than prior estimates. A universal scaling relation is derived that allows estimation of the flux from concentrations measured downwind and vice versa.

  20. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  1. Six-Week Time Series Of Eddy Covariance Co2 Flux At Mammoth Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flux At Mammoth Mountain, California- Performance Evaluation And Role Of Meteorological Forcing Abstract CO2 and heat fluxes were measured over a six-week period (09082006 to 10...

  2. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  3. Stabilization of moduli by fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrndt, Klaus [Albert-Einstein-Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to fix the moduli, non-trivial fluxes might the essential input. We summarize different aspects of compactifications in the presence of fluxes, as there is the relation to generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions and gauged supergravity but also the description of flux-deformed geometries in terms of G-structures and intrinsic torsion.

  4. Carbon dioxide for the recovery of crude oil. Annual report, November 1978-November 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doscher, T.M.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement of residual oil to waterflooding by miscible fluid injection has been studied using scaled physical models of line-drive systems. The effects of flow rate, mobility ratio, and density ratio, were investigated. This work was a first step in an overall program of studying miscible displacement in particular by carbon dioxide, of residual oil as a process for recovering additional crude oil from reservoirs which had been waterflooded. The ratios of gravitational and viscous forces which exist in tertiary recovery operations, using carbon dioxide as a recovery reagent, were approximated in a scaled physical model at ambient pressure and temperature. The viscosity ratio was now very unfavorable and displacement of moveable water was inefficient. Consequently, the displacement of the residual oil by the solvent, which was simulating the role of carbon dioxide, was also poor. The recovery efficiency could not be improved by reasonable increases in the fluid velocity because the unfavorable mobility-caused viscous fingering was so dominant. Insomuch as carbon dioxide flooding, an imperfectly miscible recovery process, cannot be expected to perform as well as a perfectly miscible recovery process, these experiments point to the need for imposing a strong measure of mobility control if the injection of carbon dioxide is to achieve widespread usage for the recovery of residual oil.

  5. A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

  6. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  8. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  9. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 This document summarizes the progress of...

  10. atmospheric muon flux: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. Sarcevic 1997-10-15 9 Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with the ANTARES detector CERN Preprints Summary: ANTARES is a submarine neutrino telescope deployed in the...

  11. The Momentum flux in two-phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andeen, Gerry B.

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average momentum flux at a section of a pipe with twophase upflow has been measured by the impulse technique. Steamwater and air-water mixtures were tested in one-inch and onehalf inch nominal pipes. Homogeneous ...

  12. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

  13. Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and Hydrous Ferric Oxide D I M I T R I (HFO) and titanium dioxide exhibit similar strong attachment of many adsorbates including biomolecules on amorphous titanium dioxide. The results indicate that glutamate adsorbs on HFO as a deprotonated divalent

  14. Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    CHAPTER 30 Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications T. A. Miller, S. D) levels for some species. Tin dioxide (also called stannic oxide or tin oxide) semi- conductor gas sensors undergone extensive research and development. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most important material for use

  15. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations C.M. COLINAa,b, *, C and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based: Fluctuations; Carbon dioxide; 2CLJQ; Joule­Thomson coefficient; Speed of sound INTRODUCTION Simulation methods

  16. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  17. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  18. Energy flux fluctuations in a finite volume of turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh Bandi; Walter Goldburg; John Cressman Jr.; Alain Pumir

    2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The flux of turbulent kinetic energy from large to small spatial scales is measured in a small domain B of varying size R. The probability distribution function of the flux is obtained using a time-local version of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. The measurements, made at a moderate Reynolds number, show frequent events where the flux is backscattered from small to large scales, their frequency increasing as R is decreased. The observations are corroborated by a numerical simulation based on the motion of many particles and on an explicit form of the eddy damping.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  20. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines Philip in the corrosion related research institutions at IFE and the Ohio University or any other scientific research;#12;Introduction - v - Summary CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus

  1. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  2. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London: Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    as a function of average daily temperature were obtained from statistics of the UK Department of Energy Road site is funded by London local authorities (operated by the Environmental Research Group (ERG)2.2 Estimation of the CO2 emissions from natural gas consumption Natural gas provides 81% of the energy used

  3. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water balances of a boreal aspen forest, 1994–2003, Globalbanksiana) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). Theranging from jack pine to aspen and maple?basswood? ash (

  4. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada-

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest, Illinois:EdinburghEldoradoElectronVault JumpLabs, Place:relations

  5. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque:C6, supplt+mentau no8,Tome 39,aotit 1978,page ~6-614 AC FLUX PENETRATION MEASUREMENTS ON FORCE FREE CONFIGURATIONS IN REVERSIBLE TYPE I 1 SUPER-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    centres. A sufficient condition 4 turn coil wound on the specimen and from voltage for force free flow du flux est tout B fait incompatible avec le deplacement d1h61ices compls- Ces. Les formes des ondes and the factors that tector and also plotted using a boxcar detector. determine the form of a in a given situation

  6. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part I: Health outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide increases the incidence and severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. Between January 1988 and June 1990, 1,315 infants were enrolled into the study at birth and followed with prospective surveillance for the occurrence of respiratory infections and monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in their homes. The subjects were healthy infants from homes without smokers; they were selected with stratification by type of cooking stove at a ratio of four to one for gas and electric stoves. Illness experience was monitored by a daily diary of symptoms completed by the mother and a telephone interview conducted every two weeks. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as involving the lower respiratory tract; all other respiratory illnesses were designated as involving the upper respiratory tract. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was estimated by two-week average concentrations measured in the subjects' bedrooms with passive samplers. This analysis is limited to the 1,205 subjects completing at least one month of observation; of these, 823 completed the full protocol, contributing 82.8% of the total number of days during which the subjects were under observation. Incidence rates for all respiratory illnesses, all upper respiratory illness, all lower respiratory illnesses, and lower respiratory illness further divided into those with any wheezing, or wet cough without wheezing, were examined within strata of nitrogen dioxide exposure at the time of the illness, nitrogen dioxide exposure during the prior month, and type of cooking stove. Consistent trends of increasing illness incidence rates with increasing exposure to nitrogen dioxide were not evident for either the lagged or unlagged exposure variables.

  7. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  8. Physics of String Flux Compactifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederik Denef; Michael R. Douglas; Shamit Kachru

    2007-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a qualitative review of flux compactifications of string theory, focusing on broad physical implications and statistical methods of analysis.

  9. Fluxes, Gaugings and Gaugino Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -P. Derendinger; C. Kounnas; P. M. Petropoulos

    2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the correspondence between the N = 1 superstring compactifications with fluxes and the N = 4 gauged supergravities, we study effective N = 1 four-dimensional supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates in the framework of orbifold limits of (generalized) Calabi-Yau compactifications. We give examples in heterotic and type II orientifolds in which combined fluxes and condensates lead to vacua with small supersymmetry breaking scale. We clarify the respective roles of fluxes and condensates in supersymmetry breaking, and analyze the scaling properties of the gravitino mass.

  10. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A., E-mail: cljin@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu, E-mail: apietarila@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  11. AmeriFlux Network Data from the ORNL AmeriFlux Website

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996 to provide continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. It is fed by sites from North America, Central America, and South America. DOE's CDIAC stores and maintains AmeriFlux data, and this web site explains the different levels of data available there, with links to the CDIAC ftp site. A separate web-based data interface is also provided; it allows users to graph, query, and download Level 2 data for up to four sites at a time. Data may be queried by site, measurement period, or parameter. More than 550 site-years of level 2 data are available from AmeriFlux sites through the interface.

  12. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  13. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  14. Measurement Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Catch Composition - Pelagic codes M Male F Female I Indeterminate U Unknown (not inspected) #12;Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Photos Comment Length 1 Version 1.2 6/2011 HookNo. Species name

  15. Method of detecting sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spicer, Leonard D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Bennett, Dennis W. (Clemson, SC); Davis, Jon F. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  16. High precision photon flux determination for photon tagging experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teymurazyan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Asratyan, A.; Baker, K.; Benton, L.; Burkert, V.; Clinton, E.; Cole, P.; Collins, P.; Dale, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, R.; Deur, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Ent, R.; Evdokimov, A.; Feng, J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Gasparian, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Goryachev, V.; Hardy, K.; He, J.; Ito, M.; Jiang, L.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kolarkar, A.; Konchatnyi, M.; Korchin, A.; Korsch, W.; Kosinov, O.; Kowalski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Larin, I.; Lawrence, D.; Li, X.; Martel, P.; Matveev, V.; McNulty, D.; Mecking, B.; Milbrath, B.; Minehart, R.; Miskimen, R.; Mochalov, V.; Nakagawa, I.; Overby, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Payen, M.; Pedroni, R.; Prok, Y.; Ritchie, B.; Salgado, C.; Shahinyan, A.; Sitnikov, A.; Sober, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stevens, W.; Underwood, J.; Vasiliev, A.; Vishnyakov, V.; Wood, M.; Zhou, S.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jefferson Laboratory PrimEx Collaboration has developed and implemented a method to control the tagged photon flux in photoproduction experiments at the 1% level over the photon energy range from 4.9 to 5.5 GeV. This method has been successfully implemented in a high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime. Here, we outline the experimental equipment and the analysis techniques used to accomplish this. These include the use of a total absorption counter for absolute flux calibration, a pair spectrometer for online relative flux monitoring, and a new method for post-bremsstrahlung electron counting.

