National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dioxide cxs applied

  1. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  2. Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    (cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

  3. Apply

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Apply Application Process Bringing together top, space science students with internationally recognized researchers at Los Alamos in an educational and collaborative atmosphere....

  4. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  5. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  6. Apply

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D SFederal FacilityApplicantOffice ofApply Application

  7. CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08142013 Location(s): Texas...

  8. CX-009374: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of a Carbon Dioxide Chemical Sensor for Downhole Carbon Dioxide Monitoring in Carbon Sequestration CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  11. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  12. BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa L.

    2013-01-01

    Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

  13. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium...

  14. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  15. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  16. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  17. CX-009345: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Intrinsic Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors for Subsurface Detection of carbon dioxide CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/21/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. CX-009344: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Intrinsic Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors for Subsurface Detection of carbon dioxide CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/21/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  19. CX-009343: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Intrinsic Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors for Subsurface Detection of carbon dioxide CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/21/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. CX-008947: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction… CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 08/15/2012 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  1. CX-008946: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction… CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 08/15/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  2. CX-012263: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geomechanics Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Seals CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 07/02/2014 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. CX-012260: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geomechanics investigation of Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Seals CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/02/2014 Location(s): Utah Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. CX-012264: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geomechanics Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Seals CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/02/2014 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-010693: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CX-010693: Categorical Exclusion Determination Conversion of Waste Carbon Dioxide and Shale Gas to High Value Chemicals CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 07012013 Location(s): New...

  6. CX-008493: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid Carbon Dioxide Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal (LRC) Gasifiers CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 07/23/2012 Location(s): Texas, Oklahoma Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  7. CX-012147: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ion Advanced Solvent Carbon Dioxide Capture Pilot Project (Budget Period 1) CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 05/21/2014 Location(s): Oklahoma Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-008492: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate-Ammonium Bicarbonate Process CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 07/23/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-012825: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Borehole-Deployed Electric Field Sources and Sensors for Permanent Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration CX(s) Applied: B3.1, B3.6Date: 41905 Location(s): IllinoisOffices(s): Chicago Office

  10. CX-011296: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial Carbon Dioxide Extraction System CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 10/17/2013 Location(s): New York, Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. CX-011313: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial Carbon Dioxide Extraction System CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10/02/2013 Location(s): Ohio Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  12. CX-011325: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial Carbon Dioxide Extraction System CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10/01/2013 Location(s): New York Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  13. CX-011326: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial Carbon Dioxide Extraction System CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 10/01/2013 Location(s): New York Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. CX-011327: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial Carbon Dioxide Extraction System CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 10/01/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. CX-008953: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Area 4: Reactive Transport Models with Geomechanics to Mitigate Risks of Carbon Dioxide Utilization and Storage CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 08/13/2012 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. CX-004066: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Pilot Testing of a Membrane System for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture CX(s) Applied: A1, A2, A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 10012010 Location(s):...

  17. CX-012010: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 04/04/2014 Location(s): Florida Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  18. CX-004064: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Pilot Testing of a Membrane System for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 10012010...

  19. CX-004065: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Pilot Testing of a Membrane System for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11 Date: 10012010 Location(s): Palo...

  20. CX-011125: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with Carbon Dioxide CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08292013 Location(s): Pennsylvania...

  1. CX-011027: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin… CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/11/2013 Location(s): Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  2. CX-011026: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin… CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 09/11/2013 Location(s): Alabama Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. CX-011025: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin… CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/11/2013 Location(s): Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. CX-011269: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Real-Time In-Situ Carbon Dioxide Monitoring (RICO2M) Network for Sensitive Subsurface... CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/30/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-012273: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiscale Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Migration and Trapping in Fractured Reservoirs with Validation CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 06/25/2014 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. CX-012274: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiscale Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Migration and Trapping in Fractured Reservoirs with Validation CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 06/25/2014 Location(s): United Kingdom Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  7. CX-012272: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiscale Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Migration and Trapping in Fractured Reservoirs with Validation CX(s) Applied: A1, A8, A9 Date: 06/25/2014 Location(s): New Jersey Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-010919: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Advanced Catalytic Solvent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/23/2013 Location(s): Kentucky Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-010921: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Catalytic Solvent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/23/2013 Location(s): Kentucky Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. CX-012256: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent Carbon Dioxide Capture Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/11/2014 Location(s): Norway Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. CX-010920: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Catalytic Solvent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/23/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  12. CX-008674: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ATK - A High Efficiency Inertial Carbon Dioxide Extraction System CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 07/01/2011 Location(s): New York, Pennsylvania Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

  13. CX-008905: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optimizing Accuracy of Determinations of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity and Permanence CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.6 Date: 08/29/2012 Location(s): Wyoming Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. CX-011119: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Physics-Based Reliability Models for Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Turbomachinery Components CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/30/2013 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  15. CX-010958: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Ohio Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. CX-010955: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  17. CX-010956: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. CX-010957: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  19. CX-010923: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal-Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/23/2013 Location(s): North Carolina Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. CX-010924: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal-Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/23/2013 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  1. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  2. Using tracer experiments to determine deep saline aquifers caprocks transport characteristics for carbon dioxide storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for carbon dioxide storage P. Bachaud1,2 , Ph. Berne1 , P. Boulin1,3,4 , F. Renard5,6 , M. Sardin2 , J caprocks from a deep saline aquifer in the Paris basin. Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep. This technique is applied to measure the transport properties of a carbonate caprock with permeability lower than

  3. Fabrication technique for filling-factor tunable titanium dioxide colloidal crystal replicas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrication technique for filling-factor tunable titanium dioxide colloidal crystal replicas; accepted 1 October 2002 Filling-factor tunable titanium dioxide replicas of colloidal crystals were was formed in voids of latex colloidal crystals, the latex was removed by calcination. By applying the LPD

  4. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  5. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  6. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  7. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  8. Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity applying the iterative Bayesian shrinkage procedure. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; Bayesian shrinkage estimator; Heterogeneity JEL classification: O13

  9. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  10. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  11. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofper Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($ per Year)Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions

  12. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01

    IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

  13. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

  14. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The National Renewable Energy...

  15. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Herbert E. Huppert1-3 and Jerome A. Neufeld4 1 FurtherANNUAL REVIEWS #12;1. INTRODUCTION Undeniably, the average global carbon dioxide (CO2) content

  16. Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment Report of an Ad Hoc Study Group on Carbon on Carbon Dioxide and Climate Jule G. Charney, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chairman Akio Arakawa Dioxide and Climate Woods Hole, Massachusetts July 23-27, 1979 to the Climate Research Board Assembly

  17. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  18. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

  19. A MEMS Thin Film AlN Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ya-Mei

    2011-01-01

    and density measurement for carbon dioxide + pentaerythritolfrom supercritical carbon dioxide”, Journal of Crystalwith supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent [

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  1. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  2. Applied Math

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $author.value

    Current research topics by the Applied Math Faculty members include: Numerical analysis and applications of finite difference, finite element and spectral ...

  3. the carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    today's concerns about human-driven climate change and the need to cut carbon emissions, itthe carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide to come for this process to come to equilibrium. Whenever the carbon dioxide amount is increasing an upper limit

  4. Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane of tables relating to national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (principally carbon dioxide, methane, 1

  5. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions. Environ. Res.Per-capita emissions were compiled by the Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. For 2007 and 2008, increases in fossil fuel emissions

  6. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofThe Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and UrbanTHE GREENNESS OF CITIES: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND URBAN

  7. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  8. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA

  9. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in Deep Saline Aquifers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets...

  10. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces in Deep Saline Aquifers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide...

