Sample records for dioxide emissions trading

  1. Emissions Trading, Electricity Industry Restructuring, and Investment in Pollution Abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foss, B . "Carbon Emissions Trading is New Weapon to BattleBehavior and the Emission Trading Market, Resources andof Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading." The Journal of

  2. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

  3. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  4. The temporal efficiency of SO? emissions trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an empirical evaluation of the temporal efficiency of the U.S. Acid Rain Program, which implemented a nationwide market for trading and banking sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances. We first develop ...

  5. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI and of crude oil in the near future. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.012814 PACS number(s): 89.65.Gh, 05.45.Tp, 89

  7. The Value of Emissions Trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort David.

    This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing attention on a here-to-fore neglected component: its value as a hedge against uncertainty. Much analysis has been done of the Kyoto Protocol and ...

  8. Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC Vivian Hoffman, J Chisholm I. Introduction The GVRD environmental objectives are achieved. Emissions reduction credit trading (or emissions trading) is an example Valley (LFV). Section III describes the market-based instruments of emissions trading and facility

  9. Emission trading with absolute and intensity caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Jaemin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kyoto Protocol introduced emission trading to help reduce the cost of compliances for the Annex B countries that have absolute caps. However, we need to expand the emission trading to cover developing countries in order ...

  10. Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Nancy J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM anda mar- ket-based emissions trading program called theimpacts cre- ated by emissions trading programs that affect

  11. 1996 update on compliance and emissions trading under the U.S. acid rain program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    November 1997This paper reports on the second year of compliance with the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions-reduction and -trading provisions of the Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The material is intended ...

  12. Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschein, Perry S.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

  13. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  14. Purdue Climate Change Research Center Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue Climate Change Research Center Emissions Trading Workshop Introduction and Overview manner. Workshop rather than conference. #12;What is Emissions Trading? (or "Cap and Trade") · Cap & Enforcement · Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) mechanisms for reductions #12;Five Emissions

  15. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  16. Is international emissions trading always beneficial?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker, Mustafa H.M.

    Economic efficiency is a major argument for the inclusion of an international emission permit trading system under the Kyoto Protocol. Using a partial equilibrium framework, energy system models have shown that implementing ...

  17. Equity and Emissions Trading in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, D.

    China has embarked on an ambitious pathway for establishing a national carbon market in the next five to ten years. In this study, we analyze the distributional aspects of a Chinese emissions-trading scheme from ethical, ...

  18. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  19. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Year) MSA Emissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Electricity (CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions from Driving ElectricityEmissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Suburb-City Difference in Electricity (

  20. 7Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report Discussion Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report Discussion Synthesis Background On April 30, 2010, more than 70 people gathered for an all-day workshop on emissions trading at Purdue University's Discovery of different emission trading proposals. The need for such discussion is great. Pollution trading is a high

  1. The Energy and Economic Impacts of Expanding International Emissions Trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Energy and Economic Impacts of Expanding International Emissions Trading Tianyu Qi, Niven Trading Tianyu Qi* , Niven Winchester , Valerie J. Karplus and Xiliang Zhang Abstract Emissions trading of the European Union's Emissions Trading System with a new system in Australia in 2015, this paper simulates

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods...

  3. Market power in international carbon emissions trading: a laboratory test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlén, Björn.

    The prospect that governments of one or a few large countries, or trading blocs, would engage in international greenhouse gas emissions trading has led several policy analysts to express concerns that trade would be ...

  4. EU-California Environmental Agreements: The Role of Trade in Emissions Permits and Escape Clauses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of trade in emissions permits and escape clauses. (agreements. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and inAlthough trade in emissions permits reduces the aggregate

  5. Strategic Behavior, Private Information, and Decentralization in the European Union Emissions Trading System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malueg, David A.; Yates, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the European Union emissions trading scheme. Rev EnvironDecentralization in the EU emissions trading scheme andthe European Union Emissions Trading System David A. Malueg

  6. Trading quasi-emission permits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study the design of environmental policies for a regulator that has incomplete information on firms' emissions and costs of production and abatement (e.g., air pollution in cities with numerous small polluting sources). ...

  7. Can Affirmative Motivations Improve Compliance in Emissions Trading Leigh Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can Affirmative Motivations Improve Compliance in Emissions Trading Programs?* Leigh Raymond be inferred. #12;Can Affirmative Motivations Improve Compliance in Emissions Trading Programs? Abstract Early emissions trading programs have obtained a very high rate of compliance, in part by using continuous

  8. Emissions Trading: What Makes It Work? Julien Chevallier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Emissions Trading: What Makes It Work? Julien Chevallier1 04 July 2009 Abstract: At the stage permits markets. Keywords: climate change policy; emissions trading; banking borrowing; initial allocation-4Jul2009 #12;2 Review of current climate policies The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas Beneath Mammoth...

  10. Economic and Emissions Implications of Load-Based, Source-based and First-seller Emissions Trading Programs under California AB32

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yihsu; Liu, Andrew L.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions trading programs for the electric power sector:power markets, transmission limitations, and emissions trading,

  11. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hultman, Nathan E.

    PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report Joint Global Change Research Institute 8400 Baltimore Avenue College Park, Maryland 20740 #12;PNNL-14537

  12. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

  13. Emissions Trading with Profit-Neutral Permit Allocations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hepburn, Cameron J.; Quah, John K.-H.; Ritz, Robert A.

    2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of an emissions trading scheme (ETS) on equilibrium emissions, output, price, market concentration, and profits in a generalized Cournot model. We develop formulae for the number of emissions permits that have...

  14. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions trade, safety valves and escape clauses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of emissions trade on IEA participation Ex ante heterogenousachieving ef?cient abatement. An IEA that combines trade inhelp in creating a successful IEA. It is reasonable to use

  15. Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose

  16. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  17. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  18. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  19. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  20. Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

  1. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  2. The Energy and Economic Impacts of Expanding International Emissions Trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Tianyu

    2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions trading systems are recognized as a cost-effective way to facilitate emissions abatement and are expected to play an important role in international cooperation for global climate mitigation. Starting from the ...

  3. An Analysis of the European Emission Trading Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    An international emissions trading system is a featured instrument in the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases among major industrial countries. The ...

  4. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  5. What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California’s NOx Trading Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Holland, Stephen P.; Mansur, Erin T

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Justice Critique of Emissions Trading. ” Ecology Lawgions: The case of the emission trading programme RECLAIM inTietenberg, Tom H. 2006. Emissions Trading Principles and

  6. Economic and Emissions Implications of Load-Based, Source-based and First-seller Emissions Trading Programs under California AB32

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yihsu; Liu, Andrew L.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cates in a load-based emissions trading scheme. Technicaland First-seller Emissions Trading Programs under Californiaand First-seller Emissions Trading Programs under California

  7. 1Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report Purdue Climate Change Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report PCCRC Purdue Climate Change Research Center EMISSIONS TRADING WORKSHOP Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana Friday April 30, 2010 SUMMARY REPORT #12;#12;Purdue Climate Change Research Center EMISSIONS TRADING WORKSHOP Purdue University West

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  9. Permit Allocation in Emissions Trading using the Boltzmann Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Ji-Won; Isard, Walter

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In emissions trading, the initial permit allocation is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods such as auctioning and grandfathering have been debated. Here we describe a new model for permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. The Boltzmann distribution is introduced to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. A price determination mechanism for emission permits is then developed in relation to the {\\beta} value in the Boltzmann distribution. Finally, it is demonstrated how emissions permits can be practically allocated among participating countries in empirical results. The new allocation model using the Boltzmann distribution describes a most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Based on its simplicity and versati...

  10. Towards an Emissions Trading Scheme for Air Pollutants in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duflo, Esther

    Emissions trading schemes have great potential to lower pollution while minimizing compliance costs for firms in many areas now subject to traditional command-and-control regulation. This paper connects experience with ...

  11. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  12. Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This masters thesis assesses the impact of a emissions trading on short-term carbon abatement and investment decisions in the power sector. Environmental benefits from carbon abatement due to emissions trading are quantified ...

  13. Over-Allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Based on the 2005 Emissions Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    This paper provides an initial analysis of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) based on the installation-level data for verified emissions and allowance allocations in the first trading year. Those data, ...

  14. Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enion, Rhead M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    focused nitro- gen oxide emissions-trading program for largeNSPS program could use emissions trading, including cap-and-regulations that allow emissions trading, to achieve GHG

  15. Allocating emissions permits in cap-and-trade programs: Theory and evidence Preliminary.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    emissions trading program are used to analyze these relationships empirically. I ...nd robust evidence an important a factor in the widespread adoption of emissions trading programs. More recently, a third design

  16. Price relationships in the EU emissions trading system Julien Chevallier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Price relationships in the EU emissions trading system Julien Chevallier1 Université Paris Dauphine Abstract The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) constrains industrial polluters to buy/sell CO2 the price relationships in the EU emissions trading system. The United Nations Framework Convention

  17. Intertemporal Emissions Trading and Market Power: A Dominant Firm with Competitive Fringe Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Intertemporal Emissions Trading and Market Power: A Dominant Firm with Competitive Fringe Model Julien Chevallier1 May 26, 2009 Abstract In international emissions trading schemes such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, the suboptimal negotiation of the cap

  18. Direct and Market Effects of Enforcing Emissions Trading Programs: An Experimental Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, James J.

