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1

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates #12 Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission es- timates / by Bas Subject headings: satellite retrieval / nitrogen dioxide / ozone / air pollution / emis- sion estimates

Haak, Hein

2

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates be inferred for important trace gases such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Chemical transport models.11 to 3.79. Total nitrogen dioxide columns can be retrieved from space in the 405­465 nm window

Haak, Hein

4

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

5

Estimation of carbon dioxide emission in highway construction: a case study in southwest region of China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The large-scale transportation infrastructure construction in developing countries such as China requires emission estimation method for better project design. This study proposed an empirical method to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which was generated from highway construction based on four real projects in southwest region of China. The proposed method estimated the total emission from different steps of construction process (raw material production, material transportation and onsite construction) by different project types (e.g. subgrade, pavement, bridge, and tunnels). The results show that in general over 80 percent of the CO2 emission was generated from raw material production; the onsite construction and material transportation only accounted for 10 and 3 percent of the whole CO2 emission, respectively. Moreover, the CO2 emission from bridge and tunnel constructions was much larger than subgrade and pavement construction. The total CO2 emission from road, bridge and tunnel constructions was 5229 kg/m, 35,547 kg/m and 42,302 kg/m, respectively. The empirical estimation method of the CO2 emission proposed in this study can be considered as references for CO2 emission estimation in other regions which are similar as southwest region of China.

Xianwei Wang; Zhengyu Duan; Lingsheng Wu; Dongyuan Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

A new method for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from transportation at fine spatial  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial scales are useful to both modelers and decision makers who are faced with the problem of global warming and climate change. Globally, transport related emissions of carbon dioxide are growing. This letter presents a new method based on the volume-preserving principle in the areal interpolation literature to disaggregate transportation-related CO2 emission estimates from the county-level scale to a 1?km2 grid scale. The proposed volume-preserving interpolation (VPI) method, together with the distance-decay principle, were used to derive emission weights for each grid based on its proximity to highways, roads, railroads, waterways, and airports. The total CO2 emission value summed from the grids within a county is made to be equal to the original county-level estimate, thus enforcing the volume-preserving property. The method was applied to downscale the transportation-related CO2 emission values by county (i.e.?parish) for the state of Louisiana into 1?km2 grids. The results reveal a more realistic spatial pattern of CO2 emission from transportation, which can be used to identify the emission 'hot spots'. Of the four highest transportation-related CO2 emission hotspots in Louisiana, high-emission grids literally covered the entire East Baton Rouge Parish and Orleans Parish, whereas CO2 emission in Jefferson Parish (New Orleans suburb) and Caddo Parish (city of Shreveport) were more unevenly distributed. We argue that the new method is sound in principle, flexible in practice, and the resultant estimates are more accurate than previous gridding approaches.

Yuqin Shu; Nina S N Lam; Margaret Reams

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

10

State Emissions Estimates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Because energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) constitutes over 80 percent of total emissions, the state energy-related CO 2 emission levels provide a good indicator of the relative contribution of individual states to total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) emissions estimates at the state level for energy-related CO 2 are based on data contained in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). 1 The state-level emissions estimates are based on energy consumption data for the following fuel categories: three categories of coal (residential/commercial, industrial, and electric power sector); natural gas; and ten petroleum products including-- asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases

11

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

Graph Model for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Metallurgical Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical models are presented for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from metallurgical processes. The article also presents ... in graph form to calculate transit and net emissions of carbon dioxide based o...

Yu. N. Chesnokov; V. G. Lisienko; A. V. Lapteva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

14

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

15

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

various data sets, estimates of bunker fuel consumption forvarious data sets, estimates of bunker fuel consumption foras international marine bunker fuel. For the remaining 5% of

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Estuaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from estuaries are reviewed in relation with biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. In estuaries, carbon dioxide and methane emissions show a large spatial and temporal ...

Gwenaël Abril; Alberto Vieira Borges

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a national level involves substantial investment efforts, though part of these may be regained soon.1 On a global level, the costs of the available options are likely to ...

Catrinus J. Jepma; Che Wah Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960–...2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in...

Ekaterini Panopoulou; Theologos Pantelidis

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

On the potential economic costs of cutting carbon dioxide emissions in Portugal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic ... €6,340. More importantly, and since carbon dioxide emissions are l...

Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated Carbon dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, although certain industrial processes (e.g., cement manufacture) also emit carbon dioxide. The estimates of energy-related carbon emissions require both data on the energy use and carbon emissions coefficients relating energy use to the amount of carbon emitted. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the main source of data on U.S. energy use. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 used annual data provided by energy suppliers. However, to obtain more detail on how different sectors use energy, the emissions estimates in Energy and GHG Analysis rely data from on surveys of energy users, such as manufacturing establishments and commercial buildings.

22

Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide emissions Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News &...

23

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

24

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

25

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

2007-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

27

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries Extended discussion here Carbon emissions per capita 1973 vs. 1991 by major end use. (Denmark comparison is 1972 and 1991) With the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto approaching, there is a great deal of excitement over policies designed to reduce future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels. At COP-3, more than 130 nations will meet to create legally binding targets for CO2 reductions. Accordingly, we have analyzed the patterns of emissions arising from the end uses of energy (and electricity production) in ten industrialized countries, with surprising and, in some cases, worrisome results. The surprise is that emissions in many countries in the early 1990s were lower than in the 1970s in an absolute sense and on a per capita basis; the worry

28

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide emissions per 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas. In this case, there is much less energy

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ã? 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may

30

Convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In view of global warming, the concept of a low carbon world economy has been brought to center stage. In this paper, a systematical empirical investigation of the convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China is conducted based on provincial data for the period of 1995–2011. Using the log t test developed by Phillips and Sul (2007), evident divergence at the country level and convergence to three steady state equilibriums at provincial level was identified. Furthermore, estimates from the ordered logit model uncover important determinants underlying the formation of clubs, including the per capita GDP, energy consumption structure, energy intensity, and initial levels of economic development. The results from this study contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the carbon dioxide emissions status quo in China and serves as reference when launching region-based emissions mitigation policies.

Yiming Wang; Pei Zhang; Dake Huang; Changda Cai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

32

Energy use and sulphur dioxide emissions in Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of energy use in 22 selected countries of Asia and estimates the anthropogenic emission of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) for the selected countries, both at national and disaggregated sub-country-regional levels. The paper also makes a comparative assessment of the Asian countries in terms of SO{sub 2} emission intensity (i.e. emission per GDP), emission per capita and emission density (i.e. emission per unit area). Total SO{sub 2} emission in the region was estimated to be about 38 million tons in 1990 Five countries, China, India, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, accounted for over 91% of the regional SO{sub 2} emission. Coal use had the dominant share (81%) of the total emission from the region. Among the economic sectors, industry contributed the largest share (49%) to the total emissions of the selected countries as a whole, followed by the power sector (30%). These findings suggest the need for mitigation strategies focussed on the industry and power sectors of the major emitting countries in Asia. 20 refs., 10 tabs.

Shrestha, R.M.; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Malla, S. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)] [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding and considering the distribution of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is important in designing international climate change ... incentives for participation. I evaluate historic internation...

Joseph E. Aldy

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Report #: DOE/EIA-0573(2005) Released Date: November 2006 Next Release Date: Not applicable Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing Mark Schipper 1 , Energy Information Administration (EIA) Abstract Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

35

Do Consumers Select Food Products Based on Carbon Dioxide Emissions?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates whether consumers select foods based on the levels of carbon dioxide emissions by a real choice experiment. Respondents are...2 emissions under no monetary incentives. The willingness to.....

Keiko Aoki; Kenju Akai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

By the Numbers: A Visual Chronicle of Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq.) emissions are now considered a de facto indicator ... this chapter highlights the size and scope of carbon emissions at multiple levels—countries, cities, industrial...

Tonya Boone; Ram Ganeshan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/biogenic_emissions.html Cost: Free References: EPA, 40 CFR Part 60[1] Tailoring Rule[2] Biogenic Emissions[3] The 'EPA Climate Change - Green House Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide

38

Carbon dioxide emissions and governance: A nonparametric analysis for the G-20  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper applies nonparametric estimators to examine the carbon dioxide emissions–governance relationship. By using data for the twenty largest economies (Group of twenty, G-20) the dynamics of the considered relationship are analyzed for the time period 1996–2010. Six governance measures are included in our analysis (Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption) as have been defined by the World Bank. The empirical findings reveal a high nonlinear relationship between countries' carbon dioxide emissions and the examined governance measures. The results reveal significant differences on the number of governance measures influencing countries' carbon dioxide emission levels. It is evident that these differences are subject to countries' specific regional and development variations. Finally, it appears that increasing the quality of countries' different governance factors does not always result to lower carbon dioxide emission levels.

George E. Halkos; Nickolaos G. Tzeremes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003?2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8?GtC? yr?1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

G Myhre; K Alterskj?r; D Lowe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004 These data represent energy use and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions associated with cropland production in the U.S. Energy use and emissions occurring on the farm are referred to as on-site energy and on-site emissions. Energy use and emissions associated with cropland production that occur off the farm (e.g., use of electricity, energy and emissions associated with fertilizer and pesticide production) are referred to as off-site energy and off-site emissions. The combination of on-site and off-site energy and carbon is referred to as total energy and total carbon, respectively. Data provided here are for on-site and total energy and associated CO2 emissions. Units are Megagram C for CO2 estimates and Gigajoule for energy

42

Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the ?-convergence, stochastic convergence and ?-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector.

Juan Wang; Kezhong Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

The effect of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on world emissions of a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. We use a large unbalanced panel data ... the effects of the international agreement. While carbon

Risa Kumazawa; Michael S. Callaghan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

47

Global carbon dioxide emissions scenarios: Sensitivity to social and technological factors in three regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

48

Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Scenarios: Sensitivity to Social and Technological Factors in Three Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not counted as part of emissions inventories, and biomass energy is sometimes referred to as being 'carbon neutral.' But what happens when a forest is harvested for fuel but takes 60 years to regrow or when biomass is harvested in a country that is not party to an international accord but is burned in a country that is party to an international accord? Biomass energy is only truly 'carbon neutral' if we get the system boundaries right. They need to make sure that the accounting methodology is compatible with our needs and realities in management and policy.

Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Tar Sands Plants in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Tar Sands Plants in Canada ... When the CO2 emissions from the production of synthetic crude, refining, and utilization of fuels are combined, the emissions from utilization account for about 80 and about 70% of the emitted CO2 when fluid coking and delayed coking processes are considered, respectively. ... The combined production of 1 million barrels a day of synthetic crude would emit ?46 million tonnes of CO2 annually, which accounts for less than 8% of the Canadian CO2 emissions. ...

Edward Furimsky

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

52

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis allowances and offsets, shifting production technology from coal-fired baseload resources to a combination

54

Climate Change: Global growth of carbon dioxide emissions continues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After declining 1.5% in 2009, global carbon dioxide emissions rose 5.8% in 2010, the largest yearly jump in two decades, according to a Worldwatch Institute report released on April 28. Worldwatch is a Washington, D.C.-based, environmental think tank. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (NDP-058) data Data image ASCII Text Documentation PDF file PDF file Contributors R. J. Andres, G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews (contributors) DOI DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058 This data package presents data sets recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

56

Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper tests the convergence in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions for a collection of developed and developing...

Joakim Westerlund; Syed A. Basher

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DATA A. López (a) , R. Molina (b) (a limited due to several factors. These factors include the need of greater computational time than to the projection data to obtain two-dimensional slices or cross sections (images) of activity distribution. #12

Granada, Universidad de

58

The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics: Market Analysis Website: energyenvironment.pnl.gov/news/pdf/PNNL-19112_Revision_1_Final.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/smart-grid-estimation-energy-and-carb Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Public-Private Partnerships Regulations: "Resource Integration Planning,Mandates/Targets,Enabling Legislation,Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

59

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

Martin, Randall

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Performance Comparison of Two Fuzzy Based Models in Predicting Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many studies have been carried out worldwide to predict carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using various methods. Most of the methods...2 emissions are not immediately known. This paper offers...2 emissions in Malays...

Herrini Mohd Pauzi; Lazim Abdullah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Methodology for the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage Program September 2010 Summary of the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide 2 Authors: U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D John Litynski U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D/Sequestration Division Dawn Deel Traci Rodosta U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Office of Research and Development George Guthrie U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/

63

Carbon dioxide emissions, impact on Malaysia's manufacturing productivity growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methods used to measure productivity growth generally ignore the pollutants that are produced by the industrial processes. For example, pollutant emissions generated as undesirable output, apart from the main output of Malaysia's manufacturing sector, are excluded from the productivity accounting framework. This study aims at an extended productivity measure that takes pollutants into account by internalisation of Carbon dioxide (CO2) as a measure of air pollutant emissions into the production function, as an unpriced input. The results show that there was a slowdown in the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) growth in general, and a negative impact of CO2 emissions produced by the sector in particular, compared to other productivity indicators of the sector when CO2 is internalised in the models.

Elsadig Musa Ahmed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

Uppsala Universitet

65

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes of the air-sea system. The perturbation, dIc, includes carbon emissions and changes in the terrestrial), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global

Follows, Mick

66

State Externalities Policy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Who Bears the Risks of Future Regulation?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ITEM...: In January 1991, representatives of 38 state consumer advocacy offices and 17 environmental organizations warned utilities that failures to anticipate future carbon-dioxide-emission cost i...

Ralph Cavanagh; Ashok Gupta; Dan Lashof; Marika Tatsutani

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Credits in Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities K. Thomas Klasson and Brian H. Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6226 Presentation First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 14-17, 2001 Washington, DC "The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 1 Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities

68

Carbon dioxide emission reduction using molten carbonate fuel cell systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The contribution of the molten carbonate fuel cell system (MCFCs) to carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction in power application is analyzed. \\{MCFCs\\} can separate and concentrate CO2 emitted from traditional thermal power plants (PPs) without reducing the plant's overall energy efficiency. \\{MCFCs\\} can also be used by itself as an effective CO2 separator or concentrator by managing the anode gas stream to increase the heat utilization of the system. The CO2 separated and concentrated by \\{MCFCs\\} is most effectively captured by condensation. \\{MCFCs\\} is currently used as a CO2 separator only to a limited extent due to its high cost and relatively small scale operation. However, \\{MCFCs\\} will substantially contribute to reduce CO2 emissions in power generation applications in the near future.

Jung-Ho Wee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Table 22. Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual (million metric tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 AEO 1983 AEO 1984 AEO 1985 AEO 1986 AEO 1987 AEO 1989* AEO 1990 AEO 1991 AEO 1992 AEO 1993 5009 5053 5130 5207 5269 5335 5401 5449 5504 5562 5621 5672 5724 5771 5819 5867 5918 5969 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441.3 5489.0 5551.3 5621.0 5679.7 5727.3 5775.0 5841.0 5888.7 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 AEO 1997 5295 5381 5491 5586 5658 5715 5781 5863 5934 6009 6106 6184 6236 6268 AEO 1998 5474 5621 5711 5784 5893 5957 6026 6098 6192 6292 6379 6465 6542 AEO 1999 5522 5689 5810 5913 5976 6036 6084 6152 6244 6325 6418 6493 AEO 2000

70

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

71

Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S. Economy: A Structural Decomposition Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact of various influences on carbon dioxide emissions. It incorporates methodological refinements of input-output...2 emissions in the U.S. over the 1972 ... as...

Stephen D. Casler; Adam Rose

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A decomposition analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the Chinese nonferrous metal industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nonferrous metal industry (NMI) of China consumes large amounts of energy and associated emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are very high. Actions to reduce CO 2 emissions and ener...

Y. Shi; T. Zhao

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Investigation of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Costs in Single Point Incremental Forming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The LCA of sheet metal forming processes is lacking in studies of sustainability issues and quantification of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper summarizes an investigation of the...2 emissions

Kadra Branker; David W. Adams…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012 ... U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels fell 3.8% last year to the lowest level since 1994, according to a report released last week by the Energy Information Administration. ... Consequently, looking just at carbon emissions and production, 2012 marks the largest annual drop in carbon emissions per GDP since 1948 when records were first kept. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Transportation, Industry Topics: GHG inventory, Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.epa.gov/chp/basic/calculator.html Country: United States UN Region: Northern America CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator Screenshot References: http://www.epa.gov/chp/basic/calculator.html "This Emissions Estimator provides the amount of reduced emissions in terms of pounds of CO2, SO2, and NOX based on input from the User regarding the CHP technology being used. In turn the User will be provided with

76

Carbon dioxide emissions intensity of Portuguese industry and energy sectors: A convergence analysis and econometric approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Given the relevance of energy and pollution issues for industrialised countries and the importance of industry and energy sectors to the achievement of their economic and environmental goals, it is important to know if there is a common pattern of emissions intensity, fuel intensity and energy intensity, between industries, to know if it justifies a more specific application of energy policies between sectors, which sectors have the greatest potential for reducing energy use and which are the long term effects of those specific variables on the mitigation of emissions. We found that although there is literature on decomposition of effects that affect emissions, the study of the convergence and of the relationships between these variables does not include ratios or effects that result from the decomposition analysis. Thus, the above questions are not answered, much less for the Portuguese reality. The purpose of this paper is to study: (i) the existence of convergence of some relevant ratios as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity, CO2 emissions by fossil fuel consumption, fossil fuel intensity, energy intensity and economic structure, between industry and energy sectors in Portugal, and (ii) the influence that the consumption of fossil fuels, the consumption of aggregate energy and GDP have on CO2 emissions, and the influence that the ratios in which CO2 emissions intensity decomposes can affect that variable, using an econometric approach, namely Panel corrected standard errors estimator. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all ratios with exception of fossil fuel intensity. Gamma convergence verifies for all ratios, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity.

