Sample records for dioxide emissions splits

  1. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  2. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  3. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Year) MSA Emissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Electricity (CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions from Driving ElectricityEmissions from Driving (Lbs of CO2) Suburb-City Difference in Electricity (

  4. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas Beneath Mammoth...

  5. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hultman, Nathan E.

    PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report Joint Global Change Research Institute 8400 Baltimore Avenue College Park, Maryland 20740 #12;PNNL-14537

  6. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

  7. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  8. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  9. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  10. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  11. Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

  12. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  13. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  14. Interference-induced splitting of resonances in spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Arun

    2007-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the resonance fluorescence from a coherently driven four-level atom in the Y-type configuration. The effects of quantum interference induced by spontaneous emission on the fluorescence properties of the atom are investigated. It is found that the quantum interference resulting from cascade emission decays of the atom leads to a splitting of resonances in the excited level populations calculated as a function of light detuning. For some parameters, interference assisted enhancement of inner sidebands and narrowing of central peaks may also occur in the fluorescence spectrum. We present a physical understandingof our numerical results using the dressed state description of the atom-light interaction.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  16. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  17. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

  19. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andresdioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission

  20. Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity applying the iterative Bayesian shrinkage procedure. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; Bayesian shrinkage estimator; Heterogeneity JEL classification: O13

  1. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  2. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

  3. Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO{sub 2} emissions in Jinan, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Meng, F.; Wang, M.; He, K. (Energy Systems); (Energy Foundation); (Tsinghua Univ.)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation - in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU) case), then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions - approximately 50% of the BAU scenario emissions.

  4. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  5. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

  7. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Path of China's CO2 Emissions Using Province LevelTransportation (Lbs of CO2) Emissions from Home Heating (LbsStandardized Household CO2 Emissions for Households Living

  8. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  9. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  10. Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effects of global warming. In this article we describe a process which producesa lowProducing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks the electricity production cost by one third. The secondprovides hydrogenor a hydrogen-rich fuel gas

  11. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005 Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    A composite time series of fossil fuels used for combustion was constructed by combining data from a number .......................................................................................................1 S.2 Composite Energy Demand .........................................................................................8 S.5 Methodological Detail: Fossil Combustion Emissions

  12. Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities (Smith et al., 2011) · The following 100 years emissions had rapidly increased by use of coal, and by anthropogenic sources, such as burning of coal, oil and gases. SO2 as a pollutant not only changes the climate

  13. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel oil and natural gas) and electricity usage. We use databetween natural gas or petroleum usage and emissions. If wenatural gas and fuel oil) and residential electricity consumption. Car usage

  14. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  16. Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  17. Abstract--Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused by an increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    design alternatives provides reduction of CO2 emission levels such that the CO2 emissions for 2050 meet Abstract-- Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused regulations at airports through reduction of CO2 for all components of flight operations. The purpose

  18. Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klier, Thomas

    France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

  19. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cylic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  20. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  1. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  2. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  3. Ternary Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to Carbon Dioxide: Making Ir Capable of Splitting C-C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Meng [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Cullen, David A [ORNL; Sasaki, Kotaro [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Marinkovic, N. [University of Delaware; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Adzic, Radoslav R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Splitting the C-C bond is the main obstacle to electroxidation of ethanol (EOR) to CO2. We recently demonstrated that the ternary PtRhSnO2 electrocatalyst can accomplish that reaction at room temperature with Rh having a unique capability to split the C-C bond. In this article we report the finding that Ir can be induced to split the C-C bond as a component of the ternary catalyst. We synthesized, characterized and compared the properties of several ternary electrocatalysts. Carbon-supported nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalysts comprising a SnO2 NP core decorated with multi-metallic nanoislands (MM = PtIr, PtRh, IrRh, PtIrRh) were prepared using a seeded growth approach. An array of characterization techniques were employed to establish the composition and architecture of the synthesized MM /SnO2 NPs, while electrochemical and in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies elucidated trends in activity and the nature of the reaction intermediates and products. Both EOR reactivity and selectivity towards CO2 formation of several of these MM /SnO2/C electrocatalysts are significantly higher compared to conventional Pt/C and Pt/SnO2/C catalysts. We demonstrate that the PtIr/SnO2/C catalyst with high Ir content shows outstanding catalytic property with the most negative EOR onset potential and reasonably good selectivity towards ethanol complete oxidation to CO2. PtRh/SnO2/C catalysts with a moderate Rh content exhibit the highest EOR selectivity, as deduced from infrared studies.

  4. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  5. Measuring Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions in October, 2010 Catastrophic Eruption from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Volcano in Java, Indonesia with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) José A. Morales-Collazo Geology This paper discusses sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud emissions from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia during, Indonesia. In October 26th , 2010, a catastrophic eruption was reported from Merapi causing nearly 386

  6. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

  7. Charge splitting of directed flow and space-time picture of pion emission from the electromagnetic interactions with spectators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Rybicki; Antoni Szczurek

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate the effect of the spectator-induced electromagnetic interaction on the directed flow of charged pions. For intermediate centrality Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=7.7$~GeV, we demonstrate that the electromagnetic interaction between spectator charges and final state pions results in charge splitting of positive and negative pion directed flow. Such a charge splitting is visible in the experimental data reported by the STAR Collaboration. The magnitude of this charge splitting appears to strongly depend on the actual distance between the pion emission site (pion at freeze-out) and the spectator system. As such, the above electromagnetic effect brings new, independent information on the space-time evolution of pion production in heavy ion collisions. From the comparison of our present analysis to our earlier studies made for pions produced at higher rapidity, we formulate conclusions on the rapidity dependence of the distance between the pion emission site and the spectator system. This distance appears to decrease with increasing pion rapidity, reflecting the longitudinal expansion of the strongly-interacting system responsible for pion emission. Thus for the first time, information on the space-time characteristics of the system is being provided by means of the spectator-induced electromagnetic interaction. The above electromagnetic effect being in fact a straight-forward consequence of the presence of spectator charges in the collision, we consider that it should be considered as a baseline for studies of other phenomena, like those related to the electric conductivity of the quark-gluon plasma.

  8. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

  9. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

  10. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  11. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  12. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the ProvincialResults Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National Level In

  13. ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

  14. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

  15. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from Fuel Combustion in 2004.. 34Emissions from Fuel Combustion in California, Million MetricEmission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in

  16. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. EPA), 2005.. Emission Inventory Improvement Program,National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Annex 8A.2: Reportingin the fossil CO 2 emissions inventories, and verify whether

  17. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak [University of Utah] [University of Utah

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called ?chloride process?. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to be extremely effective in achieving these targets. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO{sub 2} per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A flow sheet was developed and a mass and energy balance was performed. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicate that implementation of the new process in the US would result in a 21% decrease in energy consumption, an annual energy savings of 42.7 million GJ. The new process would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% in comparison to the chloride process, an annual reduction of 2.70 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Since the process equipment employed in the new process is well established in other industrial processes and the raw materials for the two processes are identical we believe the capital, labor and materials cost of production of pigment grade TiO{sub 2} using the new method would be at least equivalent to that of the chloride process. Additionally, it is likely that the operating costs will be lower by using the new process because of the reduced energy consumption. Although the new process technology is logical and feasible based on its chemistry, thermodynamic principles, and experimental results, its development and refinement through more rigorous and comprehensive research at the kilogram scale is needed to establish it as a competitive industrial process. The effect of the recycling of process streams on the final product quality should also be investigated. Further development would also help determine if the energy efficiency and the environmental benefits of the new process are indeed significantly better than current commercial methods of pigment manufacture.

  18. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***includes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***ncludes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,

  19. EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6...

  20. Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

  1. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  2. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  3. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist [U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO{sub 2} emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Energy Agency (OECD/IEA): CO 2 emissions fromcombustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA, Paris, 2010. Kashiwagi,data are generated by the IEA and are a no- table feature of

  5. EIA - AEO2012 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of the CSAPR, which helps shift the fuel mix away from coal toward lower carbon fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions reflect the mix of fossil fuels consumed. Given the high...

  6. Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Brentan R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

  7. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  8. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sulfur dioxide smelting reduction smelting reduction iron three-dimensional tonne top-gas recycling blast furnace tonnes per day ultra-low-

  9. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean CO 2 for storage and a hydrogen stream to be recycledand storage ? Flexibility to make CO 2 -free hydrogen forand storage computational fluid dynamics carbon monoxide carbon dioxide direct reduced iron electric arc furnace gram gigajoules hour diatomic hydrogen

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................... 3 2.3 Energy Efficiency Technologies and Measures with gas turbine at Cascades Inc. ............................................... 34 3.5 Boiler blowdown Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Steel Industry .......................5 Table 2.3 Energy Efficiency

  11. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past decade increasing concern over the potential environmental impact associated with the emissions of both gaseous and particulate pollutants has resulted in the promulgation of strict regulatory standards governing such emissions...

  12. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  13. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  15. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  16. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  17. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

  18. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions to oxygen availability in a drained HistosolIncreased O 2 availability from wetland drainage and climateunder greater O 2 availability. We varied gas-phase O 2

  19. The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

  20. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  1. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  2. Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight. Paper to appear in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO2 emissions from New calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements

  3. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI and of crude oil in the near future. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.012814 PACS number(s): 89.65.Gh, 05.45.Tp, 89

  4. become more important as countries agree to emission reduction targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    : immediate stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, regulation of air pollution that balances removal

  5. Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

  6. Thermocouple split follower

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howell, deceased, Louis J. (late of Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, PA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric generator assembly accommodating differential thermal expansion between thermoelectric elements by means of a cylindrical split follower forming a slot and having internal spring loaded wedges that permit the split follower to open and close across the slot.

  7. Emissions Trading, Electricity Industry Restructuring, and Investment in Pollution Abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foss, B . "Carbon Emissions Trading is New Weapon to BattleBehavior and the Emission Trading Market, Resources andof Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading." The Journal of

  8. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual2 EIA372.

  9. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David; on behalf of the iConnect consortium

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    (petrol ICE, diesel ICE, LPG ICE, petrol HEV), engine size (2 litres) and vehicle age. The ‘most used vehicle’ reported by the participants was taken as the reference vehicle for the emissions analysis. Where one or more... fleet average of petrol and diesel car emissions factors. Multiplying total distance travelled by these speed-emissions factors gave us an estimate of the total ‘hot’ emissions for each vehicle when the engine was warmed up. As a final adjustment...

  10. Decoding Titanium Dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decoding Titanium Dioxide Decoding Titanium Dioxide Released: December 03, 2010 Scientists advance understanding of remarkable catalyst STM images of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-octoxy...

  11. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  12. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Guo, Feng-Kun; /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.; Hanhart, Christoph; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  13. The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Alberto, Jr

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

  14. The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

  15. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous110 Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrousproperties have been well studied, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (

  17. Vital Stats SPLIT RESISTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    6 TONS) That's as much as one female African elephant! 25 T SPLITAN ENGINEERING MARVEL W hile the Magnet Lab has developed 14 previous world- record resistive magnets over the years, the new 25 T Split magnet is not simply the next in line. This world-unique magnet system required a complete rethinking

  18. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  19. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissionsScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT

  20. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) CarbonScaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions substantially

  1. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  2. NMR studies of carbon dioxide sequestration in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Rehan

    2015-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the sub-surface is a potential mitigation technique for global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique, understanding the behaviour of CO2 stored...