  17. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  18. The AmeriFlux Data Activity and Data System: An Evolving Collection of Data Management Techniques, Tools, Products and Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Krassovski, Misha B [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the U.S. Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Over this period, climate change science has expanded from research focusing on basic understanding of geochemical cycles, particularly the carbon cycle, to integrated research addressing climate change impacts, vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation. Interests in climate change data and information worldwide have grown remarkably and, as a result, so have demands and expectations for CDIAC s data systems. To meet the growing demands, CDIAC s strategy has been to design flexible data systems using proven technologies blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. CDIAC development teams are multidisciplinary and include computer science and information technology expertise, but also scientific expertise necessary to address data quality and documentation issues and to identify data products and system capabilities needed by climate change scientists. CDIAC has learned there is rarely a single commercial tool or product readily available to satisfy long-term scientific data system requirements (i.e., one size does not fit all and the breadth and diversity of environmental data are often too complex for easy use with commercial products) and typically deploys a variety of tools and data products in an effort to provide credible data freely to users worldwide. Like many scientific data management applications, CDIAC s data systems are highly customized to satisfy specific scientific usage requirements (e.g., developing data products specific for model use) but are also designed to be flexible and interoperable to take advantage of new software engineering techniques, standards (e.g., metadata standards) and tools and to support future Earth system data efforts (e.g., ocean acidification). CDIAC has provided data management support for numerous long-term measurement projects crucial to climate change science. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We share our approaches in satisfying the challenges of delivering AmeriFlux data worldwide to benefit others with similar challenges handling climate change data, further heighten awareness and use of an outstanding ecological data resource, and highlight expanded software engineering applications being used for climate change measurement data.

  19. High Heat Flux Components Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitley, J.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose is the development of the technologies necessary to design, build and operate high heat flux components such as actively cooled limiters, divertor collector plates, R.F. antennas, mirror end cells, mirror halo collectors, direct convertor collectors, and neutral beam dumps. These components require an integrated design that considers the plasma-materials interaction (PMI) issues, heat removal problems and materials issues (including possible low Z coatings and claddings). As a general definition, high heat flux components see heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 100 MW/m/sup 2/. Suitable materials include copper and copper alloys.

  20. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  1. New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to APS Science Highlights rss feed New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases April 9, 2014 Bookmark and Share The SIFSIX materials in order of increasing...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Office of Program Performance and Benefits 2 Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies May 2014...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  4. american carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of relative proximity of those Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 11 The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Geosciences Websites Summary: The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon...

  5. anthropogenic carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps MIT - DSpace Summary: The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (COsubscript 2) in structural and stratigraphic traps is...

  6. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

  7. Gel and process for preventing carbon dioxide break through

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandiford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of carbon dioxide in carbon dioxide break-through fingers in a subterranean formation, the process comprising: (a) introducing a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide and gases containing carbon dioxide into a subterranean deposit containing carbon dioxide break-through fingers; (b) after the carbon dioxide break-through fingers have sorbed a predetermined amount of the gas, stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, (c) after stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into the subterranean formation and into the carbon dioxide break-through fingers, the gel-forming composition being operable, when contacting carbon dioxide break-through fingers containing the brine which has absorbed substantial amounts of carbon dioxide to form a gel in the fingers which is operable for retarding the flow of the gas in the finger. The gel-forming composition comprises: i. an aqueous solution comprising a first substance selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl alcohol copolymers, and mixtures thereof, and ii. an amount of a second substance selected from the group consisting of aldehydes, aldehyde generating substances, acetals, acetal generating substances, and mixtures thereof.

  8. acute nitrogen dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas,...

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas Beneath Mammoth...

  10. assisted silicon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide substrates is described. The approach consists of solid such as displays and thin-film polycrystalline solar cells. Particularly important for low- cost thin-film solar...

  11. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

  12. Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques. Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP), Scanning Electron Microsco-py SEM, and Sedigraph measurements are used to assess the pore-throat-size distribu-tion, sorting, texture, and grain size of the samples. Also, displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation (Pd) and graphically derived threshold pressure (Pc) were deter-mined by MIP technique. SEM images were used for qualitative study of the minerals and pores texture of the core samples. Moreover, EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spec-trometer), BET specific surface area, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements were performed to study various parameters and their possible effects on sealing capaci-ty of the samples. We found that shales have the relatively higher average sealing threshold pressure (Pc) than carbonate and sandstone samples. Based on these observations, shale formations could be considered as a promising caprock in terms of retarding scCO{sub 2} flow and leak-age into above formations. We hypothesized that certain characteristics of shales (e.g., 3 fine pore size, pore size distribution, high specific surface area, and strong physical chemical interaction between wetting phase and mineral surface) make them an effi-cient caprock for sealing super critical CO{sub 2}. We found that the displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation could not be the ultimate representative of the sealing capacity of the rock sample. On the other hand, we believe that graphical method, introduced by Cranganu (2004) is a better indicator of the true sealing capacity. Based on statistical analysis of our samples from Oklahoma Panhandle we assessed the effects of each group of properties (textural and compositional) on maximum supercriti-cal CO{sub 2} height that can be hold by the caprock. We conclude that there is a relatively strong positive relationship (+.40 to +.69) between supercritical CO{sub 2} column height based on Pc and hard/ soft mineral content index (ratio of minerals with Mohs hardness more than 5 over minerals with Mohs hardness less than 5) in both shales and limestone samples. Average median pore rad

  14. Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes, carbon dioxide, classical thermodynamics Introduction The increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2

  15. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  17. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  18. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  19. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  20. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil

  1. Growing season methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at a sub-arctic wetland in Sweden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes were measured at several sites in a sub-arctic wetland near Abisko, Sweden (68°28?N 18°49?E) throughout the 2008 growing season. Averaged over 92 flux measurements the sub-arctic wetland was found to be a...

  2. Reactor Neutrino Flux Uncertainty Suppression on Multiple Detector Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cucoanes, Andi; Cabrera, Anatael; Fallot, Muriel; Onillon, Anthony; Obolensky, Michel; Yermia, Frederic

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides a coherent treatment for the reactor neutrino flux uncertainties suppression, specially focussed on the latest $\\theta_{13}$ measurement. The treatment starts with single detector in single reactor site, most relevant for all reactor experiments beyond $\\theta_{13}$. We demonstrate there is no trivial error cancellation, thus the flux systematic error can remain dominant even after the adoption of multi-detector configurations. However, three mechanisms for flux error suppression have been identified and calculated in the context of Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO sites. Our analysis computes the error {\\it suppression fraction} using simplified scenarios to maximise relative comparison among experiments. We have validated the only mechanism exploited so far by experiments to improve the precision of the published $\\theta_{13}$. The other two newly identified mechanisms could lead to total error flux cancellation under specific conditions and are expected to have major implications o...

  3. ammonia-water-carbon dioxide mixtures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and n-pentane - n-octane - carbon dioxide... Wirawan, Januar Fitri Santo 2012-06-07 4 Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Engineering...

  4. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    reservoir scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent investigations of underground carbon dioxide storage for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research

  5. actinide-zirconium dioxide solid-solutions: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration...

  6. Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  7. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplkment au no 8, Tome 39, aolit 1978, page C6-654 BARRIERS TO FLUX ENTRY AND EXIT IN SEMI-REVERSIBLE TYPE I 1 SUPERCONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TO FLUX ENTRY AND EXIT IN SEMI-REVERSIBLE TYPE I 1 SUPERCONDUCTORS M.A.R.Leblanc, H.G. MattesX liniversity pulse induced flux expulsion, a bar- rier against flux exit comparable to that opposing flux entry the contributions of the barrier to entry and exit of flux but measure the sum of these. Data ob- tained where H

  8. Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Uwe

    stage to prevent potential danger to workforce and material, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCSDevelopment of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Florian Poppa and Uwe the development of a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) and the experiences

  9. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  10. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hultman, Nathan E.

    PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report Joint Global Change Research Institute 8400 Baltimore Avenue College Park, Maryland 20740 #12;PNNL-14537

  11. Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M capture using monoethanolamine (MEA). MEA is an appropriate choice for a baseline study since

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman Students #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total1 . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been warming, and the development of efficient methods for capturing CO2 from industrial flue gas has become

  14. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] Carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes embody a group of technologies for the capture of CO2 from powerCarbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431 Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New- and gas-fired power plants.[3­5] Such conven- tional technologies for large-scale capture have been com

  15. Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

  16. ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide. Burtis Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 4777's (DOE) Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER

  17. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ń 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black,2,5,6* Abstract Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological a particle's size to the nanometric dimension can greatly modify its properties for applications

  19. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  20. The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski Submitted to the Department capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected into deep geologic reservoirs

  1. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  2. Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions-validation (GCV) and x2 test are compared for the first time under a realistic setting in a mesoscale CO2 estimation, uncertainty quantification, mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions 1. Introduction The atmosphere

  3. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only "approximately" Planck-shaped over a bounded frequency range. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is "approximately" Planck-shaped from both above and below --- the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  4. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  5. DRIVING CURRENTS FOR FLUX ROPE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramanian, Prasad [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Sai Trinity Building, Pashan, Pune 411021 (India); Vourlidas, Angelos [Code 7663, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: p.subramanian@iiserpune.ac.in

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method for measuring electrical currents enclosed by flux rope structures that are ejected within solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Such currents are responsible for providing the Lorentz self-force that propels CMEs. Our estimates for the driving current are based on measurements of the propelling force obtained using data from the LASCO coronagraphs aboard the SOHO satellite. We find that upper limits on the currents enclosed by CMEs are typically around 10{sup 10} A. We estimate that the magnetic flux enclosed by the CMEs in the LASCO field of view is a few times 10{sup 21} Mx.

  6. Magnetic field-line lengths inside interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qiang; Krucker, Sam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the detailed and systematic study of field-line twist and length distributions within magnetic flux ropes embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). The Grad-Shafranov reconstruction method is utilized together with a constant-twist nonlinear force-free (Gold-Hoyle) flux rope model to reveal the close relation between the field-line twist and length in cylindrical flux ropes, based on in-situ Wind spacecraft measurements. We show that the field-line twist distributions within interplanetary flux ropes are inconsistent with the Lundquist model. In particular we utilize the unique measurements of magnetic field-line lengths within selected ICME events as provided by Kahler et al. (2011) based on energetic electron burst observations at 1 AU and the associated type III radio emissions detected by the Wind spacecraft. These direct measurements are compared with our model calculations to help assess the flux-rope interpretation of the embedded magnetic structures. By using the differen...

  7. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  8. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  9. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibilityMeasurements

  10. Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunstall, M.G. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Graeber, G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO{sub 2} concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse heating offers a further opportunity for utilization of the carbon dioxide present in the fluid. The main difficulty is that plants react adversely to hydrogen sulphide which is invariably mixed, at some concentration, with the CO{sub 2} from geothermal fluids. Even very low H{sub 2}S concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg can have negative effects on the growth of plants (National Research Council, 1979). Therefore, an appropriate purification process for the CO{sub 2} must be used to avoid elevated H{sub 2}S levels in the greenhouses. The use of adsorption and absorption processes is proposed. Two purification processes have been modelled using the ASOEN PLUS software package, using the Geothermal Greenhouses Ltd. Operation Kawerau New Zealand and an example. A greenhouse area of 8,000 m{sup 2}, which would create a demand for approximately 20 kg CO{sub 2} per hour, was chosen based on a proposed expansion at Kawerau. The Kawerau operation currently takes geothermal steam (and gas) from a high temperature 2-phase well to heat an area of 1650 m{sup 2}. Bottled carbon dioxide is utilized at a rate of about 50 kg per day, to provide CO{sub 2} levels of 800 mg/kg when the greenhouse is closed and 300 to 350 mg/kg whilst venting. In England and the Netherlands, CO{sub 2} levels of 1000 mg/kg are often used (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989) and similar concentrations are desired at Kawerau, but current costs of 0.60 NZ$/kg for bottled CO{sub 2} are too high (Foster, 1995).

  11. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, S; Dimond, P H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Kwon, J M; Sarazin, Y; Hahm, T S; Garbet, X; Chang, C S; Latu, G; Yoon, E S; Ghendrih, Ph; Yi, S; Strugarek, A; Solomon, W

    2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  12. Modification of flux profiles using a faceted concentrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewandowski, A; Scholl, K; Bingham, C

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a faceted solar concentrator allows for some flexibility in aiming strategy and in the intensity of the resulting flux profile at the target. This can be an advantage when considering applications that do not necessarily require maximum concentration, particularly emerging, new applications in solar processed advanced materials. This paper will describe both an analysis of predicted flux profiles for several different aiming strategies using the SOLFUR computer code and experiments to characterize the actual flux profiles realized with a selected aiming strategy. The SOLFUR code models each of the furnace components explicitly. Aim points for each facet can be specified. Thus many strategies for adjusting aim points can be easily explored. One strategy calls for creating as uniform a flux over as large an area as possible. We explored this strategy analytically and experimentally. The experimental data consist of flux maps generated by a video imaging system calibrated against absolute flux measurements taken with circular foil calorimeters. Results from the analytical study and a comparison with the experimental data indicate that uniform profiles can be produced over fairly large areas.

  13. In-core flux sensor evaluations at the ATR critical facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois Villard

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flux detector evaluations were completed as part of a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / French Atomic Energy commission (CEA) ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to compare the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of several flux detectors. Special fixturing developed by INL allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various ATRC core positions and perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector cross-calibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program include the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers; specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) developed by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA); specially developed commercial SPNDs from Argonne National Laboratory. As shown in this article, data obtained from this program provides important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and flux data required for bench-marking models in the ATR V&V Upgrade Initiative.

  14. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  15. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

  17. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  18. Quantum Fusion of Domain Walls with Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how fluxes on the domain wall world volume modify quantum fusion of two distant parallel domain walls into a composite wall. The elementary wall fluxes can be separated into parallel and antiparallel components. The parallel component affects neither the binding energy nor the process of quantum merger. The antiparallel fluxes, instead, increase the binding energy and, against naive expectations, suppress quantum fusion. In the small flux limit we explicitly find the bounce solution and the fusion rate as a function of the flux. We argue that at large (antiparallel) fluxes there exists a critical value of the flux (versus the difference in the wall tensions), which switches off quantum fusion altogether. This phenomenon of flux-related wall stabilization is rather peculiar: it is unrelated to any conserved quantity. Our consideration of the flux-related all stabilization is based on substantiated arguments that fall short of complete proof.

  19. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  20. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  1. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  2. An Analysis of Fluxes by Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul S. Aspinwall

    2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    M-theory on K3xK3 with non-supersymmetry-breaking G-flux is dual to M-theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold times a 2-torus without flux. This allows for a thorough analysis of the effects of flux without relying on supergravity approximations. We discuss several dual pairs showing that the usual rules of G-flux compactifications work well in detail. We discuss how a transition can convert M2-branes into G-flux. We see how new effects can arise at short distances allowing fluxes to obstruct more moduli than one expects from the supergravity analysis.

  3. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huppmann, T., E-mail: teresa.huppmann@tum.de; Leonhardt, S., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Krampe, E., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Wintermantel, E., E-mail: wintermantel@tum.de [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Technische Universität München (Germany); Yatsenko, S., E-mail: s.yatsenko@skz.de; Radovanovic, I., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de [SKZ- German Plastics Center, Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO{sub 2} for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO{sub 2} coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO{sub 2} particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO{sub 2} P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO{sub 2}-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  4. ambient sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17...

  5. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  6. Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and several episodes in London (1). All fuels used by humans such as coal, oil, natural gas, peat, wood of absorbing sulfur dioxide either in water or in aqueous slurries

  7. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  8. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  9. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  10. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  11. aqueous chlorine dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28 Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets CERN Preprints Summary: 1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of...

  12. Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

  13. Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

  14. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  15. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Year) MSA Emissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Electricity (CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions from Driving ElectricityEmissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Suburb-City Difference in Electricity (

  16. Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

  17. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  19. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  20. Optical properties of nanostructured silicon-rich silicon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stolfi, Michael Anthony

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have conducted a study of the optical properties of sputtered silicon-rich silicon dioxide (SRO) thin films with specific application for the fabrication of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers, polarization ...