Victor Moutinho; Margarita Robaina-Alves; Jorge Mota

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Review of accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from tourism at different spatial scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon dioxide emission from tourism, as a focus of man-land relationship in tourism industry in the 21st century, is a vital index reflecting its effect on environment change. The article summarizes the contents of carbon dioxide emissions from tourism at different scales such as world, nation, region and unit. These results indicate that: (1) the accounting of the carbon dioxide emissions from tourism began from global and national scales at the end of the last century, then to regional and basic scales. (2) The Carbon dioxide emissions from tourism are mainly from high-developed countries and regions in terms of space, from the minority high-spending tourists in terms of behavior, from high-speed vehicles, high-grade accommodations and high-level tourism activities in terms of tourism element. The carbon dioxide emissions per capita of developing countries and regions are less than one tenth in developed countries and regions. As for the proportion of total emission, tourism transportation accounts for the largest, generally more than 65%, followed by accommodation, and the last is tourism activity. (3) Based on the systemic analysis of these coefficients of accounting carbon dioxide emissions in tourism, the paper indicates that there are progresses in the consistency of coefficients at global scale and diversity of coefficients at national, regional and unit scales, while the coefficients of developed countries and regions are higher than those of developing countries and regions. In addition, some recommendations including coefficients have given to China.

Yu-guo Tao; Zhen-fang Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: quantile panel-type analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper samples the data of 138 countries during the 1971–2007 period, and performs an empirical test to validate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. It first performs panel ...

Kuan-Min Wang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Current status of waste to power generation in Japan and resulting reduction of carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the current status of waste to power generation (WPG) in Japan and various scenarios involving indirect reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by WPG. The number of WPG facilities ... power plants. If t...

Masaki Takaoka; Nobuo Takeda; Naruo Yamagata…

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Some operational aspects and applications of dividing wall columns: energy requirements and carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the end of 20th century and beginning of the 21st, oil prices reached 100 USD per barrel, and more attention was given to environmental regulations on carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, applications of...

Raúl Delgado-Delgado; Salvador Hernández…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions and nitrogen turnover during liquid manure storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gas (GHG) methane...4) have increased significantly during the twentieth century (IPCC 2001). Compared to carbon dioxide (CO2), the amounts of CH4 are low in the atmosphe...

Sven G. Sommer; Søren O. Petersen; Peter Sørensen…

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Carbon dioxide sequestration in petrochemical industries with the aim of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to acceptable levels is arguably the greatest...2 increase in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide sequestration that consists of separation, transportation and...2..., is one...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Carbon dioxide emission, institutional quality, and economic growth: Empirical evidence in Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In view of Malaysia's status as a fast-growing economy with accelerating carbon dioxide emissions, a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth and pollution is vital to the policy makers. This paper, therefore, attempts to investigate the existence of long run relationship among carbon dioxide emission, institutional quality, exports, and economic growth and further examines the causal relationship among these variables in Malaysia for the period 1984–2008. From the bounds test, it is found that a long run relationship does exist among the variables, even using different conditioning information sets. A positive and significant interaction term between carbon dioxide emission and institutional quality indicator (i.e. law and order) implies that good institutional quality is important in controlling carbon dioxide emission in the process of economic development. The results for Granger causality tests further confirm the importance of institutional frameworks in reducing carbon dioxide emissions since institutional quality is found not only affects economic growth directly, but also indirectly via carbon dioxide emissions. This indicates that sound institutional frameworks are essential for Malaysia to achieve high economic growth without sacrificing its environment.

Lin-Sea Lau; Chee-Keong Choong; Yoke-Kee Eng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Convergence in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Among G7 Countries: A TAR Panel Unit Root Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subject of this paper is the examination the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions of the G7 countries during the 1960– ... Kingdom was the transition country whose per capita carbon dioxide (CO2

Nilgun Cil Yavuz; Veli Yilanci

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Changes in carbon dioxide emissions and LMDI-based impact factor decomposition: the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region as a case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at provincial level can provide a scientific...2 reduction policies. We studied the variation of CO2 emissions of primary energy consumption and its influencing...2 emission

Li Zhang; Jun Lei; Xuan Zhou; XiaoLei Zhang; Wen Dong; Yu Yang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Starting with the programs contributing the greatest...

89

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach ... This capacity corresponds approximately to storing the emissions of a 5 MW power plant emitting 65 tons of CO2 per day for almost 1800 years27 or 14 years from a 300 MW coal power plant where 8000 tons of CO2 is captured per day. ... To overcome this CO2 emission problem, there is great interest, esp. in Canada, to capture carbon dioxide and utilize it as a flooding agent for the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. ...

Anne-Christine Aycaguer; Miriam Lev-On; Arthur M. Winer

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). As indicated by Wagner (2008), the series of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita carbon focuses solely on the energy consumption, carbon dioxide ( 2CO ) emissions and economic growth nexus in countries' energy efficiencies and cross-country differences in the 2CO emissions trajectories are accounted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO2 emissions from the

92

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Focus Area: Geothermal Power Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/PubDetails.aspx?Action=View& Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carben-version-3-multisector-carbon-d Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance The CarBen model enables users to conduct wedge anlayses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The spreadsheet-based tool relies upon expert opinion for scenario formulation and is not intended to be used

93

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of in...

Stephan Scholz

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets ... The varying proportions of CO2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio (?13C), with a range of about 2 ‰. ... The large range of carbon emissions within the bituminous rank class suggests that rank-specific carbon emission factors are provincial rather than global. ...

Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Chinese urban households  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper draws on Chinese survey data to investigate variations in carbon dioxide emissions across households with different income levels. Rich households generate more emissions per capita than poor households via both their direct energy consumption and their higher expenditure on goods and services that use energy as an intermediate input. An econometric analysis confirms a positive relationship between emissions and income and establishes a slightly increasing marginal propensity to emit (MPE) over the relevant income range. The redistribution of income from rich to poor households is therefore shown to reduce aggregate household emissions, suggesting that the twin pursuits of reducing inequality and emissions can be achieved in tandem.

Jane Golley; Xin Meng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Energy, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon taxes and the Chinese economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given the global characteristics of climate change and China's potential importance as a source of CO2 emissions, advocates of controlling CO2 emissions call for substantial efforts in China. However, the Chinese...

ZhongXiang Zhang

98

Table 4. 2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " 2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"Shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation" "Alabama",0.01584875241,0.5778871607,0.02136328943,0.1334667239,0.2514340736 "Alaska",0.06448385239,0.0785744956,0.0462016929,0.4291084798,0.3816314793 "Arizona",0.02474932909,0.5668758159,0.02425067581,0.04966758421,0.334456595 "Arkansas",0.03882032779,0.4886410984,0.03509200153,0.1307772146,0.3066693577 "California",0.04308920353,0.1176161395,0.07822332929,0.1824277392,0.5786435885 "Colorado",0.04301641968,0.4131279202,0.08115394032,0.1545280216,0.3081736982

99

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 July 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views

100

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions index, we use conversion factors. To determine theof Energy. 11 This conversion factor includes only thebe using different conversion factors for electricity in

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

EIA - AEO2010 - Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass [75] to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in AEO2010. According to current international convention [76], carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time [77]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

102

Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010)" State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010)" "million metric tons carbon dioxide" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,," 2000 to 2010 " "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",140.4264977,131.9521389,136.7103146,137.2323195,139.6896437,141.493798,143.9716001,146.076107,139.2224128,119.7962734,132.7462762,-0.05469211069,-7.680221558 "Alaska",44.32104312,43.40375114,43.56121812,43.5078746,46.76217106,48.06229125,45.79367017,44.11576503,39.46205329,37.91867389,38.72718369,-0.1262122693,-5.593859429 "Arizona",85.96984024,88.33838336,87.66914741,89.29026566,96.58329461,96.7032775,100.0087541,102.1950438,103.1458188,94.63481918,95.91303514,0.1156591064,9.943194897

103

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Atlantic South Atlantic Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 25, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA South Atlantic Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic- Reference Case (xls, 74.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

104

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Central North Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 23, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions East North Central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

105

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source, New England |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Source, New England Source, New England Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 21, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions New England Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source, New England- Reference Case (xls, 73.9 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

106

Table 3. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "Alabama",2.103862865,76.71236863,2.835897119,17.71721059,33.37693698,132.7462762 "Alaska",2.497277997,3.042968925,1.789261448,16.61816292,14.7795124,38.72718369 "Arizona",2.373783271,54.37078005,2.325955921,4.76376875,32.07874715,95.91303514 "Arkansas",2.566776983,32.30865878,2.320262268,8.646911643,20.27679552,66.11940519 "California",15.93482613,43.49564577,28.92778352,67.46363514,213.9882899,369.8101805 "Colorado",4.150125234,39.85763155,7.82954551,14.90850811,29.73188961,96.47770002

107

Table 2. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,,,," Shares " "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas" "Alabama",67.81545193,35.95576449,28.97505976,132.7462762,0.5108651925,0.2708608145,0.218273993 "Alaska",1.364880388,19.58916888,17.77313443,38.72718369,0.03524347131,0.5058247724,0.4589317562 "Arizona",43.2377726,34.82066125,17.85460129,95.91303514,0.4508018387,0.3630440972,0.1861540641 "Arkansas",27.72445786,23.82768621,14.56726112,66.11940519,0.4193089424,0.3603735717,0.2203174859 "California",5.157135123,241.2575077,123.3955377,369.8101805,0.01394535736,0.6523820067,0.3336726359

108

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Central North Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 24, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA west north central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

109

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Central South Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 27, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA West South Central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

110

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Mountain | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mountain Mountain Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 28, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA Mountain Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Mountain- Reference Case (xls, 74.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

111

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Central South Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 26, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions East South Central EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

112

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - United States |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United States United States Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 30, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA United States Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - United States- Reference Case (xls, 75.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

113

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Source- Middle Atlantic Source- Middle Atlantic Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 22, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions middle atlantic Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic- Reference Case (xls, 74.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

114

Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 201  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 2010)" Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 2010)" "metric tons carbon dioxide per person" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"2000 to 2010" "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",31.54590416,29.56352198,30.5739632,30.56483509,30.96927578,31.14605742,31.33283758,31.52225314,29.78727412,25.44798199,28.06679306,-0.1102872527,-3.479111105 "Alaska",70.60324067,68.51009907,67.8551127,67.17588806,70.92646205,72.04509462,67.81012638,64.8863351,57.56413017,54.58358965,54.63289567,-0.2261984697,-15.97034499 "Arizona",16.64049197,16.65546102,16.08173855,15.97087112,16.77174168,16.18743942,16.15392734,16.06780183,15.87052371,14.3654833,14.36549251,-0.1367146759,-2.274999466

115

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Pacific | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pacific Pacific Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 29, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA Pacific Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Pacific- Reference Case (xls, 74.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

116

"1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Emission Factors" Fuel Emission Factors" "(From Appendix H of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1" "Fuel ",,"Emission Factor ",,"Units" "Coal2" "Anthracite",,103.69,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Bituminous",,93.28,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Sub-bituminous",,97.17,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Lignite",,97.72,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Electric Power Sector",,95.52,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Industrial Coking",,93.71,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Other Industrial",,93.98,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Residential/Commercial",,95.35,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Natural Gas3"

117

Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation...

119

Coping with carbon: a near-term strategy to limit carbon dioxide emissions from power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dioxide from power stations. According to the...source, natural gas. On top of this...can be applied to gas-fired plants too...build large power stations. Individual plants...A nuclear power station is both cost effective...lower greenhouse gas emissions than any...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Carbon Dioxide Emissions of the City Center of Firenze, Italy: Measurement, Evaluation, and Source Partitioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An eddy covariance station was installed in the city center of Firenze, Italy, to measure carbon fluxes at half-hourly intervals over a mostly homogeneous urban area. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission observations made over an initial period of 3.5 ...

A. Matese; B. Gioli; F. P. Vaccari; A. Zaldei; F. Miglietta

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman Nitrogen dioxide: Less than 5% of the NOx BUT with an outstanding peak for the 2007 MY in Fresno 0. Nitrogen dioxide: less than 5% of NOx except the Fresno fleet containing the 2007 Sprinter ambulances. #12;

Denver, University of

122

Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the dynamic causal relationships between energy consumption, energy price and economic activity in Saudi Arabia based on a demand side approach. We use a Johansen multivariate cointegration approach and incorporate CO2 emissions as a control variable. The results indicate that there exists at least a long-run relationship between energy consumption, energy price, carbon dioxide emissions, and economic growth. Furthermore, a long-run unidirectional causality stands from energy consumption to economic growth and CO2 emissions, bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth, and a long-run unidirectional causality runs from energy price to economic growth and CO2 emissions. In the short-run, there is unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to energy consumption and economic output and from energy price to CO2 emissions. Even though, the energy-led growth hypothesis is valid, the share of energy consumption in explaining economic growth is minimal. Energy price is the most important factor in explaining economic growth. Hence, policies aimed at reducing energy consumption and controlling for CO2 emissions may not reduce significantly Saudi?s economic growth. Investing in the use of renewable energy sources like solar and wind power is an urgent necessity to control for fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

Atef Saad Alshehry; Mounir Belloumi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Carbon Dioxide Emission Pathways Avoiding Dangerous Ocean Impacts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases could lead to undesirable effects on oceans in coming centuries. Drawing on recommendations published by the German Advisory Council on Global Change, levels of unacceptable global marine change (so-...

K. Kvale; K. Zickfeld; T. Bruckner; K. J. Meissner; K. Tanaka; A. J. Weaver

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions: A matter of time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...country can support consumption of goods and services...internal combustion engine. So, how much...emissions to the consumption of particular goods...internationally traded fossil fuels, foodstuffs...underemphasize the role of consumption of goods and services...from selling the fuel. Those who use...

Ken Caldeira; Steven J. Davis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

thermal gradient in the center of the areas is around 320C m- 1. We estimate total heat loss from the two areas to be about 6.1 and 2.3 MW. Given current thinking on the...

126

Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

Haak, Hein

127

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (DB-1015) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.db1015 This data has been updated. Please see NDP-081. Contributed by: James W. Raich 1 and Christopher S. Potter2 1Department of Botany Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 USA Email: jraich@iastate.edu 2NASA Ames Research Center MS 242-2 Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA Email: cpotter@gaia.arc.nasa.gov Prepared by L.M. Olsen. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Date Published: March, 1996 (Revised for the web: 2002) The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center is a part of the Environmental Sciences Division of the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (ORNL) and is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290. The ORNL is managed by University of Tennessee-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

128

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

"Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO 1995",,5137,5173.666667,5188.333333,5261.666667,5309.333333,5360.666667,5393.666667,5441.333333,5489,5551.333333,5621,5679.666667,5727.333333,5775,5841,5888.666667,5943.666667 "AEO 1996",,,5181.817301,5223.645142,5294.776326,5354.687297,5416.802205,5463.67395,5525.288005,5588.52771,5660.226888,5734.87972,5812.398031,5879.320068,5924.814575,5981.291626,6029.640422,6086.804077,6142.120972

130

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

131

From Sulfur Dioxide to Greenhouse Gases: Trends and Events Shaping Future Emissions Trading Programs in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of the United States sulfur dioxide (SO2...) trading program has led to worldwide interest in emissions trading. The program has become a model for ... a theoretical option discussed only by economist...

Joseph Kruger

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from soil receiving urban wastewater for maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated how amending maize with wastewater at 120 kg N ha?1 affected crop growth, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) compared to plants ferti...

Fabián Fernández-Luqueño; Verónica Reyes-Varela…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Monthly Isotopic (13C/12C) Estimates Monthly Isotopic (13C/12C) Estimates Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A. DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.001 Web page graphic Graphics Web page graphic Data (ASCII Fixed Format) Web page graphic Data (ASCII Comma Delimited) Investigators T.J. Blasing and Gregg Marland Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290, U.S.A. Christine Broniak Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3601 Period of Record 1981-2003 Methods The data from which these carbon-emissions estimates were derived are values of fuel consumed: in billions of cubic feet, for natural gas; in

134

Conceptual design of syngas production systems with almost net-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work describes three different configurations of syngas production processes using a combination of SMR (steam methane reforming) and DRM (dry reforming of methane). The ideal SMR + DRM process ensures the maximum product yield, the heat-integrated SMR + DRM process fulfills the maximum heat recovery, and the stand-alone SMR + DRM process effectively suppress net CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. Through specific optimization algorithms, the syngas production systems subject to almost net-zero CO2 emissions are successfully verified by simulations in Aspen Plus environment.

Wei Wu; Hsiao-Tung Yang; Jenn-Jiang Hwang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Uncertainty analysis of capacity estimates and leakage potential for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The need to address climate change has gained political momentum, and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology that is seen as being feasible for the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. However, there is ...