  3. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

  4. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Pennsylvania. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Pennsylvania to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,837 million gallons.

  5. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

  6. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as wellCO2 emissions (including cement process and fossil fuel combustion

  7. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation ofD. , 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Report of

  8. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

  9. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Baumgart; Daniel Stolarski; Thomas Zorawski

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  11. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  12. Photobiological Water Splitting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photobiological Water Splitting Photobiological Water Splitting Photo of system for photobiological algal hydrogen production. In this process, hydrogen is produced from water...

  13. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  14. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  15. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

  16. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  17. Challenges of Meeting Tier2 Bin2 Tailpipe Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of emissions solutions Poor consumer image of legacy products Gasolinediesel refinery split will become a challenge if diesel market grows significantly Cetane...

  18. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  19. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  20. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  1. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  2. Solar-thermal hybridization of Advanced Zero Emissions Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Khaja, Ragheb Mohamad Fawaz

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide emissions from power production are believed to have significant contributions to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Alternative energy resources, such as solar radiation, may help abate emissions but ...

  3. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  4. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon dioxide (NEU-CO2) emissions, represent a signi?cantSimply described, NEU-CO2 emissions are generated via twoData permitting, NEU-CO2 emissions arising from energy

  5. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  6. The temporal efficiency of SO? emissions trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an empirical evaluation of the temporal efficiency of the U.S. Acid Rain Program, which implemented a nationwide market for trading and banking sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances. We first develop ...

  7. High-Temperature Water Splitting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Temperature Water Splitting High-Temperature Water Splitting High-temperature water splitting (a "thermochemical" process) is a long-term technology in the early stages of...

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  9. What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory (ORNL) has made an important advancement in understanding a classic transition-metal oxide, vanadium dioxide, by quantifying the thermodynamic forces driving...

  10. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  11. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  12. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  13. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  14. Modeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global GeertGeert VinkenVinken11,, FolkertFolkert BoersmaBoersma22, and Daniel J. Jacob, and Daniel J. Jacob33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    ) emissions 5-7% of global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions 3-4% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions ShipModeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global CTMs 70% of the ship emissions occur within 400 km of land Only industrial sector not regulated under

  15. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  16. Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets K A T H E R I N E V . A C K E to more localized carbon budgets, uncertainties in emissions from local sources such as power plants-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report

  17. Uncertainty analysis of capacity estimates and leakage potential for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raza, Yamama

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to address climate change has gained political momentum, and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology that is seen as being feasible for the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. However, there is ...

  18. Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned for trans- portation, heating, or the production of electricity, in order to avoid exceeding this 2°C threshold. The majority of CO2 pollution is released when fossil fuels. Coal is particularly damaging, as it produces 70% more CO2 emissions than natural gas for the same

  19. Building Better Catalysts for Splitting Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Building Better Catalysts for Splitting Water April 1, 2014 Bookmark and Share A schematic of...

  20. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a biologist at the California State Univer- sity San Marcos, with expertise in the effects of carbon dioxideCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

  2. Split string field theory II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David J. Gross; Washington Taylor

    2001-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the ghost sector of cubic string field theory in terms of degrees of freedom on the two halves of a split string. In particular, we represent a class of pure ghost BRST operators as operators on the space of half-string functionals. These BRST operators were postulated by Rastelli, Sen, and Zwiebach to give a description of cubic string field theory in the closed string vacuum arising from condensation of a D25-brane in the original tachyonic theory. We find a class of solutions for the ghost equations of motion using the pure ghost BRST operators. We find a vanishing action for these solutions, and discuss possible interpretations of this result. The form of the solutions we find in the pure ghost theory suggests an analogous class of solutions in the original theory on the D25-brane with BRST operator Q_B coupling the matter and ghost sectors.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

  4. Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, A. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar...

  5. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  6. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  7. Climate Change and Air Quality People's emission of carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    carbon dioxide out of the air using existing "air capture" technologies could cost about the same or lessClimate Change and Air Quality · People's emission of carbon dioxide will affect Earth's sea level to the North Slope of Alaska in the summer of 2009, to study the carbon content in permafrost. Policy · Pulling

  8. argon carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 10 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  9. applied carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 8 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  10. aqueous carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 12 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  11. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas (Robocasting Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM); Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  12. Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is compatible with much of the existing fuel infrastructure.

  13. Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·Aids in the attainment of energy independence from foreign sources ­ Low-heating and medium emissions Source: Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide Systems At ultra lean conditions a tradeoff exists between NOx and CO emissions · Lean Premixed Combustion

  14. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  15. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

  16. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    We assess the long-run dynamic implications of market-based regulation of carbon dioxide emissions in the US Portland cement industry. We consider several alternative policy designs, including mechanisms that use production ...

  17. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  18. Rotations in the Space of Split Octonions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The geometrical application of split octonions is considered. The modified Fano graphic, which represents products of the basis units of split octonionic, having David's Star shape, is presented. It is shown that active and passive transformations of coordinates in octonionic '8-space' are not equivalent. The group of passive transformations that leave invariant the norm of split octonions is SO(4,4), while active rotations is done by the direct product of O(3,4)-boosts and real non-compact form of the exceptional group $G_2$. In classical limit these transformations reduce to the standard Lorentz group.

  19. Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multifamily Buildings...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multifamily Buildings Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multifamily Buildings Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily ...

  20. White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Series of white papers from the U.S....

  1. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport...

  2. Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, P. A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely...

  3. Fast, Efficient Isothermal Redox to Split Water or Carbon Dioxide using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-lFederalFYRANDOMFailure Modesflow phenomena in

  4. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  5. Splitting automorphisms of free Burnside groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atabekyan, Varuzhan S [Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia)] [Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proved that, if the order of a splitting automorphism of odd period n{>=}1003 of a free Burnside group B(m,n) is a prime, then the automorphism is inner. This implies, for every prime n{>=}1009, an affirmative answer to the question on the coincidence of the splitting automorphisms of period n of the group B(m,n) with the inner automorphisms (this question was posed in the 'Kourovka Notebook' in 1990). Bibliography: 17 titles.

  6. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  7. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determinedVAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K

  8. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  9. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported fromSpatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California Stephane de la Rue du Can, Tom dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion1 to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions

  10. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported fromSpatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California Stephane de la Rue du Can, Tom carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion1 to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions

  11. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

  12. Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide Kwanyong properties that are determined by the chirality1 and diameter of carbon nanotubes. One way to overcome@skku.ac.kr Application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to various electronic devices such as field emission displays, gas

  13. Fermion localization on a split brane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumbes, A. E. R.; Vasquez, A. E. O.; Hott, M. B. [UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista - Campus de Guaratingueta - DFQ. Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira Cunha, 333 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we analyze the localization of fermions on a brane embedded in five-dimensional, warped and nonwarped, space-time. In both cases we use the same nonlinear theoretical model with a nonpolynomial potential featuring a self-interacting scalar field whose minimum energy solution is a soliton (a kink) which can be continuously deformed into a two-kink. Thus a single brane splits into two branes. The behavior of spin 1/2 fermions wave functions on the split brane depends on the coupling of fermions to the scalar field and on the geometry of the space-time.

  14. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source that serves an electricity generator with a nameplate capacity equal to or greater than 25 MWe is considered a CO2 budget source for the purpose of these regulations. This section lists...

  15. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  16. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  17. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

  18. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category Fuel Cells Photovoltaics Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Any...

  19. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to...

  20. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of wind and natural gas generation, retirement of older coal- fired units that have not been retrofitted by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana allowances and offsets, shifting production technology from coal-fired baseload resources to a combination

  1. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    html includes actual household energy consumption data.We use this energy consumption data to estimate nationaldo not have data on energy consumption from public transit

  2. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    City~K Charlotte-Gas~C Tulsa, OK Akron, OH Raleigh-Durha~CCity~K Memphis, TN/A~S Tulsa, OK Albany-Schene~Y MO~L St.Greenville-Sp~ OK Atlanta, GA Tulsa, Dayton-Spring~H City, ~

  3. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas and fuel oil consumption for a household with anfor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then usefuel oil) and residential electricity consumption. Car usage

  4. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    public transit, home heating, and household electricitypublic transportation, home heating (fuel oil and naturalCar usage and home heating involves a relatively simple

  5. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    public transportation, residential heating (natural gas andtransportation, home heating (fuel oil and natural gas) and

  6. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSSCoal Production andOrigin219:

  7. Estimates of State Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural GasRevenueMay

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen EnergyCallawayCapara Energia S ACarbon Clear JumpSources |

  9. An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Impact of Mandatory Company Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting Under The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Celina

    2014-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this research is to examine the effectiveness and impact of the UK’s mandatory reporting of company greenhouse gas emissions, otherwise known as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, in accordance to ...

  10. GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing from tropical and boreal reservoirs are significant. In light of hydropower's potential role as a green to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US Southeast

  11. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW. J. E. Santos. 1. , G. B. Savioli. 2. , J. M. Carcione. 3. , D. Gei. 3. 1. CONICET, IGPUBA, Fac.

  12. Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on carbon dioxide Released: March 26, 2014 Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

  13. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  14. Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Kimin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

  15. Design of water-splitting photocatalysts by first principles computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yabi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the design of novel inorganic water-splitting photocatalysts for solar applications using first principles computations. Water-splitting photocatalysts are materials that can photo-catalyze the ...

  16. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    splitting, dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysis. Byhybrid devices such as dye sensitized solar cell-PEC hybrid

  17. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  18. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Technology Shares and Efficiencies, 2005- Figure 54 China CIS Total and Power Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions,coal capacity 100-200 MW power sector carbon dioxide emissionsemissions. Table 41 Comparison of CCS Assumptions in Different Studies % of Coal Power

  19. SSL Splitting and Barnraising: Cooperative Caching with Authenticity Guarantees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    SSL Splitting and Barnraising: Cooperative Caching with Authenticity Guarantees by Christopher T by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;SSL Splitting and Barnraising for the degree of Master of Engineering in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Abstract SSL splitting

  20. A thermodynamically compatible splitting procedure in hyperelasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favrie, N., E-mail: nicolas.favrie@univ-amu.fr; Gavrilyuk, S., E-mail: sergey.gavrilyuk@univ-amu.fr; Ndanou, S., E-mail: serge.ndanou@univ-amu.fr

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A material is hyperelastic if the stress tensor is obtained by variation of the stored energy function. The corresponding 3D mathematical model of hyperelasticity written in the Eulerian coordinates represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. A classical approach for numerical solving of such a 3D system is a geometrical splitting: the 3D system is split into three 1D systems along each spatial direction and solved then by using a Godunov type scheme. Each 1D system has 7 independent eigenfields corresponding to contact discontinuity, longitudinal waves and shear waves. The construction of the corresponding Riemann solvers is not an easy task even in the case of isotropic solids. Indeed, for a given specific energy it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to check its rank-one convexity which is a necessary and sufficient condition for hyperbolicity of the governing equations. In this paper, we consider a particular case where the specific energy is a sum of two terms. The first term is the hydrodynamic energy depending only on the density and the entropy, and the second term is the shear energy which is unaffected by the volume change. In this case a very simple criterion of hyperbolicity can be formulated. We propose then a new splitting procedure which allows us to find a numerical solution of each 1D system by solving successively three 1D sub-systems. Each sub-system is hyperbolic, if the full system is hyperbolic. Moreover, each sub-system has only three waves instead of seven, and the velocities of these waves are given in explicit form. The last property allows us to construct reliable Riemann solvers. Numerical 1D tests confirm the advantage of the new approach. A multi-dimensional extension of the splitting procedure is also proposed.