    March 2005 Direct and Market Effects of Enforcing Emissions Trading Programs: An Experimental Economics University of Massachusetts-Amherst Abstract Since firms in an emissions trading program for emissions trading programs. JEL Codes: C91, L51, Q58. Keywords: compliance, enforcement, experiments, permit

  19. Is International Emissions Trading Always Beneficial? Mustafa Babiker 1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    33 Is International Emissions Trading Always Beneficial? Mustafa Babiker 1,2 , John Reilly 2 and Laurent Viguier 2,3 Economic efficiency is a major argument for international emissions trading under gains from emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol (Weyant, 1999). This literature emphasizes

  20. The hedge value of international emissions trading under uncertainty Mort Webster n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The hedge value of international emissions trading under uncertainty Mort Webster n , Sergey Keywords: Climate change Emissions trading Uncertainty a b s t r a c t This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing on a here-to-fore neglected component; its value as a hedge against

  1. Equity and Emissions Trading in China Da Zhang, Marco Springmann and Valerie Karplus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equity and Emissions Trading in China Da Zhang, Marco Springmann and Valerie Karplus Report No. 257 and Emissions Trading in China Da Zhang* , Marco Springmann§ , and Valerie Karplus Abstract China has embarked analyze the distributional aspects of a Chinese emissions-trading scheme from ethical, economic

  2. The European Union Emissions Trading System: should we throw the flagship out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    No 48-2013 The European Union Emissions Trading System: should we throw the flagship out European Union Emissions Trading System: should we throw the flagship out with the bathwater? Abstract The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS), presented as the ``flagship'' of European climate policy

  3. Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis By Wee Chiang, Technology and Policy Program 1 #12;Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System Abstract The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas

  4. Imperfect Enforcement of Emissions Trading and Industry Welfare: A Laboratory Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, James J.

    March 2008 Imperfect Enforcement of Emissions Trading and Industry Welfare: A Laboratory of Emissions Trading and Industry Welfare: A Laboratory Investigation Abstract: This paper uses laboratory to be low. Thus, although a standard model of compliance with emissions trading programs tends to predict

  5. Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was introduced through the Climate Change Response Act............................................................................ 14 #12;1 1 Introduction The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was legislated through

  6. A bottom-up analysis of including aviation within theEU's Emissions Trading Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    A bottom-up analysis of including aviation within theEU's Emissions Trading Scheme Alice Bows-up analysis of including aviation within the EU's Emissions Trading Scheme Alice Bows & Kevin Anderson Tyndall's emissions trading scheme. Results indicate that unless the scheme adopts both an early baseline year

  7. Briefing Note 2010 -2 Tax Fraud from Emissions Trading in the European Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Briefing Note 2010 - 2 7 May 2010 Tax Fraud from Emissions Trading in the European Union Neil Tansey and Ivan Watson Issue The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) began in 2005 as the largest multi-country and multi-sector greenhouse gas emissions trading system in the world by volume

  8. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The geography of So{sub 2} emissions trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interstate trading of SO{sub 2} emission allowances under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 represents the largest-scale application of market principles to environmental protection. some opponents have hypothesized that high emitting electric power plants in the Midwestern states will buy additional allowances and thereby sustain SO{sub 2} emissions at unacceptable high levels. Much of these emissions would then continue to return downwind as sulfates in the Northeast, damaging critical ecosystems such as lakes and forests in the Adirondacks. A competing hypothesis is that in an increasingly competitive utility industry, a power plant will choose the least-cost compliance option for its SO{sub 2} emission requirements, which for many large and dirty Midwestern plants will be to retrofit with scrubbers. This paper will provide the first comprehensive empirical analysis of the geographic pattern of SO{sub 2} allowance trading for the first three years (early 1992 to early 1995) to determine the validity of the first hypothesis. It will be shown that with the exception of one electric utility in Illinois, the Midwestern states have not used allowance trading to sustain high emission levels. A Congressionally-mandated subsidy for scrubber retrofits at Phase I affected-units, however, has allowed two of these states (Ohio and Indiana) plus three additional Appalachian states (Tennessee, West Virginia and Pennsylvania) to acquire large quantities of bonus allowances. Most of these additional allowances may be banked for future use at other affected units by the acquiring utilities, since the newly scrubbed plants will have much lower SO{sub 2} emissions because of the scrubber retrofits. The good news is that the trading program is projected to save a lot of money, over $2 billion out of a possible $3 billion in annual compliance costs by the time of Phase II.

  10. MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

  11. On emissions trading, toxic debt and the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simshauser, Paul

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation of emissions trading will have profound effects on the financial stability of coal generators. While the impact on equity capital is well understood, the potential fallout in the market for project finance is not. During the current global financial crisis, the form and quantum of transitional assistance to coal generators will be crucial to ensure ongoing participation of domestic and foreign project banks in the power markets. (author)

  12. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  13. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andresdioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission

  14. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

  15. The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Proto-Type Global System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

  16. The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Prototype Global System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

  17. Carbon permit prices in the European emissions trading system : a stochastic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See, Wee Chiang

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in its test phase will operate from 2005-2007. It is a cap-and-trade system where an aggregate cap on emissions ...

  18. The impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme on electricity generation sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme on electricity generation sectors Djamel the Kyoto Protocol, France and Germany par- ticipate to the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS, the European market for emission allowances has increased the market power of the historical French electricity

  19. Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman and Annelne Decaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman the advantages of emissions trading. In this paper, the authors derive MACs from EPPA, the MIT Joint Program the benefits of emissions trading in achieving the emission reduction targets implied by the Kyoto Protocol

  20. Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity applying the iterative Bayesian shrinkage procedure. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; Bayesian shrinkage estimator; Heterogeneity JEL classification: O13

  1. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  2. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

  3. This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground affecting corporate climate strategies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This study explores how the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) actually works on the ground@bookpoint.co.uk May 2013 322 pages Hardback 978-1-4094-6078-7 £60.00 Corporate Responses to EU Emissions Trading at The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway `With greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes emerging worldwide

  4. The impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on US aviation Robert Malina a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on US aviation Robert Malina a, Germany Keywords: European air transport policy Carbon emissions trading US airline industry a b s t r a c in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme from 2012 to 2020. We find that the Scheme would only have a small

  5. Policy Brief: Still time to reclaim the European Union Emissions Trading System for the European tax payer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy Brief: Still time to reclaim the European Union Emissions Trading System for the European of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) are not restrictive enough. Evidence from interviews The EU Commission is currently finalising the design of the third trading phase of the European Emissions

  6. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions trade, safety valves and escape clauses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trade policy, and environmental policy in an attempt to help2 Trade policy and environmental policy 3 The ef?ciency ofInstitutute for Environmental Policy Solultions. S TAVINS ,

  7. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  8. Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

  9. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source that serves an electricity generator with a nameplate capacity equal to or greater than 25 MWe is considered a CO2 budget source for the purpose of these regulations. This section lists...

  10. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Path of China's CO2 Emissions Using Province LevelTransportation (Lbs of CO2) Emissions from Home Heating (LbsStandardized Household CO2 Emissions for Households Living

  11. Analysis of post-Kyoto CO? emissions trading using marginal abatement curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.; Decaux, Annelène.

    Marginal abatement curves (MACs) are often used heuristically to demonstrate the advantages of emissions trading. In this paper, the authors derive MACs from EPPA, the MIT Joint Program's computable general equilibrium ...

  12. Volunteering for market-based environmental regulation : the substitution provision of the SO? emissions trading program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan Pablo

    In this paper we explore the practical and welfare implications of a system of voluntary compliance within a market-based environmental regulation. The Substitution Provision of the SO2 emissions trading program allows the ...

  13. The impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on US aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malina, Robert

    We estimate the economic impacts on US airlines that may arise from the inclusion of aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme from 2012 to 2020. We find that the Scheme would only have a small impact on US ...

  14. Allocation and competitiveness in the EU emissions trading scheme: policy overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grubb, Michael; Neuhoff, Karsten

    The European emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) has an efficient and effective market design that risks being undermined by three interrelated problems: the approach to allocation; the absence of a credible commitment to post-2012 continuation...

  15. Optimal design of a phase-in emissions trading program with voluntary compliance options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan Pablo

    In this paper we explore the welfare implications of voluntary compliance within an emissions trading program and derive optimal permits allocations to affected and opti-in sources when the environmental regulator has ...

  16. Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacombe, Romain H

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

  17. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  18. The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny Ellerman, Henry D. Jacoby and Annelne Decaux*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny by the scope of CO2 emissions trading, by various limitations that Annex I countries might place on emissions.1 Trade in Goods with No Emissions Trading

  19. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  20. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  1. Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effects of global warming. In this article we describe a process which producesa lowProducing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks the electricity production cost by one third. The secondprovides hydrogenor a hydrogen-rich fuel gas

  2. Publication in S. Sorrell and J. Skea (eds.) Pollution for Sale Emissions trading and joint implementation. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 1999, pp. 272-295

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Publication in S. Sorrell and J. Skea (eds.) Pollution for Sale ­Emissions trading and joint constraints: possible schemes for SO2 emissions trading in the EU Olivier Godard1 2 -Emissions trading and joint implementation. (1999) 272-295" #12;O. Godard - SO2 trading in the EU 2 long

  3. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005 Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    A composite time series of fossil fuels used for combustion was constructed by combining data from a number .......................................................................................................1 S.2 Composite Energy Demand .........................................................................................8 S.5 Methodological Detail: Fossil Combustion Emissions

  4. Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities (Smith et al., 2011) · The following 100 years emissions had rapidly increased by use of coal, and by anthropogenic sources, such as burning of coal, oil and gases. SO2 as a pollutant not only changes the climate

  5. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel oil and natural gas) and electricity usage. We use databetween natural gas or petroleum usage and emissions. If wenatural gas and fuel oil) and residential electricity consumption. Car usage

  6. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  8. Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  9. Abstract--Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused by an increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    design alternatives provides reduction of CO2 emission levels such that the CO2 emissions for 2050 meet Abstract-- Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused regulations at airports through reduction of CO2 for all components of flight operations. The purpose

  10. Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klier, Thomas

    France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

  11. Air Emmissions Trading Program/Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a carbon dioxide emissions budget trading program. The program includes a statewide annual CO2 budget allowance of 8,620,460 tons between...