  11. THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa Lu.

    2010-01-01

    Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

  12. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  13. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2010-02-11

    The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  14. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  15. High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    and it is widely applied, for example in photocatalysis, electrochemical energy storage, in white pigmentsHigh surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis T. Fröschl1 , U. Hörmann2 , P. Kubiak3 , G. Kucerova2 , M. Pfanzelt3 , C.K. Weiss4

  16. Retrievals of Carbon Dioxide from GOSAT: Validation, model comparison and approach development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retrievals of Carbon Dioxide from GOSAT: Validation, model comparison and approach development properties of aerosol and cirrus particles. 3. Model Comparison Retrievals of XCO2 were performed on cloud and compared to the CarbonTracker model. The retrieval averaging kernels were applied to Carbon

  17. Thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the thermodynamic properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, there has been international agreement on a vapor pressure equation for the total pressure over UO/sub 2/, new methods have been suggested for the calculation of enthalpy and heat capacity, and a phase change at 2670 K has been proposed. In this report, an electronic term is used in place of the Frenkel defect term in the enthalpy and heat capacity equation and the phase transition is accepted.

  18. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  1. Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Figueiredo, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

  2. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  3. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01

    DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

  4. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-IntensiveEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-Intensive

  5. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from California Go?Figure 1. 2004 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fuel CombustionImproving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the

  6. Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-01-01

    U.S. EPA. 2000. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generationfor Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Combustion ofUS EPA), 2000. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation

  7. As carbon dioxide rises, food quality will decline without careful nitrogen management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Arnold J

    2009-01-01

    exposed to elevated carbon dioxide. Mean of 285 studies (and ambient (365 ppm) carbon dioxide atmospheres, in freeand ambient (366 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations under

  8. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in2007), Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three borealharvest influence carbon dioxide fluxes of black spruce

  9. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  10. Increasing carbon dioxideIncreasing carbon dioxide & its effect on forest& its effect on forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    ecosystem's natural capacity toA forest ecosystem's natural capacity to capture energy, capture energy's natural capacity toA forest ecosystem's natural capacity to capture energy, capture energy, sustain life10/13/2010 1 Increasing carbon dioxideIncreasing carbon dioxide & its effect on forest& its effect

  11. Applied combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  12. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  13. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  14. CX-009380: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multi-Point Pressure and Temperature Sensing Fiber Optic Cable for Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Sequestration CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): New York Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. CX-008491: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate-Ammonium Bicarbonate Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/23/2012 Location(s): Alabama Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. CX-008490: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate-Ammonium Bicarbonate Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/23/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  17. CX-012267: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Storage Reservoirs on the Rock Springs Uplift Combining Geomechanical… CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.6 Date: 06/26/2014 Location(s): Wyoming Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. CX-008673: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia - Biofuels from Carbon Dioxide using Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in a Reverse Microbial Fuel Cell CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/01/2011 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

  19. CX-008952: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Area 4: Reactive Transport Models with Geomechanics to Mitigate Risks of Carbon Dioxide Utilization and Storage CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/13/2012 Location(s): Utah Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. CX-011421: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 12/12/2013 Location(s): New Jersey Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  1. CX-012025: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act: Slipstream Testing of a Membrane Carbon Dioxide Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.6 Date: 04/28/2014 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  2. CX-011049: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs in the Central Appalachian Basin... CX(s) Applied: B3.1, B5.3, B5.5, B5.13 Date: 09/09/2013 Location(s): Tennessee Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. CX-011270: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Real-Time In-Situ Carbon Dioxide Monitoring (RICO2M) Network for Sensitive Subsurface... CX(s) Applied: A11, B4.6 Date: 09/30/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. CX-012024: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act: Slipstream Testing of a Membrane Carbon Dioxide Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.6 Date: 04/28/2014 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-011447: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench-Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/13/2013 Location(s): Delaware Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. CX-008477: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.7, B5.3, B5.13 Date: 06/04/2012 Location(s): Kansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  7. CX-008476: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer CX(s) Applied: A9, B1.15, B3.1, B3.7, B5.3, B5.13 Date: 06/04/2012 Location(s): Kansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-008474: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer CX(s) Applied: B1.15, B3.6, B5.2 Date: 06/04/2012 Location(s): Kansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-010945: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Robust and Energy Efficient Dual-Stage Membrane-Based Process for Enhanced Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Recovery CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.6 Date: 09/17/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. CX-010946: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Robust and Energy Efficient Dual-Stage Membrane-Based Process for Enhanced Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Recovery CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 09/17/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. CX-009370: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of carbon dioxide from Flue Gas - Pilot Plant CX(s) Applied: A1, B3.6 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California, California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  13. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN MULTI-PLANT CHEMICAL........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions....................................... 6 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  15. Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsurao, Takumi

    1994-01-01

    The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering ...

  16. Multimodal Integration of Carbon Dioxide and Other Sensory Cues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multimodal Integration of Carbon Dioxide and Other Sensory Cues Drives Mosquito Attraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) detection to mosquito host- seeking behavior, we mutated the AaegGr3 gene, a subunit

  17. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  18. ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphereORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (423) 574-3645 Oak Ridge National Laboratory URL: http

  19. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and per

  20. Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

  1. Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry, 7 figures, 4 tables. Keywords: metamorphic carbon dioxide; Himalaya; hot springs; carbon cycle, M. J., L. A. Derry, and C. France-Lanord (2008), Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from

  2. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  3. Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (scCO2). Herein we demonstrate that colloids may also be stabilized in CO2 the behavior of steric stabilization in compressed supercritical fluids1-3 including carbon dioxide,4

  4. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  5. Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael C Students #12;- 2 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) separations based on amine sorbents, which

  6. Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  8. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    14 April 2001 A tmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is increas- ing at approximately 1. Annual anthropogenic carbon emissions in the United States total ap- proximately 1.7 billion tons emissions in the United States and around the world. One potential mechanism for re- ducing net carbon

  9. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use climate. With these Guidelines, they can: report current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized

  10. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  11. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  12. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyner, David Smith

    1969-01-01

    Glycogen Determination 62 Amino Acid Determination * . 62 Protein Determination 63 Carbon Dioxide Determination • • # 63 Assay for Avid in 63 Radioactivity Measurements 63 CHEMICAL DEGRADATION PROCEDURES 6h Decarboxylation of Lactate 6lt Formation..., Distribution of the Radioactivities Among Amino Acids in the Growth Medium Following Exposure of L-Cells to C-lU Bicarbonate 90 7. Distribution of the Radioactivities Among Amino Acids in the Trichloroacetic Acid Extract Following Exposure of I/-Cells to C...

  14. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Soil respiration; methane; carbon dioxide; oxygen;response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygenof carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gas

  15. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction AchievedEfficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction PotentialEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Process in U.S.

  16. The Politics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: The Role of Pluralism in Shaping the Climate Change Technology Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the destruction ofat 570. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION causedat 438. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION trucks.

  17. Effect of smoke on subcanopy shaded light, canopy temperature, and carbon dioxide uptake in an Amazon rainforest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doughty, C. E.; Flanner, M. G.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    1997), Measuring and modeling carbon dioxide and water vaportechnique for evalu- ating carbon dioxide exchange rates ofof ecosystem?scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy

  18. Applied Mathematics Department of Applied Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applied Mathematics Department of Applied Mathematics 208 Engineering 1 Building 10 W. 32nd St, Graduate Studies: Xiaofan Li The Department of Applied Mathematics puts mathe- matics to work solving, such as how to construct methods for multi-criteria decision making (requiring discrete mathematics

  19. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  20. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Shao, Yixin 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental Processes Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental...

  1. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

  2. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  4. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of...

  5. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon...