  1. absorbing sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 158 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  2. amorphous titanium dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 177 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  3. acute sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 82 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  4. addressing chlorine dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 103 Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide CERN...

  5. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces. Abstract: Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were...

  6. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon...

  7. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  8. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers SWRI Logo The Southwest Research...

  9. Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron-sized colloidal carbon spheres via hydrothermal carbonization Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform...

  10. atmospheric sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  11. atmospheric sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012's emissions of 740 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (mmTCO2e), and 41% of the CO2e emitted from

  13. Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    ) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net the rate of in situ decomposition through greater diffusion of oxygen, increasing CO2 emissions, manufacturing, use, and disposition (12, 13). GHG emissions, comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4

  14. SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Randall

    SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

  15. On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in west Los Angeles: Year 4,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    emission inventory.1 For a description of the internal combustion engine and causes of pollutants excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can also (or completely) converting engine-out CO, HC and NO emissions to carbon dioxide (CO2), water

  16. Carbon Dioxide for pH Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagonner, R.C.

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

  17. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  18. Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

  19. Electricity generation and emissions reduction decisions under uncertainty : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  20. 1996 update on compliance and emissions trading under the U.S. acid rain program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    November 1997This paper reports on the second year of compliance with the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions-reduction and -trading provisions of the Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The material is intended ...

  1. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  2. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

  3. Atom-split it for nuclear energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederalAshley BoyleAn overhead viewAtom-split it for

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE HYDRATES CRYSTALLISATION IN EMULSION Aurlie Galfr, Amara Fezoua, Yamina Ouabbas, Ana Cameirao, Jean Michel Herri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    identified as major sources responsible for global warming. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, capture (several cubic meters per second of CO2), the capture technology needs to run at severe conditions and to minimize the cost of the process Innovative technology capture by gas hydrates crystallization can

  5. Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    for global warming. Human activities have contributed to the rise in sea level, change in wind patterns to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find, and increase in temperatures. If this trend in CO2 levels continues to rise it can lead to the loss of portions

  6. Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials S.D. Bakrania *, C., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA Abstract Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide (SnO2) was studied using: Combustion synthesis; Nanoparticles; Tin dioxide; Metals 1. Introduction Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most

  7. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Carbon Dioxide (December 1980) Olusegun Omole, B. S. , University of Ibadan, Nigeria Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. S. Osoba It has long been recognized that carbon dioxide could be used as an oil recovery agent. Both laboratory and field...- tion. Crude oil from the Foster Field in West Texas, of 7 cp and 34 API, 0 was used as the oil in place. Oil displacements were conducted at pres- sures between 750 psig and 1800 ps1g, and at a temperature of 110 F. 0 Carbon dioxide was injected...

  8. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY)

    2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  9. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY); LaBelle, James (Murrieta, CA)

    2000-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  10. The Relationship Between the Circular Polarization and the Magnetic Field for Astrophysical Masers with Weak Zeeman Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. D. Watson; H. W. Wyld

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the magnetic field and the circular polarization of astrophysical maser radiation due to the Zeeman effect under idealized conditions is investigated when the Zeeman splitting is much smaller than the spectral linebreadth and when radiative saturation is significant. The description of the circular polarization, as well as inferences about the magnetic field from the observations, are clearest when the rate for stimulated emission is much less than the Zeeman splitting. The calculations here are performed in this regime, which is relevant for some (if not most) observations of astrophysical masers. We demonstrate that Stokes-$V$ is proportional to the Zeeman splitting and the fractional linear polarization is independent of the Zeeman splitting when the ratio of the Zeeman splitting to the spectral line breadth is small---less than about 0.1. In contrast to its behavior for ordinary spectral lines, the circular polarization for masers that are at least partially saturated does not decrease with increasing angle between the magnetic field and the line-of-sight until they are nearly perpendicular.

  11. Meson mass splittings in unquenched quark models (EEF70)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Burns

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    General results are obtained for meson mass splittings and mixings in unquenched (coupled-channel) quark models. Theorems derived previously in perturbation theory are generalised to the full coupled-channel system. A new formula is obtained for the mass splittings of physical states in terms of the splittings of the valence states. The S-wave hyperfine splitting decreases due to unquenching, but its relation to the vector $e^+e^-$ width is unchanged; this yields a prediction for the missing $\\eta_b(3S)$. The ordinary (quenched) quark model result that the P-wave hyperfine splitting vanishes also survives unquenching. A ratio of mass splittings used to discriminate quarkonium potential models is scarcely affected by unquenching.

  12. Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Figueiredo, Mark A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

  13. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to...

  14. A streamline splitting pore-network approach for computationally...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pore-network approach for computationally inexpensive and accurate simulation of transport in porous A streamline splitting pore-network approach for computationally...

  15. Optimization Online - Global convergence of splitting methods for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guoyin Li

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 2, 2014 ... ... and machine learning. In this paper, we examined two types of splitting methods for solving this nonconvex optimization problem: alternating ...

  16. Sequential Threshold Control in Descent Splitting Methods for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 5, 2014 ... coordinate-wise steps together with a special threshold control. ... the computational process and leads to the (forward-backward) splitting ...

  17. A primal-dual splitting method for convex optimization involving ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 16, 2011 ... We propose a new first-order splitting algorithm for solving jointly the pri- ... volving the sum of a smooth function with Lipschitzian gradient, a ...

  18. A Three-Operator Splitting Scheme and its Optimization Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damek Davis

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 4, 2015 ... Abstract: Operator splitting schemes have been successfully used in computational sciences to reduce complex problems into a series of ...

  19. A Monotone+Skew Splitting Model for Composite Monotone ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 47H05; Secondary 47J25, ...... Wajs, Signal recovery by proximal forward-backward splitting, Multiscale Model.

  20. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  1. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  2. Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

  3. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of graphene-based titanium dioxide nanocompositesLos Angeles The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based AnodeTHE THESIS The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode

  4. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  5. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, II, Thomas P. (Aiken, SC); Purohit, Jwalit J. (Evans, GA); Fazio, John M. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  6. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leahu, G. L., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Li Voti, R., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Larciprete, M. C., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Belardini, A., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Mura, F., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base ed Applicate per l'Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 16 00161 Roma (Italy); Fratoddi, I. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro, Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures.

  7. Electrodynamics of a split-transpolar aurora S. Eriksson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eriksson, Stefan

    Electrodynamics of a split-transpolar aurora S. Eriksson,1 G. Provan,2 F. J. Rich,3 M. Lester,2 S. Re`me (2006), Electrodynamics of a split-transpolar aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A11319, doi:10. In the literature they are referred to as Sun-aligned arcs, polar cap arcs, transpolar arcs (TPA), or theta aurora

  8. Market Split and Basis Reduction: Towards a Solution of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    in the book by Williams [13]. There, the application was related to the oil market in the UKMarket Split and Basis Reduction: Towards a Solution of the Cornu#19;ejols-Dawande Instances K-and-bound. They o#11;ered these market split instances as a challenge to the integer programming community

  9. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  10. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  11. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  12. Open-split interface for mass spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diehl, John W. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An open-split interface includes a connector body having four leg members projecting therefrom within a single plane, the first and third legs being coaxial and the second and fourth legs being coaxial. A tubular aperture extends through the first and third legs and a second tubular aperture extends through the second and fourth legs, connecting at a juncture within the center of the connector body. A fifth leg projects from the connector body and has a third tubular aperture extending therethrough to the juncture of the first and second tubular apertures. A capillary column extends from a gas chromatograph into the third leg with its end adjacent the juncture. A flow restrictor tube extends from a mass spectrometer through the first tubular aperture in the first and third legs and into the capillary columnm end, so as to project beyond the end of the third leg within the capillary column. An annular gap between the tube and column allows excess effluent to pass to the juncture. A pair of short capillary columns extend from separate detectors into the second tubular aperture in the second and fourth legs, and are oriented with their ends spaced slightly from the first capillary column end. A sweep flow tube is mounted in the fifth leg so as to supply a helium sweep flow to the juncture.

  13. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  14. A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

  15. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  17. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  18. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY12 Q4 This document summarizes the progress of...

  19. Engineering fast and stable splitting of matter waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Torrontegui; S. Martínez-Garaot; M. Modugno; Xi Chen; J. G. Muga

    2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    When attempting to split coherent cold atom clouds or a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) by bifurcation of the trap into a double well, slow adiabatic following is unstable with respect to any slight asymmetry, and the wave "collapses" to the lower well, whereas a generic fast chopping splits the wave but it also excites it. Shortcuts to adiabaticity engineered to speed up the adiabatic process through non-adiabatic transients, provide instead quiet and robust fast splitting. The non-linearity of the BEC makes the proposed shortcut even more stable.