  1. NMR studies of carbon dioxide sequestration in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Rehan

    2015-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the sub-surface is a potential mitigation technique for global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique, understanding the behaviour of CO2 stored...

  2. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. (Tennessee Valley Authority (US)); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (US)); Cropp, J.W. (Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau, Chattanooga, TN (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  4. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  5. Center vortices as composites of monopole fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deldar, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the relation between the flux of a center vortex obtained from the center vortex model and the flux formed between monopoles obtained from the Abelian gauge fixing method. Motivated by the Monte Carlo simulations which have shown that almost all monopoles are sitting on the top of vortices, we construct the fluxes of center vortices for $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$ gauge groups using fractional fluxes of monopoles. Then, we compute the potentials in the fundamental representation induced by center vortices and fractional fluxes of monopoles. We show that by combining the fractional fluxes of monopoles one can produce the center vortex fluxes for $SU(3)$ gauge group in a "center vortex model". Comparing the potentials, we conclude that the fractional fluxes of monopoles attract each other.

  6. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium bombardment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    P1-030 Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium) and thick (~500 m) lithium films under high-flux deuterium and neon plasma bombardment were studied. For Ne plasmas, Li erosion rates inferred from measurements of Li-I radiation are consistent

  7. Computing flux upper-limits for non-detections F. Masci, 10/25/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    to "real" detections (e.g., in a spectrum), the quoted upper limits often lack probabilistic power. One in the first place, i.e., has flux measurement > some threshold set according to some maximum tolerable interval) that probably contains the true flux can then be assigned using the uncertainties. If a source

  8. Spatial variability in soil heat flux at three Inner Mongolia steppe ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Spatial variability in soil heat flux at three Inner Mongolia steppe ecosystems Changliang Shao a-covariance Grassland Inner Mongolia a b s t r a c t Closing the energy budget at flux measurement sites is problematic system within the footprints of three Eddy-covariance towers located in the steppe of Inner Mongolia

  9. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  10. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  11. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  12. Fate of False Vacuum in Superconducting Flux Qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Izadi Rad; Hesam Zandi; Mehdi Fardmanesh

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a similarity between the scenario of fate of false vacuum in cosmology at early universe and the situation in where the quantum state decays in superconducting Flux qubit. This is due to the fact that both cases have two homogeneous stable equilibrium states in scalar field, which in quantum theory, could penetrate through the barrier in different possibilities and hence considered unstable decaying in time. In quantum computation, decay rate is among the most important factors in characteristics of the system like coherency, reliability, measurement fidelity, etc. In this considered potential, the decay rate from the penetrating (False vacuum) state to the stable (absolute minimum) state is achieved to leading order in Planck constant by the approach of Instanton model. In case of the superconducting flux qubit having thin barrier potential, the decay rate is calculated and its relations with actual set of parameters in flux qubit design are introduced.

  13. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research was to document current patterns of CO{sub 2} flux in selected locations of the circumpolar arctic, and to develop the information necessary to predict how these fluxes may be affected by climate change. In fulfillment of these objectives, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured at several sites on the North Slope of Alaska during the 1990--94 growing season (June--August) to determine the local and regional patterns of seasonal CO{sub 2} exchange. In addition, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured in the Russian and Icelandic Arctic to determine if the patterns of CO{sub 2} exchange observed in Arctic Alaska were representative of the circumpolar Arctic, while cold-season CO{sub 2} flux measurements were carried out during the 1993--94 winter season to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux not accounted for by the growing season measurements. Manipulations of soil water table depth and surface temperature, which were identified from the extensive measurements as being the most important variables in determining the magnitude and direction of net CO{sub 2} exchange, were carried out during the 1993--94 growing seasons in tussock and wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Finally, measurements of CH{sub 4} flux were also measured at several of the North Slope study sites during the 1990--91 growing seasons.

  14. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)] [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom, E-mail: jlinsky@jilau1.colorado.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)] [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  15. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  16. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  17. Estimation of advective fluxes from CO2 flux profile observations at the Cabauw Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Estimation of advective fluxes from CO2 flux profile observations at the Cabauw Tower Kasper O profile observations at the Cabauw Tower Version 1.0 Date April 2012 Status Final #12;#12;Estimation of Advective Fluxes from CO2 Flux Profile Observations at the Cabauw Tower Master of Science Thesis Kasper O

  18. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility ARMProject

  19. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility

  20. Precision Reactor e Spectrum Measurements: Recent Results and PROSPECTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precision Reactor e Spectrum Measurements: Recent Results and PROSPECTs Bryce Littlejohn Illinois;Outline · Intro: Reactor e Flux and Spectrum Predictions · Reactor Anomaly and recent flux for PROSPECT 2 #12;Outline · Intro: Reactor e Flux and Spectrum Predictions · Reactor Anomaly and recent flux

  1. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leahu, G. L., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Li Voti, R., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Larciprete, M. C., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Belardini, A., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Mura, F., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base ed Applicate per l'Ingegneria, Sapienza Universitŕ di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 16 00161 Roma (Italy); Fratoddi, I. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Universitŕ di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro, Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures.

  2. Organic carbon flux at the mangrove soil-water column interface in the Florida Coastal Everglades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romigh, Melissa Marie

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Coastal outwelling of organic carbon from mangrove wetlands contributes to near-shore productivity and influences biogeochemical cycling of elements. I used a flume to measure fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between ...

  3. ARM: Short Wave Flux Analysis: 15-min resolution on SIRS data, Long algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, Tom; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Anderberg, Mary; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    Short Wave Flux Analysis: 15-min resolution on SIRS data, Long algorithm. Measurements began in January, 1994, and have continued to the present time. Data collected are from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) location.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric neutrino flux Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a prediction of a measurable flux of extragalactic high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs... used the result from the SuperKamiokande ... Source: Bahcall, John -...

  5. Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

  6. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Surface Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites Phase I SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Public confidence in safety is a prerequisite to the success of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage for any program that intends to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In that regard, this project addresses the security of CO2 containment by undertaking development of what is called �¢����an open path device�¢��� to measure CO2 concentrations near the ground above a CO2 storage area.

  7. Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

  8. Gas Hydrate Equilibrium Measurements for Multi-Component Gas Mixtures and Effect of Ionic Liquid Inhibitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Othman, Enas Azhar

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrate inhibition data from a newly commissioned micro bench top reactor, a high-pressure autoclave and a rocking cell. The conditions for hydrate formation for pure methane and carbon dioxide were also measured, for validation purposes. The measured data...

  9. Application of chlorine dioxide as an oilfield facilities treatment fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaine, J.; Strawser, T.G.; Knippers, M.L.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both mechanical and chemical treatments are used to clean water flood injection distribution systems whose efficiency has been reduced as a result of plugging material such as iron sulfide sludge. Most mechanical treatments rely on uniform line diameter to be effective, while chemical treatments require good contact with the plugging material for efficient removal. This paper describes the design and operation of a new innovative application using chlorine dioxide for the removal of iron sulfide sludge from water flood injection distribution systems. This technology has evolved from the use of chlorine dioxide in well stimulation applications. The use of chlorine dioxide for continuous treatment of injection brines will also be discussed. Exxon USA`s Hartzog Draw facility in Gillette, Wyoming was the site for the application described. 4,500 barrels of chlorine dioxide was pumped in three phases to clean sixty-six miles of the water flood distribution system. Results indicate that chlorine dioxide was effective in cleaning the well guard screens, the injection lines, frac tanks used to collect the treatment fluids and the injection wells.

  10. Integral Fluxes, Day-Night, and Spectrum Results from SNO's 391-Day Salt Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juergen Wendland; for the SNO collaboration

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a 1000t heavy water Cherenkov detector observing neutrinos from the Sun and other astrophysical sources. Measurements of the integral solar neutrino fluxes of charged current, neutral current and elastic scattering events are reported for 391 days of live data from the salt phase of SNO operation. In this phase 2t of salt were dissolved in the heavy water, which enhanced and differentiated the detection of neutral current events. Day-night asymmetries in these fluxes were also determined. The measured electron spectrum from the charged-current channel is compatible with the undistorted spectrum of the solar 8B neutrino flux.