  7. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be separated using the sorbent processes currently used to remove sulfur compounds from the synthesis gas is capable of separating up to 90 percent of the carbon dioxide content of raw synthesis gas. The carbon-intensive and would lower the thermal efficiency of coal gasification power plants. Selective separation membrane

  8. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets, Environ.Andres et al. : A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions doi:A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel

  9. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    9 Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S.Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Energy Use inConsumption, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from calcination

  10. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    Li, 2001. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from SteelEnergy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Steel Sector

  11. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    spatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from nationalRotty, R. M. : Carbon-dioxide Emissions From Fossil-fuels –Dis- tribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel

  12. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2010. ” AugustChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in ManufacturingChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing

  13. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    on North American carbon dioxide ex- change: CarbonTracker,A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuelof two US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets,

  14. Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration and separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration ions resulting from dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxid e to weakly disrupt isotachophoretic the hydration and carbamation reaction of dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide, respectively. The width

  15. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    25-51. Tables Cost of Carbon Dioxide (per ton) Three YearsPollutants Table 1: Cost of Carbon Dioxide Estimates VintageImplied Price for Carbon Dioxide ($/tons)! Years Clunkers

  16. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  17. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  18. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  19. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  20. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  1. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  2. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  3. The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski Submitted to the Department capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected into deep geologic reservoirs

  4. Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Uwe

    Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Florian Poppa and Uwe the development of a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) and the experiences stage to prevent potential danger to workforce and material, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS

  5. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been capture, storage, and sensing. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first 3D pillared networks assembled from Ni

  6. FRONTIERS ARTICLE On the hydration and hydrolysis of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    FRONTIERS ARTICLE On the hydration and hydrolysis of carbon dioxide Alice H. England a,b , Andrew M August 2011 a b s t r a c t The dissolution of carbon dioxide in water and the ensuing hydrolysis, carbonic acid and dissolved CO2. The cor- responding carbon K-edge core-level spectra were calculated using

  7. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelc, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  8. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  9. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  10. Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

  11. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T. Rochelle Dept. of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 ( )Carbon dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall

  12. Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M as a comparison to the piperazine/potassium carbonate solvent currently being tested by the Rochelle research

  13. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black,2,5,6* Abstract Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological a particle's size to the nanometric dimension can greatly modify its properties for applications

  15. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte p losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to the cathode and sustainable energy from wastewaters, replace energy intensive wastewater treatment processes, and produce

  16. Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as the products of normal metabolism and those that have altered owing to disease, and are transported via

  17. Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Stephen

    Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren Laboratory measurements of the absorption. At pressures belowthe triple point (5.2atm), carbon dioxide exists only as a gas or solid. The sublimation in the ultraviolet (50-130-nm wavelength) due to elec- tronic transitions. It is relatively transparent

  18. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  19. Diffusion model of the non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Emily, E-mail: emily.moore@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guéneau, Christine, E-mail: christine.gueneau@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocombette, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.crocombette@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-07-15

    Uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), which is used in light water reactors, exhibits a large range of non-stoichiometry over a wide temperature scale up to 2000 K. Understanding diffusion behavior of uranium oxides under such conditions is essential to ensure safe reactor operation. The current understanding of diffusion properties is largely limited by the stoichiometric deviations inherent to the fuel. The present DICTRA-based model considers diffusion across non-stoichiometric ranges described by experimentally available data. A vacancy and interstitial model of diffusion is applied to the U–O system as a function of its defect structure derived from CALPHAD-type thermodynamic descriptions. Oxygen and uranium self and tracer diffusion coefficients are assessed for the construction of a mobility database. Chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen are derived with respect to the Darken relation and migration energies of defects are evaluated as a function of stoichiometric deviation. - Graphical abstract: Complete description of Oxygen–Uranium diffusion as a function of composition at various temperatures according to the developed Dictra model. - Highlights: • Assessment of a uranium–oxygen diffusion model with Dictra. • Complete description of U–O diffusion over wide temperature and composition range. • Oxygen model includes terms for interstitial and vacancy migration. • Interaction terms between defects help describe non-stoichiometric domain of UO{sub 2±x}. • Uranium model is separated into mobility terms for the cationic species.

  20. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  1. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  2. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  3. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  4. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  5. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore »melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  6. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  7. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  9. OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE­ BAITED VECTOR surveillance trap support was designed as a tripod of polyvinyl chloride pipes to suspend carbon dioxide, vector surveillance, hanging traps, carbon dioxide, mosquito trap Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is common

  10. PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration complex organic molecules being broken down to simpler molecules, such as carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body through respiration. Carbon dioxide content in fresh air

  11. Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage Mike dioxide; Viscous flow; Gravity flow 1. Introduction Disposal of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs;questions about the environmental benefits of this process concern the fate of the carbon dioxide over

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE -CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, CRYOGENIC CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, SOLID Document Number: 001013 PRODUCT USE: For general analytical

  13. Lessons Learned from Natural and Industrial Analogues for Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Geological Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Sally M.; Hepple, Robert; Apps, John; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Lippmann, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Soda Ash Manufacture and Consumption Carbon Dioxide Consumption* Iron and Steel Production** Ammonia

  14. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  15. MATHMATICS & APPLIED STATISTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Jesse C.

    MATHMATICS & APPLIED STATISTICS Graduate Studies in Build Your Future with Graduate Study in Mathematics or Applied Statistics Our graduate programs can help you advance your career in education will deepen your knowledge and prepare you for further study. The Master of Science in Applied Statistics

  16. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  17. Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

  18. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  19. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  20. Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Week Since 1990, China shows the greatest increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Americas, Europe and Eurasia have about the same CO2 emissions in 2012 as in...

  1. Does carbon dioxide pool or stream in the subsurface?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2014-01-01

    Pools of carbon dioxide are found in natural geological accumulations and in engineered storage in saline aquifers. It has been thought that once this CO2 dissolves in the formation water, making it denser, convection streams would transport it efficiently to depth, but this may not be so. Here, we assess the impact of natural chemical reactions between the dissolved CO2 and the rock formation on the convection streams in the subsurface. We show that, while in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. New laboratory experiments confirm the curtailing of convection by reaction. Wide and narrow streams of dense carbon-rich water are shut-off gradually as reaction strength increases until all transport of the pooled carbon dioxide occurs by slow molecular diffusion. These results show that the complex fluid dynamic and kinetic interactions between pooled carbon dioxide an...

  2. Synthesis of Amides and Lactams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Xiao Yin

    Supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional organic solvents for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic amides. The addition of amines to ketenes generated in ...

  3. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  4. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  5. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions.in accounting for CO 2 from fossil fuels. J. Ind. Ecol. 12,budget. G.M. estimated the fossil fuel emissions and G.P.P.

  6. Identifying and Developing New, Carbon Dioxide Consuming Processes , Sudheer Indalaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    acceptable, catalytic processes have been identified that can use excess high purity carbon dioxide as a raw in the ethylbenzene-to-styrene reaction, and it can be used in dehydrogenation and reforming reactions. The criteria

  7. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  8. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  9. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Power (CSP) SunShot R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power cycle that combines high efficiencies and low...

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a High Efficiency Hot Gas Turbo-expander and Low Cost Heat Exchangers for Optimized CSP Supercritical CO2 Operation 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine - FY13 Q2...

  11. Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

  12. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  13. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  14. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher power-cycle efficiency and cycle components that are more compact.

  15. Seawater pH and Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2013-07-18

    In 2005, the Royal Society published a report titled "Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide". The report's principal conclusion-that average ocean pH could decrease by 0.5 units by 2100-is demonstrated here to be consistent with a linear extrapolation of very limited data. It is also shown that current understanding of ocean mixing, and of the relationship between pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, cannot justify such an extrapolation.

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  17. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  18. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  19. Low-temperature data for carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the empirical data for the vapor pressure (154$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$196 K) and heat capacity (15.52$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$189.78 K) of the solid carbon dioxide. The approach is both theoretical and numerical, using a computer algebra system (CAS). From the latter point of view, we have adopted a cubic piecewise polynomial representation for the heat capacity and reached an excellent agreement between the available empirical data and the evaluated one. Furthermore, we have obtained values for the vapor pressure and heat of sublimation at temperatures below 195 right down to 0 K. The key prerequisites are the: 1) Determination of the heat of sublimation of 26250 J$\\cdot$mol\\textsuperscript{-1} at vanishing temperature and 2) Elaboration of a `linearized' vapor pressure equation that includes all the relevant properties of the gaseous and solid phases. It is shown that: 1) The empirical vapor pressure equation derived by Giauque & Egan remains valid below the assumed lower limit of 154 K (similar argument ...

  20. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  1. Applied Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARC Privacy and Security Notice Skip over navigation Search the JLab Site Applied Research Center Please upgrade your browser. This site's design is only visible in a graphical...