  20. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

  1. Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and Hydrous Ferric Oxide D I M I T R I (HFO) and titanium dioxide exhibit similar strong attachment of many adsorbates including biomolecules on amorphous titanium dioxide. The results indicate that glutamate adsorbs on HFO as a deprotonated divalent

  2. Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    CHAPTER 30 Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications T. A. Miller, S. D) levels for some species. Tin dioxide (also called stannic oxide or tin oxide) semi- conductor gas sensors undergone extensive research and development. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most important material for use

  3. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations C.M. COLINAa,b, *, C and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based: Fluctuations; Carbon dioxide; 2CLJQ; Joule­Thomson coefficient; Speed of sound INTRODUCTION Simulation methods

  4. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  5. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  6. Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

  7. Collider Phenomenology with Split-UED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Park, Seong Chan; /Tokyo U., IPMU; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the collider implications of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. The non-vanishing fermion mass in the bulk, which is consistent with the KK-parity, largely modifies the phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions. We scrutinize the behavior of couplings and study the discovery reach of the Tevatron and the LHC for level-2 Kaluza-Klein modes in the dilepton channel, which would indicates the presence of the extra dimensions. Observation of large event rates for dilepton resonances can result from a nontrivial fermion mass profile along the extra dimensions, which, in turn, may corroborate extra dimensional explanation for the observation of the positron excess in cosmic rays. The Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions scenario has received great attention. Recently non-vanishing bulk fermion masses have been introduced without spoiling the virtue of KK-parity. The fermion profiles are no longer simple sine/cosine functions and depend upon the specific values of bulk parameters. The profiles of fermions are split along the extra dimensions while the wave functions of the bosons remain the same as in UED. A simple introduction of a KK-parity conserving bulk fermion mass has significant influences on collider aspects as well as astrophysical implications of UED. For instance, the DM annihilation fraction into certain SM fermion pairs is either enhanced or reduced (compared to the MUED case) so that one can perhaps explain the PAMELA positron excess while suppressing the anti-proton flux. In this paper, we have concentrated on collider phenomenology of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. We have revisited the KK decomposition in detail and analyzed wave function overlaps to compute relevant couplings for collider studies. We have discussed general collider implication for level-1 KK modes and level-2 KK with non-zero bulk mass and have computed LHC reach for the EW level-2 KK bosons, {gamma}{sub 2} and Z{sub 2}, in the dilepton channel. The LHC should able to cover the large parameter space (up to M{sub V{sub 2}} {approx} 1.5 TeV for {mu}L {ge} 1) even with early data assuming {approx}100 pb{sup -1} or less. The existence of double resonances is one essential feature arising from extra dimensional models. Whether or not one can see double resonances depends both on how degenerate the two resonances are and on the mass resolution of the detector. The very high P{sub T} from the decay makes resolution in dimuon channel worse than in dielectron final state. This is because one can reconstruct electron from ECAL but muon momentum reconstruction relies on its track, which is barely curved in this case. Further indication for SUED might be the discovery of W'-like signature of mass close to Z{sub 2}. The MUED predicts a somewhat lower event rate due to 1-loop suppressed coupling of level-2 bosons to SM fermion pair, while it exists at tree level in SUED. Therefore in UED, one has to rely on indirect production of level-2 bosons, whose collider study requires complete knowledge of the model: the mass spectrum and all the couplings. On the other hand, in the large {mu} limit of SUED, the dependence on mass spectrum is diminished since level-2 KK bosons decay only into SM fermion pairs. This allows us to estimate the signal rate from their direct production, so that they can be discovered at the early phase of the LHC. The indirect production mechanism only increases production cross sections, improving our results. Once a discovery has been made, one should try to reconstruct events and do further measurements such as spin and coupling determination, with more accumulated data, which might discriminate KK resonances from other Z' models. The coupling measurement is directly related to the determination of the bulk masses. A challenging issue might be the existence of two resonances which are rather close to each other.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  9. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines Philip in the corrosion related research institutions at IFE and the Ohio University or any other scientific research;#12;Introduction - v - Summary CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus

  10. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  11. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    · Corrosion inhibition very important in the oil industry · Film forming inhibitors containing nitrogenCarbon Dioxide Corrosion and Inhibition Studies Kristin Gilida #12;Outline · Background = Zreal + Zim Rp 1/Corr Rate #12;Tafel · Measures corrosion rate directly · Measures iCORR from A and C

  12. Field Monitoring Protocol: Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Tomerlin, J.; Winkler, J.; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential Mini-Split Heat Pump. It will be used in high-performance retrofit applications, and as part of DOE's Building America residential research program.

  13. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  14. SPLITTING MANIFOLD APPROXIMATE FIBRATIONS J. L. BRYANT AND P. KIRBY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluffi, Paolo

    SPLITTING MANIFOLD APPROXIMATE FIBRATIONS J. L. BRYANT AND P. KIRBY Abstract. Suppose M, embeddings. Partially supported by NSF grant DMS-9626624. 1 #12; 2 J. L. BRYANT AND P. KIRBY 2. Definitions

  15. Shear-wave splitting and reservoir crack characterization: the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shear-wave splitting and reservoir crack characterization: the Coso geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Shear-wave...

  16. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Julio Enrique

    2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability. Preliminary simulation results show good agreement between classical instability solutions and numerical predictions of finger growth and spacing obtained using different gas/liquid viscosity ratios, relative permeability and capillary pressure models. Further studies are recommended to validate these results over a broader range of conditions.

  17. The TRANSIMS Approach to Emission Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, M.J.; Smith, L.; Thayer, G.R.; Williams, M.D.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation systems play a significant role in urban air quality, energy consumption and carbon-dioxide emissions. Recently, it has been found that current systems for estimating emissions of pollutants from transportation devices lead to significant inaccuracies. Most of the existing emission modules use very aggregate representations of traveler behavior and attempt to estimate emissions on typical driving cycles. However, recent data suggests that typical driving cycles produce relatively low emissions with most emissions coming from off-cycle driving, cold-starts, malfunctioning vehicles, and evaporative emissions. TRANSIMS is a simulation system for the analysis of transportation options in metropolitan areas. It's major functional components are: (1) a population disaggregation module, (2) a travel planning module, (3) a regional microsimulation module, and (4) an environmental module. In addition to the major functional components, it includes a strong underpining of simulation science and an analyst's tool box. The purpose of the environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality. The environmental module uses information from the TRANSIMS planner and the microsimulation and it supports the analyst's toolbox. The TRANSIMS system holds the promise of a more complete description of the role of heterogeneity in transportation in emission estimation.

  18. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology [6,7] .carbon dioxide emissions by major fuel, 2009…………….2 Fig.1.4 Schematic of CO 2 capture systems and technologies……………………………..carbon footprint. One unique technique is using in-situ CO 2 capture technology,

  20. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  1. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Surface Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites Phase I SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Public confidence in safety is a prerequisite to the success of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage for any program that intends to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In that regard, this project addresses the security of CO2 containment by undertaking development of what is called �¢����an open path device�¢��� to measure CO2 concentrations near the ground above a CO2 storage area.

  2. Capture of Carbon Dioxide Archived Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services, Inc. Electric Power Research Institute Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Power Generation Business Unit 9141990 Advanced Emissions Control Development Program...

  3. The pile-splitting problem M117, October 12, 2011 (due October 14, 2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Sarah

    The pile-splitting problem M117, October 12, 2011 (due October 14, 2011) Your names: 1. The Pile Problem Given n objects in a pile, split the objects into two smaller piles. Continue to split each pile into two smaller piles until there are n piles of size one. At each splitting, compute the product

  4. Chiral Extrapolation of Lattice Data for Heavy Meson Hyperfine Splittings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X.-H. Guo; P.C. Tandy; A.W. Thomas

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the chiral extrapolation of the lattice data for the light-heavy meson hyperfine splittings D*-D and B*-B to the physical region for the light quark mass. The chiral loop corrections providing non-analytic behavior in m{sub {pi}} are consistent with chiral perturbation theory for heavy mesons. Since chiral loop corrections tend to decrease the already too low splittings obtained from linear extrapolation, we investigate two models to guide the form of the analytic background behavior: the constituent quark potential model, and the covariant model of QCD based on the ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The extrapolated hyperfine splittings remain clearly below the experimental values even allowing for the model dependence in the description of the analytic background.

  5. Accelerating the Fourier split operator method via graphics processing units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiko Bauke; Christoph H. Keitel

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Current generations of graphics processing units have turned into highly parallel devices with general computing capabilities. Thus, graphics processing units may be utilized, for example, to solve time dependent partial differential equations by the Fourier split operator method. In this contribution, we demonstrate that graphics processing units are capable to calculate fast Fourier transforms much more efficiently than traditional central processing units. Thus, graphics processing units render efficient implementations of the Fourier split operator method possible. Performance gains of more than an order of magnitude as compared to implementations for traditional central processing units are reached in the solution of the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and the time dependent Dirac equation.

  6. The Running coupling BFKL anomalous dimensions and splitting functions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorne, Robert S

    2 2 + 30.72?¯50? ) . (2.36) 14 This contribution to the splitting function for t = 6 and is shown in fig. 6.a. Note that because of the truncation of GE(N, t), beyond 6th order the expression for PLOgg (?, ?s(Q2)) is not what one would really get... .K. Abstract I explicitly calculate the anomalous dimensions and splitting functions governing the Q2 evolu- tion of the parton densities and structure functions which result from the running coupling BFKL equation at LO, i.e. I perform a resummation in powers...

  7. New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to APS Science Highlights rss feed New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases April 9, 2014 Bookmark and Share The SIFSIX materials in order of increasing...

  8. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Office of Program Performance and Benefits 2 Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies May 2014...

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  10. american carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of relative proximity of those Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 11 The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Geosciences Websites Summary: The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon...

  11. anthropogenic carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps MIT - DSpace Summary: The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (COsubscript 2) in structural and stratigraphic traps is...

  12. Gel and process for preventing carbon dioxide break through

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandiford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of carbon dioxide in carbon dioxide break-through fingers in a subterranean formation, the process comprising: (a) introducing a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide and gases containing carbon dioxide into a subterranean deposit containing carbon dioxide break-through fingers; (b) after the carbon dioxide break-through fingers have sorbed a predetermined amount of the gas, stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, (c) after stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into the subterranean formation and into the carbon dioxide break-through fingers, the gel-forming composition being operable, when contacting carbon dioxide break-through fingers containing the brine which has absorbed substantial amounts of carbon dioxide to form a gel in the fingers which is operable for retarding the flow of the gas in the finger. The gel-forming composition comprises: i. an aqueous solution comprising a first substance selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl alcohol copolymers, and mixtures thereof, and ii. an amount of a second substance selected from the group consisting of aldehydes, aldehyde generating substances, acetals, acetal generating substances, and mixtures thereof.

  13. acute nitrogen dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas,...

  14. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada- relations between surface phenomena and the geothermal reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  15. assisted silicon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide substrates is described. The approach consists of solid such as displays and thin-film polycrystalline solar cells. Particularly important for low- cost thin-film solar...

  16. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  17. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-�������­���¢�������Energy, Carbon-�������­Dioxide-�������­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

  18. Dual-frequency terahertz emission from splitting filaments induced by lens tilting in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhelin; Chen, Yanping, E-mail: yanping.chen@sjtu.edu.cn; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Xu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sheng, Zhengming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Dual-frequency terahertz radiation from air-plasma filaments produced with two-color lasers in air has been demonstrated experimentally. When a focusing lens is tilted for a few degrees, it is shown that the laser filament evolves from a single one to two sub-filaments. Two independent terahertz sources emitted from the sub-filaments with different frequencies and polarizations are identified, where the frequency of terahertz waves from the trailing sub-filament is higher than that from the leading sub-filament.