  11. Reactor Neutrino Flux Uncertainty Suppression on Multiple Detector Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andi Cucoanes; Pau Novella; Anatael Cabrera; Muriel Fallot; Anthony Onillon; Michel Obolensky; Frederic Yermia

    2015-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides a coherent treatment for the reactor neutrino flux uncertainties suppression, specially focussed on the latest $\\theta_{13}$ measurement. The treatment starts with single detector in single reactor site, most relevant for all reactor experiments beyond $\\theta_{13}$. We demonstrate there is no trivial error cancellation, thus the flux systematic error can remain dominant even after the adoption of multi-detector configurations. However, three mechanisms for flux error suppression have been identified and calculated in the context of Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO sites. Our analysis computes the error {\\it suppression fraction} using simplified scenarios to maximise relative comparison among experiments. We have validated the only mechanism exploited so far by experiments to improve the precision of the published $\\theta_{13}$. The other two newly identified mechanisms could lead to total error flux cancellation under specific conditions and are expected to have major implications on the global $\\theta_{13}$ knowledge today. First, Double Chooz, in its final configuration, is the only experiment benefiting from a negligible reactor flux error due to a $\\sim$90\\% geometrical suppression. Second, Daya Bay and RENO could benefit from their partial geometrical cancellation, yielding a potential $\\sim$50\\% error suppression, thus significantly improving the global $\\theta_{13}$ precision today. And third, we illustrate the rationale behind further error suppression upon the exploitation of the inter-reactor error correlations, so far neglected. So, our publication is a key step forward in the context of high precision neutrino reactor experiments providing insight on the suppression of their intrinsic flux error uncertainty, thus affecting past and current experimental results, as well as the design of future experiments.

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  13. Solar wind driven plasma fluxes from the Venus ionosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-de-Tejada, H; Barabash, S; Zhang, T L; Sauvaud, J A; Durand-Manterola, H J; Reyes-Ruiz, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements conducted with the ASPERA-4 instrument and the magnetometer of the Venus Express spacecraft show that the dynamic pressure of planetary O+ ion fluxes measured in the Venus wake can be significantly larger than the local magnetic pressure and, as a result, those ions are not being driven by magnetic forces but by the kinetic energy of the solar wind. Beams of planetary O+ ions with those properties have been detected in several orbits of the Venus Express through the wake as the spacecraft traverses by the noon-midnight plane along its near polar trajectory. The momentum flux of the O+ ions leads to superalfvenic flow conditions. It is suggested that such O+ ion beams are produced in the vicinity of the magnetic polar regions of the Venus ionosphere where the solar wind erodes the local plasma leading to plasma channels that extend downstream from those regions.

  14. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium. OECD Nuclear Energyand dioxides from thorium to curium Joaquim Marçalo a,* andmonoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium,

  15. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  16. Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an Effective Strategy to Improve the Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Fan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    types of surface titanium and oxygen atoms present. PageRIVERSIDE Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an EffectiveDISSERTATION Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an Effective

  17. Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide with Osmium and Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sauvé, Genevičve

    Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide with Osmium and Ruthenium Polypyridyl synthesized and used to sensitize nanoporous titanium dioxide electrodes to solar illumination. The spectral optimization in operating photoelectrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications. Of the materials

  18. Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohaus, James Harold

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to determining settling velocities of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide aerosols. The change of particle size distribution over time and space can be derived, leading ultimately to an assessment of the dose from an unplanned release of plutonium dioxide....

  19. Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  1. Radiocarbon Dioxide detection based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and a Quantum Cascade Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genoud, Guillaume; Phillips, Hilary; Dean, Julian; Merimaa, Mikko

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring of radiocarbon ($^{14}$C) in carbon dioxide is demonstrated using mid-infrared spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser. The measurement is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and a high sensitivity is achieved with a simple setup. The instrument was tested using a standardised sample containing elevated levels of radiocarbon. Radiocarbon dioxide could be detected from samples with an isotopic ratio $^{14}$C/C as low as 50 parts-per-trillion, corresponding to an activity of 5 kBq/m$^3$ in pure CO$_2$, or 2 Bq/m$^3$ in air after extraction of the CO$_2$ from an air sample. The instrument is simple, compact and robust, making it the ideal tool for on-site measurements. It is aimed for monitoring of radioactive gaseous emissions in nuclear power environment, during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Its high sensitivity also makes it the ideal tool for the detection of leaks in radioactive waste repositories.

  2. On solar neutrino fluxes in radiochemical experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Ikhsanov; Yu. N. Gnedin; E. V. Miletsky

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux using data from the Homestake, GALLEX, GNO, SAGE and Super Kamiokande experiments. Spectral analysis and direct quantitative estimations show that the most stable variation of the solar neutrino flux is a quasi-five-year periodicity. The revised values of the mean solar neutrino flux are presented in Table 4. They were used to estimate the observed pp-flux of the solar electron neutrinos near the Earth. We consider two alternative explanations for the origin of a variable component of the solar neutrino deficit.

  3. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  4. Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage 07-003 April 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage by 07-003 April 2007 M.A. de Figueiredo, H.J. Herzog, P.L. Joskow, K.A. Oye, and D.M. Reiner #12;#12;Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage M.A. de to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal

  5. An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    a c t This paper discusses the technology of direct capture of carbon dioxide from the atmo- sphereAn idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy- ture,'' which refers to the direct removal of carbon dioxide from the ambient air. Air capture has

  6. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissionsScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT

  7. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) CarbonScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions substantially

  8. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

  9. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Christopher R. Knittel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Program Christopher R. Knittel of the implied cost of carbon dioxide reductions under the Cash for Clunker program. The estimates suggest pollutants. Conservative estimates of the implied carbon dioxide cost exceed $365 per ton; best case scenario

  10. High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Abstract Titanium dioxide is one, as support in catalysis etc. Common synthesis methods of titanium dioxide typically require a high

  11. CMOS-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Photonic Waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    CMOS-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Photonic Waveguides@ucdavis.edu , sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: We discuss titanium dioxide material development for CMOS compatible fabrication and integration of athermal silicon photonic components. Titanium dioxide overclad ring modulators

  12. CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide Stevan S. Djordjevic,1-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO2) overcladding with a negative thermo-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Waveguides," accepted for publication

  13. Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    materials and properties; KEYWORDS: Mars, gullies, seepage, runoff, carbon dioxide, water Citation: StewartSurface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis Sarah T. Stewart1, S. T., and F. Nimmo, Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation

  14. Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

  15. Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chait, Brian T.

    Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin Brian of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20­25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood

  16. A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    ®cance for the design and control of the transcritical carbon dioxide air- conditioning and heat pump systems 7 2000A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles S.M. Liaoa) of transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning cycles. The analysis shows that the COP of the transcritical

  17. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program: flux of organic carbon by rivers to the oceans. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 papers presented in this workshop report. The state of knowledge about the role of rivers in the transport, storage and oxidation of carbon is the subject of this report. (KRM)

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from agricultural and restored wetlands in the California Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatala, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon! loss! due! to! peat! oxidation,! and! continuing!carbon! by! reducing! peat! oxidation! in! the! shortCterm,!which! are! located! on! peat! soils! that! experience!

  19. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  20. Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    different monitoring points within the interrogated area will be a function of the geospatial positions of the points relative to the source location. A series of flow-cell...

  1. Transcriptional profiling and flux measurements of polyhydroxybutyrate production in Synechocystis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Saliya Sudharshana, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) to determine the CO? uptake rates and PHB production rates of strains engineered for enhanced CO? fixation and PHB production respectively.

  2. Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the Cabauw

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121 H( 7radialMHD

  3. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafety Tag:8,, 20153 To.T. J. Kulp

  4. Determining Reactor Flux from Xenon-136 and Cesium-135 in Spent Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; Gerard Jungman

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to infer the reactor flux from spent fuel or seized fissile material would enhance the tools of nuclear forensics and nuclear nonproliferation significantly. We show that reactor flux can be inferred from the ratios of xenon-136 to xenon-134 and cesium-135 to cesium-137. If the average flux of a reactor is known, the flux inferred from measurements of spent fuel could help determine whether that spent fuel was loaded as a blanket or close to the mid-plane of the reactor. The cesium ratio also provides information on reactor shutdowns during the irradiation of fuel, which could prove valuable for identifying the reactor in question through comparisons with satellite reactor heat monitoring data. We derive analytic expressions for these correlations and compare them to experimental data and to detailed reactor burn simulations. The enrichment of the original uranium fuel affects the correlations by up to 3 percent, but only at high flux.

  5. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  6. Data system for automatic flux mapping applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, R.D.; Kasinoff, A.M.; Neuner, J.A.; Oates, R.M.