  2. Applied Math Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The following sample of the publications has been made available to you by members of the Applied faculty through their personal homepages. Prof. Zhiqiang

  3. Applied Modern Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Applied Modern Physics From the first bionic eye to airport scanners that detect liquid explosives, our expertise in developing advanced diagnostics results in real-world...

  4. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

  5. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    1960 through 2001, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , OakAtmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide models, Science, 282,Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , Oak

  6. Carbon Dioxide Transportation and Sequestration Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act applies to the application process for the issuance of a certificate of authority by an owner or operator of a pipeline designed, constructed, and operated to transport and to sequester...

  7. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  8. INTRODUCTION APPLIED GEOPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merriam, James

    GEOL 384.3 INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED GEOPHYSICS OUTLINE INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED GEOPHYSICS GEOL 384 unknowns; the ones we don't know we don't know. And if one looks throughout the history of geophysics he didn't really say geophysics. He said, " ... our country and other free countries ...". But I am

  9. Applied Music Curriculum Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearfott, R. Baker

    1 Applied Music Curriculum Guide The University of Louisiana at Lafayette School of Music #12;2 Revised Spring 2009 UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA, Lafayette SCHOOL OF MUSIC APPLIED MUSIC CURRICULUM GUIDE Dr. Garth Alper, Director DEGREES OFFERED Bachelor of Music with emphases in Performance, Theory

  10. Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dima Bolmatov; D. Zav'yalov; M. Gao; M. Zhernenkov

    2014-06-06

    The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterogeneity shell in providing a mechanism for diffusion in the supercritical carbon dioxide on an intermediate length scale. Finally, we discuss important implications for answering the intriguing question whether Venus may have had carbon dioxide oceans and urge for an experimental detection of this persistent local order heterogeneity.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Applied Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Architecture Information Technology & Management Integrated Building Delivery Landscape Architecture ManagementAnalytical Chemistry Applied Mathematics Architectural Engineering Architecture Architecture Electricity Markets Environmental Engineering Food Process Engineering Food Safety & Technology

  12. Sandia Energy - Applied & Computational Math

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied & Computational Math Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Applied & Computational Math Applied & Computational Mathcwdd2015-03-26T13:34:5...

  13. KATAYUN (KATY) BARMAK Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    MEMBERSHIP OF PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES IEEE, Materials Research Society (MRS); American Physical Society (APS1 KATAYUN (KATY) BARMAK Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Seeley W. Mudd. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University 2011-present Philips Electronics Professor

  14. Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolmatov, Dima; Gao, M; Zhernenkov, M

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterog...

  15. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

  16. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  17. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    D. Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium. OECD Nuclear Energyand dioxides from thorium to curium Joaquim Marçalo a,* andmonoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium,

  18. New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition Supporting Information to Chapter 17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition S2 Cartesian

  19. Synthesis of fluorinated alkoxyamines and alkoxyamine-initiated nitroxide-mediated precipitation polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide†polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide (PREDICI simulations for the styrene/TIPNO system are used to

  20. Research projects for 2014 Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    Research projects for 2014 ­ Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner c.m.rayner@leeds.ac.uk, phone: 0113 343 6579 http://www.chem.leeds.ac.uk/People/Rayner.html Carbon Dioxide Chemistry The current

  1. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  2. Evaluation and Enhancement of Carbon Dioxide Flooding Through Sweep Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Richard

    2009-09-30

    Carbon dioxide displacement is a common improved recovery method applied to light oil reservoirs (30-45{degrees}API). The economic and technical success of CO{sub 2} floods is often limited by poor sweep efficiency or large CO{sub 2} utilization rates. Projected incremental recoveries for CO{sub 2} floods range from 7% to 20% of the original oil in place; however, actual incremental recoveries range from 9% to 15% of the original oil in place, indicating the potential for significant additional recoveries with improved sweep efficiency. This research program was designed to study the effectiveness of carbon dioxide flooding in a mature reservoir to identify and develop methods and strategies to improve oil recovery in carbon dioxide floods. Specifically, the project has focused on relating laboratory, theoretical and simulation studies to actual field performance in a CO{sub 2} flood in an attempt to understand and mitigate problems of areal and vertical sweep efficiency. In this work the focus has been on evaluating the status of existing swept regions of a mature CO{sub 2} flood and developing procedures to improve the design of proposed floods. The Little Creek Field, Mississippi has been studied through laboratory, theoretical, numerical and simulation studies in an attempt to relate performance predictions to historical reservoir performance to determine sweep efficiency, improve the understanding of the reservoir response to CO{sub 2} injection, and develop scaling methodologies to relate laboratory data and simulation results to predicted reservoir behavior. Existing laboratory information from Little Creek was analyzed and an extensive amount of field data was collected. This was merged with an understanding of previous work at Little Creek to generate a detailed simulation study of two portions of the field – the original pilot area and a currently active part of the field. This work was done to try to relate all of this information to an understanding of where the CO{sub 2} went or is going and how recovery might be improved. New data was also generated in this process. Production logs were run to understand where the CO{sub 2} was entering the reservoir related to core and log information and also to corroborate the simulation model. A methodology was developed and successfully tested for evaluating saturations in a cased-hole environment. Finally an experimental and theoretical program was initiated to relate laboratory work to field scale design and analysis of operations. This work found that an understanding of vertical and areal heterogeneity is crucial for understanding sweep processes as well as understanding appropriate mitigation techniques to improve the sweep. Production and injection logs can provide some understanding of that heterogeneity when core data is not available. The cased-hole saturation logs developed in the project will also be an important part of the evaluation of vertical heterogeneity. Evaluation of injection well/production well connectivities through statistical or numerical techniques were found to be as successful in evaluating CO{sub 2} floods as they are for waterfloods. These are likely to be the lowest cost techniques to evaluate areal sweep. Full field simulation and 4D seismic techniques are other possibilities but were beyond the scope of the project. Detailed simulation studies of pattern areas proved insightful both for doing a “post-mortem” analysis of the pilot area as well as a late-term, active portion of the Little Creek Field. This work also evaluated options for improving sweep in the current flood as well as evaluating options that could have been successful at recovering more oil. That simulation study was successful due to the integration of a large amount of data supplied by the operator as well as collected through the course of the project. While most projects would not have the abundance of data that Little Creek had, integration of the available data continues to be critical for both the design and evaluation stages of CO{sub 2} floods. For cases w

  3. Information Science, Computing, Applied Math

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Information Science, Computing, Applied Math National security depends on science...

  4. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  5. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Hunt, Jennifer; Patel, Dilip; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28

    uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric power while capturing CO2 from flue gas, such as from an existing pulverized coal (PC) plant. Laboratory scale testing of the ECM has verified the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Recently, FCE was awarded a contract (DE-FE0007634) from the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the use of ECM to efficiently and cost effectively separate CO2 from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from flue gas of an existing PC plant with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) produced by the plant. The specific objectives and related activities planned for the project include: 1) conduct bench scale tests of a planar membrane assembly consisting of ten or more cells of about 0.8 m2 area each, 2) develop the detailed design for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to an existing PC plant, and 3) evaluate the effects of impurities (pollutants such as SO2, NOx, Hg) present in the coal plant flue gas by conducting laboratory scale performance tests of the membrane. The results of this project are anticipated to demonstrate that the ECM is an advanced technology, fabricated from inexpensive materials, based on proven operational track records, modular, scalable to large sizes, and a viable candidate for >90% carbon capture from existing PC plants. In this paper, the fundamentals of ECM technology including: material of construction, principal mechanisms of operation, carbon capture test results and the benefits of applications to PC plants will be presented.