Raza, Yamama

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements Tim Arnolda,1's radiative budget; however, our understand- ing of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited together with an atmo- spheric model and inverse method, we estimate that the global emissions of NF3

Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

137

Estimating Emissions in Latin America: An Alternative to Traffic Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Emissions in Latin America: An Alternative to Traffic Models Margarita Ossés de Eicker; Hans Hurni, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland Emissions allow precise estimations of these emissions but are too expensive for a broad application. A simplifed

Richner, Heinz

138

EIA - AEO2011 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Early Release Overview 1 Early Release Overview Release Date: December 16, 2011 | Next Release Date: January 2012 | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0383ER(2011) Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure DataAfter falling by 3 percent in 2008 and nearly 7 percent in 2009, largely driven by the economic downturn, total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to 2005 levels (5,980 million metric tons) until 2027, and then rise by an additional 5 percent from 2027 to 2035, reaching 6,315 million metric tons in 2035 (Figure 13). Energy-related CO2 emissions grow by 0.2 percent per year from 2005 to 2035. Emissions per capita fall by an average of 0.8 percent per year from 2005 to 2035, as growth in demand for electricity and transportation fuels is moderated by higher energy prices, effi ciency standards, State RPS requirements, and Federal

139

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large Wildfires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large: Global Biomass Burning & Carbon Emissions Standard Emissions Inventories: Burned Area & GFED recently daily. Fire occurrenceoccurrence Roy et al.Roy et al. Carbon emissions (C) = burned area . fuel

140

Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4 F10 , C5 F12 , C6 F14 , C7 F16 and C8 F18 Chemistry and Physics Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18 (C7F16) and oc- tadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical

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141

Estimation and Reduction Methodologies for Fugitive Emissions from Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as well as strategies to reduce fugitive emissions through leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. Case studies are presented to illustrate the difference in computed emissions resulting from the different emission estimation methods..., and to illustrate the effects of a LDAR program implemented to reduce emissions from equipment leaks. The fugitive emissions reduction benefits of implementing an ongoing LDAR program, and the expected reductions from using more rigorous field testing...

Scataglia, A.

142

Intention to change activities that reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to worry about global climate change consequences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introduction Mitigating the global climate change requires actions at different levels including that lay people change their consumption patterns, which cause emissions of greenhouse gases. Recent research suggests that inducing affects such as fear and worry may have positive effects. Objective To investigate whether worry in addition to personalized information about emissions of carbon dioxide would influence lay people's intentions to change consumption-related personal activities causing carbon-dioxide emissions. Method A municipality-provided tool to calculate their annual carbon dioxide emissions was used by 135 university students who after being informed about negative consequences of global climate change stated their intentions to change a number of personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during the following 12 months. They also rated how worried they were about eight global climate change consequences. Results Intentions to change travel, energy use at home, food consumption, involvement in environmental organizations, and support of environmental policies increased with worry. An interaction was also observed such that high-emitters’ intentions to invest in energy-efficient infrastructure increased more with worry than did low- and medium-emitters’ intentions. Conclusions In line with recent research positing that affect increases preventive actions, the hypothesis was supported that intentions to change personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions increased with participants’ worry about the consequences of global climate change.

E.-L. Sundblad; A. Biel; T. Gärling

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type October 7, 2013 - 10:51am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Starting with the programs contributing the greatest proportion of building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency should next determine which building types operated by those programs use the most energy (Figure 1). Energy intensity is evaluated instead of emissions in this approach because programs may not have access to emissions data by building type. Figure 1 - An image of an organizational-type chart. A rectangle labeled 'Program 1' has lines pointing to three other rectangles below it labeled 'Building Type 1,' 'Building Type 2,' and 'Building Type 3.' Next to the building types it says, 'Step 2. Estimate emissions by building type.

144

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory, Resource assessment Resource Type: Publications Website: wbcarbonfinance.org/docs/REDD_Mosaic_Methodology.pdf Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Screenshot References: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation[1] Overview "This methodology is for project activities that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from mosaic deforestation and, where relevant and

145

Abstract--Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused by an increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this project is to provide the airport manager at major airports, such as Dulles International Airport of emissions offset. The case study of this project will be Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD Abstract-- Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused

146

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry Ali Hasanbeigi, Lynn Price China Energy Group Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Marlene Arens Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) January 2013 This work was supported by the China Sustainable Energy Program of the Energy Foundation and Dow Chemical Company (through a charitable contribution) through the Department of Energy under contract No.DE- AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY LBNL-6106E ii Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

147

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Starting with the programs contributing the greatest proportion of building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency should next determine which building types operated by those programs use the most energy (Figure 1). Energy intensity is evaluated instead of emissions in this approach because programs may not have access to emissions data by building type.

149

THE INTEGRATION MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR ESTIMATING MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@vt.edu. #12;Rakha and Ahn 2 the environmental impacts of ITS alternatives. The model combines car dynamics. Consequently, the assessment of the energy and emission impacts of alternative investments can-following, vehicle dynamics, lane changing, energy, and emission models to estimate mobile source emissions directly

Rakha, Hesham A.

150

Taxing Car-produced Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Matching the Cure to the Disease  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by cars is a linear (albeit fuel specific) function of the amount of fuel consumed. Because CO2 emissions generate social costs, through their effect on climate change, which escape the price mechanism, a tax on CO2 is indicated. An ideal tax would alter the consumer prices so that they match the marginal social costs. This setting thus calls for a specific tax on fuel equal to the value of externality resulting from the combustion of a unit of fuel. Since such tax scheme is readily available, we study to what extent the existing CO2 tax policies make use of it. We find that they do only to a limited extent. Thus our policy prescription is to drop existing CO2 taxes and use the existing fuel taxes to adjust fuel prices so that they match the marginal social costs related to burning of fuel.

Petr David; Josef Montag

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet light sensitive video system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Remote measurements of SO/sub 2/ emissions and plume velocities were made with a portable ultraviolet light-sensitive video system and compared with EPA in-stack compliance measurement methods. The instrument system measures the ultraviolet light absorption of SO/sub 2/ and movement of SO/sub 2/ fluctuations in the effluent plume and relates these measurements to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and velocity of the plume. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using this technique for rapid surveillance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. The effects caused by submicron aerosols also were investigated. The field tests were performed on two occasions. On the first occasion, SO/sub 2/ and plume velocity measurements were made at a typical coal-fired power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The second occasion involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study, which resulted in routine SO/sub 2/ emission measurements performed at 12 industrial sites. The results of smoke generator and field tests indicate that the sulfur dioxide concentration of smoke stack emissions can be made with an accuracy less than +/-120 ppm (relative to the EPA stack test compliance method), provided the particulate opacity of the emissions is less than 22 percent. The velocity measurement feature of the instrument correlated poorly with the EPA compliance method for stack gas velocity.

McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

154

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

155

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand ... Fugitive emissions from geothermal fields were noted, though not added to the result for geothermal power generation, but all other “CO2 emissions” pertaining to this study arose from construction, maintenance, and decommissioning of power stations, since renewable technologies (apart from geothermal) do not emit CO2 during normal operation. ... Hondo, H. Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case Energy 2005, 30 ( 11?12 SPEC. ...

Bridget M. Rule; Zeb J. Worth; Carol A. Boyle

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

156

The Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

SR/OIAF-CNEAF/2008-04 SR/OIAF-CNEAF/2008-04 The Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. Unless referenced otherwise, the information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special

157

The tractor and semitrailer routing problem with many-to-many demand considering carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The tractor and semitrailer routing problem with many-to-many demand (TSRP-MMD) is investigated in this study. The TSRP-MMD extends the existing studies on the rollon–rolloff vehicle routing problem (RRVRP) to a many-to-many problem with an intercity line-haul network background. To demonstrate and utilize the energy efficiency of the tractor and semitrailer combination, the TSRP-MMD takes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per ton-kilometer as the objective. Because the problem is NP-hard, a modified Clarke and Wright Savings heuristic algorithm (CW) followed by an improvement phase and a local search phase is developed to solve the TSRP-MMD. The integer program is used to find optimum solutions for small-scale problems. The computational results show that the developed heuristics can be efficiently used to solve the problem.

Hongqi Li; Tan Lv; Yanran Li

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

159

County-level Estimates of Carbon Dioxide Release from Livestock, 2000-2008  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Livestock, 2000-2008 Livestock, 2000-2008 Tristram O. West Joint Global Change Research Institute Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Craig C. Brandt Oak Ridge National Laboratory These data represent carbon dioxide release by livestock in the United States. Emissions are based on livestock population data from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Census of Agriculture. Livestock in this analysis include dairy cows, non-dairy cows, swine, poultry, sheep, goats, and horses. Additional details on datasets and methods used in this analysis can be found in the following publication: West, T.O., V. Bandaru, C.C. Brandt, A.E. Schuh, and S.M. Ogle. 2011. Regional uptake and release of crop carbon in the United States. Biogeosciences 8: 2037-2046. DOI: 10.5194/bgd-8-2037-2011.

160

title Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS Model year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory address Berkeley abstract p A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas GHG and regional criteria pollutant emissions The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy including those outside the energy sector such as high global warming potential gases waste treatment agriculture and forestry in varying degrees of detail and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hirsch (2001), Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forestin estimating carbon emissions from boreal forest fires, J.Law (2007), Pyrogenic carbon emission from a large wildfire

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Ocean Acidification: The Potential Impacts on Ocean Biodiversity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the focus in recent years on the potential impacts of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere linked to anthropogenic activities ... oceans as a consequence of the influx of carbon dioxide absor...

William C. G. Burns

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants in Greece in Relation to Mined Lignite Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions were shown to vary with the calorific value and carbonate content of lignite burned at three large power plants. ... The annual carbon dioxide emissions, Q, in a lignite-fired power plant can be calculated on the basis of the total carbon mass balance, using the following formula:(18)Specific emission factor, Qs, expressed in tons of CO2 generated per MW h is given bywhere Q is the annual CO2 emissions (in tons), Qs is the specific CO2 emissions (in tons MW?1 h?1), L is the annual lignite consumption (in tons/year), CL is the total carbon content of lignite on an as-received basis (%), W is the annual production of bottom ash ( in tons/year), CW is the total carbon content of bottom ash on an as-received basis (%), F is the annual production of fly ash (in tons/year), CF is the total carbon content of fly ash on an as-received basis (%), and E is the annual production of electricity ( in MW h). ... The carbon dioxide emitted as a product of combustion of coal (fossil fuels) is currently responsible for over 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. ...

Despina Vamvuka; Michael Galetakis

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

164

An assessment of operations of oil-exporting countries in terms of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from 16 oil-exporting countries are studied using Data Envelopment Analysis using indicators representing economic growth, energy consumption and emissions. The analysis for 1996 shows that Norway, Gabon and Nigeria are efficient and that Russia is inefficient. Malmquist Productivity Index analysis shows that there is progress in achieving higher values of GDP and non-fossil fuel consumption and in achieving lower values of fossil fuel consumption and carbon emissions in the year 1996 when compared with 1992 for Norway, Russia, Mexico, Algeria, Libya, Gabon and Oman.

Ramakrishnan Ramanathan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vermont" Vermont" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Petroleum","*","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

166

Evaluation of Sludge Characteristics and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plants in China by Mass and Energy Balances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy balances were used to evaluate the characteristics of sludge and to calculate the carbon dioxide emissions in the WWTPs in this study. To avoid the errors, mass balances by TP have been used to calibrate the relating data before making energy ... Keywords: Sludge, CEP, mass balance, energy balance, carbon dioxide

Gan Wang; Yongzhen Peng; Shuying Wang; Gan Wang; Hongxun Hou

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Progress in estimation of power plant emissions from satellite retrievals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

work... ­ Update the activity data to year 2012 ­ Modify to estimate SO2 emissions ­ Include big-fired power plants increased dramatically in recent years ­ Electricity generation and fuel consumption have, coal sulfur content, electricity generation, fuel consumption, and exact time when the unit came

Jacob, Daniel J.

168

Evaluating regional emission estimates using the TRACE-P observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluating regional emission estimates using the TRACE-P observations G. R. Carmichael,1 Y. Tang,1. Wang,6 D. R. Blake,7 E. Atlas,8 A. Fried,8 B. Potter,9 M. A. Avery,10 G. W. Sachse,10 S. T. Sandholm,11 the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment are used in conjunction

Clarke, Antony

169

Carbon dioxide emissions under different soil tillage systems in mechanically harvested sugarcane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil tillage and other methods of soil management may influence CO2 emissions because they accelerate the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. This study aimed to quantify the CO2 emissions under conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and reduced tillage (RT) during the renovation of sugarcane fields in southern Brazil. The experiment was performed on an Oxisol in the sugarcane-planting area with mechanical harvesting. An undisturbed or no-till (NT) plot was left as a control treatment. The CO2 emissions results indicated a significant interaction (p??2 of CO2 in CT, and 51.7 and 5.5 g m?2 of CO2 in RT and MT respectively. The amount of C lost in the form of CO2 due to soil tillage practices was significant and comparable to the estimated value of potential annual C accumulation resulting from changes in the harvesting system in Brazil from burning of plant residues to the adoption of green cane harvesting. The CO2 emissions in the CT system could respond to a loss of 80% of the potential soil C accumulated over one year as result of the adoption of mechanized sugarcane harvesting. Meanwhile, soil tillage during the renewal of the sugar plantation using RT and MT methods would result in low impact, with losses of 12% and 2% of the C that could potentially be accumulated during a one year period.

A M Silva-Olaya; C E P Cerri; N La Scala Jr; C T S Dias; C C Cerri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Jeffery Greenblatt November 2013 For decades, California has used groundbreaking tools to collect and analyze emissions data from a variety of sources to establish a scientific basis for policy making. As its scope has expanded to include greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, it has sought out similar tools to use to achieve the goals of legislation such as the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32). To support this effort, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model funded by the California Air Resources Board (ARB), to explore the impact of combinations

171

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

172

Estimates of Global, Regional, and National Annual CO2 Emissions from  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 (1995) 0 (1995) (click above to download the data!) Estimates of Global, Regional, and Naitonal Annual CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 1950-1992 NDP-030/R6 Cover T. A. Boden G. Marland Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee R. J. Andres Institute of Northern Engineering School of Engineering University of Alaska-Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 4473 Date Published: December 1995 Prepared for the Environmental Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research Budget Activity Number KP 05 02 00 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

173

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 2. Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions Coefficients,and Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption, and CarbonEnergy – Related Carbon Emissions Fuel Energy Use Carbon (

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 1:35pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 3 To estimate the GHG impact of a business travel reduction program, a Federal agency or program should quantify the number of trips that could be avoided each year. If an agency has a large proportion of international travel, the agency may estimate changes in domestic and international trips separately because the associated savings in miles can be very different. General Services Administration Resources to Support GHG Mitigation Planning TravelTrax provides agencies with several tools that can help plan for reductions in business travel. This includes a tool to help estimate the impact of videoconferencing and a tool that can help conference and event planners to identify event locations that consider where attendees are coming from in order to reduce air travel GHGs. These tools are embedded in the GSA Travel MIS database, thus enabling agencies to link their actual travel to different planning scenarios and evaluate options.

176

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Concentrations on the Rise as Kyoto Era Fades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to on-site measurements by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations reached 391.3 parts per million (ppm) in 2011, up from 388.56 ppm in 2010 and fro...

Xing Fu-Bertaux

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Urbanisation, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in China: A panel data analysis of China’s provinces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global warming resulting from rapid economic growth across the world has become a worldwide threat. The coordination of development of urbanisation, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions therefore forms an important issue; it has attracted considerable attention from both governments and researchers in recent years. This study investigated the relationship between urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions over the period 1995–2011, using a panel data model, based on the data for 30 Chinese provinces. The potential to reduce CO2 emissions was also analysed. The results indicated that per capita CO2 emissions in China were characterised by conspicuous regional imbalances during the period studied; in fact, per capita CO2 emissions decrease gradually from the eastern coastal region to the central region, and then to the western region. Urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions were found to present a long run bi-directional positive relationship, the significance of which was discovered to vary between provinces as a result of the scale of their respective economies. In addition, a bi-directional causal relationship was found to exist between urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: specifically, a bi-directional positive causal relationship exists between CO2 emissions and urbanisation, as well as between energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and a one way positive causal relationship exists from urbanisation to energy consumption. Scenario simulations further demonstrated that whilst China’s per capita and total CO2 emissions will increase continuously between 2012 and 2020 under all of the three scenarios developed in this study, the potential to achieve reductions is also high. A better understanding of the relationship between urbanisation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions will help China to realise the low-carbon economic development.

Shaojian Wang; Chuanglin Fang; Xingliang Guan; Bo Pang; Haitao Ma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Emission factor estimates of cereal waste burning in Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Every year more than 5 million ha of cereal fields are affected by fires in order to eliminate cereal waste in Spain. The characteristics of this type of fire with intense flames are similar to those of the African dry savanna heading fires. This paper surveys the atmospheric emission caused by this process by combining results of field and combustion chamber experiments. Combustion chamber experiments show that during the flaming phase 88% of the fire exposed carbon is converted into CO2 and during the smoldering phase this percentage changes to 74%. These combustion chamber experiments also show that the soluble part of the aerosols emitted during the course of fires only represent 3% of the total particulate matter (TPM) produced, being the ions K+ and CI? the predominant ones. The cereal waste fire process can be represented by an arithmetic combination that takes into account the amounts of mass burned during the two phases of the fire: 0.90 flaming +0.10 smoldering. Emission factor estimates from field burning experiment are 13±7 g TPM kg?1(dm) and 2.8±0.2 g NOx kg?1 (dm). Finally, we obtain average emissions of 80–130 Gg TPM, 17–28 Gg NOx, 210–350 Gg CO and 8–14 Tg CO2 in Spain. These emissions represent nearly 25% of the total \\{NOx\\} and 50% of the total CO2 emissions by other pollution sources during the burning period in Spain.

I. Ortiz de Zárate; A. Ezcurra; J.P. Lacaux; Pham Van Dinh

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

Hall, Sharon J.