    1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In an automatic flux mapping system utilizing a microprocessor for control and data information processing, signals from the incore detectors providing the flux mapping operation are converted to a frequency link and are made available to the microprocessor via a programmable timer thus minimizing the participation of the microprocessor so that the microprocessor can be made more available to satisfy other tasks.

  7. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIĂ?ON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO Inc. (Golder) was commissioned by EFRC to evaluate the operations of the uranium mill tailings storage in this report were conducted using the WISE Uranium Mill Tailings Radon Flux Calculator, as updated on November

  8. A road map to solar neutrino fluxes, neutrino oscillation parameters, and tests for new physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John N. Bahcall; Carlos Pena-Garay

    2003-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze all available solar and related reactor neutrino experiments, as well as simulated future 7Be, p-p, pep, and ^8B solar neutrino experiments. We treat all solar neutrino fluxes as free parameters subject to the condition that the total luminosity represented by the neutrinos equals the observed solar luminosity (the `luminosity constraint'). Existing experiments show that the p-p solar neutrino flux is 1.02 +- 0.02 (1 sigma) times the flux predicted by the BP00 standard solar model; the 7Be neutrino flux is 0.93^{+0.25}_{-0.63} the predicted flux; and the ^8B flux is 1.01 +- 0.04 the predicted flux. The neutrino oscillation parameters are: Delta m^2 = 7.3^{+0.4}_{-0.6}\\times 10^{-5} eV^2 and tan^2 theta_{12} = 0.41 +- 0.04. We evaluate how accurate future experiments must be to determine more precisely neutrino oscillation parameters and solar neutrino fluxes, and to elucidate the transition from vacuum-dominated to matter-dominated oscillations at low energies. A future 7Be nu-e scattering experiment accurate to +- 10 % can reduce the uncertainty in the experimentally determined 7Be neutrino flux by a factor of four and the uncertainty in the p-p neutrino flux by a factor of 2.5 (to +- 0.8 %). A future p-p experiment must be accurate to better than +- 3 % to shrink the uncertainty in tan^2 theta_{12} by more than 15 %. The idea that the Sun shines because of nuclear fusion reactions can be tested accurately by comparing the observed photon luminosity of the Sun with the luminosity inferred from measurements of solar neutrino fluxes. Based upon quantitative analyses of present and simulated future experiments, we answer the question: Why perform low-energy solar neutrino experiments?

  9. INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES H. Lin, A. A. Busnaina, and I. I. Suni T he removal of ionic contaminants from silicon surfaces surface contamination level canM Communications L td. INTRODUCTION with increasing frequency and power, and decreases Contamination removal is one

  10. The surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    relaxation and reconstruction; Surface structure; Morphology; Roughness; Topography Contents 1. IntroductionThe surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold* Department of Physics, Tulane University is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature

  11. Properties of Disorder-Engineered Black Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    hydrogen atom could easily bond to a terminal oxygen site13 . The observed hydrogen diffusion into the TiO2Properties of Disorder-Engineered Black Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles through Hydrogenation Xiaobo, on the other hand, can undergo fast diffusion and exchange. The enhanced hydrogen mobility may be explained

  12. Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610°C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

  13. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  14. One-Dimensional Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials: Nanowires, Nanorods, and Nanobelts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xudong

    One-Dimensional Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials: Nanowires, Nanorods, and Nanobelts Xudong Wang Methods P 4.4. Top-down Fabrication Techniques Q 4.4.1. Direct Oxidation of Titanium Sheets Q 4 Nanostructures for Energy Storage AD 5.3.1. Lithium Ion Batteries AD 5.3.2. Supercapacitors AE 5

  15. Hollow hemispherical titanium dioxide aggregates fabricated by coaxial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    hemispherical titanium dioxide aggregates fabricated by coaxial electrospray for dye-sensitized solar cell nanocrystallites were prepared by a coaxial electrospray method and applied to dye- sensitized solar cells (DSCs-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JNP.6.063519] Keywords dye-sensitized solar cells; hollow

  16. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

  17. Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

  18. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250şC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  19. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  20. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    for capture and storage already exists and that the obstacles hindering implementa- tion seem to the gallon and go 10,000 miles next year, you will need to buy 330 gallons-- about a ton--of gasoline. Burning that much gasoline sends around three tons of carbon dioxide out the tailpipe. Al- though CO2

  1. Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbulsky, MartĂ­n

    to assessing the global carbon budget in a context of climate change (Ciais et al., 2005; Boisvenue & RunningRemote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest M A R T I´ N F. G A R B U L of the ecology of global change. Current remote sensing methodologies for estimating gross primary productivity

  2. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  3. Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry at the foot of the Higher Himalaya near the Main Central Thrust (MCT), Nepal Himalaya. We have sampled hot the Nepal Himalaya, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q04021, doi:10.1029/2007GC001796. 1. Introduction [2

  4. High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide Søren Højgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. Høgh + O2 #12;Electrolysis of steam at high temperature Interesting because · Improved thermodynamic of electrolysis of steam Picture taken from E. Erdle, J. Gross, V. Meyringer, "Solar thermal central receiver

  5. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

  6. Advanced Online Flux Mapping of CANDU PHWR by Least-Squares Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, In Seob [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hyo [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A least-squares method that solves both the core neutronics design equations and the in-core detector response equations on the least-squares principle is presented as a new advanced online flux-mapping method for CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The effectiveness of the new flux-mapping method is examined in terms of online flux-mapping calculations with numerically simulated true flux distribution and detector signals and those with the actual core-follow data for the Wolsong CANDU PHWRs in Korea. The effects of core neutronics models as well as the detector failures and uncertainties of measured detector signals on the effectiveness of the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are also examined.The following results are obtained. The least-squares method predicts the flux distribution in better agreement with the simulated true flux distribution than the standard core neutronics calculations by the finite difference method (FDM) computer code without using the detector signals. The adoption of the nonlinear nodal method based on the unified nodal method formulation instead of the FDM results in a significant improvement in prediction accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations. The detector signals estimated from the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are much closer to the measured detector signals than those from the flux synthesis method (FSM), the current online flux-mapping method for CANDU reactors. The effect of detector failures is relatively small so that the plant can tolerate up to 25% of detector failures without seriously affecting the plant operation. The detector signal uncertainties aggravate accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations, yet the effects of signal uncertainties of the order of 1% standard deviation can be tolerable without seriously degrading the prediction accuracy of the least-squares method. The least-squares method is disadvantageous because it requires longer CPU time than the existing FSM. Considering ever-increasing computer speed and the improved operational safety margin of CANDU reactors gained by accurate flux-mapping calculations, however, it is concluded that the least-squares method presents an effective alternative to the existing flux-mapping method for CANDU reactors.

  7. Thermal Property Evaluation of Cerium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Magnesium Oxide Powders for Testing Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOYT, R C

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and mixtures of CeO{sub 2} -magnesium oxide (MgO) have been utilized at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) as surrogate materials to represent plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and impure PuO{sub 2} containing impurities such as MgO during verification tests on PFP's stabilization furnaces. Magnesium oxide was selected during furnace testing as the impurity of interest since much of the impure PuO{sub 2} to be stabilized and packaged at the PFP contains significant amounts of MgO from solution stabilization work. The issue being addressed in this study is whether or not heating the surrogate materials to 950 C adequately simulates heating PuO{sub 2} powders to 950 C. This paper evaluates some of the thermal properties of these oxides, as related to the heating of powders of these materials where heat transfer within the powders is governed primarily by conduction. Detailed heat transfer modeling was outside the scope of this paper.

  8. Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

  9. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    -concentration measurement, the average global temperature of the atmosphere at the surface of the Earth has, Bristol BS2 6BB, United Kingdom 4 BP Institute, Department of Earth Sciences, and Department of Applied.1146/annurev-fluid-011212-140627 Copyright c 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved Keywords gravity

  10. Neutron-flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.

    1981-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occurred. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  11. 14 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    Hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes in boreal Québec produce greenhouse gases (GHG) mainly in the form of CO214 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir. No method exists, however, which can directly measure the flux of CO2 across the air-water interface

  12. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  13. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowa, Mark J., E-mail: msowa@ultratech.com [Ultratech/Cambridge NanoTech, 130 Turner Street, Building 2, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190?°C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition systems.