  6. Apply for Beamtime

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D SFederal FacilityApplicantOffice ofApply ApplicationApply

  7. Article published September 08, 2010 UT professor's work in carbon dioxide gets coveted award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    of sustainable technologies. As well as focusing on ways to use carbon dioxide, he will be researching methodsArticle published September 08, 2010 UT professor's work in carbon dioxide gets coveted award with the problem of excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, University of Toledo professor Abdul- Majeed Azad

  8. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks efficient systems to capture carbon dioxide. Additionally, we have a long-standing collaboration with BASF, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms

  9. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide ................................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 APPROACHES TO REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy

  10. ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office provides funding to Charles D. Keeling to begin monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) at the South Pole and Mauna-seasonal data on carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases in a region where rapid climate

  11. Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

  12. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research reservoir scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent investigations of underground carbon dioxide storage

  13. Kinetics of the Homogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Olefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Using a Fluoroacrylate Copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Hanan E.

    Kinetics of the Homogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Olefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide a fluoroacrylate copolymer grafted rhodium catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) are reported field of chemical reaction engineering.3-8 Specifically, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2

  14. Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog covariance measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE) were taken at an ombrotrophic covariance, carbon dioxide Citation: Lafleur, P. M., N. T. Roulet, J. L. Bubier, S. Frolking, and T. R. Moore

  15. Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

  16. Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability A) to highlight the importance of convective mixing in inducing anomalous air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (2007), Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

  17. Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    LETTERS Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation Eric D , John R. Southon6 & Roger Francois1 Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower the surface waters above but only a small increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration8 . We speculate

  18. Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems) with piperazine (PZ) have shown potential for use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture [1]. This work was initiated at low loadings. Keywords: vapor-liquid, equilibrium, piperazine, carbon dioxide Introduction CO2

  19. Carbon Dioxide Evolution from the Floor of Three Minnesota Forests Author(s): W. A. Reiners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Carbon Dioxide Evolution from the Floor of Three Minnesota Forests Author(s): W. A. Reiners and extend access to Ecology. http://www.jstor.org #12;Late Spring 1968 CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION RATES 471. Germination behavior of some halc- phytes. Bull. Res. Council Israel (D) 6: 187-188. CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION

  20. Convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers Jerome A. Neufeld,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers Jerome A. Neufeld,1 Marc A. Hesse,2 of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22404, doi:10.1029/2010GL044728. [2] The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations has been proposed as a technological means

  1. Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

  2. Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms The accumulation of carbon of the carbon dioxide release is an important objective in the near future. Various strategies are discussed or storage of produced carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, applications based on fossil fuels cannot be improved

  3. SIMPLIFYING THE MARTIAN CARBON DIOXIDE CYCLE: AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTING SURFACE PRESSURE. Paul Withers1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    SIMPLIFYING THE MARTIAN CARBON DIOXIDE CYCLE: AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTING SURFACE PRESSURE and spatial variations in martian surface pressure are strongly influenced by the exchange of carbon dioxide of polar cap processes. Many studies of martian polar energy balance and the carbon dioxide cycle use

  4. Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences plant water relations and often pref- erentially

  5. Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve attracted considerable attention. As one of the natural refrigerants, carbon dioxide has many excellent

  6. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000800,000 years before present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    LETTERS High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000­800,000 years before present Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition provided a composite record of atmo- spheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years1­4 . Here we

  7. Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales Philip-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure carbon dioxide on centennial timescales, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2006GB002810

  8. Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Sea of carbon dioxide in the oceans. Version 2 -- September 1994 (version 2.1 is only available electronically of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water; version 2, A

  9. Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a , M. Keswani damage Sonoluminescence Carbon dioxide Acoustic cavitation Cavitation threshold a b s t r a c t Megasonic processing of wafers. In this study, the ability of carbon dioxide to quench sonolumi- nescence generation

  10. Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    LETTERS Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming Shilong Piao in the future8 . Here we analyse interannual variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentra- tion data and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes. We find that atmo- spheric records from the past 20 years show a trend

  11. of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

  12. Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    materials and properties; KEYWORDS: Mars, gullies, seepage, runoff, carbon dioxide, water Citation: StewartSurface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis Sarah T. Stewart1, S. T., and F. Nimmo, Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES MARY ANNE McGUIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES by MARY ANNE McGUIRE (Under the Direction of Robert O. Teskey) ABSTRACT The importance of carbon dioxide in the xylem of trees was examined, stem respiration, xylem CO2 concentration #12;CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES

  14. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff

    interprets in situ observations of carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean and atmosphere with transportA joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 1. Methods and global March 2007. [1] We have constructed an inverse estimate of surface fluxes of carbon dioxide using both

  15. Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    LETTERS Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs Bo for other members of this materials family3 , both ZIFs selectively capture carbon dioxide from several at ameliorating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Since the initial observation4 that crystalline

  16. Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized-9) × 10-9 cm2/s. Carbon dioxide, as both a reactant in and a product of large- scale reactions, is the focus of much current research activity. Millions of tons of carbon dioxide are used every year

  17. Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using and Structure: Instruments and techniques; KEYWORDS: carbon dioxide, column mean, column integral, COBRA, flask, Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete

  18. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  19. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Carbon Dioxide and Storage Value-Added Options Technology Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulk to 13.1Carbon Dioxide Capture and

  20. Journal of applied mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nov 11, 2009 ... Location: Engineering (Periodicals) ... wave propagation in such systems is examined in reference (4). Gassman (5, 6) has ... Now Research Scientist at Missile. Systems ... Presented at the Applied Mechanics Division Summer Conference,. Berkeley ..... This will be true in some cases for a water- saturated ...

  1. SUSTAINABILITY WHO CAN APPLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUNDED BY CALL FOR SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH STUDENT WHO CAN APPLY Undergraduate and graduate Participate in the Global Change & Sustainability Center's Research Symposium; attend workshops with faculty or publish in the U's student-run sustainability publication to be released in May 2014. Are you conducting

  2. APPLYING RESEARCH ON METACOGNITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    School of Medicine01/09/14 #12;Define metacognition and explain its importance in teaching and learning, understand key genetic terms.) Next, apply knowledge to determine inheritance patterns and to formulate students presume that a best response strategy is to relate everything they know about a subject figuring

  3. Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments Kurt Zenz House* , Daniel P. Schrag, Cambridge, MA 02138; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139; and §Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

  4. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  5. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  6. Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbulsky, Martín

    Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest M A R T I´ N F. G A R B U L Science and Environment, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy Abstract The estimation of the carbon of the ecology of global change. Current remote sensing methodologies for estimating gross primary productivity

  7. INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES H. Lin, A. A. Busnaina, and I. I. Suni T he removal of ionic contaminants from silicon surfaces surface contamination level canM Communications L td. INTRODUCTION with increasing frequency and power, and decreases Contamination removal is one

  8. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering Practice Abstract In the light1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman B. Chem. Eng. Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, 2005 M.S. Chemical Engineering

  10. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  11. Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610°C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

  12. Our industrial civilization has been pouring carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    to the pass to millions of travellers and visitors per year. It is now home to the world's largest avalanche that started near the summit of mount Cheops · "Tremendous amounts of human energy and money are spent holding. By the year 2000 we will have added 70 percent more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. If it remained, it would

  13. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis

  14. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    . A new, large (1,000-mega- watt-generating) coal-fired power plant produces six million tons of the gas the CO2 output of a stationary coal-burning power plant. It is little wonder, then, that today's capture-and-storage efforts focus on those power plants, the source of one quarter of the world's carbon dioxide emissions

  15. 2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon Emissions and Flavor in Onion P. W. Paré, R of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and sulfur derivatives. Odd-chain ketones are emitted from onion-through chambers, volatile hydrocarbons from undamaged plants can be collected under different environmental

  16. Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D in NO2 and ozone in a number of cities in Europe. For instance, he shows a very strong correlation;Air Pollution XVI 248 The DPF is an extremely effective means to achieve particle reduction goals

  17. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based properties of CO2 at supercritical conditions. The molecular simulation results are compared to an analytical on Monte Carlo simu- lations in the isothermal­isobaric ensemble. We model CO2 as a quadrupolar two

  18. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  19. Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux Paul G. Falkowski The discovery 0960-9822 Photosynthesis in the world oceans accounts for approximately 40% of the global carbon fixed each year on Earth [1]. The vast majority of photosynthetic carbon fixation, by far, is carried out

  20. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  1. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Angela L. [U.S. DOE; Bromhal, Grant S. [U.S. DOE; Strazisar, Brian [U.S. DOE; Rodosta, Traci D. [U.S. DOE; Guthrie, William J. [U.S. DOE; Allen, Douglas E. [ORISE; Guthrie, George D. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

  2. A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere-atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere, carbon dioxide, biosphere, regional-scale modeling, missing sink, carbon dioxide fluxes Citation), A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere

  3. ORISE: Applied health physics projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied health physics projects The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides applied health physics services to government agencies needing technical support...