  19. Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes, carbon dioxide, classical thermodynamics Introduction The increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  1. 1. Band engineering is required to achieve water splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    of hydrogen as a clean energy source would potentially solve the energy crisis as well as global warming due Nanowire structure with large surface to volume ratio, excellent for water splitting Hydrogen Production One of the Holy Grails of Chemistry Nano-Electronic Devices and Materials McGill Electrical, Computer

  2. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  3. Water Splitting DOI: 10.1002/anie.201203174

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    sunlight for the production of hydrogen yields a storable product, which can be used as a fuel.[1 for use in a solar-driven hydrogen production system without bias should have both a high current densityWater Splitting DOI: 10.1002/anie.201203174 p-Type InP Nanopillar Photocathodes for Efficient Solar

  4. Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting Le Chen,, Esther of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 has remained relatively underexplored. Here, we report the synthesis of BiVO4 thin films by reactive

  5. Boosting the Efficiency of Suspended Photocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    photovoltaic systems coupled to water electro- lyzers. These can achieve over 18% overall efficiencyBoosting the Efficiency of Suspended Photocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting It is a significant to the cost of photovoltaics and make solar energy technology even less competitive with polluting fossil

  6. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  7. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  8. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  9. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems and CO{sub 2} capture processes. Financial models were developed to estimate the capital cost, operations and maintenance cost, cost of electricity, and CO{sub 2} avoidance cost. Results showed that, depending on the plant size and the type of coal burned, CO{sub 2} avoidance cost is between $47/t to $67/t for a PC +MEA plant, between $22.03/t to $32.05/t for an oxygen combustion plant, and between $13.58/t to $26.78/t for an IGCC + Selexol plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact on the CO2 avoidance cost of the heat of absorption of solvent in an MEA plant and energy consumption of the ASU in an oxy-coal combustion plant. An economic analysis of CO{sub 2} capture from an ethanol plant was also conducted. The cost of CO{sub 2} capture from an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 100 million gallons/year was estimated to be about $13.92/t.

  13. ammonia-water-carbon dioxide mixtures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and n-pentane - n-octane - carbon dioxide... Wirawan, Januar Fitri Santo 2012-06-07 4 Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Engineering...

  14. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    reservoir scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent investigations of underground carbon dioxide storage for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research

  15. actinide-zirconium dioxide solid-solutions: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration...

  16. Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Uwe

    stage to prevent potential danger to workforce and material, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCSDevelopment of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Florian Poppa and Uwe the development of a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) and the experiences

  17. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  18. Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M capture using monoethanolamine (MEA). MEA is an appropriate choice for a baseline study since

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman Students #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total1 . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been warming, and the development of efficient methods for capturing CO2 from industrial flue gas has become

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] Carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes embody a group of technologies for the capture of CO2 from powerCarbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431 Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New- and gas-fired power plants.[3­5] Such conven- tional technologies for large-scale capture have been com

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

  3. ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide. Burtis Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 4777's (DOE) Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black,2,5,6* Abstract Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological a particle's size to the nanometric dimension can greatly modify its properties for applications

  5. The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski Submitted to the Department capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected into deep geologic reservoirs

  6. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  7. Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions-validation (GCV) and x2 test are compared for the first time under a realistic setting in a mesoscale CO2 estimation, uncertainty quantification, mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions 1. Introduction The atmosphere

  8. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall loading. The absorption rate did not follow pseudo first-order beha®ior except at ®ery low loading. All

  9. Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast states that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 megawatts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009.

  10. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  11. Nonthermal Water Splitting on Rutile TiO2: Electron-Stimulated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nonthermal Water Splitting on Rutile TiO2: Electron-Stimulated Production of H-2 and O-2 in Amorphous Solid Water Films on TiO2 Nonthermal Water Splitting on Rutile TiO2:...

  12. First principles high throughput screening of oxynitrides for water-splitting photocatalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    and eleven quaternary oxynitrides. Broader context Water-splitting photocatalysis directly converts the solar and Honda,1,2 the photocatalysis of water splitting has become an active research area and a promising way

  13. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

  14. Optimal Design of Power-Split Transmissions for Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Optimal Design of Power-Split Transmissions for Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicles Kai Loon Cheong, Perry Y. Li and Thomas R. Chase Abstract-- Hydraulic hybrid vehicles are inherently power dense. Power and input coupled power-split configurations. Keywords: Hybrid vehicles, hydraulics, power-split, engine

  15. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6152E Lighting energy savings potential of split- pane electrochromic windows controlled potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort L was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled

  16. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

  17. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  18. Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunstall, M.G. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Graeber, G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO{sub 2} concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse heating offers a further opportunity for utilization of the carbon dioxide present in the fluid. The main difficulty is that plants react adversely to hydrogen sulphide which is invariably mixed, at some concentration, with the CO{sub 2} from geothermal fluids. Even very low H{sub 2}S concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg can have negative effects on the growth of plants (National Research Council, 1979). Therefore, an appropriate purification process for the CO{sub 2} must be used to avoid elevated H{sub 2}S levels in the greenhouses. The use of adsorption and absorption processes is proposed. Two purification processes have been modelled using the ASOEN PLUS software package, using the Geothermal Greenhouses Ltd. Operation Kawerau New Zealand and an example. A greenhouse area of 8,000 m{sup 2}, which would create a demand for approximately 20 kg CO{sub 2} per hour, was chosen based on a proposed expansion at Kawerau. The Kawerau operation currently takes geothermal steam (and gas) from a high temperature 2-phase well to heat an area of 1650 m{sup 2}. Bottled carbon dioxide is utilized at a rate of about 50 kg per day, to provide CO{sub 2} levels of 800 mg/kg when the greenhouse is closed and 300 to 350 mg/kg whilst venting. In England and the Netherlands, CO{sub 2} levels of 1000 mg/kg are often used (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989) and similar concentrations are desired at Kawerau, but current costs of 0.60 NZ$/kg for bottled CO{sub 2} are too high (Foster, 1995).

  19. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric * Hydroelectric reservoirs cover an area of 3.4 Ã? 105 km2 and comprise about 20% of all reservoirs. In addition dioxide and methane from hydroelectric reservoirs, on the basis of data from 85 globally distributed

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  1. e are hearing a lot these days about carbon emissions and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    that solar energy into a rela- tively small volume can raise its temper- ature quite a bit, even on a cold of climate change or global warming. The basic problem, we are told, is the carbon dioxide that is released carbon emissions is overblown? To answer that we need to understand what are called climate forcings

  2. U.S. EPA State Carbon Emissions Goals Georgia Fact Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    reducing power generation from existing coal power plants. This is proposed as an existing power plant carbon dioxide emission 2030 state goals for electric power plants. These goals vary widely from state power plant efficiencies by 6%; 2. More fully utilizing existing natural gas power plants and thereby

  3. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for presentation at DOE First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, 2001, Washington D.C. #12 sequestration generally refers to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosyntheticEconomic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration

  4. Science Highlight March 2010 Schematic drawing of the setup for x-ray emission spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizingScience Highlight ­ March 2010 Schematic drawing of the setup for x-ray emission spectroscopy of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contrib- utes

  5. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overcamp, T.J.; Speer, M.P.; Griner, S.J.; Cash, D.M. [Clemson Univ., Anderson, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of the gaseous and particulate emissions from eight experimental tests of a DC arc melter to treat simulated Savannah River soils contaminated with metals, surrogates for radionuclides, and organic debris. The gaseous analyses reported on the concentrations of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The carbon dioxide concentration was high for all runs. For the runs with an air purge, the carbon monoxide concentration ranged up to 10% in the runs with the debris and 2% in the runs without debris. Hydrogen ranged up to 5% by with debris and up to 1% without debris. The methane concentration ranged up to 7,000 ppm{sub v} for the runs with debris and 2,000 ppm for the runs without debris. With a nitrogen purge, oxygen concentrations were less than 1%. The carbon dioxide concentrations ranged from 3 to 15%. Much of this carbon dioxide was probably due the carbonates added to the feed material. The carbon monoxide concentration ranged up to 20% with the debris and 7% without debris. Hydrogen was above 6% in with debris and up to 6% without debris. The methane concentration ranged up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} with debris and 4,000 ppm{sub v} without debris. The particulate concentrations exiting ranged from 32 to 145 g/m{sup 3}. From the chemical analyses, the primary elements were silicon and calcium. The CHN analyses indicated that carbon, probably as carbonates, are an additional component in the particulate matter. The estimated emissions were at a level of 3% or less for cerium, up to 7% for nickel, and 11 to 30% for cesium.

  6. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.

  7. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    circuitry/power supply Non-galvanic Single material (no electrodes) Ethanol/NG Steam O2- 1/2 O2 + 2e- 1/2 O.C2H5OH + 1/2 O2 2CO + 3H2 Predominant products of ethanol reforming: H2, CO, CO2, CH4, H2O #12Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM

  8. Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

  9. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, Emily

    , University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA Abstract Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emis- sions from streams could also contribute methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble

  10. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  11. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  12. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  13. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  14. Helium Migration Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Guillaume; Desgardin, Pierre; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France [CERI, CNRS, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, ORLEANS, 45071 (France); Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaelle [DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance, 13108 (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO{sub 2} sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with {sup 3}He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H reaction. {sup 3}He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900 deg. C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects. (authors)

  15. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

  16. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore »melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  17. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  18. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Hunt, Jennifer; Patel, Dilip; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric power while capturing CO2 from flue gas, such as from an existing pulverized coal (PC) plant. Laboratory scale testing of the ECM has verified the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Recently, FCE was awarded a contract (DE-FE0007634) from the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the use of ECM to efficiently and cost effectively separate CO2 from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from flue gas of an existing PC plant with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) produced by the plant. The specific objectives and related activities planned for the project include: 1) conduct bench scale tests of a planar membrane assembly consisting of ten or more cells of about 0.8 m2 area each, 2) develop the detailed design for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to an existing PC plant, and 3) evaluate the effects of impurities (pollutants such as SO2, NOx, Hg) present in the coal plant flue gas by conducting laboratory scale performance tests of the membrane. The results of this project are anticipated to demonstrate that the ECM is an advanced technology, fabricated from inexpensive materials, based on proven operational track records, modular, scalable to large sizes, and a viable candidate for >90% carbon capture from existing PC plants. In this paper, the fundamentals of ECM technology including: material of construction, principal mechanisms of operation, carbon capture test results and the benefits of applications to PC plants will be presented.

  19. Anionic group 6B metal carbonyls as homogeneous catalysts for carbon dioxide/hydrogen activation: the production of alkyl formates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Ovalles, C.