180

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap- ping gases, which blanket the planet and cause temperatures future limits on carbon emissions. · Electricity consumers should opt for "green power" where imperative that emissions of the main heat-trapping gas, car- bon dioxide (CO2), are significantly reduced

Combes, Stacey A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Title Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6541E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Greenblatt, J. Date Published 10/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 μm) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

182

Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China’sof China’s total energy consumption mix. However, accuratelyof China’s total energy consumption, while others estimate

Fridley, David G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Emission Estimation of Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles by Developing Texas Specific Drive Cycles with Moves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driving cycles are acting as the basis of the evaluation of the vehicle performance from air quality point of view, such as fuel consumption or pollutant emission, especially in emission modeling and emission estimation. The original definition...

Gu, Chaoyi

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations ABSTRACT This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types

185

Parcel Per Parcel Toward A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CAof lifestyle on carbon emissions in the residential sector [an all-time low in carbon emissions, though most use overall

Živanovi?, Ana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources Project No.: FG02-04ER83925 SBIR CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Commercial hollow fiber membrane cartridge [6" (D) X 17" (L)] Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. developed and tested a carbon dioxide (CO2) removal system for flue gas streams from large point sources that offers improved mass transfer rates compared to conventional technologies. The project fabricated perfluorinated membranes on hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane contactors, demonstrated CO2 removal from a simulated flue gas mixture via amine absorption using the fabricated membranes, examine chemical compatibility of the membrane with amines, and demonstrate enhanced stability of the perfluoro-coated membranes. In addition, an economic analysis was performed to demonstrate that the perfluoro-coated

187

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Recovery from Flue Gas using Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbents Carbon Dioxide Recovery from Flue Gas using Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbents Project No.: FG02-04ER83885 SBIR Virtual Depiction of a Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbent Virtual Depiction of a Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbent Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. has completed a small business innovative research (SBIR) project that initiated development of a novel sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. The primary goal of this project wa s to develop a process using a supported amine for CO2 capture that exhibits better system efficiency, lower cost, and less corrosion than current aqueous amine-based processes. The project was to demonstrate performance of carbon-supported amine sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. Three tasks were undertaken:

188

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The emissions policy submodule, part of the integrating module, estimates the energy–related emissions of carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide emissions are dependent on the fossil fuel consumed, the carbon content of the fuel, and the fraction of the fuel consumed in combustion. The product of the carbon dioxide coefficient and the combustion fraction yields a carbon dioxide emission factor. For fuel uses of fossil energy, the combustion fractions are assumed to be 0.99 for liquid fuels and 0.995 for gaseous fuels. The carbon dioxide potential of nonfuel uses of energy, such as asphalt and petrochemical feedstocks, is assumed to be sequestered in the product and not released to the atmosphere. The coefficients for carbon dioxide emissions are updated each year from the Energy Information Administration’s annual, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States.17

189

Spatial effects of carbon dioxide emissions from residential energy consumption: A county-level study using enhanced nocturnal lighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As the world’s largest developing country and greenhouse gas emitter, China’s residential energy consumption (REC) is now responsible for over 11% of the country’s total energy consumption. In this paper, we present a novel method that utilizes spatially distributed information from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP–OLS) and human activity index (HAI) to test the hypothesis that counties with similar carbon dioxide emissions from REC are more spatially clustered than would be expected by chance. Our results revealed a high degree of county-level clustering in the distribution of emissions per capita. However, further analysis showed that high-emission counties tended to be surrounded by counties with relatively low per capita GDP levels. Therefore, our results contrasted with other evidence that REC emissions were closely related to GDP levels. Accordingly, we stress the need for the consideration of other factors in determining emission patterns, such as residential consumption patterns (e.g., consumer choices, behavior, knowledge, and information diffusion).

Heli Lu; Guifang Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide;#12;Summary The tourism sector is not only affected by climate change but also has an impact on the Earth of such measures, we calculated the climate efficiency of the tourism sector in the case of Switzerland.We defined

Fischlin, Andreas

191

The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinwon, E-mail: jwpark@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

An Analysis of PM and NOx Train Emissions in the Alameda Corridor, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environment. Estimation of Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrationsmatter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - Globalnitrate particles and nitrogen dioxide can reduce visibility

Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: An ecological study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend = 0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend = 0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend = 0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend = 0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity.

Alexander R. Zheutlin; Sara D. Adar; Sung Kyun Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

U.S. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading Program: Results and Further Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of emissions trading (cap and trade) is gaining worldwide...2 have been reduced annually from sources participating in the US SO2 emissions trading program. Ambient SO2 levels and sulfate deposition have ...

Stephanie Rose Benkovic; Joseph Kruger

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A Framework to Analyze the Reduction Potential of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Passenger Cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automobile manufacturers are increasingly obligated to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their vehicle fleets. In this paper a framework to analyze the reduction potential of the life cycle CO2 emissions of ...

Christoph Herrmann; Karsten Kieckhäfer…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Refinement in the ultrasonic velocity data and estimation of the critical parameters for molten uranium dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the reactor and its vicinity. A reliable equation of state for the nuclear fuel, therefore, necessitates, reliable data on the sound prop- agation velocity in molten uranium dioxide have been obtained. An equation reserved. 1. Introduction The analysis of hypothetical and undesirable yet highly improbable accidents

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

197

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Project No.: FC26-02NT41440 Pilot Plant at the University of Texas Pilot Plant at the University of Texas The University of Texas at Austin investigated an improved process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption that uses an alternative solvent, aqueous potassium carbonate (K2CO3) promoted by piperazine (PZ). If successful, this process would use less energy for CO2 capture than the conventional monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing process. An improved capture system would mean a relative improvement in overall power plant efficiency. The project developed models to predict the performance of absorption/stripping of CO2 using the improved solvent and perform a pilot plant study to validate the process models and define the range of feasible

198

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona" Arizona" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",113,117,119,122,129,113,113,118,96,72,68,66,64,63,55,48,45,51,44,33,33 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*",1,1,"*","*","*","*","*",1,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

199

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota" Dakota" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",28,30,29,28,30,32,15,24,22,24,13,13,23,11,13,10,11,8,12,11,12 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","-","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

200

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dakota" Dakota" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",133,172,133,134,139,191,162,162,178,174,139,142,128,128,137,125,119,125,124,121,116 " Petroleum",1,1,1,1,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oregon" Oregon" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",7,10,15,14,15,6,6,7,13,16,13,16,11,12,12,11,8,13,10,10,14 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

202

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wyoming" Wyoming" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",98,77,78,74,86,103,96,98,104,97,79,86,93,84,84,87,84,83,83,76,67 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*",1,1,1,"*",1,21,16,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*"

203

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mexico" Mexico" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",54,46,53,52,57,69,71,75,74,67,63,57,46,46,35,28,28,24,20,17,15 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

204

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Utah" Utah" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",29,26,27,30,27,30,30,30,30,28,31,32,30,32,34,31,34,25,22,30,25 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

205

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado" Colorado" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",93,89,92,90,98,88,86,92,91,84,82,85,83,70,59,58,59,59,55,43,45 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

206

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Idaho" Idaho" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",6,3,6,6,5,3,3,3,3,3,3,1,3,3,4,2,2,4,3,1,3 " Petroleum","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

207

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Rhode Island" Rhode Island" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Petroleum",2,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,"*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

208

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nevada" Nevada" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",48,49,51,47,48,46,48,45,45,44,48,45,45,47,49,48,8,8,8,7,7 " Petroleum",1,1,1,1,1,"*","*","*","*","*","*",4,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","-" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

209

EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6 Growth in demand for transportation fuels is moderated by rising fuel prices and new, stricter federal CAFE standards for model years 2017 to 2025, which reduce transportation emissions from 2018 until they begin to rise near the end of the projection period. Transportation emissions in 2040 are 26 million metric tons below the 2011 level. Largely as a result of the inclusion of the new CAFE standards in AEO2013, transportation-related CO2 emissions in 2035 are 94 million metric tons below their level in the AEO2012 Reference case. State RPS requirements and abundant low-cost natural gas help shift the

210

Using daily satellite observations to estimate emissions of short-lived  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 4 Using daily satellite observations to estimate emissions of short-lived air pollutants on a mesoscopic scale Abstract Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for pol- icy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Using satellite observations for emission estimates

Haak, Hein

211

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion Factors methodology as well as conversion factors used for the CO 2related emissions. Conversion Factors This study uses the

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The road from Kyoto: The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in IEA countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Building on earlier analysis of energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions in 13 member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the authors quantify energy use and carbon emissions for nearly three dozen activities and economic branches from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. They show how lifestyles, economic structure, and overall economic growth affect the structure and rate of CO{sub 2} emissions. Similarly they show how energy intensities, final fuel mixes, and utility fuel mixes shape emissions. Using Laspeyres indices, they calculate the relative importance of each of these factors in affecting sectoral and total emissions over time. They focus on consumer sectors, homes and personal travel, but extend the analysis to all sectors of the economies studied. The authors find that emissions reductions in all sectors after 1990 have been slower than in the previous fifteen years, a period that saw emissions reductions in spite of economic growth. Manufacturing and households led the reductions in most cases, but progress has slowed markedly. In almost all cases, emissions from the transportation sector showed the least reduction and indeed some increases. Findings do not give an optimistic view of the recently concluded accords at the Third Conference of Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto, Japan. The authors conclude that the current rate of energy saving and fuel switching must be greatly accelerated if the IEA countries studied here are to affect reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions to meet their Kyoto targets.

Schipper, L.; Unander, F.; Marie, C.; Gorham, R.; Justus, D.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Krackeler, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

An equitable, efficient and implementable scheme to control global carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We design an international scheme to control global externalities in which autonomous regions choose their own emissions levels in anticipation of interregional resource transfers implemented by an internation...

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

Smith, A.E. [DFI/Aeronomics Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, industrial structure, and technical efficiency: Empirical evidence from Ghana, Senegal, and Morocco on the causal dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigated the short-run causal relationships and the long-run equilibrium relationships among carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, technical efficiency, and industrial structure for three African countries. Using Bounds cointegration approach the result showed evidence of multiple long-run equilibrium relationships for Ghana and Senegal but a one-way long-run equilibrium relationship for Morocco. The result from the Toda and Yomamoto granger causality test showed a mix of bidirectional, unidirectional, and neutral relationships for all countries. Whilst in Senegal carbon dioxide emission was not found to be a limiting factor to economic growth; it was found to act as a limiting factor to economic growth in Morocco and Ghana. Lastly, the result from the variance decomposition analysis revealed that economic growth contributes largely to changes in future carbon dioxide emissions in Senegal and Morocco whilst in Ghana technical efficiency contributes largely to changes in future variations in carbon dioxide emissions. These results have important policy implications for these countries' energy efficiency systems.

Philip Kofi Adom; William Bekoe; Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah; Justice Tei Mensah; Ebo Botchway

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A Novel Collaboration Paradigm for Reducing Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Data Centres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research and innovation projects to reduce the energy consumption The Computer...this topic. This research project designed energy-aware optimization policies...an unpredicted renewable energy surplus (typically solar or wind). This low emission......

D. Rincón; A. Agustí-Torra; J.F. Botero; F. Raspall; D. Remondo; X. Hesselbach; M.T. Beck; H. de Meer; F. Niedermeier; G. Giuliani

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from pelletized and nonpelletized poultry litter incorporated into soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While several studies have shown that the addition of animal manures to soil can increase N2O and CO2 emissions, limited information is available on the effect that manure physical characteristics can have on the...

M. L. Cabrera; S. C. Chiang; W. C. Merka; O. C. Pancorbo; S. A. Thompson

218

Technologies for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Installations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

All mitigation scenarios proposed to date either tend so slow down the rate of atmospheric CO2 emissions or level out the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. A unique system has been devised which offers a metho...

M. Steinberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations in Santiago de Chile associated with traffic emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO/CO2 ratios have been measured in different locations of Santiago de Chile city. Measurements were carried out in a tunnel (prevailing emissions from cars with catalytic converter) and close to heavy traffic st...

María A. Rubio; Irene Fuenzalida…

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Estimates of incremental oil recoverable by carbon dioxide flooding and related carbon dioxide supply requirements for flooding major carbonate reservoirs in the Permian, Williston, and other Rocky Mountain basins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to build a solid engineering foundation (in) carbonate reservoirs for the purpose of extending the technology base in carbon dioxide miscible flooding. This report presents estimates of incremental oil recovery and related carbon dioxide supply requirements for selected carbonate reservoirs in the Permian, Williston, and Rocky Mountain Basins. The estimates presented here are based on calculations using a volumetric model derived and described in this report. The calculations utilized data developed in previous work. Calculations were made for a total of 279 reservoirs in the Permian, Williston, and several smaller Rocky Mountain Basins. Results show that the carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin constitute an order of magnitude larger target for carbon dioxide flooding than do all the carbonate reservoirs of the Williston and Rocky Mountain intermontane basins combined. Review of the calculated data in comparison with information from earlier work indicates that the figures given here are probably optimistic in that incremental oil volumes may be biased toward the high side while carbon dioxide supply requirements may be biased toward the low side. However, the information available would not permit further practical refinement of the calculations. Use of the incremental oil figures given for individual reservoirs as an official estimate is not recommended because of various uncertainties in individual field data. Further study and compilation of data for field projects as they develop appears warranted to better calibrate the calculation procedures and thus to develop more refined estimates of incremental oil potential and carbon dioxide supply requirements. 11 figures, 16 tables.

Goodrich, J.H.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce 2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emissions by an equal percentage (say by 20 per cent), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Leonard D. Hamilton

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors, along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PHEVs and the resulting impact on total U.S. CO2 emissions.

Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for U.S. Coal by Origin and Destination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-ground coal quality data, including C, S, ash, fixed carbon, and heating values, are from COALQUAL (11), IGS (12), and Keystone (13, 14). ... For example, examination of 2082 bituminous Kentucky coals led Sakulpitakphon et al. (28) to reject the notion that a single CO2 emission factor can “be used as typical for any given rank of coal.” ... Quick, J. C.; Tabet, D. E.; Wakefield, S.; Bon, R. L. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants: A GIS Study of Coal Chemistry, ...

Jeffrey C. Quick

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

newspdfPNNL-19112Revision1Final.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentsmart-grid-estimation-energy-and-carb Language: English Policies: "Deployment...

228

Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-1-2013_Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide_20130312.electronic.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparison of Publicly Available Comparison of Publicly Available Methods for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide in Saline Formations 12 March 2013 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-1-2013 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its

229

Problematic of estimating GHG emissions in Logistics Company  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to OECD GHG emission database[2], the transportation sector occupies 13.1% of global GHG emission and 23% of global energy use ... Therefore, logistics companies should absolutely struggle with GHG emis...

YeoJu WON; SeungWoo KANG; SeongIl UM…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...estimate of land prices for agriculture. The calibration...percentage) Saint Lucia LCA 23...farming can be much higher than agriculture. We use the Sathirathai...yr-1 )14. Additionally, agriculture and rice cultivation...

Juha Siikamäki; James N. Sanchirico; Sunny L. Jardine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Illinois" Illinois" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",845,801,806,777,761,655,751,842,830,732,484,402,367,369,384,351,308,301,344,237,231 " Petroleum",4,6,5,4,11,4,6,2,15,24,15,7,1,4,2,1,"*",1,"*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

232

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Florida" Florida" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",436,474,491,425,416,391,421,465,461,417,379,270,260,240,236,205,197,192,196,160,108 " Petroleum",168,200,182,235,227,194,220,213,325,296,221,265,185,213,193,190,117,116,58,43,32 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

233

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Indiana" Indiana" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",1273,1330,1136,1155,1138,843,894,936,912,881,818,732,715,741,795,801,757,661,554,383,385 " Petroleum",3,3,1,"*","*",2,6,4,5,3,2,3,2,1,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

234

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Minnesota" Minnesota" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",95,83,96,114,117,88,92,100,95,98,93,70,83,83,86,82,80,78,76,60,52 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*",15,17,14,27,17,15,10,7,6,"*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

235

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alabama" Alabama" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",485,483,488,520,488,503,553,537,543,515,483,435,417,425,385,428,430,423,335,262,194 " Petroleum",1,2,1,1,1,1,2,2,4,3,2,2,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

236

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iowa" Iowa" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",182,203,190,198,180,166,155,153,173,155,155,139,134,138,135,135,131,134,149,90,104 " Petroleum","*","*","*",6,11,11,5,8,7,5,2,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,5,2,4 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","-","-","-","-","*","*","*"

237

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kentucky" Kentucky" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",818,791,810,892,812,613,583,607,567,597,530,486,428,474,460,445,380,336,307,225,241 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*",16,7,5,9,8,8,7,4,5 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*"

238

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alaska" Alaska" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",14,9,9,9,10,13,12,13,13,8,11,4,4,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2 " Petroleum",4,2,"*","*","*",3,4,4,4,4,3,4,3,3,2,2,2,2,1,1,1 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-",1,1,"*","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*"

239

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maryland" Maryland" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",241,216,221,228,212,208,228,231,247,237,238,235,241,248,261,258,256,252,222,194,43 " Petroleum",26,31,23,30,29,9,10,12,24,30,14,11,8,14,13,16,12,12,1,1,"*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

240

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Montana" Montana" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",16,18,20,18,19,33,18,21,22,23,22,28,18,16,19,18,18,20,18,19,19 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*",2,19,2,2,2,24,26,3,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,2 " Natural Gas","*","*","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Louisiana" Louisiana" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",91,98,100,106,115,89,86,106,100,102,92,87,89,87,87,82,81,65,62,58,65 " Petroleum",3,"*",40,111,114,61,58,64,66,62,60,79,61,83,20,19,17,13,15,26,48 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