  14. Modeling of the recycling particle flux and electron particle transport in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.R.; Jackson, G.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Owen, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Porter, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most difficult aspects of performing an equilibrium particle transport analysis in a diverted tokamak is the determination of the particle flux which enters the plasma after recycling from the divertor plasma, the divertor target plates or the vessel wall. An approach which has been utilized in the past is to model the edge, scrape-off layer (SOL), and divertor plasma to match measured plasma parameters and then use a neutral transport code to obtain an edge recycling flux while trying to match the measured divertor D(x emissivity. Previous simulations were constrained by electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}), ion temperature (T{sub i}) data at the outer midplane, divertor heat flux from infrared television cameras, and n{sub e}, T{sub e} and particle flux at the target from fixed Langmuir probes, along with the divertor D{sub {alpha}} emissivity. In this paper, we present results of core fueling calculations from the 2-D modeling for ELM-free discharges, constrained by data from the new divertor diagnostics. In addition, we present a simple technique for estimating the recycling flux just after the L-H transition and demonstrate how this technique is supported by the detailed modeling. We will show the effect which inaccuracies in the recycling flux have on the calculated particle flux in the plasma core. For some specific density profiles, it is possible to separate the convective flux from the conductive flux. The diffusion coefficients obtained show a sharp decrease near a normalized radius of 0.9 indicating the presence of a transport barrier.

  15. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  16. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  17. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  19. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  20. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  2. Intensities of electronic transitions in sulfur dioxide vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCray, James Arthur

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Relation between Oscillator Strength and Probability Coefficient of Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 V. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sulfur Dioxide Gas . . . . . . 22 ) VI. Experimental Procedure and Computations . . . . . . . . . 23 U A... where )(e is defined as the dielectric constant of the medium. This equation holds for radiation which has a frequency sufficiently dif- ferent from that of the resonant frequencies of'the molecules of the medium, The polarizability o( of a molecule...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  4. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  5. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape034hsu2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling...

  6. CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR...

  7. CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor February 2007 A section of Appendix C to DOE G...

  8. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  9. Constraints on the ionizing flux emitted by T Tauri stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. D. Alexander; C. J. Clarke; J. E. Pringle

    2005-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an analysis of ultraviolet observations of T Tauri Stars (TTS). By analysing emission measures taken from the literature we derive rates of ionizing photons from the chromospheres of 5 classical TTS in the range ~10^41-10^44 photons/s, although these values are subject to large uncertainties. We propose that the HeII/CIV line ratio can be used as a reddening-independent indicator of the hardness of the ultraviolet spectrum emitted by TTS. By studying this line ratio in a much larger sample of objects we find evidence for an ionizing flux which does not decrease, and may even increase, as TTS evolve. This implies that a significant fraction of the ionizing flux from TTS is not powered by the accretion of disc material onto the central object, and we discuss the significance of this result and its implications for models of disc evolution. The presence of a significant ionizing flux in the later stages of circumstellar disc evolution provides an important new constraint on disc photoevaporation models.

  10. A high-flux BEC source for mobile atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Rudolph; Waldemar Herr; Christoph Grzeschik; Tammo Sternke; Alexander Grote; Manuel Popp; Dennis Becker; Hauke Müntinga; Holger Ahlers; Achim Peters; Claus Lämmerzahl; Klaus Sengstock; Naceur Gaaloul; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel

    2015-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum sensors based on coherent matter-waves are precise measurement devices whose ultimate accuracy is achieved with Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in extended free fall. This is ideally realized in microgravity environments such as drop towers, ballistic rockets and space platforms. However, the transition from lab-based BEC machines to robust and mobile sources with comparable performance is a challenging endeavor. Here we report on the realization of a miniaturized setup, generating a flux of $4 \\times 10^5$ quantum degenerate $^{87}$Rb atoms every 1.6$\\,$s. Ensembles of $1 \\times 10^5$ atoms can be produced at a 1$\\,$Hz rate. This is achieved by loading a cold atomic beam directly into a multi-layer atom chip that is designed for efficient transfer from laser-cooled to magnetically trapped clouds. The attained flux of degenerate atoms is on par with current lab-based BEC experiments while offering significantly higher repetition rates. Additionally, the flux is approaching those of current interferometers employing Raman-type velocity selection of laser-cooled atoms. The compact and robust design allows for mobile operation in a variety of demanding environments and paves the way for transportable high-precision quantum sensors.

  11. Solubilities of p-quinone and 9,10-anthraquinone in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)] [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equilibrium solubilities of p-quinone (1,4-benzoquinone) and 9,10-anthraquinone at 35 C and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about (85--300) bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with a high-pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The solubility results, along with those reported in the literature for 1,4-naphthoquinone, are correlated with a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. The ability of a supercritical fluid to separate a multicomponent mixture is unique, since it utilizes the salient features of both distillation and liquid extraction. The solubility of a solute in a supercritical fluid is the most important thermophysical property that has to be determined and modeled for an efficient design of any extraction based on supercritical solvents.

  12. Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo, E-mail: mijg@mail.buct.edu.cn; Zhong, Chongli [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

  13. Measurement of \

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Bazarko, A O; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Gonzales, J; Grange, J; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Karagiorgi, G; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Linden, S K; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Mauger, C; McGary, V T; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Nowak, J A; Osmanov, B; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, J L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Soderberg, M; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Van de Water, R G; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single \\pi^0 production on CH_2 induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC \\pi^0 events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of \\pi^0 momentum and \\pi^0 angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.40_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =808 MeV and (1.48+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.14_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =664 MeV for \

  14. Ice-rafted debris in the Southern Ocean : potential uses and limitations of ˛ł?Th-normalized fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimori, Jessica E. (Jessica Eileen)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured IRD fluxes from 22-5 ka BP in two sediment cores from the Scotia Sea using two different methods. The first, commonly used method, uses the linear sedimentation rate (LSR), dry bulk density, and weight percent ...

  15. Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kobata, Aomori, Aomori 030-0943 (Japan)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the {pi}-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The {mu}{sup +}+{mu}{sup -} data show good agreement in the 1{approx}30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The {mu}{sup +}/{mu}{sup -} ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).].

  16. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) cobalt test assembly results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, J.A.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cobalt test assembly containing yttrium hydride pins for neutron moderation was irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility during Cycle 9A for 137.7 equivalent full power days at a power level of 291 MW. The 36 test pins consisted of a batch of 32 pins containing cobalt metal to produce Co-60, and a set of 4 pins with europium oxide to produce Gd-153, a radioisotope used in detection of the bone disease Osteoporosis. Post-irradiation examination of the cobalt pins determined the Co-60 produced with an accuracy of about 5%. The measured Co-60 spatially distributed concentrations were within 20% of the calculated concentrations. The assembly average Co-60 measured activity was 4% less than the calculated value. The europium oxide pins were gamma scanned for the europium isotopes Eu-152 and Eu-154 to an absolute accuracy of about 10%. The measured europium radioisotope and Gd-153 concentrations were within 20% of calculated values. In conclusion, the hydride assembly performed well and is an excellent vehicle for many Fast Flux Test Facility isotope production applications. The results also demonstrate that the calculational methods developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company are very accurate. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  18. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  19. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, and Institute for the Physics and Mathematical of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, Aomori, 030-0943 Japan (Japan)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  20. A FLUX SCALE FOR SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Pober, Jonathan C. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, Dave H. E. [Radio Astronomy Lab., University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Klima, Pat [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P. [Square Kilometer Array, South Africa Project, Cape Town (South Africa); Stefan, Irina I. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a catalog of spectral measurements covering a 100-200 MHz band for 32 sources, derived from observations with a 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) in South Africa. For transit telescopes such as PAPER, calibration of the primary beam is a difficult endeavor and errors in this calibration are a major source of error in the determination of source spectra. In order to decrease our reliance on an accurate beam calibration, we focus on calibrating sources in a narrow declination range from –46° to –40°. Since sources at similar declinations follow nearly identical paths through the primary beam, this restriction greatly reduces errors associated with beam calibration, yielding a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of derived source spectra. Extrapolating from higher frequency catalogs, we derive the flux scale using a Monte Carlo fit across multiple sources that includes uncertainty from both catalog and measurement errors. Fitting spectral models to catalog data and these new PAPER measurements, we derive new flux models for Pictor A and 31 other sources at nearby declinations; 90% are found to confirm and refine a power-law model for flux density. Of particular importance is the new Pictor A flux model, which is accurate to 1.4% and shows that between 100 MHz and 2 GHz, in contrast with previous models, the spectrum of Pictor A is consistent with a single power law given by a flux at 150 MHz of 382 ± 5.4 Jy and a spectral index of –0.76 ± 0.01. This accuracy represents an order of magnitude improvement over previous measurements in this band and is limited by the uncertainty in the catalog measurements used to estimate the absolute flux scale. The simplicity and improved accuracy of Pictor A's spectrum make it an excellent calibrator in a band important for experiments seeking to measure 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization.