    1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of alkyl formates from the hydrocondensation of carbon dioxide in alcohols utilizing anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides as catalysts is herein reported. HM(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ (M = Cr, W; derived from ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/) and their products of carbon dioxide insertion, HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, have been found to be effective catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO/sub 2/ in alcohols under rather mild conditions (loading pressures of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/, 250 psi each, and 125/sup 0/C) to provide alkyl formates. The only metal carbonyl species detected in solution via spectroscopy, both at the end of a catalytic period and during catalysis, were M(CO)/sub 6/ and HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/. The metal hexacarbonyls were independently shown to be catalytically inactive. A catalytic cycle is proposed which initially involves release of formic acid from the metal center, either by reductive elimination of the hydrido formato ligands or ligand-assisted heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen with loss of formic acid. In a rapid subsequent process HCOOH reacts with alcohols to yield HCOOR. The addition of carbon monoxide retards alkyl formate production, strongly implying CO/sub 2/ to be the primary source of the carboxylic carbon atom in HCOOR. This was verified by carrying out reactions in the presence of HCO/sub 2/W(/sup 13/CO)/sub 5//sup -/ which provided only H/sup 12/COOR after short reaction periods. However, in the absence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/ species were observed to be effective catalyst precursors for converting CO and methanol into methyl formate. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  20. A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of mercury down to the low hundreds of pptr has been accomplished in the presence of SO{sub 2} at concentration levels much higher than that found in typical flue gas emissions. SRD scientists extended the interferent testing to each individual component found in flue gas. It was found that only SO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the ring-down decay curve. Upon completion of testing the components of flue gas individually a simulated flue gas stream was used to test to the CRD instrument. The result showed accurate detection of mercury down to levels below 100 pptr in a simulated flue gas stream with the concentrations of the various components above that found in a typical untreated flue gas. A sampling system was designed and integrated into the CRD instrument to carry the sample from the flue gas stack to the CRD cavity. The sampling system was constructed so that it could be placed very close to the sampling port. SRD scientists were able to couple the UV laser light into an optical fiber, which is then sent to the sampling system. This allows the laser system to be isolated from the sampling system. Initial long-term testing revealed a couple of problems related to the stability of the output frequency of the laser system. These problems have been successfully dealt with by incorporating specific software solutions into the overall data acquisition program. The project culminated in a field test conducted at the DOE/NETL pilot plant facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The object of the test was the evaluation of a cavity ringdown spectrometer constructed for the detection of TOTAL vapor phase mercury as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). Although there is the potential for the instrument to determine the amount of speciation between neutral elemental mercury (Hg{sup (o)}) and oxidized mercury (Hg{sup (+2)}), the initial test plan was to concentrate on the measurement of the total mercury. Another added benefit is that the measurements will report the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) concentration throughout the test. This report concludes the technical work asso

  1. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  2. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  4. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  5. Topological size effect in tin-dioxide cluster films produced by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksimenko, L. S.; Matyash, I. E.; Mishchuk, O. N.; Rudenko, S. P.; Serdega, B. K., E-mail: bserdega@gmail.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties of tin-dioxide nanofilms produced by reactive sputtering are studied by the internal reflection technique and modulation polarimetry. The angular and spectral characteristics of the reflection coefficients R{sub s}{sup 2} and R{sub p}{sup 2}are studied for linear-polarized radiations, for which the wave electric field is, correspondingly, orthogonal and parallel to the plane of incidence. The characteristics of the physical difference between the reflection coefficients, {rho} = R{sub s}{sup 2}-R{sub p}{sup 2}, are studied as well. From the experimental results, it follows that (i) the doping-induced finite conductivity of the film brings about the appearance of surface plasmon resonance; (ii) the shape of the spectral and angular characteristics of the parameter {rho} is indicative of the cluster structure of the film, which is in agreement with the phase topology data obtained by atomic force microscopy; and (iii) the nonspherical shape of the clusters is responsible for the splitting of resonances and for the dependence of their parameters on the angle of incidence, which defines the topological size effect.

  6. ambient sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17...

  7. Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and several episodes in London (1). All fuels used by humans such as coal, oil, natural gas, peat, wood of absorbing sulfur dioxide either in water or in aqueous slurries

  8. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  9. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  10. aqueous chlorine dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28 Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets CERN Preprints Summary: 1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of...

  11. Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

  12. Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

  13. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  14. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  15. Optical properties of nanostructured silicon-rich silicon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stolfi, Michael Anthony

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have conducted a study of the optical properties of sputtered silicon-rich silicon dioxide (SRO) thin films with specific application for the fabrication of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers, polarization ...

  16. Radiocarbon Dioxide detection based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and a Quantum Cascade Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genoud, Guillaume; Phillips, Hilary; Dean, Julian; Merimaa, Mikko

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring of radiocarbon ($^{14}$C) in carbon dioxide is demonstrated using mid-infrared spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser. The measurement is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and a high sensitivity is achieved with a simple setup. The instrument was tested using a standardised sample containing elevated levels of radiocarbon. Radiocarbon dioxide could be detected from samples with an isotopic ratio $^{14}$C/C as low as 50 parts-per-trillion, corresponding to an activity of 5 kBq/m$^3$ in pure CO$_2$, or 2 Bq/m$^3$ in air after extraction of the CO$_2$ from an air sample. The instrument is simple, compact and robust, making it the ideal tool for on-site measurements. It is aimed for monitoring of radioactive gaseous emissions in nuclear power environment, during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Its high sensitivity also makes it the ideal tool for the detection of leaks in radioactive waste repositories.

  17. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  18. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  19. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  20. Mechanical contact by constraints and split-based preconditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitry Karpeyev; Derek Gaston; Jason Hales; Steven Novascone

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate implementation of glued mechanical contact was developed in MOOSE based on its Constraint system. This approach results in a superior convergence of elastic structure problems, in particular in BISON. Adaptation of this technique to frictionless and frictional contact models is under way. Additionally, the improved convergence of elastic problems results from the application of the split-based preconditioners to constraint-based systems. This yields a substantial increase in the robustness of elastic solvers when the number of nodes in contact is increased and/or the mesh is refined.

  1. Hydrogen Production: Thermochemical Water Splitting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContamination DetectorofThermochemical Water Splitting

  2. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling energy efficiency ratio for split-system air conditioners is not well characterized. This research

  3. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel power plants and other industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE-NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focusing on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse and supporting the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} to solid mineral form that can be utilized for enhanced oil recovery, in the manufacturing of concrete or as a benign landfill, in the production of valuable chemicals and/or fuels. This project was selected as a CO{sub 2} reuse activity which would conduct research and development (R&D) at the pilot scale via a cost-shared Cooperative Agreement number DE-FE0001099 with DOE-NETL and would utilize funds setaside by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration R&D,

  4. Driving Down Diesel Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harley, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”actions to clean up port truck emissions in Oakland serve asTurnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”

  5. A hybrid energy cell for self-powered water splitting Hulin Zhang,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    reformation of natural gas, which not only consumes natural resources but also generates carbon dioxide and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  6. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  7. Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by OP-FTIR K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y , K E V I N B . B R O O concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) caused by emissions from to average emissions results obtained from on-road exhaust analysis using individual vehicle remote sensing

  8. Understanding plume splitting of laser ablated plasma: A view from ion distribution dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plume splitting in low-pressure ambient air was understood in view of ion distribution dynamics from the laser ablated Al plasma (1064 nm 0.57 J/mm{sup 2}) by combining fast photography and spatially resolved spectroscopy. In the beginning, the spectral lines were mainly from the Al III ion. Then, the Bragg peak in stopping power of the ambient gas to Al III could be the dominant reason for the enhanced emission from the fast moving part, and the recombination of Al III to Al I-II ions near the target surface was response to the radiations from the slow moving/stationary part. As the ambient gas pressure increased, stopping distances of the Al III decreased, and radiation from the air ions became pronounced. The laser shadowgraph image at 1100 Pa indicated that the shock wave front located between the fast moving and slow moving parts. Electron densities of the fast moving plasma, which peaked at the plasma front, were on the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3}, and the electron temperatures were 2–3 eV.

  9. SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SIGNATURES IN HELIOSEISMIC SPLITTING COEFFICIENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldner, Charles S.; Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT, 06520-8101 (United States); Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Larson, Timothy P., E-mail: charles.baldner@yale.ed [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Normal modes of oscillation of the Sun are useful probes of the solar interior. In this work, we use the even-order splitting coefficients to study the evolution of magnetic fields in the convection zone over solar cycle 23, assuming that the frequency splitting is only due to rotation and a large-scale magnetic field. We find that the data are best fit by a combination of a poloidal field and a double-peaked near-surface toroidal field. The toroidal fields are centered at r {sub 0} = 0.999 R {sub sun} and r = 0.996 R {sub sun} and are confined to the near-surface layers. The poloidal field is a dipole field. The peak strength of the poloidal field is 124 +- 17 G. The toroidal field peaks at 380 +- 30 G and 1.4 +- 0.2 kG for the shallower and deeper fields, respectively. The field strengths are highly correlated with surface activity. The toroidal field strength shows a hysteresis-like effect when compared to the global 10.7 cm radio flux. The poloidal field strength shows evidence of saturation at high activity.

  10. Spectral Engineering with Coupled Microcavities: Active Control of Resonant Mode-Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, Mario C M M; Barea, Luis A M; von Zuben, Antonio A G; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Frateschi, Newton C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical mode-splitting is an efficient tool to shape and fine-tune the spectral response of resonant nanophotonic devices. The active control of mode-splitting, however, is either small or accompanied by undesired resonance shifts, often much larger than the resonance-splitting. We report a control mechanism that enables reconfigurable and widely tunable mode-splitting while efficiently mitigating undesired resonance shifts. This is achieved by actively controlling the excitation of counter-traveling modes in coupled resonators. The transition from a large splitting (80 GHz) to a single-notch resonance is demonstrated using low power microheaters (35 mW). We show that the spurious resonance-shift in our device is only limited by thermal crosstalk and resonance-shift-free splitting control may be achieved.

  11. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  12. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  13. Charge splitting of directed flow and charge-dependent effects in pion spectra in heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rybicki; A. Szczurek; M. Klusek-Gawenda; M. Kielbowicz

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The large and rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields induced by the spectator systems moving at ultrarelativistic velocities induce a charge splitting of directed flow, $v_1$, of positive and negative pions in the final state of the heavy ion collision. The same effect results in a very sizeable distortion of charged pion spectra as well as ratios of charged pions ($\\pi^+/\\pi^-$) emitted at high values of rapidity. Both phenomena are sensitive to the actual distance between the pion emission site and the spectator system. This distance $d_E$ appears to decrease with increasing rapidity of the pion, and comes below $\\sim$1~fm for pions emitted close to beam rapidity. In this paper we discuss how these findings can shed new light on the space-time evolution of pion production as a function of rapidity, and on the longitudinal evolution of the system created in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Albanese, A S

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

  15. Valley splitting theory of SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum wells Mark Friesen,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppersmith, Susan N.

    Valley splitting theory of SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum wells Mark Friesen,1, * Sucismita Chutia,1 Charles an effective mass theory for SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum wells, with an emphasis on calculating the valley splitting interface, with characteristic energy splittings of order 0.1­1 meV for the case of SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum

  16. Shear-wave splitting as a tool for the characterization of geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Shear-wave splitting as a tool for the characterization of geothermal fractured reservoirs:...

  17. Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

  18. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  19. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  20. Application of chlorine dioxide as an oilfield facilities treatment fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaine, J.; Strawser, T.G.; Knippers, M.L.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both mechanical and chemical treatments are used to clean water flood injection distribution systems whose efficiency has been reduced as a result of plugging material such as iron sulfide sludge. Most mechanical treatments rely on uniform line diameter to be effective, while chemical treatments require good contact with the plugging material for efficient removal. This paper describes the design and operation of a new innovative application using chlorine dioxide for the removal of iron sulfide sludge from water flood injection distribution systems. This technology has evolved from the use of chlorine dioxide in well stimulation applications. The use of chlorine dioxide for continuous treatment of injection brines will also be discussed. Exxon USA`s Hartzog Draw facility in Gillette, Wyoming was the site for the application described. 4,500 barrels of chlorine dioxide was pumped in three phases to clean sixty-six miles of the water flood distribution system. Results indicate that chlorine dioxide was effective in cleaning the well guard screens, the injection lines, frac tanks used to collect the treatment fluids and the injection wells.