  12. European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methane emissions between 1996 and 2001 using a three-dimensional global chemical transport model, Yu and ecosystem impacts, and analysis of mitigation strategies, need to be based on realistic evaluation

  13. Climate policy and the airline industry : emissions trading and renewable jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnachie, D. (Dominic Alistair)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I assess the impact of the current EU Emissions Trading Scheme and a hypothetical renewable jet fuel mandate on US airlines. I find that both the EU Scheme up until 2020 and a renewable jet fuel mandate of ...

  14. Les dterminants du prix du carbone sur le march europen des quotas Carbon price drivers in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Emilie Alberola1 et Julien Chevallier2 Résumé: L'article examine le prix des quotas durant la première période (2005-2007) de l'European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU

  15. Submission to the Prime Minister's Task Group on Emissions Trading in response to the Task Group's Issues Paper of February 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    1 Submission to the Prime Minister's Task Group on Emissions Trading in response to the Task Group that emissions trading has anything useful to offer Australia as one way of achieving its contribution and design of a workable global emissions trading system in which Australia would be able to participate". B

  16. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); McDermott, K.A. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry's SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  17. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McDermott, K.A. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry`s SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  18. Recent report highlights impace of emission trading on energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy recently released a report which concluded that of the incentives provided by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the most significant of these is the likely to be the emission cap. This cap provides incentives to reduce the rate of growth in electricity generation. The report said that a bonus allowance reserve offers utilities additional incentive to increase energy efficiency and seems likely to stimulate greater use of IRP, although it`s direct rewards to utilities now ma be less attractive than originally anticipated.

  19. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

  20. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  1. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EU ETS: European Union Emissions Trading System GHG: Greenstarts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similarGovernments operating emissions trading systems face the

  2. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  3. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  4. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  5. Measuring Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions in October, 2010 Catastrophic Eruption from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Volcano in Java, Indonesia with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) José A. Morales-Collazo Geology This paper discusses sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud emissions from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia during, Indonesia. In October 26th , 2010, a catastrophic eruption was reported from Merapi causing nearly 386

  6. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

  7. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    competitiveness in the eu emissions trading scheme: Policyand-trade systems for emissions trading is the allocation orciency of the resulting emissions trading market. Certainly

  8. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

  9. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

  10. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  11. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  12. Allowance trading: Correcting the past and looking to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, A.Y.; Canter, L.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Environmental and Ground Water Institute

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Allowance trading is basic to the Title IV acid rain provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in the United States; the provisions seek to achieve a 10-million-ton reduction in annual sulfur dioxide emissions from the electric power utility industry. Allowance trading, a market-based approach, is conceptually similar to the emissions trading policy of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An allowance is defined as the authorization to emit, during or after a specified calendar year, one ton of sulfur dioxide. This paper provides an overview of the allowance trading program by summarizing some important features, particularly as they are responsive to limitations and concern as related to the precursor emissions trading program in the early to mid-1980s. Such features include a simple definition of baseline emission levels, encouragements for nationwide trading, disincentives for accumulation of excess allowance,s opportunities for leasing other short-term allowance transfer arrangements, enforcement provisions, and benefits of bonus allowances and early emission reductions. Adherence to implementation protocols for the acid rain provisions of Title IV of the CAAA will provide a good opportunity to evaluate this market-based approach for environmental quality management.

  13. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the ProvincialResults Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National Level In

  14. Taxes and Trading versus Intensity Standards: Second-Best Environmental Policies with Incomplete Regulation (Leakage) or Market Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007) compares taxes and emissions trading in concentratedtaxes (equivalently emissions trading) may not be the best

  15. ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

  16. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

  17. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from Fuel Combustion in 2004.. 34Emissions from Fuel Combustion in California, Million MetricEmission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in

  18. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. EPA), 2005.. Emission Inventory Improvement Program,National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Annex 8A.2: Reportingin the fossil CO 2 emissions inventories, and verify whether

  19. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak [University of Utah] [University of Utah

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called ?chloride process?. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to be extremely effective in achieving these targets. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO{sub 2} per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A flow sheet was developed and a mass and energy balance was performed. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicate that implementation of the new process in the US would result in a 21% decrease in energy consumption, an annual energy savings of 42.7 million GJ. The new process would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% in comparison to the chloride process, an annual reduction of 2.70 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Since the process equipment employed in the new process is well established in other industrial processes and the raw materials for the two processes are identical we believe the capital, labor and materials cost of production of pigment grade TiO{sub 2} using the new method would be at least equivalent to that of the chloride process. Additionally, it is likely that the operating costs will be lower by using the new process because of the reduced energy consumption. Although the new process technology is logical and feasible based on its chemistry, thermodynamic principles, and experimental results, its development and refinement through more rigorous and comprehensive research at the kilogram scale is needed to establish it as a competitive industrial process. The effect of the recycling of process streams on the final product quality should also be investigated. Further development would also help determine if the energy efficiency and the environmental benefits of the new process are indeed significantly better than current commercial methods of pigment manufacture.

  20. Clean coal technology and emissions trading: Is there a future for high-sulfur coal under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McDermott, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-term and long-term fate of high-sulfur coal is linked to utility compliance plans, the evolution of emission allowance trading, state and federal regulation, and technological innovation. All of these factors will play an implicit role in the demand for high-sulfur coal. This paper will explore the potential impact that emissions trading will have on high-sulfur coal utilization by electric utilities. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Clean coal technology and emissions trading: Is there a future for high-sulfur coal under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); McDermott, K.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-term and long-term fate of high-sulfur coal is linked to utility compliance plans, the evolution of emission allowance trading, state and federal regulation, and technological innovation. All of these factors will play an implicit role in the demand for high-sulfur coal. This paper will explore the potential impact that emissions trading will have on high-sulfur coal utilization by electric utilities. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    policy- the RECLAIM emission trading policy." Environ.Incentives Market: a new emissions trading program for Lospolitical feasibility of emissions trading programs. See,

  3. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market power in emissions trading: strategically manipu-pricing under carbon emissions trading: A dominant firm with2008). Implications of CO2 emissions trading for short-run

  4. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***includes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***ncludes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,

  5. EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6...

  6. Why are allowance prices so low? : an analysis of the SO2 emissions trading program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an analysis of the reduction in SO2 emissions by electric utilities between 1985 and 1993. We find that emissions have been reduced for reasons largely unrelated to the emission reduction mandate ...

  7. EU-California Environmental Agreements: The Role of Trade in Emissions Permits and Escape Clauses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stand how the structure of an IEA alters those obstacles. Inmodi?cations to the simple IEA. Section 3 examines the roleTrade in permits can promote IEA membership, by using the

  8. Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

  9. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  11. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist [U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO{sub 2} emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Energy Agency (OECD/IEA): CO 2 emissions fromcombustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA, Paris, 2010. Kashiwagi,data are generated by the IEA and are a no- table feature of

  13. EIA - AEO2012 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of the CSAPR, which helps shift the fuel mix away from coal toward lower carbon fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions reflect the mix of fossil fuels consumed. Given the high...

  14. Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Brentan R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

  15. Not All Carbon Credits are Created Equal: The Constitutional and the Cost of Regional Cap-and-Trade Market Linkage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howland, Juliet

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Intertemporal Emission Trading, Bank- ing, and Borrowing,based mechanisms, including emissions trading, provide an42. INTERNATIONAL EMISSIONS TRADING ASSOCIATION, IETA REPORT

  16. What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California's NOx Trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    "command and control"(CAC) approaches involving prescriptive emissions limits or pollution control. In the United States, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990 initiated a monumental shift away from CAC

  17. The effects on developing countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO? emissions trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Decaux, Annelène.

    This paper examines the effect of the Kyoto Protocol on developing economies using marginal abatement curves generated by MIT's Emissions Prediction and Policy Assessment model (EPPA). In particular, the paper addresses ...

  18. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  19. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sulfur dioxide smelting reduction smelting reduction iron three-dimensional tonne top-gas recycling blast furnace tonnes per day ultra-low-

  20. Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT CEEEPR Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emissions Trading for Energy and Environmental Policy Research #12;MIT CEEEPR Two Types of Air Emissions Trading · Credit- · OTC/SIP-Call NOx Budget Programs: 1999- · EU's CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme: 2005- ­ The first CO2

  1. Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Tianyu

    We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

  2. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    helps mitigate global air pollution, P. Natl. Acad. Sci.international trade and air pollution in the United States,of China’s virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade

  3. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DM. 2003. Does Emissions Trading Encourage Innovation?A. 2001. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-International Emissions Trading Association. 2010. Response

  4. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean CO 2 for storage and a hydrogen stream to be recycledand storage ? Flexibility to make CO 2 -free hydrogen forand storage computational fluid dynamics carbon monoxide carbon dioxide direct reduced iron electric arc furnace gram gigajoules hour diatomic hydrogen

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to Aviation.Air Transport Emissions Trading Scheme Workshop, UKaviation in its GHG emission trading system (i.e. , by

  6. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001) The impact of CO 2 emissions trading on the EuropeanJ. D. et al. (2007) Emissions Trading for internationalinvestigating an open emission trading system for aviation

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................... 3 2.3 Energy Efficiency Technologies and Measures with gas turbine at Cascades Inc. ............................................... 34 3.5 Boiler blowdown Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Steel Industry .......................5 Table 2.3 Energy Efficiency

  8. Economics of pollution trading for SO{sub 2} and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans; Alan Krupnick; Karen Palmer; Russell Toth

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major US programs for SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides. These programs are evaluated along measures of performance including cost savings, environmental integrity, and incentives for technological innovation. The authors offer lessons for the design of future programs including, most importantly, those reducing carbon dioxide. 128 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    out that EPA used an emissions trading program to controlsuggested that an emissions trading system could qualify asTO MANAGE LIFECYCLE GHG emissions trading system would also

  10. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

  11. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past decade increasing concern over the potential environmental impact associated with the emissions of both gaseous and particulate pollutants has resulted in the promulgation of strict regulatory standards governing such emissions...