242

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jersey" Jersey" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",63,52,50,51,46,53,61,67,56,58,73,45,44,46,47,63,55,45,35,11,14 " Petroleum",9,7,4,4,5,6,5,4,5,4,5,3,2,3,2,2,1,1,"*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

243

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Delaware" Delaware" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",38,38,31,38,35,35,35,34,35,22,34,30,28,32,33,29,28,32,32,16,13 " Petroleum",41,12,43,43,43,34,33,32,6,6,4,6,4,4,2,2,2,2,"*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","-","*","-","-","-","-","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","-"

244

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District of Columbia" District of Columbia" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Petroleum",2,1,1,1,2,1,1,"*",1,1,1,1,1,"*","*",1,"*","*","*","*",1 " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Total",2,1,1,1,2,1,1,"*",1,1,1,1,1,"*","*",1,"*","*","*","*",1

245

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

California" California" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",32,32,35,33,25,26,28,26,26,24,28,5,2,3,2,3,3,3,1,2,2 " Petroleum",46,17,26,28,47,89,95,98,96,111,94,34,66,13,18,21,21,18,1,1,"*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

246

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

West Virginia" West Virginia" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",876,970,1000,949,990,572,630,636,631,648,568,618,478,506,446,438,427,353,286,167,105 " Petroleum",1,1,"*","*","*",1,1,1,"*","*",1,3,1,"*","*",1,1,1,"*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","-","-","-"

247

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Massachusetts" Massachusetts" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",91,95,85,70,64,72,63,72,64,64,63,55,53,48,41,43,36,38,38,30,34 " Petroleum",120,123,105,67,52,48,36,62,83,56,42,40,31,34,35,33,13,13,6,3,1 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

248

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hawaii" Hawaii" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal","*","*",2,3,3,4,4,4,4,3,11,1,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,1 " Petroleum",35,26,26,19,17,35,39,39,42,41,39,24,20,21,22,20,21,21,20,21,15 " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

249

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Michigan" Michigan" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",363,368,339,356,386,353,372,399,411,369,360,336,325,335,322,329,315,325,329,267,229 " Petroleum",16,14,10,13,15,22,20,19,24,25,21,26,24,24,24,26,6,23,13,15,17 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","-","-","-","-","*","*","-","-","*","-","-","-","*","*"

250

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Missouri" Missouri" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",721,677,620,437,487,316,334,289,274,240,194,218,224,255,265,266,253,251,253,234,232 " Petroleum",3,4,4,5,6,4,1,1,1,6,18,18,11,2,3,7,6,6,"*",1,"*" " Natural Gas","*","*","-","*","*","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","-","*","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","-"

251

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mississippi" Mississippi" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",96,89,86,81,70,75,86,70,71,71,80,63,60,62,62,60,69,62,60,36,49 " Petroleum",11,5,6,48,14,2,15,33,67,41,38,64,1,12,16,8,3,2,"*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Gases","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","-","*","-","-","-","-"

252

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Environment - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Environment - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable &

253

An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-06miao.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Diesel...

254

Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

Zeyu Zheng, Kazuko Yamasaki, Joel N. Tenenbaum, and H. Eugene Stanley

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

255

Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

utility-specific annual generation by fuel type (CEC, 1990;Generation annual fuel specific generation by fuel type and

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of residual fuel oil are identical in the inventory and inCARB SEDS inventory fuel use Residual fuel oil Distillatein their oil and gas extraction processes. In its inventory,

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves (Field Version) Annualof Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves (Summary Version) Financial

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil)residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil22 CHP plants. For petroleum coke, CALEB only reports final

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

extraction (including coalbed methane release), processing,extraction (including coalbed methane release), processing,

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the Energy Information Administration survey forms, andthe U.S. Energy Information Administration survey forms, and

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as international marine bunker fuel. For the remaining 5% ofOf the distillate fuel consumed by all marine vessels, weresidual fuel oil from international marine travel. However,

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data on natural gas consumption by SIC/NAICS code (NAICSdata on natural gas consumption by SIC/NAICS code (codeNatural Gas Consumption in Chemicals Plants in California (Mcf) Category NS NAICS

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

section). Also, no conversion factor or carbon content isincludes the use of conversion factors. Since refinery fuelrefineries, a conversion factor specific to California

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

Howie, James Edward

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF[subscript 3]) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a ...

Ivy, Diane J.

266

Fees and rebates on new vehicles: Impacts on fuel efficiency, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer surplus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several incentive systems are examined that provide rebates on vehicles with higher-than-average fuel efficiency and levy fees on vehicles with less efficiency. The rebates and fees are applied to new vehicles at the time of purchase, and the rates are set such that the total outlay for rebates equals the revenues from fees. We find that moderately-sized rebates and fees result in a substantial increase in average fuel efficiency. Most of the effect is due to manufacturers' incorporating more fuel-efficiency technologies into the vehicles that they offer, since the rebates and fees effectively lower the price to manufacturers of these technologies. Consumer surplus is found to rise, and the profits of domestic manufacturers are estimated to drop only slightly under most systems and actually to rise under one system.

Kenneth E. Train; William B. Davis; Mark D. Levine

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To estimate the GHG impact of a business travel reduction program, a Federal agency or program should quantify the number of trips that could be avoided each year. If an agency has a large proportion of international travel, the agency may estimate changes in domestic and international trips separately because the associated savings in miles can be very different.

268

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation 10.1073/pnas.1309334111...of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas...best-performing coal-fired generation under certain...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

Heath, G.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

New estimates of global emissions of N2O from rivers and estuaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from rivers and estuaries. We present total global emissions, as well as regional shares. 2New estimates of global emissions of N2O from rivers and estuaries CAROLIEN KROEZE1 , EGON DUMONT1 rivers and estuaries, using the NEWS-DIN model. NEWS-DIN is a model of the global transport of dissolved

Seitzinger, Sybil

271

Optimal(Estimation(of(North(American(Methane( Emissions(using(GOSAT(data:(  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal(Estimation(of(North(American(Methane( Emissions(using(GOSAT(data:( A&Sciences&Division,&Lawrence&Berkeley&National&Laboratory,&Berkeley,&CA,&USA.! *aturner@fas.harvard.edu& Harvard(University( #12;Prior Methane Emissions from EDGARv4.2/Kaplan Major/Gas Waste Coal 0 5 10 15 20 Wetlands Livestock Oil/Gas Landfills Coal North America Global #12;Satellites

Jacob, Daniel J.

272

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maine" Maine" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",5,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,3,2,6,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,1,"*","*" " Petroleum",39,34,8,8,7,26,27,30,38,40,25,21,10,9,9,11,7,11,6,4,2 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-",11,11,12,12,12,12,7,10,9,9,9,8,8,19,28,9

273

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hampshire" Hampshire" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",37,30,39,36,34,37,37,45,36,36,42,40,35,30,34,37,35,36,33,29,33 " Petroleum",23,13,12,11,11,11,9,9,16,16,5,5,5,21,17,9,2,3,1,1,1 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*","*","*","*",1,"*",1,1,"*","*","*","*","*","*"

274

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kansas" Kansas" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",77,69,60,64,65,90,105,98,107,105,102,103,113,119,104,112,98,102,85,46,40 " Petroleum",1,"*","*",1,"*",1,1,1,"*",2,3,6,5,9,8,12,3,3,2,1,1 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Total",78,69,60,64,65,90,106,99,107,107,106,109,118,128,112,124,101,105,87,47,41

275

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Georgia" Georgia" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",805,728,719,649,528,462,452,486,497,490,488,479,495,517,524,583,619,617,481,247,211 " Petroleum",13,15,4,6,4,28,31,34,40,38,39,47,36,42,33,35,37,36,29,24,28 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-",39,41,34,33,33,32,31,31,27,27,27,29,28,25,24,25

276

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Connecticut" Connecticut" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",11,11,9,8,9,10,10,11,6,1,19,11,5,3,3,3,3,2,3,1,1 " Petroleum",40,38,25,20,16,12,26,37,40,39,26,22,6,5,4,5,3,3,1,"*",1 " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other1",1,1,1,1,"*",4,5,5,5,5,6,"*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*"

277

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through 2010 (Thousan  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arkansas" Arkansas" "Emission Type",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Sulfur Dioxide" " Coal",67,64,64,60,66,76,88,79,70,72,69,68,64,65,71,60,66,65,66,62,61 " Petroleum","*","*","*","*","*",1,1,"*",1,1,2,4,1,2,3,1,1,1,"*","*","*" " Natural Gas","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*","*" " Other Renewables1","-","-","-","-","-",12,13,13,13,13,13,12,12,13,13,36,15,16,11,12,12

278

Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emisssions...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama...

279

Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating emissions from R&D facilities using chemical inventory data.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4: April 9, 2007 4: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on AddThis.com... Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector began to

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from ambient air could compensate for all carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Such capture would, for example, make it possible to use liquid, carbon-based fuels in cars or airplane...

K.S. Lackner

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Potentials for reductions of carbon dioxide emissions of the industrial sector in transitional economies -- A case study of implementation of absorption chiller and co-generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central and East European (CEE) countries together with former USSR emitted about 25 percent of the world carbon dioxide emissions, predominantly because of high energy intensity of their industries and dependence on coal. The paper focuses on technologies which would reduce the need for fossil fuel burning by improving energy efficiency in industry. In the process industry, heat demand is usually met by combustion of fossil fuels, cold is produced with electricity. Technical potentials of absorption chillers (AC) and co-generation in the process industry as well as their market penetration potentials are analyses for Slovenia, one of the fastest transforming CEE economies. Technical potentials are not necessarily realized in production. New technology employment in firms depends on several factors. This paper first summarizes the existing models explaining adoption of technology by firms. Then, it focuses selectively on the impact of macro economic and institutional factors and points out which policy instruments could facilitate faster diffusion of the technologies and thereby reduction of energy related carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector.

Remec, J. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Dolsak, N. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Economics]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Adaptation costs for sustainable development and ecological transitions: a presentation of the structural model M3ED with reference to French energy?economy?carbon dioxide emission prospects*  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to assess the adaptation costs associated with the transition to a sustainable development path, taking the example of carbon dioxide emissions in the French economy. The model used is based on systems dynamics modelling and energy input-output analysis. This type of approach has the interesting property of precisely defining the nature of interactions between the different economic sectors, and between the economic sectors and the environment. This provides a framework within which to test different types of economic, technology and environment policy. In effect, according to our interests, it is necessary to measure problems of resources allocation or sequential choices between different alternatives why and how a particular solution comes to be selected from a multiplicity of alternatives. First, we characterise the methodological and conceptual specification of the model. Secondly, we locate specific properties of the model linked with both ecological sustainability and economic feasability constraints. Thirdly, a sensitivity test is applied concerning different control policy scenarios for the case of carbon dioxide emissions in the French economy.

Patrick Schembri

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

291

Development and use of the GREET model to estimate fuel-cycle energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies and fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel- cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydrogen, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

Wang, M.Q.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and conventional gas are not significantly...harmonized estimates of life cycle GHG emissions...unconventional gas used for electricity...combined cycle turbine (NGCC) compared...explanation of the remaining harmonization...evaluated shale gas LCAs: inclusion of missing life cycle stages...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

TY RPRT T1 Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS Model A1 J Greenblatt AB p A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas GHG and regional criteria pollutant emissions The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy including those outside the energy sector such as high global warming potential gases waste treatment agriculture and forestry in varying degrees of detail and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources Starting from basic drivers such as population numbers

294

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

295

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricity Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricity Generation Technologies Speaker(s): Garvin Heath Date: April 11, 2011 - 10:00am Location: 90-3075 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Eric Masanet One barrier to the full support and deployment of alternative energy systems and the development of a sustainable energy policy is the lack of robust conclusions about the life cycle environmental impacts of energy technologies. A significant number of life cycle assessments (LCA) of energy technologies have been published, far greater than many are aware. However, there is a view held by many decision-makers that the state of the science in LCA of energy technologies is inconclusive because of perceived and real variability and uncertainty in published estimates of life cycle

297

Bisphosphine dioxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

Moloy, K.G.

1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

Real-world fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions by driving conditions for light-duty passenger vehicles in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The increasing discrepancy between on-road and type-approval fuel consumption for \\{LDPVs\\} (light-duty passenger vehicles) has attracted tremendous attention. We measured on-road emissions for 60 \\{LDPVs\\} in three China's cities and calculated their fuel consumption and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. We further evaluated the impacts of variations in area-averaged speed on relative fuel consumption of gasoline \\{LDPVs\\} for the UAB (urban area of Beijing). On-road fuel consumption under the average driving pattern is 10 ± 2% higher than that normalized to the NEDC (new European driving cycle) cycle for all tested vehicles, and the on-road NEDC-normalized fuel consumption is higher by 30 ± 12% compared to type-approval values for gasoline vehicles. We observed very strong correlations between relative fuel consumption and average speed. Traffic control applied to \\{LDPVs\\} driving within the UAB during weekdays can substantially reduce total fleet fuel consumption by 23 ± 5% during restriction hours by limiting vehicle use and improving driving conditions. Our results confirmed that a new cycle for the type approval test for \\{LDPVs\\} with more real-world driving features is of great necessity. Furthermore, enhanced traffic control measures could play an important role in mitigating real-world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for \\{LDPVs\\} in China.

Shaojun Zhang; Ye Wu; Huan Liu; Ruikun Huang; Puikei Un; Yu Zhou; Lixin Fu; Jiming Hao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In 2007, it accounted for 5% of total global industrial energy consumption and 2% of direct industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. An energy audit is a primary step toward improving energy efficiency at the facility level. This paper describes a plant-wide energy audit aimed at identifying energy conservation and CO2 mitigation opportunities at a paper mill in Guangdong province, China. We describe the energy audit methods, relevant Chinese standards, methods of calculating energy and carbon indicators, baseline energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the audited paper mill, and nine energy-efficiency improvement opportunities identified by the audit. For each of the nine options, we evaluate the energy conservation and associated CO2 mitigation potential. The total technical energy conservation potential for these nine opportunities is 967.8 terajoules (TJ), and the total CO2 mitigation potential is equal to 93,453 tonnes CO2 annually, representing 14.4% and 14.7%, respectively, of the mill’s total energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the audit period.

Lingbo Kong; Lynn Price; Ali Hasanbeigi; Huanbin Liu; Jigeng Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The US department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through beneficial uses of carbon dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Perspective Correspondence to: Darin Damiani, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26507, USA. E-mail: darin.damiani@netl.doe.gov † This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Received June 24, 2011; revised July 26, 2011; accepted July 27, 2011 Published online at Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/ghg.35 The US Department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through benefi cial uses of carbon dioxide † Darin Damiani and John T. Litynski, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Open-Source LCA Tool for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Crude Oil Production Using Field Characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Open-Source LCA Tool for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Crude Oil Production Using Field Characteristics ... OPGEE models oil production emissions in more detail than previous transport LCA models. ... El-Houjeiri, H. and Brandt, A.Exploring the variation of GHG emissions from conventional oil production using an engineering-based LCA model. ...

Hassan M. El-Houjeiri; Adam R. Brandt; James E. Duffy

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series with regions of strong anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Citation: Erickson, D. J., III, R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, T. J

Hoffman, Forrest M.

303

STATUS OF SCOPING PLAN RECOMMENDED MEASURES The estimated 2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions for measures described in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 STATUS OF SCOPING PLAN RECOMMENDED MEASURES The estimated 2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. These regulations, which reflect ARB's progress towards reducing statewide GHG emissions, include comprehensive through the use of an updated GHG emission forecast. The updated forecast was developed using average

304

Estimating HAPs and radionuclide emissions from a laboratory complex at a nuclear processing site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unique methodology was developed for conducting an air emission inventory (AEI) at a DOE nuclear processing facility. This methodology involved the use of computer-assisted design (CAD) drawings to document emission points, computerized process drawings to document industrial processes leading to emissions, and a computerized data base of AEI forms to document emission estimates and related process data. A detailed air emissions inventory for operating years 1985--1991 was recently implemented for the entire site using this methodology. One industrial area at the DOE Site is comprised of laboratory facilities that provide direct support to the nuclear reactor and recovery operations, developmental studies to support reactor and separation operations, and developmental studies to support waste handling and storage. The majority of the functions are conducted in a single large building complex wherein bench scale and pilot scale experiments are carried out involving radionuclides, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and other chemicals reportable under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (SARA) Title 111. The results of the inventory showed that HAP and radionuclide emissions from the laboratory complex were relatively minor.

Paul, R.A. [IT Corp., Durham, NC (United States); Faugl, T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing

Stanley, H. Eugene

306

State-By-State Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in the United States 1960–2000  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time series of fossil fuel carbon emissions from 1960–2000 for each of the U.S. states and the District of Columbia are presented and discussed. Comparison of the nationally summarized results with other natio...

T. J. Blasing; Christine Broniak…

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Effect of encapsulated calcium carbide on dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide emissions from flooded rice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of N use in flooded rice is usually low, chiefly due to gaseous losses. Emission of CH4, a gas implicated in global warming, can also be substantial in flooded rice. In a greenhouse study, the nitr...

K. F. Bronson; A. R. Mosier

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO2 emissions. To date, most...