  1. Electrical behavior of natural manganese dioxide (NMD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorgulho, H.F. [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Fernandes, R.Z.D.; Pernaut, J.M. [Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    NMD samples from Brazil have been submitted to magnetic and particle size separations and characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence and thermogravimetric analyses. Results showed that simple physical treatments can lead to more than 60% enriched MnO{sub 2} materials which could satisfy some electrochemical applications. The electrical properties of the samples conditioned as pressed pellets have been investigated by four-points direct current probe and impedance spectroscopy, varying the conditions of preparation and measurement. It is proposed that the higher frequency impedance is equivalent to the intrinsic electronic resistance of the MnO{sub 2} phases while at lower frequencies occurs an interphase charge separation coupled with a possible ionic transport. The corresponding contact resistance depends on the particle size distribution of the material, the compactation pressure of pellets and the iron content of the materials. The interphase dielectric relaxation does not behave ideally; the depression of the impedance semicircles as shown in the Nyquist plane is assumed to be related to the roughness of the bulk interfaces. Recent developments have shown the possibility of using manganese oxides as reversible electrodes for battery or supercapacitor applications for electrical vehicle. In these perspectives it is important to study the electrical and electrochemical properties of NMD in order to estimate its suitability for this kind of applications.

  2. Geochemistry of silicate-rich rocks can curtail spreading of carbon dioxide in subsurface aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, S. S. S.; Andres, J. T. H.

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of carbon sequestration and dissolution rates in the subsurface, suggesting that pooled carbon dioxide may remain in the shallower regions of the formation for hundreds to thousands of years. The deeper regions of the reservoir can remain virtually carbon... interests. References 1. Marini, L. Geochemical Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. (Elsevier 2007). 2. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, edited by Metz B. et al. (Cambridge University Press, UK and New York, USA, 2005). 3. Falkowski...

  3. Development of a differential equation of state to describe subcritical isotherms of carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontenot, Charles Edward

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processors Association, the National Science Eoundation, the Texas Engineering Experiment Station and Texas A&&i University for providing the funds for this work The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. K, R. Hall for his guidance... Pressures of Carbon Dioxide 28 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Vapor Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . . 30 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Liquid Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . 31 Plot of the Slope of fR...

  4. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  5. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  6. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reactions with anatase titanium(IV) oxide. Chem. Phys. Lett.of defective sites in titanium(IV) oxide photocatalystTransfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide A Dissertation

  7. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Benefits Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics:...

  8. Coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux buildup in the heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    electron heat flux. The first panel shows the preeruption heliospheric flux, which consists of the an open the observed doubling in the magnetic field intensity at 1 AU over the solar cycle. Such timescales signatures; no flux buildup results. The dynamic simulation yields a solar cycle flux variation with high

  9. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC’s current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols and in-core instrumentation under the ATR Modeling, Simulation and V&V Upgrade initiative, as well as the work to replace nuclear instrumentation under the ATR Life Extension Project (LEP) and provide support to the ATR NSUF.

  10. Uniform flux dish concentrators for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G; Wendelin, T

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have designed a unique and innovative molded dish concentrator capable of producing a uniform flux profile on a flat target plane. Concentration levels of 100--200 suns, which are uniform over an area of several square inches, can be directly achieved for collection apertures of a reasonable size ({approximately}1.5-m diameter). Such performance would be immediately applicable to photovoltaic (PV) use. Economic concerns have shown that the proposed approach would be less expensive thatn Fresnel lens concepts or other dish concentrator designs that require complicated and costly receivers to mix the flux to obtain a uniform distribution. 12 refs.

  11. High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide for Direct Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Herring, J. S.; Hartvigsen, J. J.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850şC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Cell area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.

  12. High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Steam for the Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes; J. S. Herring; J. J. Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850şC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.

  13. New solar opacities, abundances, helioseismology, and neutrino fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John N. Bahcall; Aldo M. Serenelli; Sarbani Basu

    2005-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct solar models with the newly calculated radiative opacities from the Opacity Project (OP) and recently determined (lower) heavy element abundances. We compare results from the new models with predictions of a series of models that use OPAL radiative opacities, older determinations of the surface heavy element abundances, and refinements of nuclear reaction rates. For all the variations we consider, solar models that are constructed with the newer and lower heavy element abundances advocated by Asplund et al. (2005) disagree by much more than the estimated measuring errors with helioseismological determinations of the depth of the solar convective zone, the surface helium composition, the internal sound speeds, and the density profile. Using the new OP radiative opacities, the ratio of the 8B neutrino flux calculated with the older and larger heavy element abundances (or with the newer and lower heavy element abundances) to the total neutrino flux measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is 1.09 (0.87) with a 9% experimental uncertainty and a 16% theoretical uncertainty, 1 sigma errors.

  14. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  15. The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, William Bell

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ional to the per cent of carbon dioxi. de 1n the flue gas for a constant total gas flow rate. REFE REN CES l. Andrews, R. V, , Hanford Works Eocument (1952), 2. Andrews, R. V. & J. A. W. W. A, , ~46 82 (1954). 3. Andrews, R. V, , Personal Communication 4... of the reciuire . ents for the dedree of iliASTER OF SCIENCE Janus', 1956 Major Subject: Chemi. cal Engineering TH PRODUCTION OP ACTIVATED SILICA 7iIITH CARBON DIOXIDE GAS A Thesis William Bell Hayes III Approved as to style and content by: Chairmen...

  16. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Selective Membranes: A Topical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dushyant Shekhawat; David R. Luebke; Henry W. Pennline

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide selective membranes provide a viable energy-saving alternative for CO2 separation, since membranes do not require any phase transformation. This review examines various CO2 selective membranes for the separation of CO2 and N2, CO2 and CH4, and CO2 and H2 from flue or fuel gas. This review attempts to summarize recent significant advances reported in the literature about various CO2 selective membranes, their stability, the effect of different parameters on the performance of the membrane, the structure and permeation properties relationships, and the transport mechanism applied in different CO2 selective membranes.

  17. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  18. Response of a tundra ecosytem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research was to document current patterns of CO{sub 2} flux in selected locations of the circumpolar arctic, and to develop the information necessary to predict how these fluxes may be affected by climate change. In fulfillment of these objectives, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured at several sites on the North Slope of Alaska during the 1990-94 growing season (June-August) to determine the local and regional patterns, of seasonal CO{sub 2} exchange. In addition, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured in the Russian and Icelandic Arctic to determine if the patterns of CO{sub 2} exchange observed in Arctic Alaska were representative of the circumpolar arctic, while cold-season CO{sub 2} flux measurements were carried out during the 1993-94 winter season to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux not accounted for by the growing season measurements. Manipulations of soil water table depth and surface temperature, which were identified from the extensive measurements as being the most important variables in determining the magnitude and direction of net CO{sub 2} exchange, were carried out during the 1993-94 growing seasons in tussock and wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Finally, measurements of CH{sub 4} flux were also measured at several of the North Slope study sites during the 1990-91 growing seasons. Measurements were made on small (e.g. 0.5 m{sup 2}) plots using a portable gas-exchange system and cuvette. The sample design allowed frequent measurements of net CO{sub 2} exchange and respiration over diurnal and seasonal cycles, and a large spatial extent that incorporated both locally and regionally diverse tundra surface types. Measurements both within and between ecosystem types typically extended over soil water table depth and temperature gradients, allowing for the indirect analysis of the effects of anticipated climate change scenarios on net CO{sub 2} exchange. In situ experiments provided a direct means for testing hypotheses.

  19. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  20. Divertor heat and particle flux due to ELMs in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Suttrop, W. [Max Planck Inst. for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)] [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors characterize the divertor target plate heat and particle fluxes that occur due to Edge-Localized-Modes (ELMs) during H-mode in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade. During steady-state ELMing H-mode the fraction of main plasma stored energy lost with each ELM varies from 6% to 2% as input power increases above the H-mode power threshold. The ELM energy is deposited near the strikepoints on the divertor target plates in a fast time scale of {le} 1 ms. The spatial profile of the ELM heat pulse is flatter and broader, up to about a factor of 2, than that of the heat flux between ELMs. On ASDEX-Upgrade the inboard strike-point receives the greatest fraction, {ge} 75%, of ELM divertor heat flux, while on DIII-D the in/out split is nearly equal. The toroidal asymmetry of the heat pulse has produced a peaking factor on DIII-D of no more than 1.5. The particle flux, as measured by Langmuir probes, has also been found to be localized near the divertor strike-points. The increased particle flux during ELMs is a significant fraction of the total time-integrated divertor plate particle flux.