  12. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The case of wholesale power trading in Germany Power andY. (2011). Market power in emissions trading: strategicallyto model market power in permit trading. The conjectural

  13. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  15. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Schleich (2006). EU Emissions Trading: an Early Analysis of2002). Comparing Emission Trading with Absolute and Relativein the European Emissions Trading System: a Commentary.

  16. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  17. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  18. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

  19. WHAT TO EXPECT FROM SECTORAL TRADING: A US-CHINA EXAMPLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and increases electricity generation. Keywords: Climate; sectoral agreements; emissions trading; carbon leakage an Emissions Trading Scheme, international negotiations aim to foster wider agreements, particularly

  20. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions to oxygen availability in a drained HistosolIncreased O 2 availability from wetland drainage and climateunder greater O 2 availability. We varied gas-phase O 2

  1. The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

  2. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  3. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  4. Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight. Paper to appear in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO2 emissions from New calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements

  5. An Analysis of Trading Motivations in Phase II of the European Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    An Analysis of Trading Motivations in Phase II of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme By Executive Summary I. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme a. Evolution of the EU ETS b. Structure of Trading Behavior in Phase II of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme "Our generation's response

  6. Carbon tax is superior to cap-and-trade Jonas Nycander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nycander, Jonas

    . #12;Figure 1. Market price in EUR/ton CO2 of emissions allowances in the European Emissions Trading that produce electricity mainly from coal. In 2005 the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) began. The emissions

  7. Atmospheric Mercury: Emissions, Transport/Fate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global...) Is "emissions trading" workable and ethical? Is the recently promulgated Clean Air Mercury

  8. become more important as countries agree to emission reduction targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    : immediate stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, regulation of air pollution that balances removal

  9. adaptive trading agent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stock returns and Charles M. C. Lee; Bhaskaran Swaminathan 277 The Value of Emissions Trading MIT - DSpace Summary: This paper estimates the value of international emissions...

  10. association trade mission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stock returns and Charles M. C. Lee; Bhaskaran Swaminathan 93 The Value of Emissions Trading MIT - DSpace Summary: This paper estimates the value of international emissions...

  11. ascent propulsion trades: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stock returns and Charles M. C. Lee; Bhaskaran Swaminathan 129 The Value of Emissions Trading MIT - DSpace Summary: This paper estimates the value of international emissions...

  12. Trade Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

  13. Cross Border Trading and Borrowing in the EU ETS A. Denny Ellerman* and Raphael Trotignon**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    multi- national trading system, the European Union's CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) provides** This paper exploits a little used data resource within the central registry of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to analyze cross border trading and inter-year borrowing during the first trading

  14. Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Report 146

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coverage: 167 bmt 76 International emissions trading: 287 bmt 77 International emissions trading: 203 bmt 78 International emissions trading: 167 bmt 79 Developed countries only pursue mitigation: 287 bmt 80

  15. Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration Offset Programs: Strengths, Difficulties, and Suggestions for Their Potential Use in AB 32's Cap and Trade Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernadett, Lauren

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pdf; Section 3: Emissions Trading/Offset Credits – A Market1, 2013. 19 Under the Emissions Trading Program , L EGAL Pand-ab-32s- emissions-trading-program/. Additionally,

  16. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

  17. Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

  18. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

  19. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual2 EIA372.

  20. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David; on behalf of the iConnect consortium

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    (petrol ICE, diesel ICE, LPG ICE, petrol HEV), engine size (2 litres) and vehicle age. The ‘most used vehicle’ reported by the participants was taken as the reference vehicle for the emissions analysis. Where one or more... fleet average of petrol and diesel car emissions factors. Multiplying total distance travelled by these speed-emissions factors gave us an estimate of the total ‘hot’ emissions for each vehicle when the engine was warmed up. As a final adjustment...

  1. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Affairs (DEFRA), 2005. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. http://targets through the UK Emissions Trading Scheme. 6 Table 1is to be adjusted for emissions trading. The reports must be

  2. Decoding Titanium Dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decoding Titanium Dioxide Decoding Titanium Dioxide Released: December 03, 2010 Scientists advance understanding of remarkable catalyst STM images of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-octoxy...

  3. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  4. Heterogeneity and Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costinot, Arnaud

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s ), and, because of free trade in …nal goods, factor price2007], Wealth Heterogeneity and Trade, mimeo Uni- versity ofTheory of International Trade, Cambridge University Press. [

  5. Trade and institutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahakitsiri, Doungdao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    xi Chapter 1 Trade, Wage Premia and Labor1.2.2 Thailand: trade policy and labor market . . . . . 1.33.4 Free Trade Agreements and Customs Unions . . . . . . .

  6. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in trade (EET) and therefore equals emissions embodied inexports (EEE) less emissions embodied in imports (EEI).re?ects the net export of emissions and a negative value

  7. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . Examples include the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap-and-trade" (CAT) programs, regulators impose a cap- sions is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate

  8. The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Alberto, Jr

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

  9. Obstacles to Global CO2 Trading: A Familiar Problem A. Denny Ellerman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    obstacles to the development of an international CO2 emissions trading system, but the biggest is a feature emissions trading. The paper reviews the various instruments by which such the Kyoto target might be met. The development of an international system for CO2 emissions trading should not be expected to be either quick

  10. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41- Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish a budget trading program for nitrogen oxide emissions, setting NOx budget units for generators and an NOx Allowance Tracking System to account for emissions. These...

  11. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  12. The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

  13. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  14. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  15. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  16. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  17. Assessment of U.S. cap-and-trade proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey V.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  18. Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  19. Promoting responsible FM & timber trade in South East Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions High rates of deforestation and forest degradation #12;Changes in Forest Cover #12;High Risk and Climate Change Deforestation and forest degradation: · 20% of all carbon dioxide emissions · 20% Indonesia: · 3rd largest emitter 3 · 80% of emissions from forests · 80% Reducing Emissions from Deforestation

  20. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous110 Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrousproperties have been well studied, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (

  1. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  2. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissionsScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT

  3. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) CarbonScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions substantially

  4. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  5. NMR studies of carbon dioxide sequestration in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Rehan

    2015-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the sub-surface is a potential mitigation technique for global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique, understanding the behaviour of CO2 stored...

  6. Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

  7. NAFTA, Trade, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blecker, Robert A.; Esquivel, Gerardo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    many reasons why expanded trade with Mexico and efforts toin the U.S. interest. First, trade with Mexico is more of afor the United States than trade with most Asian countries.

  8. Essays in international trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romalis, John

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a collection of essays on the effect of trade costs on international trade. Chapter 1 derives and empirically examines how factor proportions determine the structure of commodity trade when international ...

  9. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle delusion, CO2 emissions from the sea, and electricityof CO2 emissions trading for short-run electricity marketelectricity and heat was the largest contributor of CO2 emissions

  10. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that energy use and CO2 emissions in developed countries w icap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions from the electricalout and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost and

  11. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

  12. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Pennsylvania. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Pennsylvania to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,837 million gallons.

  13. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF grant SES-0922401. 1 #12;Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate marginal

  14. additional fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tested. She-Sheng Xue 2005-05-05 64 BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: BP's Perspective...

  15. atmospheric emissions modeling: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pollution credits. Our model captures most of the features of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme Carmona, Rene 107 Combined effects of anthropogenic emissions and...

  16. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

  17. TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE JEFFREY J. REIMER AND MAN LI We develop trade, and the elasticity of trade volumes to trade costs. The distribution of the gains from trade the extent by which changes in one country are transmitted to others. Key words: geography, grains, trade

  18. Exercise for ESRP 285: Preparations for the Cap & Trade Game on 10-30-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    . Power Business Measures Emissions Buys Sells Allowances 20 18 $25 17 $25 16 $20 15 1st $15 19 2nd $15 18 power companies whose CO2 emissions are regulated under a cap-and- trade scheme. The cap calls for a 10% reduction in emissions. The trading among the power companies will determine the price of allowances. Prices

  19. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as wellCO2 emissions (including cement process and fossil fuel combustion

  20. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation ofD. , 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Report of

  1. NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS David S. Jacks Christopher M Nottingham GEP Trade Costs Conference. Finally, Jacks gratefully acknowledges the Social Sciences that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. #12;Trade Booms, Trade Busts, and Trade Costs

  2. Distributing Pollution Rights in Cap-and-Trade Programs: Are Outcomes Independent of Allocation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pablo. "Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty andof Two Major Cap-and-Trade Permit Programs. ”Env. and Res.level emissions and the initial permit allocation in this

  3. Energy Policy 36 (2008) 19071914 The effect of trade between China and the UK on national and global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Policy 36 (2008) 1907­1914 The effect of trade between China and the UK on national­China trade. Energy Policy 34, 4063­4068], the most recently available data on trade and CO2 emissions have to and from Brazil. Their findings reveal an increasing transfer of CO2 emissions from developed countries

  4. Fair trade and harmonization of climate change policies in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viguier, Laurent L.

    In March 2000, the European Commission presented a Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within Europe, supporting implementation of a Community-wide scheme in which the design and regulation of all essential ...

  5. Obstacles to global CO? trading : a familiar problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    There are many obstacles to the development of an international CO? emissions trading system, but the biggest is a feature that is often assumed: the existence of a single national system. Once a national system is in ...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  7. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  8. Combining a renewable portfolio standard with a cap-and-trade policy : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...

  9. Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...

  10. Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluestein, J.; Salerno, E.; Bird, L.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cap and trade programs are increasingly being used to reduce emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Cap and trade programs primarily target emitting generators, but programs have also included renewable generators, such as wind generators. States cite several reasons why they have considered the policy option of including renewable generators in cap and trade programs: to provide an incentive for lower-emitting generation, to achieve emissions reductions in non-capped pollutants, and to gain local economic benefits associated with renewable energy projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also notes these rationales for considering this policy alternative, and the National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) passed a resolution supporting the inclusion of renewable energy in cap and trade programs. This report explores why states consider this policy option, what participation could mean for wind generators, and how wind generation can most effectively be included in state, federal, and regional cap and trade programs.