Anita C. Risch; Sven Wirthner; Matt D. Busse; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Introduction Overview: World Energy Resources and the Need for Biomass for Energy and Lower Fossil Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the world’s petroleum is located in politically unstable ... has continued to decline since 1970 as its reserves are depleted. The resulting large petroleum imports ... emissions. Thus, development and co...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Dazzled by diesel? The impact on carbon dioxide emissions of the shift to diesels in Europe through 2009  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper identifies trends in new gasoline and diesel passenger car characteristics in the European Union between 1995 and 2009. By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new vehicle market. While the diesel version of a given car model may have as much as 35% lower fuel use/km and 25% lower CO2 emissions than its gasoline equivalent, diesel buyers have chosen increasingly large and more powerful cars than the gasoline market. As a result, new diesels bought in 2009 had only 2% lower average CO2 emissions than new gasoline cars, a smaller advantage than in 1995. A Laspeyres decomposition investigates which factors were important contributors to the observed emission reductions and which factors offset savings in other areas. More than 95% of the reduction in CO2 emissions per km from new vehicles arose because both diesel and gasoline new vehicle emissions/km fell, and only 5% arose because of the shift from gasoline to diesel technology. Increases in vehicle mass and power for both gasoline and diesel absorbed much of the technological efficiency improvements offered by both technologies. We also observe changes in the gasoline and diesel fleets in eight EU countries and find changes in fuel and emissions intensities consistent with the changes in new vehicles reported. While diesel cars continue to be driven far farther than gasoline cars, we attribute only some of this difference to a “rebound effect”. We conclude that while diesel technology has permitted significant fuel savings, the switch from gasoline to diesel in the new vehicle market contributed little itself to the observed reductions in CO2 emissions from new vehicles.

Lee Schipper; Lew Fulton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2010 Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2007, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 17 percent. In the IEO2010 Reference case, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from non-OECD countries in 2035 are about double those from OECD countries. Overview Because anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, world energy use continues to be at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2010 Reference case, world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions29 grow from 29.7 billion metric tons in 2007 to 33.8 billion metric tons in 2020 and 42.4 billion metric tons in 2035 (Table 18).30

313

Parameters of the prompt gamma-ray burst emission estimated with the opening angle of jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present in this paper an approach to estimate the initial Lorentz factor of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) without referring to the delayed emission of the early afterglow. Under the assumption that the afterglow of the bursts concerned occurs well before the prompt emission dies away, the Lorentz factor measured at the time when the duration of the prompt emission is ended could be estimated by applying the well-known relations of GRB jets. With the concept of the efficiency for converting the explosion energy to radiation, this Lorentz factor can be related to the initial Lorentz factor of the source. The corresponding rest frame peak energy can accordingly be calculated. Applying this method, we estimate the initial Lorentz factor of the bulk motion and the corresponding rest frame spectral peak energy of GRBs for a new sample where the redshift and the break time in the afterglow are known. Our analysis shows that, in the circumstances, the initial Lorentz factor of the sample would peak at 200 and would be distributed mainly within $(100,400)$, and the peak of the distribution of the corresponding rest frame peak energy would be $0.8keV$ and its main region would be $(0.3keV,3keV)$.

B. -B. Zhang; Y. -P. Qin

2006-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

314

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

315

electricity emission factors | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emission factors emission factors Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

316

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. , (2008a). Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions fromstudy of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratoryand modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. All

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Inventory of non-CO2 GHG and first estimates of emissions of New Gases in Russia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the First (1995) and the Second (1998) Russian National Communications to the UNFCCC, estimates of CO2 and non-CO2 emissions for the 1990 and 1994 were presented. Total emissions of CH4 decreased from 557 Mt C...

A. O. Kokorin; A. I. Nakhutin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Estimation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide at Sub-ppm Level Concentrations in Ammonia Synthesis Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......can be handled per analysis. The ammonia synthesis...conditioning of I2O5 reactors or to marginal flow...20%. Thus, the reliability of the method depends...practice for the analysis of trace impurities...estimated from a single analysis the method of converting...to CO2 using I2O5 reactor (11) after its......

K. Annaji Rao; K.K. Pushpa; Hari Mohan; R.M. Iyer

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Dynamics of nitrogen and greenhouse gas emission under elevated carbon dioxide in semi-arid cropping systems in Australia and China.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Within less than 50 years, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] will likely be double that observed in 1950. In this higher [CO2] world the sustainability… (more)

Lam, Shu Kee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Carbon dioxide emissions and other environmental indicators: contribution to the study of the European situation between 1990 and 2005  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Kyoto Protocol, adopted on 11 December 1997, was elaborated as a means to control the risk of global warming from greenhouse gases, while improving the human condition. This paper is an attempt to answer the following main questions: Does the Protocol signature have any immediate impact on countries behaviour? Is the speed of changes similar to all European countries? Are there any allometric scaling relations between the measure of country's dynamic (CO2 emission or other environmental parameter) and the country's size (population or Gross Domestic Product)? In case of differences among European countries, are these scaling relations relevant to explain the differences? This paper examines the differences between 2 time intervals (i.e., 1990-1997 and 1998-2005), regarding CO2 and other environmental indicators in 15 European countries.

Antonio F. Miguel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Reply to comment on “Hydrocarbon emissions characterization...Petron G ( 2012a ) Hydrocarbon emissions characterization...Comment on “Hydrocarbon emissions characterization...emissions of methane from combustion or even from tanks...87% (6); HC = heat content of natural...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

325

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a small increase of 7 MMTCO2e (0.9 percent) in methane (CH4) emissions, and an increase of 8 MMTCO2e (4.9 percent), based on partial data, in emissions of man-made gases with high global warming potentials (high-GWP gases). (Draft estimates for emissions of HFC and PFC

326

Estimating vent emissions from a distillation column: An alternative to stack testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical paper points out the cost-effectiveness and data manageability of material balance over the epidemic use of stack testing in the chemical industry. An example is drawn from a Title V emissions inventory prepared for an international manufacturer of pharmaceuticals and fuel additives. This example case focuses on the use of mass balance to estimate noncondensibles generated by a typical large-scale distillation column. Distillation fundamentals are reviewed, including discussion of relative volatility, x-y and McCabe-Thiele diagrams, and basic sieve tray mechanics. A seemingly complex set of energy and material balance equations is simplified by the application of constant molar overflow. The example case concludes with a calculation of column noncondensibles, and the paper closes with a review of the material balance approach, including its strengths, limitations, and applicability to other unit operations.

Dickerson, D.L. Jr. [ERM-Southeast, Charleston, SC (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin, Ireland

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China's Cement Production: Methodologies and Uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from electricity consumption. This paper examinesmainly from electricity consumption for cement production,CO 2 emissions from electricity consumption are usually

Ke, Jing

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Assessing the temporal stability of the population/environment relationship in comparative perspective: a cross-national panel study of carbon dioxide emissions, 1960–2005  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examines the temporal stability of the population/environment relationship. We analyze panel data from 1960 to 2005 to determine whether the national-level association between population and carbon dioxide

Andrew K. Jorgenson; Brett Clark

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Global methane emissions from landfills: New methodology and annual estimates 19801996  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Change: Instruments and techniques; KEYWORDS: landfill, landfill gas, methane emissions, methanotrophy

332

Black hole mass estimates and emission line properties of a sample of redshift Z > 6:5 quasars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), mainly thanks to optical surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; York et al. 2000), the Canada 1 Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, programs 286.A-5025, 087.A-0890 and 088.A- 0897. This paper also... ; Latif et al. 2013). At low redshift, elemental abundances estimated from both emission and intrinsic absorption lines show that quasar environments are characterized by solar or super- solar metallicities. Jiang et al. (2007) estimated the BLR...

De Rosa, Gisella; Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Gennaro, Mario; Simcoe, Robert A.; Dietrich, Matthias; Peterson, Bradley M.; Walter, Fabian; Frank, Stephan; McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Simpson, Chris

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

333

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the extra emissions that are generated from manufacturing the material used to make CNG tanks); they can amount tc more than 2% of the emissions from 32 the fuel production and...

335

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...warming potential (GWP) for methane (28). In addition, we perform...GWP Power plant efficiency (HHV) Coproduct allocation EUR (bcf) CH...Description of published methane emission rates and the harmonization...to all GHG emissions except methane leakage, e.g., CO 2 emissions...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

337

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 8 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2006, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 14 percent. In 2030, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 77 percent. Figure 80. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2006-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 81. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 82. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel in IEO2008 and IEO2009, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (billion metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

338

Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide. Introduction Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per capita are released annually into the atmosphere.1a,b CarbonStorage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks

Yaghi, Omar M.

339

An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled Engine and Aftertreatment System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

340

Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

Kurniawan, Jermanto S., E-mail: Jermanto.kurniawan@inrets.fr; Khardi, S., E-mail: Salah.khardi@inrets.f

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8: July 16, 2007 8: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on AddThis.com...

342

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Urban Road Transport in Latin America: CO2 Reduction as a Co-Benefit of Transport Strategies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is broad consensus that GHG are warming the planet (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007). Many human activities produce GHG emissions, but roughly two thirds of the total anthropogenic emissions

Lee Schipper; Elizabeth Deakin…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Jeffery B. Greenblatt Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 November 2013 This work was supported by the Research Division, California Air Resources Board under ARB Agreement No. 12-329. LBNL-6451E DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of

344

XBRL Taxonomy for Estimating the Effects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Corporate Financial Positions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Companies around the world are increasingly expected to report their greenhouse gas emissions. Currently there are various formulas to calculate emissions, and there are different reporting formats. Most of the reporting formats are paper-based or non-readable-by-machine ... Keywords: Business Data Processing, Data Integration, Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Reporting, Finance, Information Systems, XML

Fumiko Satoh

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...emissions of utility-scale wind power: Systematic review...workover can refer to well maintenance without hydraulic fracturing...compressor blowdowns Engines/turbines Hydraulic fracturing* Pneumatic...recompletion* Engines/turbines Compressors and compressor...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Exhaust emissions estimation during transient turbocharged diesel engine operation using a two-zone combustion model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive, two-zone, transient, diesel combustion model is used to study the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged diesel engine during load transients. Analytical modelling of fuel spray and in-cylinder processes is included, while detailed equations concerning all engine sub-systems describe the phenomena, which diversify transient operation from the steady-state. Demonstrative diagrams are provided for the time histories of nitric oxide (NO) and soot emissions during transient operation, and the main factors affecting their formation are highlighted. Moreover, in-cylinder development of NO concentration and soot density during individual transient cycles is provided and compared with their respective steady-state counterparts. This comparison points out the differences between steady-state and transient operation, as regards exhaust emissions development. The study is expanded with the investigation of load change magnitude and cylinder wall insulation effects on transient emissions.

C.D. Rakopoulos; A.M. Dimaratos; E.G. Giakoumis; D.C. Rakopoulos

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Estimation of the Radiation Dose to the Public Due to Atmospheric Emissions from the Rostov NPP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiation dose to the public due to atmospheric emissions from the Rostov NPP is calculated using a point conservative approach and a complex of migration and dosimetric models. The radiation exposure path...

L. A. Sharpan; E. I. Karpenko; S. I. Spiridonov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

Fischlin, Andreas

350

Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABORATORY Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissionscomponent of China’s total energy consumption mix. However,about 19% of China’s total energy consumption, while others

Fridley, David G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

352

TransCom N[subscript 2]O model inter-comparison – Part 2: Atmospheric inversion estimates of N[subscript 2]O emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study examines N[subscript 2]O emission estimates from five different atmospheric inversion frameworks based on chemistry transport models (CTMs). The five frameworks differ in the choice of CTM, meteorological data, ...

Thompson, R. L.

353

Evaluation of an operational method for the estimation of emissions of nitrogen compounds for a group of farms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this article is to evaluate a practical method for estimating nitrogen emissions on the scale of a group of farms, to be used in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The method rests on the estimation of nitrogen inputs and outputs to calculate the surplus of the annual nitrogen balance on the scale of a farm. The different gaseous nitrogen losses (NH3, NO, N2O, N3) are then estimated for each livestock or cropping system. The leaching losses in the form of NO3 are assumed to correspond to the surplus of the apparent nitrogen balance to which are added the atmospheric depositions, minus the gaseous losses. The feasibility of this method was studied on 24 farms in the Naizin catchment area (Brittany, France). An analysis of the sensitivity of NO3 estimates to different parameters used to calculate gaseous losses was carried out. Lastly the robustness of the NO3 estimates was examined by comparing them with measurements of NO3 collected within this catchment area.

Sylvain Payraudeau; Hayo M.G. Van Der Werf; Francoise Vertes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...production activities to the oil produced from associated...of production in the price environment...for transportation and heating should be...study (51%, higher heating value basis). 1 Olmstead...reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thermal efficiency, fuel heating value, power plant...natural gas as a bridge fuel . Clim Change 118 : 609...emissions and freshwater consumption of Marcellus shale gas...following Fig. S1) for the fuel cycle of shale gas...water, and/or oil) Vessel and pipeline blowdowns...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

CDIAC::Carbon Emission::Introduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction Introduction Each year the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) generates estimates of carbon releases from fossil-fuel consumption and cement production. Emissions from fossil-fuel burning represent the largest anthropogenic source of carbon to the atmosphere and are an important contributor to elevated atmospheric CO2 levels. CDIAC produces annual fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series at global and national scales and these time series serve as building blocks for other data products including gridded (1 x 1) emission time series. Details regarding the methods used to produce these time series and data products may be found on the CDIAC website. This new interface allows users to query, visualize, and download the latest CDIAC fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates. In the future, additional

357

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

358

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Initial Estimates of Mercury Emissions to the Atmosphere from Global Biomass Burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frequently burning grasslands in Africa and Australia, and agricultural waste burning globally, contribute relatively little to the mercury budget. ... Savannas burn frequently (intentionally or by accident), typically annually or biannually, while boreal forest burns at 50?200 year time scales, and wet tropical forests rarely burn at all. ... Total C emissions tracked burning in forested areas (including deforestation fires in the tropics), whereas burned area was largely controlled by savanna fires which responded to different environmental and human factors. ...

H.R. Friedli; A.F. Arellano; S. Cinnirella; N. Pirrone

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Higher Energy Consumption Forecast Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure 107. Carbn dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2004 and 2030 (million metric tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. Figure data CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9: July 23, 2007 9: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479: July 23, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1990-2006 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #479:

362

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation Costs Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation Costs October 7, 2013 - 10:18am Addthis Analyzing the cost of implementing each greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measure provides an important basis for prioritizing different emission reduction strategies. While actual costs should be used when available, this guidance provides cost estimates or considerations for the major emission reduction measures to help agencies estimate costs without perfect information. Cost criteria the agency may consider when prioritizing strategies include: Lifecycle cost Payback Cost effectiveness ($ invested per MTCO2e, metric tonne carbon dioxide equivalent avoided). Implementation costs should be analyzed for each emissions source:

364

The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Christopher R. Knittel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Program Christopher R. Knittel of the implied cost of carbon dioxide reductions under the Cash for Clunker program. The estimates suggest pollutants. Conservative estimates of the implied carbon dioxide cost exceed $365 per ton; best case scenario

Rothman, Daniel

365

Effects of Retrofitting Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy Diesel Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline-in the exhaust to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). NO 2 in turn ispollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrous acid (

Millstein, Dev E.; Harley, Robert A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. Bromly, Reduction of Nitrogen Dioxide Emissions from Gasthan 10 ! lm), and nitrogen dioxide ( N0 2) standards areare nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N0 2); although,

Traynor, G.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Carbon dioxide capture: an assessment of plausible ranges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The projections of energy related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) serve as point of departure for an assessment of plausible ranges of CO2 emissions that could be avoided through CO2 capture and storage measures. Scenario and time dependent, sector and fuel specific capture factors are developed for eleven world regions to estimate the proportion of CO2 resulting from fossil fuel and biomass combustion/conversion that might be practical to capture and store. The capture factors are applied to the original CO2 emissions scenarios at a highly disaggregated level. The results are summed up and presented. The results indicate that it might be possible to capture and store a significant quantity of energy related CO2, especially in the second quarter of this century. Yet the amounts of CO2 still being emitted remain considerable, suggesting that other technologies will also be needed if the threat of climate change requires large reductions of CO2 emissions over the next few decades.

Ferenc L. Toth; Hans-Holger Rogner

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

CO2 displacement mechanisms: phase equilibria effects and carbon dioxide sequestration studies.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Supercritical carbon dioxide is injected into underground formations to enhance oil recovery and for subsurface sequestration to minimize the impact of CO2 emissions due to… (more)

Pasala, Sangeetha M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

IEP - Carbon Dioxide: Regulatory Drivers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IEP - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Regulatory Drivers In July 7, 2009 testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu made the following statements:1 "...Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that carbon dioxide from human activity has increased the atmospheric level of CO2 by roughly 40 percent, a level one- third higher than any time in the last 800,000 years. There is also a consensus that CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have caused our planet to change. Already, we have seen the loss of about half of the summer arctic polar ice cap since the 1950s, a dramatically accelerating rise in sea level, and the loss of over two thousand cubic miles of glacial ice, not on geological time scales but over a mere hundred years.

372

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

373

Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

Hesse, M. A.

374

ESTIMATION OF THE NEUTRINO FLUX AND RESULTING CONSTRAINTS ON HADRONIC EMISSION MODELS FOR Cyg X-3 USING AGILE DATA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we give an estimate of the neutrino flux that can be expected from the microquasar Cyg X-3. We calculate the muon neutrino flux expected here on Earth as well as the corresponding number of neutrino events in the IceCube telescope based on the so-called hypersoft X-ray state of Cyg X-3. If the average emission from Cyg X-3 over a period of 5 yr were as high as during the used X-ray state, a total of 0.8 events should be observed by the full IceCube telescope. We also show that this conclusion holds by a factor of a few when we consider the other measured X-ray states. Using the correlation of AGILE data on the flaring episodes in 2009 June and July to the hypersoft X-ray state, we calculate that the upper limits on the neutrino flux given by IceCube are starting to constrain the hadronic models, which have been introduced to interpret the high-energy emission detected by AGILE.