  1. Fast nucleon emission as a probe of the isospin momentum dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Rizzo; M. Colonna; M. Di Toro

    2005-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we investigate the structure of the non-local part of the symmetry term, that leads to a splitting of the effective masses of protons and neutrons in asymmetric matter. Based on microscopic transport simulations we suggest some rather sensitive observables in collisions of neutron-rich (unstable) ions at intermediate ($RIA$) energies. In particular we focus the attention on pre-equilibrium nucleon emissions. We discuss interesting correlations between the N/Z content of the fast emitted particles and their rapidity or transverse momentum, that show a nice dependence on the prescription used for the effective mass splitting.

  2. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Johnson; Joan Ogden

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final report, we describe research results from Phase 2 of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture and storage, or alternatively, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, involves capturing CO{sub 2} from large point sources and then injecting it into deep underground reservoirs for long-term storage. By preventing CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, this technology has significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil-based facilities in the power and industrial sectors. Furthermore, the application of CCS to power plants and hydrogen production facilities can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and, thus, can also improve GHG emissions in the transportation sector. This research specifically examines strategies for transitioning to large-scale coal-derived energy systems with CCS for both hydrogen fuel production and electricity generation. A particular emphasis is on the development of spatially-explicit modeling tools for examining how these energy systems might develop in real geographic regions. We employ an integrated modeling approach that addresses all infrastructure components involved in the transition to these energy systems. The overall objective is to better understand the system design issues and economics associated with the widespread deployment of hydrogen and CCS infrastructure in real regions. Specific objectives of this research are to: Develop improved techno-economic models for all components required for the deployment of both hydrogen and CCS infrastructure, Develop novel modeling methods that combine detailed spatial data with optimization tools to explore spatially-explicit transition strategies, Conduct regional case studies to explore how these energy systems might develop in different regions of the United States, and Examine how the design and cost of coal-based H{sub 2} and CCS infrastructure depend on geography and location.

  3. Characterizing the marginal basis source energy and emissions associated with comfort cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reindl, D.T.; Knebel, D.E.; Gansler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ten-story commercial office building located in Fort Worth, Texas, was used as a prototype to investigate the environmental impact associated with applying various electric and gas technologies for providing ventilation and comfort conditioning. The instantaneous (hourly) electrical and gas requirements demanded by the building were ``traced`` back to their source, the point where fuel is extracted from the ground The total energy consumed and emissions produced are quantified for both electric and gas technologies. On an annual basis, electric technologies had carbon dioxide emissions that were 20% to 26% lower when compared with the gas cooling technology. The gas cooling technology had lower total carbon monoxide emissions; however, after accounting for environmental oxidation of the carbon monoxide emissions, the gas cooling technology had an overall 24% to 35% greater oxide of carbon emission impact. The gas technology had a 19% to 25% lower oxide of nitrogen emission rate when compared with the electric technologies. The gas technology had a 3% to 15% lower annual total emission of sulfur dioxide compared to electric technologies. The primary reason for this is the absence of sulfur in the ``clean`` fuel assumed to be used by the gas technology (natural gas). The gas cooling technologies required 20% to 30% more energy to be extracted from the earth to provide the equivalent space conditioning for the prototypical office building when compared with the worst-and best-case electric technologies, respectively.

  4. Electromagnetic Contribution to the Proton-Neutron Mass Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, A W; Young, R D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the electromagnetic contribution to the proton-neutron mass splitting by combining lattice simulations and the modified Cottingham sum rule of Walker-Loud, Carlson and Miller. This analysis yields an estimate of the isovector nucleon magnetic polarizability as a function of pion mass. The physical value, obtained by chiral extrapolation to the physical pion mass, is $\\beta_{p-n}=(-1.12 \\pm 0.40)\\times 10^{-4}\\ \\mathrm{fm}^3$, which is in agreement with the empirical result, albeit with a somewhat smaller error. As a result, we find $\\delta M^{\\gamma}_{p-n}=1.04 \\pm 0.11\\ \\mathrm{MeV}$, which represents a significant improvement in precision.

  5. Isoscalar and Isovector Splitting of Pygmy Dipole Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paar, N.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Niu, Y. F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); State Key Laboratory for Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory for Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and Nuclear Energy, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric-dipole response of {sup 140}Ce is investigated using the fully consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. By analyzing the isospin structure of the E1 response, it is shown that the low-energy (pygmy) strength separates into two segments with different isospin character. The more pronounced pygmy structure at lower energy is composed of predominantly isoscalar states with surface-peaked transition densities. At somewhat higher energy the calculated E1 strength is primarily of isovector character, as expected for the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. The results are in qualitative agreement with those obtained in recent (gamma, gamma{sup '}) and (alpha, alpha{sup '}gamma) experiments, and provide a simple explanation for the splitting of low-energy E1 strength into two groups of states with different isospin structure and radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities.

  6. Split PID control: two sensors can be better than one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Znaimer, Leith

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm for regulation suffers from a tradeoff: placing the sensor near the sample being regulated ensures that its steady-state temperature matches the desired setpoint. However, the propagation delay (lag) between heater and sample can limit the control bandwidth. Moving the sensor closer to the heater reduces the lag and increases the bandwidth but introduces offsets and drifts into the temperature of the sample. Here, we explore the consequences of using two probes---one near the heater, one near the sample---and assigning the integral term to the sample probe and the other terms to the heater probe. The \\textit{split-PID} algorithm can outperform PID control loops based on one sensor.

  7. Cooling effect in emissions of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Cheng; Bing Xia; Chinping Chen

    2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear characteristic emissions of K alpha, K beta and gamma with a significant triplet splitting at room temperature are observed from the long-lived nuclear state of 103mRh excited by bremsstrahlung irradiation. A pronounced phase-transition-like narrowing of the emission profiles occurs immediately after the sample is cooled down to 77 K. The room temperature profiles reappear again abruptly and almost reversibly as the temperature drifts freely back to approximately the ice point after the filling of liquid nitrogen is stopped. These emission properties at 300 K and at low temperature may indicate that the 103mRh nuclei are in collective states.

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  9. Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that, in California, combined heat and power plants (CHP orout-of-state power plants serving California in 1990. Thesethat California utilities take power from these plants

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel combustion are attributable to natural gas consumption.Combustion in 2004 (million metric tonne (Mt) of CO 2 ) Fuel Motor Gasoline Natural Gascombustion in 2004. California relies heavily on imported natural gas.

  11. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  12. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by electricity generation/CHP facilities by distillate fuelFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat GenerationFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat Generation

  13. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kW LBNL LPG Mcf MECS MMBtu Mt MTBE MVSTAFF MW Average Annualof ethanol, as opposed to MTBE, as a blending component of

  14. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their counterpart in the U.S. EIA database, accounting forreported in the U.S. EIA database; it is not clear why theForm EIA-906 and EIA-920 Databases. Washington, DC: EIA.

  15. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Town, South Africa: Energy Research Institute, University ofCape Town: ERI. Energy Research Institute (China), 1999.INEDIS Database. Beijing: Energy Research Institute, State

  16. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sector. The electricity sector is disaggregated into fivefuel is used in the electricity sector, the industry sector,Electricity and CHP Sector ..

  17. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the combustion of residual fuel oil and distillate fuelfrom oil and gas systems except from fuel combustion (IPCC,SEDS from combustion of residual fuel oil from international

  18. Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for LDC Method______________________________________________load duration curve (LDC). Table EX-1 compares thesefrom import totals. c The LDC approach could be modified to

  19. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration (U.S. EIA), 2005a. Energy Information2003. Annual Coal Report 2004. Washington, DC: EIA. U.S.Administration (U.S. EIA), 2005b. Energy Information

  20. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Energy Agency (IEA), 2003a. Energy Balancesof OECD Countries. Paris: IEA.International Energy Agency (IEA) , 2003b. Energy Balances

  1. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a lack of energy-consumption data, most of the data atsets including sectoral energy consumption data, power plantrelated to energy consumption, but data collection and

  2. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resources for national energy consumption data in China aredoes have energy consumption data for each subsector;production data. Energy consumption data are only reported

  3. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and the Oil Refining Industries”, poster presentedgas Refining** Oil/gas extraction Industry feedstocksgas Refining** Oil/gas extraction Industry feedstocks

  4. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EI-81, Energy Information Administration, U.S.Department ofTable_ID=293 U.S. Energy Information Administration (U.S.EIA), 2005a. Energy Information Administration, 2003. Annual

  5. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    product consumption Nat Gas NGL Additives Crude Tot Pet.Pet Coke Lubricants Asphalt Waxes Special Naphtha Petrochem feedstocks Other Petro Prods Coal Net reconciliation error Total Consumption

  6. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves (Field Version)Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves (Summary Version)

  7. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    activities and not in the petrochemical manufacture sector.Storage Factors LPG Petrochemical feedstocks • Carbondata for LPG and petrochemical feedstock consumption by end-

  8. EIA - AEO2011 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and socioeconomic factors, including appliance and building efficiency standards, higher energy prices, shifts in housing growth, and the continued transition to a more...

  9. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. “California Crude Oil Production and Imports” AprilProduction Report (Quarterly) EIA-856 Monthly Foreign Crude OilProduction Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition Domestic Crude Oil

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas, Crude Oil and Distillates NGLs consumption in CALEBConsumption Weekly Refinery and Fractionator Report Weekly Bulk Terminal Report Weekly Product Pipeline Report Weekly Crude OilCrude Oil Butane Isobutane Other Hydrocarbons, Hydrogen and Oxygenates 10,718 Unfinished Oils Source: CEC 2006a The energy sector shows the consumption

  11. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Washed Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other CokingTJ) Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking Products

  12. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data from the Journal of Oil & Gas, but were refrained bydata obtained from the Journal of Oil & Gas to estimate theusing data from the Journal of Oil & Gas will be assessed 4

  13. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recovery TF Total fuel used TWh Terra-watt hours UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Repair BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics Btu British thermal unit CalCARS California Conventional IPP Independent Power Producer Kbbl Thousand barrels kLBS Thousand pounds of Steam kst Thousand

  14. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Global Atmospheric Research, EDGAR version 4.2, http://Ganzeveld, L. N. : The EDGAR 3.2 Fast track 2000 dataset (at: http://www.mnp.nl/edgar/model/ v32ft2000edgar, 2005.