  11. Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

  12. Ris-R-1203(EN) The Feasibility of Domestic CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1203(EN) The Feasibility of Domestic CO2 Emissions Trading in Poland By Jochen Hauff Edited feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissions trading system

  13. angle-resolved hypersatellite emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ru bpy 3 2+ PF6 - 2, Ru Braun, Paul 51 BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: BP's Perspective...

  14. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  15. Trade and Workforce Changeover in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muendler, Marc-Andreas

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trade theory that foreign trade expands less schooling-conclusion of the ?rst wave of trade reforms between 1991stable both before and after trade liberalization. Between

  16. Trade Secrets.PDF

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF INSPECTIONS INSPECTION OF THE LICENSING OF TRADE SECRETS BY SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES MARCH 2002 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  17. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  18. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  19. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

  20. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  1. Trading Emissions PLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThePtyTown HallInformationLessonsMy

  2. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  3. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  4. AgFoodTradeAgFoodTrade New Issues in Agricultural,New Issues in Agricultural,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AgFoodTradeAgFoodTrade New Issues in Agricultural,New Issues in Agricultural, Food & Bioenergy TradeFood & Bioenergy Trade AgFoodTradeAgFoodTrade New Issues in Agricultural,New Issues in Agricultural, Food & Bioenergy TradeFood & Bioenergy Trade AgFoodTradeAgFoodTrade New Issues in Agricultural

  5. Regulatory Entry Barriers and Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobal, Martin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic International trade policy for oligopolisticquality, and international trade, 2009. [8] R.C. Feenstra,Market structure and foreign trade . [17] P.R. Lane and G.M.

  6. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  7. Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    No. 5 Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan E. Hultman and Daniel M. Kammen Energy & Resources Group Goldman emissions have started but may not be completely felt for 100 years or more.2 The long-term nature

  8. Solar-thermal hybridization of Advanced Zero Emissions Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Khaja, Ragheb Mohamad Fawaz

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide emissions from power production are believed to have significant contributions to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Alternative energy resources, such as solar radiation, may help abate emissions but ...

  9. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  10. Water Quality Trading Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Water quality trading is a tool for achieving water quality improvements. Under the right circumstances, trading has the potential to yield both environmental and economic benefits, while...

  11. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon dioxide (NEU-CO2) emissions, represent a signi?cantSimply described, NEU-CO2 emissions are generated via twoData permitting, NEU-CO2 emissions arising from energy

  12. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  13. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Jolly, Stephen; Patel, Dilip; Hunt, Jennifer; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FE0007634), to efficiently and cost effectively separate carbon dioxide from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The CEPACS system is based on FCE’s electrochemical membrane (ECM) technology utilizing the Company’s internal reforming carbonate fuel cell products carrying the trade name of Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cells offers an innovative approach for separation of CO2 from existing fossil-fuel power plant exhaust streams (flue gases). The ECM-based CEPACS system has the potential to become a transformational CO2-separation technology by working as two devices in one: it separates the CO2 from the exhaust of other plants such as an existing coal-fired plant and simultaneously produces clean and environmentally benign (green) electric power at high efficiency using a supplementary fuel. The overall objective of this project is to successfully demonstrate the ability of FCE’s electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system technology to separate ? 90% of the CO2 from a simulated Pulverized Coal (PC) power plant flue-gas stream and to compress the captured CO2 to a state that can be easily transported for sequestration or beneficial use. Also, a key project objective is to show, through a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study and bench scale testing (11.7 m2 area ECM), that the electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system is an economical alternative for CO2 capture in PC power plants, and that it meets DOE objectives for the incremental cost of electricity (COE) for post-combustion CO2 capture.

  14. Tough Choices: Determinants of Senator's Trade Votes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldrich, John; Brinegar, Adam; Kramer, Claire; Merolla, Jennifer

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Guide to the Politics of Trade and Foreign Investment.Destler, I.M. 1986. American Trade Politics: System UnderP. Quinn. 1994. “Free Trade, Fair Trade, Strategic Trade,

  15. 12 Absolute versus Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a component of cli- mate policy in the UK Emissions Trading Scheme (UK DEFRA 2001),2 and in 2001 the Bush

  16. air traffic emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boyer, Edmond 16 Environmental policymaking for air transportation : toward an emissions trading system. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Aviation is at a turning...

  17. airforce aircraft emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High 47 Environmental policymaking for air transportation : toward an emissions trading system. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Aviation is at a turning...

  18. annual danish emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transmitted unknown authors 215 Can Affirmative Motivations Improve Compliance in Emissions Trading Leigh Raymond Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: research...

  19. air traffic emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boyer, Edmond 16 Environmental policymaking for air transportation : toward an emissions trading system. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Aviation is at a turning...

  20. air fluorescence emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    James 2014-01-01 36 Environmental policymaking for air transportation : toward an emissions trading system. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Aviation is at a turning...

  1. THE SO2 ALLOWANCE TRADING SYSTEM: THE IRONIC HISTORY OF A GRAND POLICY EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    and Robert N. Stavins ABSTRACT Two decades have passed since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 launched-based instruments, cap-and-trade, Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, sulfur dioxide, acid rain JEL Classification Policy Experiment Richard Schmalensee and Robert N. Stavins1 Two decades have passed since the Clean Air

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Any source that serves an electricity generator with a nameplate...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools, State Government, Tribal Government Savings Category: Photovoltaics Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut)...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nonprofit Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooperative Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

  13. What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory (ORNL) has made an important advancement in understanding a classic transition-metal oxide, vanadium dioxide, by quantifying the thermodynamic forces driving...

  14. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  15. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  16. Essays on Trade and Production Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noguera, Guillermo Marcelo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 The Value Added Content of Trade . . . . . 1.33.4 Trade Costs over Time . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5One . . . . . . . . . .Sharing and Trade in 2 Augmented

  17. atomic emission analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014-08-13 113 Over-Allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Based on the 2005 Emissions Data MIT - DSpace Summary: This paper...

  18. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  19. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  20. Modeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global GeertGeert VinkenVinken11,, FolkertFolkert BoersmaBoersma22, and Daniel J. Jacob, and Daniel J. Jacob33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    ) emissions 5-7% of global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions 3-4% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions ShipModeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global CTMs 70% of the ship emissions occur within 400 km of land Only industrial sector not regulated under

  1. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  2. Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets K A T H E R I N E V . A C K E to more localized carbon budgets, uncertainties in emissions from local sources such as power plants-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report

  3. Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement Final://people.anu.edu.au/jack.pezzey (J.C.V. Pezzey) Keywords: emission pricing, tax-versus-trading, uncertainties, revenue recycling, and revenue recycling. Including multiple, independent parties greatly reduces the welfare advantage

  4. Uncertainty analysis of capacity estimates and leakage potential for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raza, Yamama

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to address climate change has gained political momentum, and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology that is seen as being feasible for the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. However, there is ...

  5. Corporate governance and insider trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rozanov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I investigate the relation between corporate governance and insider trading by corporate executives. Despite the general view that trade on non-public information adversely affects capital market participants, the impact ...

  6. Essays on trade, CO?, and the environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Joseph S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first chapter of this thesis uses a general equilibrium model of trade and the environment to investigate two questions. First, how do the gains from trade compare against the environmental costs of trade? Trade can ...

  7. Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned for trans- portation, heating, or the production of electricity, in order to avoid exceeding this 2°C threshold. The majority of CO2 pollution is released when fossil fuels. Coal is particularly damaging, as it produces 70% more CO2 emissions than natural gas for the same

  8. The Chicago VOC trading system : the consequences of market design for performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosobud, Richard F.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chicago cap-and-trade approach to regulating stationary source VOC emissions in the Chicago ozone non-attainment area is a pioneering program that could set a precedent for other urban areas troubled by high ozone ...

  9. The European Carbon Market in Action: Lessons from the First Trading Period Interim Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Convery, Frank

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest greenhouse gas market ever established. The European Union is leading the world's first effort to mobilize market forces to tackle climate change. A precise ...

  10. Compliance Behavior in the EU-ETS: Cross Border Trading, Banking and Borrowing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper exploits a little used data resource within the central registry of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to analyze cross border flows of allowances for compliance purposes during the first ...

  11. The European carbon market in action : the first trading period, Interim report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Convery, Frank J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest greenhouse gas market ever established. The European Union is leading the world's first effort to mobilize market forces to tackle climate change. A precise ...

  12. The Illegal Timber Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Illegal Timber Trade: The Problem & Potential Solutions Presentation for World Bank Workshop@earthsight.org.uk #12;Some of the largest bilateral Illegal timber flows*: By volume (rwe): 1. Logs Russia ­ China 12/Sawn Burma ­ China 1.6 mill m3 (until 2005) Timber vs Processed Products Illegally Sourced vs Illegally

  13. WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH THIS REPORT IS A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD ' S PRO- DUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL. IN 1959- DICATE WHAT IS INCLUDED BESIDES FISHMEAL AND FISH BODY OIL. #12;WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL

  14. WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomborson, Clark

    WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE Qiang Dong Supervised by Professor Clark Thomborson's competitive world. International trade has received some academic attention as an application of Business Process Reengineering. A major issue in international trade is due to problems pertaining to mutual

  15. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  16. These notes are from 2010 Cap and Trade Working Already

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Acid Rain These notes are from 2010 #12;Cap and Trade Working Already December 15, 2009 10:14 AM across the country decreased emissions of SO2, a precursor to acid rain, to 7.6 million tons in 2008. #12;Overview of Acid Rain Phenomenon Most common term for acidification of the environment, which can occur

  17. Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China Claire Gavard, Niven Winchester and Sergey established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy analysis need to be related to the economic, technological, and political forces that drive emissions

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a biologist at the California State Univer- sity San Marcos, with expertise in the effects of carbon dioxideCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

  19. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

  20. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  1. Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, A. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar...