Baerwald, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Guetta, D. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, v. Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

376

Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions

377

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to energy-consuming activities that burn fossil fuels. On a yearly basis, the average Ameri- can produces 22 of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or nearly half of the fossil fuel carbon emissions over this period sea life that depend on the health and avail- ability of these shelled organisms. At present, ocean

378

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth...interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies of 500 Mhz, this amounts...chang-ing the atmospheric carbon dioxide...in the polar areas. Although...The shaded area indicates the...per-missible atmospheric CO2 level might...emission rates are largest between 2000...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

379

Regional-Scale Estimation of Electric Power and Power Plant CO2 Emissions Using Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System Nighttime Satellite Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For estimation, the relationship between Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) annual nighttime stable light product (NSL) for 2006 and statistical data on power generation, power consumption, and power plant CO2 emissions in 10 electric power supply regions of Japan was investigated. ... There are similar linear correlations of electricity consumption for lighting and total electricity consumption at the regional (e.g., state and province) level, but possibly not for CO2 emissions because of regional concentrations of electricity from renewable energy and nuclear power plants, which produce low CO2 emissions. ...

Husi Letu; Takashi Y. Nakajima; Fumihiko Nishio

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

380

Viscosity of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Speed-and Facility-Specific Emission Estimates for On-Road Light-Duty Vehicles based on Real-World Speed Profiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

06-1096 Speed- and Facility-Specific Emission Estimates for On-Road Light-Duty Vehicles based on Real-World Speed Profiles By H. Christopher Frey, Ph.D. Professor Department of Civil, Construction demand and land use models such as TransCAD, TranPlan or TRANUS produce average link speed and link VMT

Frey, H. Christopher

384

CAN DUST EMISSION BE USED TO ESTIMATE THE MASS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN GALAXIES-A PILOT PROJECT WITH THE HERSCHEL REFERENCE SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The standard method for estimating the mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy is to use the 21 cm line to trace the atomic gas and the CO 1-0 line to trace the molecular gas. In this paper, we investigate the alternative technique of using the continuum dust emission to estimate the mass of gas in all phases of the ISM. Using Herschel observations of 10 galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, we show that the emission detected by Herschel is mostly from dust that has a temperature and emissivity index similar to that of dust in the local ISM in our galaxy, with the temperature generally increasing toward the center of each galaxy. We calibrate the dust method using the CO and 21 cm observations to provide an independent estimate of the mass of hydrogen in each galaxy, solving the problem of the uncertain ''X-factor'' for the CO observations by minimizing the dispersion in the ratio of the masses estimated using the two methods. With the calibration for the dust method and the estimate of the X-factor produced in this way, the dispersion in the ratio of the two gas masses is 25%. The calibration we obtain for the dust method is similar to those obtained from Herschel observations of M31 and from Planck observations of the Milky Way. We discuss the practical problems in using this method.

Eales, Stephen; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Auld, Robbie; Davies, Jon; Gear, Walter; Gomez, Haley [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Gentile, Gianfranco; Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bianchi, Simone [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Boselli, Alessandro; Ciesla, Laure [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseilles, UMR6110 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-1338 Marseilles (France); Clements, David [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cortese, Luca [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748, Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Galametz, Maud [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hughes, Tom [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Madden, Suzanne [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d'Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy...

386

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Kevin T. Raterman (ratekt@inel.gov; 208-526-5444) Michael McKellar (mgq@inel.gov; 208-526-1346) Anna Podgorney (poloak@inel.gov; 208-526-0064) Douglas Stacey (stacde@inel.gov; 208-526-3938) Terry Turner (tdt@inel.gov; 208-526-8623) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2110 Brian Stokes (bxs9@pge.com; 415-972-5591) John Vranicar (jjv2@pge.com; 415-972-5591) Pacific Gas & Electric Company 123 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Introduction Many analysts 1,2,3 identify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

387

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands May 14, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) underneath millions of acres of Federal lands. The report, Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands, estimates and characterizes the storage potential that lies beneath some of the more than 400 million acres of Federal land available for lease.

389

Development of gridded mobile source emission estimates for the Houston-Galveston nonattainment counties FY93, FY96, FY99, and FY07 in support of the Coast project. Interim research report, April 1992-September 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the methodology used to develop the Houston-Galveston Nonattainment Counties gridded mobile source emissions inventories. Included in the report are an overview of the emission estimation methodology and the 24-hour traffic assignments used in the analyses; the methods used to estimate the seasonally adjusted time-of-day vehicle miles of travel and associated operating speeds; the estimation of the emission rates using the EPA`s MOBILE5a program; and an outline of the method used to develop the emission estimates using the MOBILE5a emission rates. These emission inventories were developed in support of the Coastal Oxidant Assessment of Southeast Texas Project (COAST), a large-scale study of ozone formation being conducted by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC).

Knowles, W.E.; Dresser, G.B.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Companies and regulators in emissions trading programs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Much has been written about the economic and environmental performance of US emissions trading programs for “acid rain” (sulfur dioxide ... whether these features are present in the EU Emissions Trading System an...

Joseph Kruger

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decision support tool for landfill gas-to energy projects,”industrial emissions e. Landfills f. Solid waste treatmentreductions Forests, dairy, landfills 75% overall savings HFC

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

How To Address Data Gaps in Life Cycle Inventories: A Case Study on Estimating CO2 Emissions from Coal-Fired Electricity Plants on a Global Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our framework hypothesizes that emissions from coal power plants can be explained by plant-specific factors (predictors) that include steam pressure, total capacity, plant age, fuel type, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of the resident nations of those plants. ... For example, Wernet et al.(5) used neural networks to estimate the cumulative energy demand (CED) of chemicals based on their molecular properties. ...

Zoran J. N. Steinmann; Aranya Venkatesh; Mara Hauck; Aafke M. Schipper; Ramkumar Karuppiah; Ian J. Laurenzi; Mark A. J. Huijbregts

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

395

Marketable permits for controlling sulphur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to describe research sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) into the nature of the auctions described in the bills. The research was undertaken at the request of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce to assess how various provisions in the bills might affect the workings of the market. Because the project called for the analysis of market mechanisms that do not now exist, a laboratory'' approach was applied in which artificial markets are created using computerized trading, volunteer subjects, and cash incentives to mimic the markets being studied. Dr. Mark Isaac, at the University of Arizona, and Dr. Jamie Kruse, at the University of Colorado, led teams that designed and conducted the laboratory experiments. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Hale, D.R. (USDOE Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)); Bjornstad, D.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Marketable permits for controlling sulphur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to describe research sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) into the nature of the auctions described in the bills. The research was undertaken at the request of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce to assess how various provisions in the bills might affect the workings of the market. Because the project called for the analysis of market mechanisms that do not now exist, a ``laboratory`` approach was applied in which artificial markets are created using computerized trading, volunteer subjects, and cash incentives to mimic the markets being studied. Dr. Mark Isaac, at the University of Arizona, and Dr. Jamie Kruse, at the University of Colorado, led teams that designed and conducted the laboratory experiments. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Hale, D.R. [USDOE Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Bjornstad, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy, as the basic element supporting economic growth, is essential for the survival and development of modern society. During the past few decades, the global economy has witnessed substantial growth. In th...

Yiming Wei; Gang Wu; Hua Liao; Haibo Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Reduction of Automobile Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The automotive industry is one of the major manufacture sectors in developed nations. It accounts for almost 5% of total manufacture value of industrialized countries such as USA, Japan, France and England. The a...

Abdelati Elalem; M. S. EL-Bourawi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

The economic impact of the upcoming EU emissions trading system on airlines and EU Member States—an empirical estimation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In February 2009, the European Union’s (EU) Directive for the inclusion of aviation into the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) for CO2-emissions came into force. From 2012 onwards, the EU-ETS will cover virtua...

Martin Schaefer; Janina Scheelhaase; Wolfgang Grimme…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Greenhouse Gases and Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have grown rapidly since the beginning of this century. Unless emissions are controlled, the world could face rapid climate changes, incl...

Alice LeBlanc; Daniel J. Dudek

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

1770 emissions trading system [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

envir. pol. (As permitted by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, the sale of unused quotas of carbon dioxide [CO2] emissions to other countries, which can then use them as credits for their own accounts. The...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reducing Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions 2 0 1 0 Green TransporTaTion TechnoloGies Compared to traditional gasoline engines, diesel engines require less maintenance, generate energy more efficiently, and produce less carbon dioxide emissions. But when uncontrolled, diesel engines churn out harmful emissions like particu- late matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are currently working to develop

403

DRIVE CYCLE EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS ESTIMATES FOR REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION IN A MULTI-CYLINDER LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that by varying both the percent of premixed gasoline and EGR rate, stable combustion can be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Changing the percent premixed gasoline changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This paper examines the combustion and emissions performance of light-duty diesel engine using direct injected diesel fuel and port injected gasoline to carry out RCCI for steady-state engine conditions which are consistent with a light-duty drive cycle. A GM 1.9L four-cylinder engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure EGR system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline. Engine-out emissions, engine performance and combustion behavior for RCCI operation is compared against both CDC and a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategy which relies on high levels of EGR dilution. The effect of percent of premixed gasoline, EGR rate, boost level, intake mixture temperature, combustion phasing and pressure rise rate is investigated for RCCI combustion for the light-duty modal points. Engine-out emissions of NOx and PM were found to be considerably lower for RCCI operation as compared to CDC and PCCI, while HC and CO emissions were higher. Brake thermal efficiency was similar or higher for many of the modal conditions for RCCI operation. The emissions results are used to estimate hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels with RCCI and are compared against CDC and PCCI modes.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Briggs, Thomas E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

405

Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth February 23, 2012 - 6:29pm Addthis The Forest County Potawatomi Tribe's solar system is providing heating, cooling, and electricity to the Tribe's administration building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Photo from the Forest County Potawatomi Tribe. The Forest County Potawatomi Tribe's solar system is providing heating, cooling, and electricity to the Tribe's administration building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Photo from the Forest County Potawatomi Tribe. Project Benefits Produce approximately 35,000 kilowatt-hours of clean electricity annually Reduce carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 41 tons per year Preserve and increase local jobs for tribal members and others

406

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

407

Estimation of electron temperature and radiation emission of a low energy (2.2 kJ) plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiation emission in a 2.2 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device is investigated using a five channel ... . The outcome is helpful to design a plasma focus with enhanced X-ray generation with improved shot-to-shot ...

M. Z. Khan; S. L. Yap; C. S. Wong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 80. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 80 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 81. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Liquids Combustion by Region, 1990-2030 Figure 81 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

410

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 Figure 75 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 76 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in IEO2007 and IEO2008, 2005-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

411

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

Barthelat, Francois

412

Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

413

Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions (GHG) from wastewater treatment plants using closed-loop mass balance and data reconciliation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially, nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) using data reconciliation and closed-loop mass balance was estimated. This study is based on a...

JungJin Lim; Boddupalli Sankarrao; TaeSeok Oh…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of-state fuel consumption was estimated for marine OGV. Themarine OGV electricity use in 2020 (IEPR: Kavalec, 2013) 3. FuelsIn-state jet fuel b. Aviation gasoline 3. Marine ocean-going

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations February 19, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations. Geologic storage is considered to be a key technological solution to mitigate CO2 emissions and combat climate change. DOE anticipates making multiple project awards under this FOA and, depending on fiscal year 2009 appropriations, may be able to provide up to $24 million to be distributed among selected recipients. This investment is

416

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Novomer's thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Why is this important? By using CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, the process has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously reducing petroleum consumption and producing useful products for American consumers. The world's first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate (PPC) polymer using waste carbon dioxide (CO2) as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy.

417

Combining geothermal energy with CO2 storage Feasibility study of low temperature geothermal electricity production using carbon dioxide as working and storage fluid.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Abstract One of the emerging solutions for today’s excess of carbon dioxide emissions, which is one of the major causes of global warming, is the… (more)

Janse, D.H.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Carbon Dioxide Storage in Coal Seams with Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery: Geologic Evaluation, Capacity Assessment and Field Validation of the Central Appalachian Basin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane are benefits to sequestering carbon dioxide in coal seams. This is possible because… (more)

Ripepi, Nino Samuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Driving your vehicle can yield both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from your vehicle's tailpipe and GHG emissions related to the production of the fuel used to power your vehicle. For example, activities associated with fuel production such as feedstock extraction, feedstock transport to a processing plant, and conversion of feedstock to motor fuel, as well as distribution of the motor fuel, can all produce GHG emissions. The Fuel Economy and Environment Label provides a Greenhouse Gas Rating, from 1 (worst) to 10 (best), based on the vehicle's tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions only, and this rating does not reflect any GHG emissions associated with fuel production.

420

Carbon Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents sorbent material. Additionally, the design of the system incorporates a cross- flow moving-bed reactor where the gas flows horizontally through a "panel" of solid sorbent that is slowly moving down-wards under gravity flow. With the expanded use of fossil fuels expected throughout the world, the increase in CO 2 emissions may prove to contribute even more significantly to global climate change. To address this problem, carbon sequestration scientists and engineers have proposed a number of methods to remove CO 2 from gas streams, such as chemical absorption with a solvent, membrane separation, and cryogenic fractionation. However, all of these methods are expensive and possibly cost-prohibitive for a specific application.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

422

Micrometeorological Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes at a Municipal Landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micrometeorological Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes at a Municipal Landfill ... Of the global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, more than 10% originates from landfills (1). ... Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic CH4 emissions to the atm. in the US; however, few measurements of whole landfill CH4 emissions have been reported. ...

Annalea Lohila; Tuomas Laurila; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Mika Aurela; Juha Hatakka; Tea Thum; Mari Pihlatie; Janne Rinne; Timo Vesala

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Carbon dioxide capture and utilization in petrochemical industry: potentials and challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an ever-increasing challenge for production units and power plants in view of the global warming concerns. Carbon dioxide capturing from petrochemical process streams ...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

425

Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

Goodman, Angela L. [U.S. DOE; Bromhal, Grant S. [U.S. DOE; Strazisar, Brian [U.S. DOE; Rodosta, Traci D. [U.S. DOE; Guthrie, William J. [U.S. DOE; Allen, Douglas E. [ORISE; Guthrie, George D. [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

EIA - AEO2010 - Emissions projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions Projections Emissions Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Emissions Projections Figure 93. Carbon dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2008 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 94. Sulfur dioxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 95. Nitrogen oxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Growth of carbon dioxide emissions slows in the projections Federal and State energy policies recently enacted will stimulate increased use of renewable technologies and efficiency improvements in the future, slowing the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions through 2035. In the Reference case, emissions do not exceed pre-recession 2007 levels until 2025. In 2035, energy-related CO2 emissions total 6,320 million metric tons, about 6 percent higher than in 2007 and 9 percent higher than in 2008 (Figure 93). On average, emissions in the Reference case grow by 0.3 percent per year from 2008 to 2035, compared with 0.7 percent per year from 1980 to 2008.

427

Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface Chun Ge,1 emission wavelength is modulated by the adsorption of biomolecules, whose greater dielectric permittivity- dimensional volume overlap between the DFBLB resonant mode and the region where biomolecule adsorption can oc

Cunningham, Brian

428

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

429

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

related carbon emissions per unit GDP. Energy intensity: thes per capita emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide weres carbon emissions, per se. On the basis of NBS energy data,

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Refractive index of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Dielectric constant of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

VISION Model: Description of Model Used to Estimate the Impact of Highway Vehicle Technologies and Fuels on Energy Use and Carbon Emissions to 2050  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ESD/04-1 ESD/04-1 VISION Model: Description of Model Used to Estimate the Impact of Highway Vehicle Technologies and Fuels on Energy Use and Carbon Emissions to 2050 Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Operated by The University of Chicago, under Contract W-31-109-Eng-38, for the United States Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated by The University of Chicago under contract W-31-109-Eng-38. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The University of Chicago, nor any of their employees or officers, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes

435

The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

26 July 1912 research-article The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide P. Phillips The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation ... Photosynthetic pigments, photosystems, the Calvin cycle, the Hatch-Slack pathway, photorespiration, and photosynthetic yield improvement. ...

Muriel B. Bishop; Carl B. Bishop

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

438

NETL: News Release - DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4, 2009 4, 2009 DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands Newly Released Document Complements 2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas Washington, D.C. - As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) underneath millions of acres of Federal lands. MORE INFO Read the report The report, Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands, estimates and characterizes the storage potential that lies beneath some of the more than 400 million acres of Federal land available for lease.