  4. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  5. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools to someone byApplied Science/Techniques

  6. Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

  7. Application of optical processing for growth of silicon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate is disclosed. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm{sup 2} to about 6 watts/cm{sup 2} for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm{sup 2} for growth of a 100{angstrom}-300{angstrom} film at a resultant temperature of about 400 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface to be very low. 1 fig.

  8. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  9. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  10. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  11. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01

    SUPERMARKET WITH GROUND COUPLED CARBON DIOXIDE REFRIGERATION PLANT Dipl.-Ing. Nicolas R?hault Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE ICEBO 2012 Manchester, 25.10.2012 ? Fraunhofer ISE 2 AGENDA 1. Background on supermarkets, energy...- conditioning: Insulation and air tightness to Passivhaus Standard CO2 refrigeration plant as only energy supply No use of fossil fuels Use of ground to sub-cool refrigerant and as heat source for heat pump Use of covers and night curtains LED...

  12. Extraction of iron and calcium from low rank coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwai, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Ohta, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-03-15

    Iron and calcium were extracted from low rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetyl acetone, ethanol and acetic acid, or acetyl acetone and water entrainers at 313.2 K and 15.0 MPa. The low rank coal used in this study was Berau coal from Indonesia. The addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetic acid entrainers in supercritical carbon dioxide showed very limited effect on enhancement of the recovery rates of Fe. The recovery rates of Fe from dried coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with acetyl acetone were low however, the addition of acetyl acetone with water in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Fe. Water seems to play an important role in extracting Fe from coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and acetyl acetone. On the other hand, the extraction rates of Ca with supercritical carbon dioxide and water, methanol, ethanol, and acetyl acetone entrainers were very low. The addition of acetic acid with or without water in supercritical carbon dioxide slightly enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The addition of acetic acid with ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate and coal particle size on the recovery rates of Fe were examined. The recovery rate of Fe increased with increasing carbon dioxide flow rate and with decreasing particle size of the low rank coal.

  13. APPLIED TECHNOLOGY Strategic Plan Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    SCHOOL OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY Strategic Plan Summary #12;School of Applied Technology Strategic Plan Summary | 1 SCHOOL OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIC PLAN SUMMARY MISSION STATEMENT The mission Technology and Management program to achieve national visibility. #12;School of Applied Technology Strategic

  14. Study of carbon dioxide adsorption on a Cu-nitroprusside polymorph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roque-Malherbe, R., E-mail: RRoque@suagm.ed [Institute for Physical Chemical Applied Research, School of Science, University of Turabo, P.O. Box 3030, Gurabo, PR 00778-3030 (United States); Lozano, C.; Polanco, R.; Marquez, F.; Lugo, F. [Institute for Physical Chemical Applied Research, School of Science, University of Turabo, P.O. Box 3030, Gurabo, PR 00778-3030 (United States); Hernandez-Maldonado, A.; Primera-Pedrozo, J.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A careful structural characterization was carried out to unequivocally determine the structure of the synthesized material. The TGA, DRIFTS and a Pawley fitting of the XRD powder profiles indicate that the hydrated and in situ dehydrated polymorph crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. Meanwhile, the CO{sub 2} isosteric heat of adsorption appears to be independent of loading with an average value of 30 kJ/mol. This translates to a physisorption type interaction, where the adsorption energy corresponding to wall and lateral interactions are mutually compensated to produce, an apparently, homogeneous adsorption energy. The somewhat high adsorption energy is probably due to the confinement of the CO{sub 2} molecules in the nitroprusside pores. Statistical Physics and the Dubinin theory for pore volume filling allowed model the CO{sub 2} equilibrium adsorption process in Cu-nitroprusside. A DRIFTS test for the adsorbed CO{sub 2} displayed a peak at about 2338 cm{sup -1} that was assigned to a contribution due to physical adsorption of the molecule. Another peak found at 2362 cm{sup -1} evidenced that this molecule interacts with the Cu{sup 2+}, which appears to act as an electron accepting Lewis acid site. The aim of the present paper is to report a Pnma stable Cu-nitroprusside polymorph obtained by the precipitation method that can adsorb carbon dioxide. -- Graphical abstract: The adsorption space of a very well characterized Cu-nitroprusside polymorph, applying carbon dioxide as probe molecule, was studied. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Accurate information about the geometry of the adsorption space was provided. {yields} Truthful data about the interactions within the adsorption space was presented. {yields} The structure of the tested Cu-NP polymorph was established. {yields} Was evidenced adsorbed CO{sub 2} molecules in the form of weakly bonded adducts. {yields} Is proposed that adsorbed molecules could change the Cu-NP magnetic properties.

  15. Multimodel Predictive System for Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Saline Formation Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zan; Small, Mitchell J.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-02-05

    The prediction of carbon dioxide solubility in brine at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration (i.e., high temperature, pressure, and salt concentration (T-P-X)) is crucial when this technology is applied. Eleven mathematical models for predicting CO{sub 2} solubility in brine are compared and considered for inclusion in a multimodel predictive system. Model goodness of fit is evaluated over the temperature range 304–433 K, pressure range 74–500 bar, and salt concentration range 0–7 m (NaCl equivalent), using 173 published CO{sub 2} solubility measurements, particularly selected for those conditions. The performance of each model is assessed using various statistical methods, including the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Different models emerge as best fits for different subranges of the input conditions. A classification tree is generated using machine learning methods to predict the best-performing model under different T-P-X subranges, allowing development of a multimodel predictive system (MMoPS) that selects and applies the model expected to yield the most accurate CO{sub 2} solubility prediction. Statistical analysis of the MMoPS predictions, including a stratified 5-fold cross validation, shows that MMoPS outperforms each individual model and increases the overall accuracy of CO{sub 2} solubility prediction across the range of T-P-X conditions likely to be encountered in carbon sequestration applications.

  16. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  17. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice O and 13 C18 O), carbon dioxide (12 C16 O2, 12 C18 O16 O, 12 C18 O2, 13 C16 O2, 13 C18 O16 O, and 13 and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition

  18. Development of a differential equation of state to describe subcritical isotherms of carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontenot, Charles Edward

    1980-01-01

    Processors Association, the National Science Eoundation, the Texas Engineering Experiment Station and Texas A&&i University for providing the funds for this work The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. K, R. Hall for his guidance... Pressures of Carbon Dioxide 28 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Vapor Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . . 30 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Liquid Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . 31 Plot of the Slope of fR...

  19. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  20. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy flux densities, Bull.et al. (2006), Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and

  1. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    by the Institute for Industrial Productivity through theL ABORATORY China’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions inproceedings, ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, Arnhem, the

  2. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs

  3. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  4. Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Kevin

    Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE USING OPTIMALITY...............................................................................................1 I. A REVIEW OF REMOTE SENSING MODELS........................................................7...............................................................7 Remote Sensing Models

  5. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  6. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  7. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation"...

  8. Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding...