  2. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  3. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  4. Sikkim and Himalayan Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Jahar

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lama. 6 The merchandise imported from Sikkim to Darjeeling, as the report indicated, consisted of horses, cattle including sheep and goats. blankets. salt. musk. wax, ghee, oranges. millet, rice, lime and 11 copper. The imports in 1863 were nearly... would be exported to Sikkim and Tibet replacing brick tea imported from Lhasa and China. Trade was conducted in four routes in Sikkim : two via Namchee and Chadam to the Great Rangeet and two via Zeeme to Goke and Tramduc to Colbong. The Tibetan...

  5. The New Political Economy of Trade : : Heterogeneous Firms and Trade Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plouffe, Michael

    Lobbying on Global Trade. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Roots of American Trade Policy. ’ World Politics 49.3. 309-The Politics of Foreign Trade. Chicago: Aldine- Atherton,

  6. Trade Productivity Upgrading, Trade Fragmentation, and FDI in Manufacturing: The Asian Development Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar; Mora, Jesse

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wang. “How Vertically Specialized is Chinese Trade? ” U.S.International Trade Commission, Office of Economics WorkingDecomposing China-Japan-U.S. Trade: Vertical Specialization,

  7. ELECTORAL BARRIERS TO TRADE:Measuring the Effects of Income and Political Participation on Trade Openness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boussalis, Constantine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preferences for "open" or "protectionist" trade policies. Aseconomic consequences of free trade rise, those The authorsA Guide to Measures of Trade Policy and Openness", presented

  8. Climate Change and Air Quality People's emission of carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    carbon dioxide out of the air using existing "air capture" technologies could cost about the same or lessClimate Change and Air Quality · People's emission of carbon dioxide will affect Earth's sea level to the North Slope of Alaska in the summer of 2009, to study the carbon content in permafrost. Policy · Pulling

  9. argon carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 10 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  10. applied carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 8 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  11. aqueous carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 12 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced emission controls Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Collection: Engineering ; Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 20 7Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report Discussion Synthesis Summary: traditional command and...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced emissions control Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Collection: Engineering ; Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 20 7Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report Discussion Synthesis Summary: traditional command and...

  14. Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·Aids in the attainment of energy independence from foreign sources ­ Low-heating and medium emissions Source: Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide Systems At ultra lean conditions a tradeoff exists between NOx and CO emissions · Lean Premixed Combustion

  15. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  16. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

  17. Gas Turbine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

  18. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    We assess the long-run dynamic implications of market-based regulation of carbon dioxide emissions in the US Portland cement industry. We consider several alternative policy designs, including mechanisms that use production ...

  19. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  20. Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement@bu.edu #12;Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement SerieBrief # 66 | Abril 2011 Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia

  1. WORKING PAPER N 2008 -52 Trade in services and trade in goods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2008 - 52 Trade in services and trade in goods: Differences and complementarities Carolina Lennon JEL Codes: F12, F15, L8 Keywords: International trade in services, trade in goods, gravity ­ ÉCOLE NORMALE SUPÉRIEURE halshs-00586223,version1-15Apr2011 #12;Trade in Services and Trade in Goods

  2. Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room Daniel Beunza at the Santa Fe Institute. #12;2 Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading of trading in the era of quantitative finance. To do so, we conduct an ethnography of arbitrage, the trading

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  4. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  5. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determinedVAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K

  6. Essays on International Finance and Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobility,” in Brookings Trade Forum: 2001, ed. by Susan M.745–75. _______, 1994, “Dynamics of the Trade Balance andthe Terms of Trade: The J-Curve? ” American Economic Review,

  7. Trade Liberalization And Poverty Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Trade Liberalization And Poverty Dynamics in Vietnam 2002-2006 Barbara COELLO World Bank Madior-28Mar2014 #12;1 Trade liberalization and poverty dynamics in Vietnam 2002-2006 Barbara Coello, the World liberalization and poverty dynamics in Vietnam 2002-2006 Abstract This paper shows the evolution of poverty

  8. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  9. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Presentation on Hydrogen...

  10. Green Industrial Policy: Trade and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Stevenson, Megan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers Year 2012 Paper 1126 Green Industrial Policy: Trade© 2012 by author(s). Green Industrial Policy: Trade andreality and the potential for green indus- trial policy. We

  11. aviation-generated emissions due: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Orion Bar. For lambda<3mm the... Ysard, Nathalie 2009-01-01 45 Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector...

  12. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported fromSpatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California Stephane de la Rue du Can, Tom dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion1 to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions

  13. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported fromSpatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California Stephane de la Rue du Can, Tom carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion1 to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions

  14. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

  15. Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide Kwanyong properties that are determined by the chirality1 and diameter of carbon nanotubes. One way to overcome@skku.ac.kr Application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to various electronic devices such as field emission displays, gas

  16. Endogenous trade protection under regional trade agreements: the Andean case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez Bizot, Gustavo

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Endogenous tariff formation has been the subject of theoretical studies that attempt to determine the fundamental economic variables that influence the structure of industry protection implemented by international trade policy makers. An empirical...

  17. Replicating the carry trade through an exchange traded fund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jonathan (Jonathan W.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an overarching belief that the carry trade is a simple investment strategy based on the popular mantra of buying low and selling high. However, in reality, there are several factors that need to be taken into ...

  18. Risk-Neutral Models for Emission Allowance Prices and Option Valuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    liquidity of trading on futures contracts on CO2 emissions allowances, led naturally to the next step. For this reason, market-based mechanisms for emission reduction are supposed to yield pollution control of CO2 equivalent, the short end of the curve being clearly the most actively traded. In this work, we

  19. United States Trade and Foreign Labor Interests: The Effects on Foreign Labor of Linking Trade with Labor Provisions in Bilateral U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soleimani, Jonathan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel K. "The End of the Big Trade Deal." The International2004. Ibid. Sandra Polaski, “Trade and Labor Standards: Afor International Peace: Trade, Equity, and Development

  20. Technology Trade and NAFTA Walter G. Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Technology Trade and NAFTA Walter G. Park Associate Professor Department of Economics American technology trade among member countries relative to their trade with the rest of the world. However, the extent and scope of technology trade varies by member countries. Mexico, for instance, is a recipient

  1. Oil Trading Simon Basey / November 28, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    of oil and gas. #12;9 Trading tactics · ARBITRAGE: trade the dislocation of prices between geographicalOil Trading Simon Basey / November 28, 2013 #12;2 What does IST do? Imports crude oil and other Markets BP's equity crude oil, NGLs and natural gas Generates entrepreneurial trading income Manages BP

  2. NAIHC Convention and Trade Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National American Indian Housing Council's (NAIHC) most longstanding Annual Event, the 39th Annual NAIHC Convention and Trade Show is an opportunity to learn about tribal housing, attend...

  3. Securities trading of concepts (STOC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahan, Ely

    Identifying winning new product concepts can be a challenging process that requires insight into private consumer preferences. To measure consumer preferences for new product concepts, the authors apply a “securities trading ...

  4. Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA, Alexandre to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA INRA, UMR1302 SMART, F-35000 Rennes, France, France Financial support received by the "New Issues in Agricultural, Food and Bio-energy Trade

  5. P-Trade the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    P-Trade ­ the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations · Auctions are negotiation mechanisms configuration depends on multiple factors like traded good, participants, information available on the value of the traded good, etc. The system architecture of P-Trade · A central auction name server (ANS) containing

  6. Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis The World Trade session 2: The Crisis: A Catalyst for More Coherent Trade Policies and Inclusive Growth? Author: Patrick A or carrying the endorsement of the United Nations. #12;1 Policy Brief October 26, 2009 The World Trade Regime

  7. Spatially Differentiated Trade of Permits for Multipollutant Electric Power Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    ) Springer 1 Introduction Electric power plants emit several different air pollutants, such as carbon dioxide],[2]. Moreover, SO2, NOx, and Hg have important spatial characteristics; that is, the impacts of these pollutants for the substitutability or complementarity of emissions from power plants. As one pollutant is reduced, another may rise

  8. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  9. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  10. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

  11. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category Fuel Cells Photovoltaics Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Any...

  12. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to...

  13. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of wind and natural gas generation, retirement of older coal- fired units that have not been retrofitted by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana allowances and offsets, shifting production technology from coal-fired baseload resources to a combination

  14. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    html includes actual household energy consumption data.We use this energy consumption data to estimate nationaldo not have data on energy consumption from public transit

  15. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    City~K Charlotte-Gas~C Tulsa, OK Akron, OH Raleigh-Durha~CCity~K Memphis, TN/A~S Tulsa, OK Albany-Schene~Y MO~L St.Greenville-Sp~ OK Atlanta, GA Tulsa, Dayton-Spring~H City, ~

  16. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas and fuel oil consumption for a household with anfor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then usefuel oil) and residential electricity consumption. Car usage

  17. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    public transit, home heating, and household electricitypublic transportation, home heating (fuel oil and naturalCar usage and home heating involves a relatively simple

  18. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    public transportation, residential heating (natural gas andtransportation, home heating (fuel oil and natural gas) and

  19. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSSCoal Production andOrigin219:

  20. Estimates of State Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural GasRevenueMay

  1. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen EnergyCallawayCapara Energia S ACarbon Clear JumpSources |

  2. An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Impact of Mandatory Company Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting Under The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Celina

    2014-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this research is to examine the effectiveness and impact of the UK’s mandatory reporting of company greenhouse gas emissions, otherwise known as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, in accordance to ...

  3. GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing from tropical and boreal reservoirs are significant. In light of hydropower's potential role as a green to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US Southeast

  4. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW. J. E. Santos. 1. , G. B. Savioli. 2. , J. M. Carcione. 3. , D. Gei. 3. 1. CONICET, IGPUBA, Fac.