439

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

440

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Chemical Production Complexes..................................... 2 1.Total Cost Accounting PRODUCTION COMPLEXES A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions....................................... 6 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Pike, Ralph W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Blundell and Fraser Armstrong Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage Sam...Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a...80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part II: Assessment of exposure to nitrogen dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repeated measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained from 1988 to 1991 in the homes of 1,205 infants living in Albuquerque, NM. Passive diffusion samplers were used to obtain a series of two-week integrated measurements from the home of each infant for use in a cohort study of the relation of residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses. Information on stove use and time spent inside the residence was collected at two-week and two-month intervals, respectively. During the winter, in the bedrooms of homes with gas cooking stoves, mean nitrogen dioxide concentrations were 21 parts per billion (ppb); mean concentrations in the living room and kitchen were 29 ppb and 34 ppb, respectively. In homes with electric cooking stoves, the mean bedroom concentration was 7 ppb during the winter. Lower indoor concentrations were observed during the summer in homes with both gas and electric stoves. On average, infants spent approximately 12.3 hours per day in their bedrooms, 7.3 hours in the living rooms, 35 minutes in the kitchens, and 3.8 hours out of their homes. (As a condition of participation, none of the infants spent more than 20 hours per week in day care outside of their homes). The mean time infants spent in the kitchen during cooking was approximately nine minutes per day. We tested whether exposures of infants living in homes with gas stoves could be reasonably estimated by measurements in the bedroom in comparison with time-weighted average concentrations based on time-activity data and simultaneous nitrogen dioxide measurements in the kitchen, living room, and bedroom. In 1,937 two-week intervals from 587 infants, 90% of time-weighted exposure (on the three-level classification used in this study) estimates were in agreement with estimates based on bedroom concentrations alone.

Lambert, W.E.; Samet, J.M.; Hunt, W.C.; Skipper, B.J.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Use of Forest Inventories and Geographic Information Systems To Estimate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Appendix B: Use of Forest Inventories and Geographic Information Systems To Appendix B: Use of Forest Inventories and Geographic Information Systems To Estimate Biomass Density of Tropical Forests: Application to Tropical Africa S. Brown and G. Gaston U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th St., Corvalis, OR 97333, USA Abstract One of the most important databases needed for estimating emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from changes in the cover, use, and management of tropical forests is the total quantity of biomass per unit area, referred to as biomass density. Forest inventories have been shown to be valuable sources of data for estimating biomass density, but inventories for the tropics are few in number and their quality is poor. This lack of reliable data has been overcome by use of a promising approach that produces

444

Fact #783: June 10, 2013 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

types and fuels. The results below are from GREET Model 2012 v.2. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (in carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent) are compared for 2035 vehicles,...

445

CO2 emissions, Nuclear energy, Renewable energy and Economic growth in Taiwan.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??When the government decided to energy policy, we must first understand the energy and economic growth with a causal link between carbon dioxide emissions, this… (more)

Lin, Yi-Ching

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

DOE's Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion Metric Tons of U.S. CO2 Storage Resource DOE's Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion Metric Tons of U.S. CO2 Storage Resource December 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The United States has at least 2,400 billion metric tons of possible carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resource in saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, according to a new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) publication. This resource could potentially store hundreds of years' worth of industrial greenhouse gas emissions, permanently preventing their release into the atmosphere, says the 2012 edition of the Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas (Atlas IV). Capturing CO2 emissions from large power and

447

DOE's Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion Metric Tons of U.S. CO2 Storage Resource DOE's Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion Metric Tons of U.S. CO2 Storage Resource December 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The United States has at least 2,400 billion metric tons of possible carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resource in saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, according to a new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) publication. This resource could potentially store hundreds of years' worth of industrial greenhouse gas emissions, permanently preventing their release into the atmosphere, says the 2012 edition of the Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas (Atlas IV). Capturing CO2 emissions from large power and

448

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Modeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global GeertGeert VinkenVinken11,, FolkertFolkert BoersmaBoersma22, and Daniel J. Jacob, and Daniel J. Jacob33  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global CTMs) emissions 5-7% of global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions 3-4% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Ship 70% of the ship emissions occur within 400 km of land Only industrial sector not regulated under

Haak, Hein

450

Assessment of the impacts on health due to the emissions of Cuban power plants that use fossil fuel oils with high content of sulfur. Estimation of external costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuel electricity generation has been demonstrated to be a main source of atmospheric pollution. The necessity of finding out a balance between the costs of achieving a lower level of environmental and health injury and the benefits of providing electricity at a reasonable cost have lead to the process of estimating the external costs derived from these impacts and not included in the electricity prices as a quantitative measure of it that, even when there are large uncertainties involved, can be used by decision makers in the process of achieving a global sustainable development. The external costs of the electricity generation in three Cuban power plants that use fossil fuel oils with high sulfur content have been assessed. With that purpose a specific implementation of the Impact Pathways Methodology for atmospheric emissions was developed. Dispersion of atmospheric pollutants is modeled at local and regional scales in a detailed way. Health impacts include mortality and those morbidity effects that showed relation with the increment of selected pollutant concentration in national studies. The external cost assessed for the three plants was 40,588,309 USD yr?1 (min./max.: 10,194,833/169,013,252), representing 1.06 USD Cent kWh?1. Costs derived from sulfur species (SO2 and sulfate aerosol) stand for 93% of the total costs.

L. Turtós Carbonell; E. Meneses Ruiz; M. Sánchez Gácita; J. Rivero Oliva; N. Díaz Rivero

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

452

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

NETL: Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression Project No.: DE-FE0009395 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is developing a novel supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) advanced power system utilizing pressurized oxy-combustion in conjunction with cryogenic compression. The proposed power system offers a leap in overall system efficiency while producing an output stream of sequestration ready CO2 at pipeline pressures. The system leverages developments in pressurized oxy-combustion technology and recent developments in sCO2 power cycles to achieve high net cycle efficiencies and produce CO2 at pipeline pressures without requiring additional compression of the flue gas.

454

Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

455

Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off-gas compositions. Radionuclide content includes transuranic isotopes, primarily of plutonium and americium. Air toxics include carbon tetrachloride, butane, methanol, acetone and toluene. Flow rate prediction was based on available design and test data and considered equipment sizes, glovebox negative pressure requirements, and filter flow characteristics. The approach used to predict the off-gas composition from the crib required experience-based predictive analysis combined with crib head space analytical results. Input information for emission estimates included: (1) gas composition sample data obtained from recent samples taken within the crib head space during static conditions, and (2) air in-leakage/dilution estimates based on physical characteristics of both the crib and the new temporary ventilation system. The conceptual approach combined measurement-based data with conservative assumptions, and provides the estimates necessary to determine relevance and appropriateness of substantive requirements under federal and state laws and regulations. (authors)

Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B. [Fluor Hanford Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Teal, J. [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, WA (United States); Oates, L. [Environmental Quality Management, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

458

Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

459

Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signif- icant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and, in particular, methane to bacteria breaking down organic matter in the water. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

Batiste, Oriol

460

Measuring and Modeling Fault Density for Plume-Fault Encounter Probability Estimation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission of carbon dioxide from fossil-fueled power generation stations contributes to global climate change. Storage of this carbon dioxide within the pores of geologic strata (geologic carbon storage) is one approach to mitigating the climate change that would otherwise occur. The large storage volume needed for this mitigation requires injection into brine-filled pore space in reservoir strata overlain by cap rocks. One of the main concerns of storage in such rocks is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available. This necessitates a method for using available fault data to develop an estimate of the likelihood of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault, primarily due to buoyancy. Fault population statistics provide one of the main inputs to calculate the encounter probability. Previous fault population statistics work is shown to be applicable to areal fault density statistics. This result is applied to a case study in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin with the result that the probability of a carbon dioxide plume from a previously planned injection had a 3% chance of encountering a fully seal offsetting fault.

Jordan, P.D.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Nicot, J.-P.

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Emissions from Energy Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions from Energy Use Emissions from Energy Use Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with Projections to 2030 Emissions from Energy Use Figure 97. Carbon dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2006 and 2030 (million metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 98. Carbon dioxide emissions, 1990-2030 (million metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Rising Energy Consumption Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Without capture and sequestration, CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to the carbon content of the fuel. Coal has the highest carbon content and natural gas the lowest, with petroleum in between. In the AEO2008 reference case, the shares of these fuels change

462

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

6 6 2009 Methane Emissions for U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Production, by Fuel Type (1) Fuel Type Petroleum 0.5 Natural Gas 26.8 Coal 0.3 Wood 0.4 Electricity (2) 50.5 Total 78.5 Note(s): Source(s): MMT CO2 Equivalent 1) Sources of emissions include oil and gas production, processing, and distribution; coal mining; and utility and site combustion. Carbon Dioxide equivalent units are calculated by converting methane emissions to carbon dioxide emissions (methane's global warming potential is 23 times that of carbon dioxide). 2) Refers to emissions of electricity generators attributable to the buildings sector. EIA, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2009, Mar. 2011, Table 18, p. 37 for energy production emissions; EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas

463

Estimates of Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emitted for Each State in the U.S.A.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

State-Level Emission Estimates State-Level Emission Estimates Estimates of Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emitted for Each State in the U.S.A. and the District of Columbia for Each Year from 1960 through 2001 graphics Graphics data Data (ASCII comma-delimited) Investigators T.J. Blasing and Gregg Marland Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335, U.S.A. Christine Broniak Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3601 DOI 10.3334/CDIAC/00003 Period of Record 1960-2001 Methods Consumption data for coal, petroleum, and natural gas are multiplied by their respective thermal conversion factors, which are in units of heat energy per unit of fuel consumed (i.e., per cubic foot, barrel, or ton), to

464

Trade, transport, and sinks extend the carbon dioxide responsibility of countries: An editorial essay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Globalization and the dynamics of ecosystem sinks need be considered in post-Kyoto climate negotiations as they increasingly affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Currently, the allocation of responsibility for greenhouse gas mitigation is based on territorial emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, process emissions and some land-use emissions. However, at least three additional factors can significantly alter a country's impact on climate from carbon dioxide emissions. First, international trade causes a separation of consumption from production, reducing domestic pollution at the expense of foreign producers, or vice versa. Second, international transportation emissions are not allocated to countries for the purpose of mitigation. Third, forest growth absorbs carbon dioxide and can contribute to both carbon sequestration and climate change protection. Here we quantify how these three factors change the carbon dioxide emissions allocated to China, Japan, Russia, USA, and European Union member countries. We show that international trade can change the carbon dioxide currently allocated to countries by up to 60% and that forest expansion can turn some countries into net carbon sinks. These factors are expected to become more dominant as fossil-fuel combustion and process emissions are mitigated and as international trade and forest sinks continue to grow. Emission inventories currently in wide-spread use help to understand the global carbon cycle, but for long-term climate change mitigation a deeper understanding of the interaction between the carbon cycle and society is needed. Restructuring international trade and investment flows to meet environmental objectives, together with the inclusion of forest sinks, are crucial issues that need consideration in the design of future climate policies. And even these additional issues do not capture the full impact of changes in the carbon cycle on the global climate system.

Peters, Glen P [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Saikku, Laura [University of Helsinki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Technological, economic and financial prospects of carbon dioxide capture in the cement industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cement is the second largest anthropogenic emission source, contributing approximately 7% of global CO2 emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as an essential technology capable of reducing CO2 emissions in the cement sector by 56% by 2050. The study compares CO2 capture technologies for the cement manufacturing process and analyses the economic and financial issues in deploying CO2 capture in the cement industry. Post-combustion capture with chemical absorption is regarded as a proven technology to capture CO2 from the calcination process. Oxyfuel is less mature but Oxyfuel partial capture—which only recycles O2/CO2 gas in the precalciner—is estimated to be more economic than post-combustion capture. Carbonate looping technologies are not yet commercial, but they have theoretical advantages in terms of energy consumption. In contrast with coal-fired power plants, CO2 capture in the cement industry benefits from a higher concentration of CO2 in the flue gas, but the benefit is offset by higher \\{SOx\\} and \\{NOx\\} levels and the smaller scale of emissions from each plant. Concerning the prospects for financing cement plant CO2 capture, large cement manufacturers on average have a higher ROE (return on equity) and lower debt ratio, thus a higher discount rate should be considered for the cost analysis than in power plants. IEA estimates that the incremental cost for deploying CCS to decarbonise the global cement sector is in the range US$350–840 billion. The cost estimates for deploying state-of-the art post-combustion CO2 capture technologies in cement plants are above $60 to avoid each tonne of CO2 emissions. However, the expectation is that the current market can only provide a minority of financial support for CO2 capture in cement plants. Public financial support and/or CO2 utilisation will be essential to trigger large-scale CCS demonstration projects in the cement industry.

Jia Li; Pradeep Tharakan; Douglas Macdonald; Xi Liang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical emissions developed in support of the simulations for the IPCC AR5 assessment. Emissions for 2005 and 2010 from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are also included. Large discrepancies between the global and regional emissions are identified, which shows that there is still no consensus on the best estimates for surface emissions of atmospheric compounds. At the global scale, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 show the best agreement in most years. The agreement is low for BC emissions, particularly in the period prior to 2000. The best consensus is for NOx emissions for all periods and all regions, except for China where emissions in 1980 and 1990 need to be better defined. Emissions of CO need a better quantification in the USA for all periods; in Central Europe, the evolution of emissions during the past two decades needs to be better determined. The agreement between the different SO2 emissions datasets is rather good for the USA, but better quantification is needed elsewhere, particularly for Central Europe and China. The comparisons performed in this study show that the use of RCP8.5 for the extension of the ACCMIP inventory beyond 2000 is reasonable, until more global or regional estimates become available. Concerning biomass burning emissions, most inventories agree within 50-80%, depending on the year and season. The large differences are due to differences in the estimates of burned areas from the different available products, as well as in the amount of biomass burnt.

Granier, Claire; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Bond, Tami C.; D'Angiola, Ariela; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Frost, G. J.; Heil, Angelika; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kinne, Stefan; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, Jean; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, Catherine; Masui, Toshihiko; Meleux, Frederik; Mieville, Aude; Ohara, Toshimasa; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Riahi, Keywan; Schultz, Martin; Smith, Steven J.; Thomson, Allison M.; van Aardenne, John; van der Werf, Guido R.; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

467

Weyburn Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration ProjeCt Background Since September 2000, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been transported from the Dakota Gasification Plant in North Dakota through a 320-km pipeline and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. The CO 2 has given the Weyburn field, discovered 50 years ago, a new life: 155 million gross barrels of incremental oil are slated to be recovered by 2035 and the field is projected to be able to store 30 million tonnes of CO 2 over 30 years. CO 2 injection began in October of 2005 at the adjacent Midale oilfield, and an additional 45-60 million barrels of oil are expected to be recovered during 30 years of continued operation. A significant monitoring project associated with the Weyburn and Midale commercial

468

MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

Boyer, Edmond

469

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;CenterTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

470

Preliminary GHG Emissions Inventory for the Slovak Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary results of a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the Slovak Republic. The key gases included are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons are excluded ...

Katarína Mare?kova; Pavol Bielek; Stanislav Kucirek…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tion will be by direct combustion for the generation of power, but an increasing proportion will be con verted to syngas for chemical and fuel uses. Coal gasification is projected to become a major industry in the next decade. For every ton of coal... entering the gasification process, 1.88 lons of carbon dio xide are produced. This carbon dioxide is removed in virtually pure form by existing technology. This same technology can be applied to remove carbon dioxide from stack gases produced by power...

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

473

The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

DOE to Provide $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

$36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture DOE to Provide $36 Million to Advance Carbon Dioxide Capture July 31, 2008 - 2:40pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that it will provide $36 million for 15 projects aimed at furthering the development of new and cost-effective technologies for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. "Currently, the existing U.S. coal fleet accounts for over half of all electricity generated in this country," U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman said. "The projects announced today will combat climate change and help meet current and future energy needs by curbing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired plants."

475

Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

476

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of power stations and from other

477

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Potential for terrestrial disposal of carbon dioxide in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many scientists are concerned about the possibility of global climate change of the continuing buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Capture and permanent disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would help alleviate this potential problem. Abandoned oil and natural gas reservoirs and deep aquifers were investigated as potential disposal sites for CO{sub 2}. Currently abandoned oil and gas reservoirs could hold approximately 2.9 Gt of CO{sub 2}. Since the annual CO{sub 2} emissions from utility power plants is 2 Gt, these reservoirs would be filled in less than 1.5 years. The volume corresponding to ultimate reserves of oil and gas would hold roughly 100 Gt of CO{sub 2}. Therefore, the ultimate capacity for CO{sub 2} storage is approximately 50 years. Over half of the CO{sub 2} is emitted east of the Mississippi River, and most of the potential disposal sites are west of the Mississippi. Because of the high cost of transporting CO{sub 2} by pipeline over long distances, only a small fraction of the reservoir capacity would be useful. The capacity of deep aquifers for CO{sub 2} disposal is highly uncertain. A rough estimate for the US, derived from global estimates, is 5--500 Gt of CO{sub 2}. Problems associated with each method of disposal are discussed.

Winter, E.M. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bergman, P.D. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

Just the Basics: Vehicle Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Are Exhaust Are Exhaust Emissions? In most heavily settled areas of the U.S., the personal automobile is the single greatest producer of harmful vehicle exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are generated by the fuel-air mixture burning in internal combus- tion engines, both gasoline-powered and diesel-powered. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation within the vehicle when it is stopped, and again during fueling. The constituents of car (gasoline and diesel) and truck (diesel) emissions vary depending on fuel type and indi- vidual vehicle operating characteris- tics. The bulk of vehicular emissions are composed of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen (in unconsumed air). There are other pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel, and

480

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research ...

John D. Spengler; Benjamin G. Ferris Jr.; Douglas W. Dockery; Frank E. Speizer

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide emission estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released to the reference case. This option reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector by 35 percent from 2005 to significant gains in public and environmental health. "When power plants limit carbon dioxide emissions

Mather, Patrick T.

482

Methods to estimate on-field nitrogen emissions from crop production as an input to LCA studies in the agricultural sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen compounds emitted from the field are usually considered in Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of agricultural products or processes. The environmentally most important of these N emissions are ammonia (NH3), n...

Frank Brentrup; Jürgen Küsters…

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z