  15. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALEB CalTrans CARB CEC CEM CHP CO 2 DMV EEA U.S. EIA EMFAC2 2.1 Electricity and CHPemissions CO 2 (Mt) Electricity/CHP* coal petroleum products

  16. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel Industry in India,” Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 23(4):and Future Trends,” Ironmaking and Steelmaking World Energymanufacturing industries. Ironmaking. During the ironmaking

  17. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996. COREX, Revolution in Ironmaking, Linz, Austria:VAI.Steel Industry in India,” Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 23(4):Proc. 2nd European Ironmaking Congress, Glasgow, UK, 15-18

  18. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    updates. In CALEB, the energy use for electricity production in CHP is shown under the electricity sub-sector

  19. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Press Releases Presentations Congressional Testimony Radio Spots Enter Search Term(s): Search eia.gov A-Z Index A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U...

  20. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prepared by Booz-Allen & Hamilton. January. California AirRail Fuel In 1991 Booz-Allen & Hamilton developed a 1987

  1. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appendix 1- List of U.S. EIA Energy Survey Form Form NumberEnergy Consumption Survey EIA-851A Domestic Uranium858 Uranium Marketing Annual Survey EIA-860 Annual Electric

  2. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (survey conducted in 2011. The 2006 MECS surveyed industrial establishments, and allowed EIA

  3. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the case of oil and extraction, consumption of natural gasGas, Crude Oil and Distillates NGLs consumption in CALEBOil and Gas Extraction (Mcf) Re-pressuring Lease Fuel Consumption

  4. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1983-1993, Paris: OECD. PEMEX, 1985. Consumo de Energía enno. 2, Mexico City: PEMEX, Coordinación de EstudiosMetal Bulletin Books, 1994; PEMEX, 1985. E. South Africa

  5. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Unit Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery Total fuel useduse of thermally enhanced oil recovery process (TEOR). TEOR

  6. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sales 2006. Office of Oil and Gas, DOE/EIA-0535(06).6 2.3 Oil and Gas Extraction9 Table 6. Oil and Gas Extraction Energy Use as Estimated in

  7. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural Gas MonthlyUse

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSL GasPermits ManualCanisteo,Verde:ConnectionsUtah:FeedbackDome

  9. Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total Delivered Residentialtight oil plays:Total Energy

  10. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011 - Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights 2008DeutscheState Energy

  11. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000…2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights 2008DeutscheState EnergyState-Level

  12. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000…2011)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights1,943,742 1,947,078342 301,097

  13. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights1,943,742Coalbed20112011 State

  14. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000…2011)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants byPer

  15. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment Activities Printable80

  16. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information3 OutlookSurveyState

  17. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average Price2011 State

  18. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average

  19. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average2011 State2011

  20. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-201

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average2011 State2011Per

  1. CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen EnergyCallawayCapara Energia S A JumpOpen Energy

  2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8thCalwind IICaney RiverSiemens)CarbonDome Of

  3. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8thCalwind IICaney RiverSiemens)CarbonDome

  4. "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit:1996.......... 2.4Origin andFuel ExpendituresFuel

  5. "Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal Energy

  6. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium. OECD Nuclear Energyand dioxides from thorium to curium Joaquim Marçalo a,* andmonoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium,

  7. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  8. Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an Effective Strategy to Improve the Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Fan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    types of surface titanium and oxygen atoms present. PageRIVERSIDE Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an EffectiveDISSERTATION Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an Effective

  9. Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide with Osmium and Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sauvé, Geneviève

    Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide with Osmium and Ruthenium Polypyridyl synthesized and used to sensitize nanoporous titanium dioxide electrodes to solar illumination. The spectral optimization in operating photoelectrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications. Of the materials

  10. Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohaus, James Harold

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to determining settling velocities of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide aerosols. The change of particle size distribution over time and space can be derived, leading ultimately to an assessment of the dose from an unplanned release of plutonium dioxide....

  11. Solubility of anthracene and anthraquinone in cyclohexanone + carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.J. (National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the processing of an anthracene oil fraction from coal tar, a mixture of anthracene and anthraquinone is required to be separated to obtain products of high purity. The solubilities of anthracene and anthraquinone were measured in cyclohexanone + carbon dioxide as a function of the temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide at 291, 300, and 313 K and from 1.8--12.4 MPa. Average equilibrium solubilities and recoveries of both solids increased with increasing normalized concentration and pressure. The average separation factor of anthracene to anthraquinone, due to the effect of the mixed solvent, was 2.88 [+-] 1.91.

  12. AIMS, Dresden, Germany, May 25-28, 2010 Higher Order Operator-Splitting Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiser, Juergen

    AIMS, Dresden, Germany, May 25-28, 2010 Higher Order Operator-Splitting Methods based on Zassenhaus Univerist¨at zu Berlin, D- Berlin, Germany AIMS, Dresden, Germany, May 25-28, 2010 Gamze Tanoglu, J¨urgen Geiser Higher Order Operator-Splitting Methods #12;AIMS, Dresden, Germany, May 25-28, 2010 Outline 1

  13. Surface plasmon beam splitting by the photon tunneling through the plasmonic nanogap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    Surface plasmon beam splitting by the photon tunneling through the plasmonic nanogap Seung-Yeol Lee Center for Active Plasmonics Application Systems, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, School that splits a surface plasmon beam by using double triangular prisms coated on a metal surface is proposed

  14. CONVERGENCE AND ENERGY CONSERVATION OF THE STRANG TIME-SPLITTING HERMITE SPECTRAL METHOD FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caliari, Marco

    CONVERGENCE AND ENERGY CONSERVATION OF THE STRANG TIME-SPLITTING HERMITE SPECTRAL METHOD type time-splitting Hermite spectral method; furthermore, we study the energy conservation of the time. Introduction. In the present paper, we study the convergence behaviour and energy conservation of time

  15. Fiber to the Premise (FTTP) Industry Structure: Implications of a Wholesale-Retail Split

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirbu, Marvin

    Fiber to the Premise (FTTP) Industry Structure: Implications of a Wholesale-Retail Split Anupam. In other cases, either out of choice or regulation, we observe the network owner (the wholesaler) leasing the shared network (wholesale-retail split). The network owner can either wholesale dark fiber or "lit

  16. Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dollar, Aaron M.

    Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices Joseph T. Belter, Bo C developed two taxonomies of split-hook use, one on grasp shape and one on force exertion, illustrating of the classifications. These taxonomies serve to establish a common language and means of comparing the types of grasps

  17. SSL splitting: securely serving data from untrusted Chris Lesniewski-Laas and M. Frans Kaashoek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    SSL splitting: securely serving data from untrusted caches Chris Lesniewski-Laas and M. Frans that they proxy. SSL splitting is a new tech- nique for guaranteeing the integrity of data served from proxies without requir- ing changes to Web clients. Instead of relaying an insecure HTTP connection, an SSL

  18. SSL splitting: securely serving data from untrusted caches Chris Lesniewski-Laas and M. Frans Kaashoek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    SSL splitting: securely serving data from untrusted caches Chris Lesniewski-Laas and M. Frans that they proxy. SSL splitting is a new technique for guaranteeing the integrity of data served from proxies without requiring changes to Web clients. Instead of relaying an insecure HTTP connec- tion, an SSL

  19. Split Bregman Method for Minimization of Region-Scalable Fitting Energy for Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    Split Bregman Method for Minimization of Region-Scalable Fitting Energy for Image Segmentation, The Ohio State University, OH 43202, U.S. b Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology convex segmenta- tion method and the split Bregman technique into the region-scalable fitting energy

  20. Engine optimal operation lines for power-split hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    . Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle, power split, energy management strategy, optimal operation lineEngine optimal operation lines for power-split hybrid electric vehicles Kukhyun Ahn* and P Y of degrees of freedom in energy management. Optimization problems for the two operation modes are formulated

  1. Is Light-Tree Structure Optimal for Multicast Routing in Sparse Light Splitting WDM Networks?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Is Light-Tree Structure Optimal for Multicast Routing in Sparse Light Splitting WDM Networks? Fen session in sparse light splitting Wavelength Divi- sion Multiplexing (WDM) networks, a light as possible. Different from a light- tree, a light-hierarchy accepts cycles, which are used to traverse

  2. Improving the efficiency of water splitting in dye-sensitized solar cells by using a biomimetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving the efficiency of water splitting in dye-sensitized solar cells by using a biomimetic studied this problem in dye-sensitized solar cells where a molecular dye and a porous TiO2 electrode act been demonstrated using dye-sensitized electrodes. The quantum yield for water splitting in these dye

  3. Screening Libraries To Identify Proteins with Desired Binding Activities Using a Split-GFP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, James

    Screening Libraries To Identify Proteins with Desired Binding Activities Using a Split 06520 cbi9990825210008 W e have previously described a split-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reassembly assay by which to detect protein protein interac- tions (1-3). In this assay, green fluorescent protein

  4. Splitting of H3H4 tetramers at transcriptionally active genes undergoing dynamic histone exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Splitting of H3­H4 tetramers at transcriptionally active genes undergoing dynamic histone exchange RNA polymerase II. It has been long believed that histone deposition involves stable H3­H4 tetramers cells have raised the idea that preexisting H3­H4 tetramers might split into dimers, resulting in mixed

  5. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  6. Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage 07-003 April 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage by 07-003 April 2007 M.A. de Figueiredo, H.J. Herzog, P.L. Joskow, K.A. Oye, and D.M. Reiner #12;#12;Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage M.A. de to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal

  7. An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    a c t This paper discusses the technology of direct capture of carbon dioxide from the atmo- sphereAn idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy- ture,'' which refers to the direct removal of carbon dioxide from the ambient air. Air capture has

  8. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms for COF-5, 65 mg g-1 for COF-6, 87 mg g-1 for COF-8, and 80 mg g-1 for COF-10; carbon dioxide at 298 K

  9. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

  10. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Christopher R. Knittel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Program Christopher R. Knittel of the implied cost of carbon dioxide reductions under the Cash for Clunker program. The estimates suggest pollutants. Conservative estimates of the implied carbon dioxide cost exceed $365 per ton; best case scenario

  11. High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Abstract Titanium dioxide is one, as support in catalysis etc. Common synthesis methods of titanium dioxide typically require a high

  12. CMOS-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Photonic Waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    CMOS-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Photonic Waveguides@ucdavis.edu , sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: We discuss titanium dioxide material development for CMOS compatible fabrication and integration of athermal silicon photonic components. Titanium dioxide overclad ring modulators

  13. CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide Stevan S. Djordjevic,1-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO2) overcladding with a negative thermo-compatible Titanium Dioxide Deposition for Athermalization of Silicon Waveguides," accepted for publication

  14. Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    materials and properties; KEYWORDS: Mars, gullies, seepage, runoff, carbon dioxide, water Citation: StewartSurface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis Sarah T. Stewart1, S. T., and F. Nimmo, Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation

  15. Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

  16. of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

  17. Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chait, Brian T.

    Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin Brian of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20­25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood

  18. A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    ®cance for the design and control of the transcritical carbon dioxide air- conditioning and heat pump systems 7 2000A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles S.M. Liaoa) of transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning cycles. The analysis shows that the COP of the transcritical

  19. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  20. Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.