  9. Applied Bohmian Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Benseny; G. Albareda; A. S. Sanz; J. Mompart; X. Oriols

    2014-10-20

    Bohmian mechanics provides an explanation of quantum phenomena in terms of point particles guided by wave functions. This review focuses on the formalism of non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics, rather than its interpretation. Although the Bohmian and standard quantum theories have different formalisms, both give exactly the same predictions for all phenomena. Fifteen years ago, the quantum chemistry community began to study the practical usefulness of Bohmian mechanics. Since then, the scientific community has mainly applied it to study the (unitary) evolution of single-particle wave functions, either by developing efficient quantum trajectory algorithms or by providing a trajectory-based explanation of complicated quantum phenomena. Here we present a large list of examples showing how the Bohmian formalism provides a useful solution in different forefront research fields for this kind of problems (where the Bohmian and the quantum hydrodynamic formalisms coincide). In addition, this work also emphasizes that the Bohmian formalism can be a useful tool in other types of (non-unitary and nonlinear) quantum problems where the influence of the environment or the global wave function are unknown. This review contains also examples on the use of the Bohmian formalism for the many-body problem, decoherence and measurement processes. The ability of the Bohmian formalism to analyze this last type of problems for (open) quantum systems remains mainly unexplored by the scientific community. The authors of this review are convinced that the final status of the Bohmian theory among the scientific community will be greatly influenced by its potential success in these type of problems that present non-unitary and/or nonlinear quantum evolutions. A brief introduction of the Bohmian formalism and some of its extensions are presented in the last part of this review.

  10. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  11. Applying Mathematics.... ... to catch criminals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Michael

    Applying Mathematics.... ... to catch criminals Mike O'Leary Department of Mathematics Towson University Stevenson University Kappa Mu Epsion 2008 Mike O'Leary (Towson University) Applying mathematics Department Mike O'Leary (Towson University) Applying mathematics to catch criminals September 10, 2008 2 / 42

  12. Journal of Applied Ecology 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holl, Karen

    Journal of Applied Ecology 2004 41, 922­933 © 2004 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing-scale, Sacramento River, succession, vegetation Journal of Applied Ecology (2004) 41, 922­933 Introduction More than@ucsc.edu). #12;923 Riparian forest restoration © 2004 British Ecological Society, Journal of Applied Ecology, 41

  13. Journal of Applied Ecology 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holl, Karen

    Journal of Applied Ecology 2002 39, 960­970 © 2002 British Ecological Society Blackwell Science- tion, succession. Journal of Applied Ecology (2002) 39, 960­970 Introduction Efforts to reclaim@ucsc.edu). #12;961 Vegetation on reclaimed mines © 2002 British Ecological Society, Journal of Applied Ecology

  14. Journal of Applied Ecology 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Journal of Applied Ecology 2007 44, 748­759 © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 British, distribution, edge, marbled murrelets, model transferability, old-growth Journal of Applied Ecology (2007) 44-nesting Alcid © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 British Ecological Society, Journal of Applied

  15. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

  16. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  17. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon dioxide turbo-expander and heat exchangers project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop a megawatt-scale s-CO2 hot-gas turbo-expander optimized for the highly transient solar power plant profile. The team is also working to optimize novel printed circuit heat exchangers for s-CO2 applications to drastically reduce their manufacturing costs.

  18. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  19. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 -Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing

  20. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelementPatent:subsectionsMethod for carbon dioxide

  1. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  2. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  3. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  4. Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Brentan R

    2007-01-01

    Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

  5. Carbon dioxide on the satellites of Saturn: Results from the Cassini VIMS investigation and revisions to the VIMS wavelength scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide on the satellites of Saturn: Results from the Cassini VIMS investigation of C­O in carbon dioxide (CO2) at or near the nominal solid-phase laboratory wavelength of 4.2675 lm

  6. Structural and mechanistic studies into the copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides catalyzed by chromium salen complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackiewicz, Ryan Michael

    2006-08-16

    . For over a decade now the Darensbourg Research Laboratories have focused on utilizing another simple molecule: carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a cheap, inert, nontoxic starting material that appears to be an ideal monomer. Although simplistic, CO2 is also...

  7. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide from a boreal forest fire: Inferring carbon loss from measurements and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuur, Edward A. G; Trumbore, Susan E; Mack, Michelle C; Harden, Jennifer W

    2003-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959 – 1999, Can. J.and O. N. Krankina, Forest fires in Russia: Carbon dioxideDIOXIDE FROM A BOREAL FOREST FIRE Park, R. , and S. Epstein,

  8. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 104303 (2011) The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 104303 (2011) The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2; published online 8 September 2011) The electronic spectrum of a cold molecular beam of zirconium dioxide, Zr

  9. A Computational Study on the Thermal-Hydraulic Behavior of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Various Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger Designs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuo, Bryce

    2013-02-04

    and concentrated solar power generation. Two main advantages of having supercritical carbon dioxide are the large property variations and component size associated with power cycle. Forced convection heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide in printed circuit...

  10. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  11. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  12. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar and Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation

  14. Net ecosystem methane and carbon dioxide exchanges in a Lake Erie coastal marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Net ecosystem methane and carbon dioxide exchanges in a Lake Erie coastal marsh and a nearby ecosystem carbon dioxide (FCO2) and methane (FCH4) exchanges were measured by using the eddy covariance ) at the cropland. At the seasonal scale, soil temperature associated with methane (CH4) production provided

  15. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser- based- strumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.2747608 Keywords: breath analysis; nitric oxide; carbon dioxide sampling, NO is measured over time during exhalation. Offline sampling has the advantages of remote

  16. Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 fromHighly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported

  17. How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    climate efficiency as the amount of carbon dioxide emissions per generated added value. This conceptHow Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Relation to Its Added Value Diploma Thesis Department of Environmental Sciences ETH Zurich Ana

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  19. Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Klaus

    Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford + Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component fossil fuel requirement of CO2 sequestration, and the growth rate of carbon taxes. In this analytical

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration Philip C. Myint, Laurence Rongy, Kjetil B. Haugen, Abbas Firoozabadi Department. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels that have been

  1. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley of energy, the solar panels, can also harvest energy 100 times more effectively than plants. Other

  2. Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Microfluidic Reactor for the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: The Effect of pH Devin T and characterization of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. The use of gas submitted January 27, 2010; revised manuscript received April 7, 2010. Published June 29, 2010. Carbon

  3. Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic Framework Adsorbents Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering The steady rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting to the economy that is heavily relied on fossil fuels. Although the transition of the existing carbon

  4. Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames W.G. Bessler a , C. Schulz a; in final form 16 May 2003 Published online 10 June 2003 Abstract Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of carbon dioxide is investigated with excitation between 215 and 255 nm with spectrally resolved detection in 5

  5. DOI: 10.1002/celc.201402182 Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Cu/CuO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    DOI: 10.1002/celc.201402182 Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Cu/CuO Core/Shell Catalysts Yangchun Lan,[a, b] Chao Gai,[c] Paul J. A. Kenis,*[b] and Jiaxing Lu*[a] 1. Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most notorious greenhouse gas, which is released by both natural and artificial

  6. October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 BioScience 895 Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 · BioScience 895 Articles Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 reduce the concen- tration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes of the 21st century (IPCC 2001a). Management of vegetation and soils for terrestrial carbon sequestration

  7. January 2, 2008 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    January 2, 2008 Numerical modeling of the effect of carbon dioxide sequestration on the rate souterrain de dioxyde de carbone sur la déformation des calcaires par dissolution sous contrainte: résultats;Abstract When carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into an aquifer or a depleted geological reservoir, its

  8. The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali basalts: an experimental PRISCILLE LESNE 1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali basalts: an experimental study PRISCILLE LESNE 1 in both fluid and melt is required since, because of its low solubility, carbon dioxide is usually a major in silicate melts dramatically influence the physical properties of magmas, such as density, viscosity

  9. GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    1 GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES SHENG F. YEN1 of an approach to reduce the high-frequency capacitive feedthrough and dielectric leakages of carbon nanotubes grown on silicon dioxide micro bridges suspended over silicon substrates. The microwave reflection

  10. Refinement in the ultrasonic velocity data and estimation of the critical parameters for molten uranium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    uranium dioxide Abdul-Majeed Azad * Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University, reliable data on the sound prop- agation velocity in molten uranium dioxide have been obtained. An equation 61:98 ffiffiffiffi T p : ð1Þ For stoichiometric uranium oxide (O/U = 2.00) values of 3070 K [6], 3115