  5. Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on carbon dioxide Released: March 26, 2014 Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

  6. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  7. Rising College Premiums in Mexico: How Important Is Trade?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Aashish; Acuna, Belinda

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic reform, trade and investment liberalisation, …G.H. , Harrison, A. , 1999. Trade Liberalization and WageG. , 1999. Who gains from trade reform? Some remaining

  8. Global Trade Policy Development in a Two-Track System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crump, Larry

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    publication 9 March 2006 global trade policy development inbetween nations that reduce trade barriers on a reciprocalmight enhance the global trade policy develop- ment process

  9. Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

  10. From Trade-to-Trade in US Treasuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dungey, Mardi; Henry, Olan; McKenzie, Michael

    will use small limit orders to search for trading counter parties. Once they have identified a dealer who has indicated a willingness to trade, they will enter into quantity negotiations, i.e. a workup will take place. This process affords greater anonymity... the dataset and characterises the data in terms of transaction size, intensity and workups. A comprehensive examination of the data is undertaken and the analysis suggests that the information content of news arrival, volume and workup time each have a role...

  11. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  12. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Technology Shares and Efficiencies, 2005- Figure 54 China CIS Total and Power Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions,coal capacity 100-200 MW power sector carbon dioxide emissionsemissions. Table 41 Comparison of CCS Assumptions in Different Studies % of Coal Power

  13. DEMOCRACYS OPEN SECRET bridges vol. 29, April 2011 / Pielke's Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    explanation was that Germany participates in emissions trading and this would necessarily limit carbon dioxide no matter how much was produced. Obviously, emissions trading cannot make the impossible possible. Many

  14. Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

  15. absorbing sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 158 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  16. amorphous titanium dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 177 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  17. acute sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 82 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  18. addressing chlorine dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 103 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  19. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Abstract: Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were...

  20. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon...

  1. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  2. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers SWRI Logo The Southwest Research...

  3. Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron-sized colloidal carbon spheres via hydrothermal carbonization Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform...

  4. atmospheric sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  5. atmospheric sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012's emissions of 740 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (mmTCO2e), and 41% of the CO2e emitted from

  7. Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    ) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net the rate of in situ decomposition through greater diffusion of oxygen, increasing CO2 emissions, manufacturing, use, and disposition (12, 13). GHG emissions, comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4

  8. SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Randall

    SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

  9. On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in west Los Angeles: Year 4,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    emission inventory.1 For a description of the internal combustion engine and causes of pollutants excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can also (or completely) converting engine-out CO, HC and NO emissions to carbon dioxide (CO2), water

  10. Carbon Dioxide for pH Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagonner, R.C.

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  12. Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

  13. Electricity generation and emissions reduction decisions under uncertainty : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  14. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  15. Aspects of Late Helladic sea trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachhuber, Christoph Stephen

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The trade mechanisms joining the Mycenaean Aegean to the greater Levant have intrigued and eluded Bronze Age scholarship since the earliest discoveries of foreign objects in Mycenaean burials. In the past decade, topics of interregional trade...

  16. Essays on international trade and investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Heiwai

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation consists of three essays on international trade and investment. In the first essay, I study how cross-country differences in labor market institutions shape the pattern of international trade with a focus ...

  17. Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Robbie M; Davis, Steven J; Peters, Glen P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal, oil, gas) to international trade in products (Davis etas traded oil). Globally, consumption of products was moreproducts consumed in many of the same countries increasingly rely on coal, oil and

  18. Essays on trades and security prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obizhaeva, Anna

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis consists of three chapters that investigate the complex relation between security prices and trades of market participants. In the first chapter, I study the evolution of stock prices after trades with different ...

  19. Essays on Trade and Production Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noguera, Guillermo Marcelo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    content, the bilateral VAX ratio of China-U.S. trade is: vaillustrates that the bilateral VAX ratio removes both theTherefore, the bilateral VAX ratio for Japan-U.S. trade is

  20. Food sovereignty and agricultural trade policy commitments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in Agricultural, Food and Bioenergy Trade (AGFOODTRADE)" (Grant Agreement No. 212036) research project, funded production with enough barrier protection to shelter it from world price fluctuations and unfair trading

  1. Fact sheet EU poll illegal timber trade Illegal logging and related timber trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March 2009 Fact sheet EU poll illegal timber trade Illegal logging and related timber trade Illegal level is needed to halt the trade in illegal timber and timber products on the European market trade. It has clarified obligations for all companies in the supply chain to prove the legality

  2. ICTSD Project on Trade and Sustainable Land Management International Centre for Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICTSD Project on Trade and Sustainable Land Management ICTSD International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development Selected Issue Briefs ICTSD Programme on Agricultural Trade and Sustainable Development Trade and Sustainable Land Management in Drylands August 2007 #12;#12;August 2007 ICTSD Programme

  3. Trade Integration and Business Cycle Synchronization in the EMU: the Negative Eect of New Trade Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Trade Integration and Business Cycle Synchronization in the EMU: the Negative Eect of New Trade : 10.1007/s11079-014-9318-8 #12;Abstract This paper questions the impact of trade integration on business cycle synchronization in the EMU by distinguishing increase of existing trade flows (the intensive

  4. Commerce and Trade 17-307 Chapter 17. COMMERCE AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Commerce and Trade 17-307 Chapter 17. COMMERCE AND TRADE I. Introduction A. The General Division and trade are unusual in animals, especially among the "higher" vertebrates. We have to go to "lower that humans engage in division of labor and trade on a variety of scales ranging from the family (division

  5. Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela Cheptea1 approach is widely used to explain trade patterns between countries. In this article we question the simple application of this approach to product/sector-level trade on two grounds. First, we demonstrate

  6. China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% China's forest products trade falls nearly 18%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% 11/08/2009 - 09:05 According to China's latest Customs statistics, foreign trade of China's forest products in the first five months showed a year-on-year general downturn. The total value of foreign trade of China

  7. Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

  8. Illegal Logging and Related Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are the responsibility of the authors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted by Stephen Austin and Sons Ltd The material selected for the printing of this report is Elemental Chlorine framework 14 3.1.3 Checks and balances 16 3.1.4 International trade cooperation 18 3.1.5 Ensuring a balance

  9. Energy trading and information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains reports which were presented at the meeting on Energy Trading and Information Systems. Topics were concerned with the importance and use of information systems to the natural gas industry. Individual papers have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  10. Toolbox Safety Talk DOT Materials of Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Toolbox Safety Talk DOT ­ Materials of Trade Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety by Trades personnel that meet the definition of hazardous materials even though they may be sold as consumer commodities. The DOT regulations have exceptions for Materials of Trade (MOT). The MOT exception provides

  11. IATP | Trade Observatory | Headlines q What's new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IATP | Trade Observatory | Headlines q Home q What's new q Geneva Update q Headlines q Library q Treaty Database q Related sites q About Trade Observatory Select a category to display: Archives August Industries Unite to Seek Free and Fair Trade Canada NewsWire July 8, 2003 Email this pageCanada News

  12. Trade and Resource Policy with Overlapping Generations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Trade and Resource Policy with Overlapping Generations Larry Karp Armon Rezai July 23, 2013 Abstract Trade changes incentives to protect an open-access natural resource. In an OLG setting autarchy. Trade reverses these incentives. In a dynamic political economy, resource policies in both

  13. "Extreme Project Management" One World Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiltinan, Mark

    "Extreme Project Management" One World Trade Center A special presentation with a discussion of managing multiple large projects at the World Trade Center site with multiple adjacencies, complicated 1984), PE, PMP, is the Program Director for One World Trade Center. Lynda Tollner, is a Program

  14. Trade and Resource Sustainability with Overlapping Generations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Trade and Resource Sustainability with Overlapping Generations Larry Karp Armon Rezai March 28, 2014 Abstract Trade changes incentives to protect an open-access natural resource. In an OLG setting autarchy. Trade reverses these incentives. In a dynamic political economy, agents without bequest motives

  15. The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda CEPS Working Document No. 295/June 2008 Thomas L. Brewer Abstract Climate change, international trade, investment and technology transfer are all issues that have............................................................................ 6 3.2 Coverage of the Multilateral Climate and Trade Regimes

  16. Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous and Exogenous Comparative Advantages Coexist Papers Center for International Development at Harvard University #12;CID Working Paper no. 3 Trade is divided between commercialized sector which trades with foreign country and self-sufficient sector which

  17. Research Summary The EU Emissions Trading System: Opportunities for Forests?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is currently the world's largest carbon market. It does not cover carbon sequestration by forests at present. Although the EU ETS does not currently cover forestry carbon sequestration and there is no indication. o Consider potential opportunities associated with the EU ETS and carbon sequestration that may

  18. Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop,Lanka-DLRStandardStaxera GmbH

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/ExplorationGoods | Open Energy Information Impacts of

  20. The EU Emission Trading Scheme Insights from the First Trading Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steininger, Karl W.

    observed in the Kyoto period. Price development in the EU ETS is mainly driven by the perceived stringency

  1. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE HYDRATES CRYSTALLISATION IN EMULSION Aurlie Galfr, Amara Fezoua, Yamina Ouabbas, Ana Cameirao, Jean Michel Herri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    identified as major sources responsible for global warming. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, capture (several cubic meters per second of CO2), the capture technology needs to run at severe conditions and to minimize the cost of the process Innovative technology capture by gas hydrates crystallization can

  3. Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    for global warming. Human activities have contributed to the rise in sea level, change in wind patterns to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find, and increase in temperatures. If this trend in CO2 levels continues to rise it can lead to the loss of portions

  4. Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials S.D. Bakrania *, C., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA Abstract Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide (SnO2) was studied using: Combustion synthesis; Nanoparticles; Tin dioxide; Metals 1. Introduction Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most

  5. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Carbon Dioxide (December 1980) Olusegun Omole, B. S. , University of Ibadan, Nigeria Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. S. Osoba It has long been recognized that carbon dioxide could be used as an oil recovery agent. Both laboratory and field...- tion. Crude oil from the Foster Field in West Texas, of 7 cp and 34 API, 0 was used as the oil in place. Oil displacements were conducted at pres- sures between 750 psig and 1800 ps1g, and at a temperature of 110 F. 0 Carbon dioxide was injected...

  6. Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Figueiredo, Mark A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

  7. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  8. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  9. On fair pricing of emission-related derivatives National University of Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    On fair pricing of emission-related derivatives Juri Hinz National University of Singapore of such derivatives. Key words: environmental risk, energy economics, emission trading, emis- sion derivatives 1 #12 emissions and adjust allowance positions. In the following sections, we address the problem of fair pricing

  10. Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

  11. The Causes of Trade Globalization: A Political-Economy and World-Systems Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Roy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington DC: World Bank. World Trade Organization.2010. World Trade Report2010: Trade in Natural Resources. Geneva, Switzerland: WTO

  12. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of graphene-based titanium dioxide nanocompositesLos Angeles The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based AnodeTHE THESIS The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode

  13. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  14. Unintended Consequences of Transportation Carbon Policies: Land-Use, Emissions, and Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Abstract Renewable fuel standards, low carbon fuel standards, and ethanol subsidies are popular policies to incentivize ethanol production and reduce emissions from transportation. Compared to carbon trading standard (LCFS) and ethanol subsidies have similar effects while costs under an equivalent cap and trade

  15. Reduction of green house gas emission by clean power Jinxu Ding and Arun Somani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trading method can help reduce CO2 emission and realize balance. Keywords: Clean power trading, CO2 to stimulate clean power development in the regions with rich renewable sources, such as wind energy energy, the strategy should be 1 #12;able to maintain the balance of power demand and supply of a region

  16. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leahu, G. L., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Li Voti, R., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Larciprete, M. C., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Belardini, A., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Mura, F., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base ed Applicate per l'Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 16 00161 Roma (Italy); Fratoddi, I. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro, Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures.

  17. U.S. Timber Production, Trade, Consumption,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    and Technology Assessment Unit at the Forest Products Laboratory. Chris McKeever created computer files managers, forest industries, trade associations, forestry schools, renewable resource organizations

  18. Facing an Arbitrage Opportunity: Trade or Wait?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 9, 2014 ... The results obtained herein are in contrast to the standard textbook arbitrage trading ..... 3.2.1 Graphic Illustration and Numerical Experiments.

  19. International Electricity Trade - Open Access | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE has consistently expressed its policy that international electricity trade should be subject to the same principles of comparable open access and non-discrimination that apply...

  20. U.S. Agriculture and International Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Benson, Geoffrey A.; Marchant, Mary; Rosson, C. Parr

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    by high tariffs and nontariff barriers. International trade has a major impact on U.S. agriculture. Exports are crucial, providing a market for a major share of crop production and a growing share of meat output. In 1996, 28 percent of U.S. farm cash... upheavals in the countries of the for- mer Soviet Union will not end soon and this will be an impediment to economic growth and expanded trade. The most recent trade agreement under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the so-called Uruguay...

  1. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  2. Incentive-based approaches for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions : issues and prospects for India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Shreekant.

    As a consequence of the flexibility mechanisms incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol, incentive-based policies such as emissions trading and the clean development mechanism are being widely discussed in the context of greenhouse ...

  3. AME40463: Senior Design Project Spring 2010 ENGINEERING TRADE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batill, Stephen M.

    AME40463: Senior Design Project ­ Spring 2010 ENGINEERING TRADE STUDY The engineering trade study indicate how that information influenced design decisions for the platform. Trade Study Proposal (due Feb prior to the beginning of the all-class meeting at 9:30 a.m. Trade Study Report (due Feb. 23): The trade

  4. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  5. OECD TRADE POLICY WORKING PAPERS The OECD Trade Policy Working Paper series is designed to make available to a wide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    #12;OECD TRADE POLICY WORKING PAPERS The OECD Trade Policy Working Paper series is designed to make been declassified on the responsibility of the Working Party of the Trade Committee under the OECD.contact@oecd.org. OECD TRADE POLICY WORKING PAPERS are published on www.oecd.org/trade © OECD 2011 Applications

  6. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  8. International Trade and Sustainability: A survey Louis Dupuy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    International Trade and Sustainability: A survey Louis Dupuy LAREFI Working Paper N°2012-01 April, institutions and international trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 International trade in the sustainability literature 11 3.1 Openness and sustainability

  9. Market Microstructure Patterns Powering Trading and Surveillance Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Longbing

    Market Microstructure Patterns Powering Trading and Surveillance Agents Longbing Cao (University are then used for powering market trading and surveillance agents for automatically detecting market models. From data analysis perspective, we view it valuable for smart trading in designing legal

  10. Auction Market System in Electronic Security Trading Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Auction Market System in Electronic Security Trading Platform Li Xihao Bielefeld Graduate School security trading platform Xetra oper- ated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange, we consider the Xetra auction. Keywords: agent-based modelling, computational market experiment, electronic security trading platform

  11. Port Royal, Jamaica, and the slave trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, David A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the eighteenth century in the Florida Keys, Henrietta Marie had just quit Port Royal after off-loading her human cargo. The artifact collection of shackles, ship's equipment and trade goods represents the trappings of the maritime slave trade. Particularly...

  12. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  13. A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

  14. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  16. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  17. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 This document summarizes the progress of...

  18. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E. [DFI/Aeronomics Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  19. DOE GC Joins Customs Service Trade Data System to Strengthen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GC Joins Customs Service Trade Data System to Strengthen Enforcement Effort DOE GC Joins Customs Service Trade Data System to Strengthen Enforcement Effort February 14, 2011 -...

  20. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2009 A437 Archaeometric evidence of trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2009 A437 Archaeometric evidence of trade of leucite Roman Volcanic province, Italy), a fact that implies an specific and important trade way of heavy

  1. DOE Proposes New Rules to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proposes New Rules to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information DOE Proposes New Rules to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information March 8,...

  2. DOE Finalizes New Rule to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Finalizes New Rule to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information DOE Finalizes New Rule to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information May 5, 2011...

  3. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

  4. Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and Hydrous Ferric Oxide D I M I T R I (HFO) and titanium dioxide exhibit similar strong attachment of many adsorbates including biomolecules on amorphous titanium dioxide. The results indicate that glutamate adsorbs on HFO as a deprotonated divalent

  5. Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    CHAPTER 30 Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications T. A. Miller, S. D) levels for some species. Tin dioxide (also called stannic oxide or tin oxide) semi- conductor gas sensors undergone extensive research and development. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most important material for use

  6. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations C.M. COLINAa,b, *, C and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based: Fluctuations; Carbon dioxide; 2CLJQ; Joule­Thomson coefficient; Speed of sound INTRODUCTION Simulation methods

  7. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  8. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  9. Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

  10. Systemic trade-risk of critical resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis the role of strongly interconnected markets in fostering systemic instability has been increasingly acknowledged. Trade networks of commodities are susceptible to deleterious cascades of supply shocks that increase systemic trade-risks and pose a threat to geopolitical stability. On a global and a regional level we show that supply risk, scarcity, and price volatility of non-fuel mineral resources are intricately connected with the structure of the world-trade network of or spanned by these resources. On the global level we demonstrate that the scarcity of a resource, as measured by its trade volume compared to extractable reserves, is closely related to the susceptibility of the trade network with respect to cascading shocks. On the regional level we find that to some extent the region-specific price volatility and supply risk can be understood by centrality measures that capture systemic trade-risk. The resources associated with the highest systemic trade-risk indica...

  11. PhD or Masters scholarship to undertake research on the Impact of carbon trading on plantation forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    forestry A PhD or Masters scholarship is available from the School of Forestry at the University forestry. The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) has the potential to have a major impact on plantation forestry in New Zealand including · Profitability and risk · Whether to harvest and when to harvest

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  13. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines Philip in the corrosion related research institutions at IFE and the Ohio University or any other scientific research;#12;Introduction - v - Summary CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus

  14. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  15. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    · Corrosion inhibition very important in the oil industry · Film forming inhibitors containing nitrogenCarbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies Kristin Gilida #12;Outline · Background = Zreal + Zim Rp 1/Corr Rate #12;Tafel · Measures corrosion rate directly · Measures iCORR from A and C

  16. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Julio Enrique

    2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability. Preliminary simulation results show good agreement between classical instability solutions and numerical predictions of finger growth and spacing obtained using different gas/liquid viscosity ratios, relative permeability and capillary pressure models. Further studies are recommended to validate these results over a broader range of conditions.

  17. The TRANSIMS Approach to Emission Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, M.J.; Smith, L.; Thayer, G.R.; Williams, M.D.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation systems play a significant role in urban air quality, energy consumption and carbon-dioxide emissions. Recently, it has been found that current systems for estimating emissions of pollutants from transportation devices lead to significant inaccuracies. Most of the existing emission modules use very aggregate representations of traveler behavior and attempt to estimate emissions on typical driving cycles. However, recent data suggests that typical driving cycles produce relatively low emissions with most emissions coming from off-cycle driving, cold-starts, malfunctioning vehicles, and evaporative emissions. TRANSIMS is a simulation system for the analysis of transportation options in metropolitan areas. It's major functional components are: (1) a population disaggregation module, (2) a travel planning module, (3) a regional microsimulation module, and (4) an environmental module. In addition to the major functional components, it includes a strong underpining of simulation science and an analyst's tool box. The purpose of the environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality. The environmental module uses information from the TRANSIMS planner and the microsimulation and it supports the analyst's toolbox. The TRANSIMS system holds the promise of a more complete description of the role of heterogeneity in transportation in emission estimation.

  18. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology [6,7] .carbon dioxide emissions by major fuel, 2009…………….2 Fig.1.4 Schematic of CO 2 capture systems and technologies……………………………..carbon footprint. One unique technique is using in-situ CO 2 capture technology,

  20. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Union's then limits on CO2 emissions will be conservative inchallenge of achieving CO2 emissions targets without placinga company can reduce CO2 emissions of an operation not