  11. Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide Richard E the inorganic hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in aqueous solution cause reduced stable carbon and oxygen of the carbon and oxygen kinetic isotope fractionation (KIF) during hydration of CO2. Here I use transition

  12. Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification Rachael M. Heuer* and Martin Grosell*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification on fish Rachael M. Heuer, Grosell M. Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification on fish. Am J Physiol in dynamic regulation of acid-base transport pathways across species, exposure levels, and exposure duration

  13. Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world P. Parekh,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world P. Parekh,1,2 S. Dutkiewicz,1 M. J. Follows,1, P., S. Dutkiewicz, M. J. Follows, and T. Ito (2006), Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty would favor reduced dust transport and lower iron supply to the oceans. Near-future climate change

  14. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions of the separation of CO2 from the emissions stream from fossil-fuel combustion, transporting it to a storage

  15. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff

    A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results Andrew atmospheric CO2 gradients and transport simulations are combined with observations of ocean interior carbon (2007), A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results

  16. Estuaries Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 381-390 June 1997 Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    should be net sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or should transport excess CO, (as either COEstuaries Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 381-390 June 1997 Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Atmospheric Hudson, or total dissolved inorganic carbon [DIG] ) into the coastal zone. Exchanges of CO, between the water

  17. Assessing various carbon dioxide flow rates to minimize distress during laboratory mouse euthanasia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Assessing various carbon dioxide flow rates to minimize distress during laboratory mouse euthanasia, University of British Columbia · Laboratory rodents are commonly euthanized by exposure to carbon dioxide (CO Carly Moody, Beverly Chua, I. Joanna Makowska, Daniel M. Weary Faculty of Land and Food Systems

  18. MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  2. Interfacial tension in high-pressure carbon dioxide mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, B.S.; Wilkinson, G.T.

    1995-12-01

    High-pressure interfacial- and surface-tension phenomena govern the migration and recovery of oil and gas from hydrocarbon reservoirs. The phenomena are of particular relevance to phase separation and mass transfer in light hydrocarbon fractionation plants and in propane deasphalting in lubricating oil refining. Interfacial tensions of carbon dioxide-water-alcohol mixtures were measured at temperatures in the range 5--71 C and pressures 0.1--18.6 MPa, using the capillary rise method. The alcohols were methanol (0.136 mf), ethanol (to 0.523 mf), and isopropyl alcohol (to 0.226 mf). Interfacial tension (IFT) decreased linearly with both temperature and pressure din the low-pressure range (gaseous CO{sub 2}) but was largely independent of pressure at high pressure (liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2}). There was a zone in the vicinity of the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}-as much as 20 C below and 10 C above the carbon dioxide critical temperature--where IFT became small. This is attributed to the formation of a second CO{sub 2}-rich phase. The isotherms exhibited a crossover pressure near 3 MPa for all systems examined.

  3. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  4. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  6. Sandia Energy - Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and they form the basis for the creation of validated submodels that bridge fundamental energy sciences with applied device engineering and optimization. Turbulent-combustion-lab...

  7. Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight. Paper to appear in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    2011-01-01

    Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed here: doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.051 1 Carbon dioxide emissions and 0.53 Mt. Keywords International air freight, carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, New

  8. Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

  9. STUDIES ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN REFRIGERATED BRINE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE FISH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STUDIES ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN REFRIGERATED BRINE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE in rockfish and chum salmon of dissolving carbon dioxide in brine. Storing the fish in the refrigerated brine treated with carbon dioxide inhibited the growth of the bacteria, retarded the rate at which the fish

  10. Potentials of Mean Force and Permeabilities for Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia, and Water Flux across a Rhesus Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Groot, Bert

    Potentials of Mean Force and Permeabilities for Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia, and Water Flux across events of ammonia and carbon dioxide across Rh50 from Nitrosomonas europaea. The simulations show that Rh proteins facilitate carbon dioxide (CO2) transport, and indeed this has been speculated to be their genuine

  11. Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find are primarily responsible for the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations and therefore a main cause

  12. Synergism of Catalysis and Reaction Center Rehybridization. A Novel Mode of Catalysis in the Hydrolysis of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michael

    in the Hydrolysis of Carbon Dioxide Michael Lewis and Rainer Glaser* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry dioxide in carbonic anhydrase has long been an active area of research due to its fundamental importance-known that the hydrolysis of carbon dioxide in solution proceeds with catalysis from the solvent;3 however the structure

  13. Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production as a mechanism for carbon loss from plant litter in arid ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production as a mechanism for carbon loss from plant litter for abiotic mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) via photodegradation to account for carbon (C) loss from: Brandt, L. A., C. Bohnet, and J. Y. King (2009), Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production

  14. Annals of Botany 81: 185193, 1998 The Interactive Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Light on Stem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reekie, Ed

    Annals of Botany 81: 185­193, 1998 The Interactive Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Light min d-") and high light (120 µmol m-# s-" for 12 h d-") and four levels of carbon dioxide: 0, 350, 700 and 1400p50 µl l-". Germination was not affected by any of the treatments. The effects of carbon dioxide

  15. in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czaja, Arnaud

    in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes College, London, UK Abstract. We analyze the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM), known to impact the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide, is also

  16. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter can limit the response of plant productivity to both elevated atmo- spheric carbon dioxide (CO2

  17. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 APRIL 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1799 Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rainfall to climate change remains a challenge1 . Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide are expected carbon dioxide concentrations on tropical circulation and precipitation by analysing results from a suite with higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, which affects the strength of atmospheric vertical motions

  18. Photoelectron Imaging of Hydrated Carbon Dioxide Cluster Anions Eric Surber, Richard Mabbs, Terefe Habteyes, and Andrei Sanov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanov, Andrei

    Photoelectron Imaging of Hydrated Carbon Dioxide Cluster Anions Eric Surber, Richard Mabbs, Terefe solvation on the electronic structure and photodetachment dynamics of hydrated carbon dioxide cluster anions and carbon dioxide. The effect of hydration on the electronic structure of ions has far- reaching

  19. Polarizabilities of Carbon Dioxide and Carbodiimide. Assessment of Theoretical Model Dependencies on Dipole Polarizabilities and Dipole Polarizability Anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michael

    Polarizabilities of Carbon Dioxide and Carbodiimide. Assessment of Theoretical Model DependenciesVed: August 10, 2000; In Final Form: September 19, 2000 The atomic polarizabilities of carbon dioxide and polarizabilities R, R, and are known for carbon dioxide, and these values are used to assess the accuracy

  20. A Combined Experimental-Computational Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Capture in a Series of Isoreticular Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    for their carbon dioxide capture and gas separation properties.2 However, little is known about the factors. Here, we report the synthesis, structure and carbon dioxide uptake properties of a series of ZIFsA Combined Experimental-Computational Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Capture in a Series

  1. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 JULY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO578 Carbon dioxide forcing alone insufficient to explain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 JULY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO578 Carbon dioxide forcing alone composition lighter than -50 . As a result, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased during the Methods section). The PETM may therefore serve as a case study for the consequences of the carbon dioxide

  2. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'Standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. In the paper, the authors present example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. The approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. They present the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO2, SO3, and O3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. They conclude that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. (Copyright (c) 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  3. Incorporation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mortars - Influence of microstructure in the hardened state properties and photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, S.S.

    2013-01-15

    The environmental pollution in urban areas is one of the causes for poor indoor air quality in buildings, particularly in suburban areas. The development of photocatalytic construction materials can contribute to clean the air and improve sustainability levels. Previous studies have focused mainly in cement and concrete materials, disregarding the potential application in historic buildings. In this work, a photocatalytic additive (titanium dioxide) was added to mortars prepared with aerial lime, cement and gypsum binders. The main goal was to study the way that microstructural changes affect the photocatalytic efficiency. The photocatalytic activity was determined using a reactor developed to assess the degradation rate with a common urban pollutant, NO{sub x}. The laboratory results show that all the compositions tested exhibited high photocatalytic efficiency. It was demonstrated that photocatalytic mortars can be applied in new and old buildings, because the nanoadditives do not compromise the mortar hardened state properties.

  4. The Foundations of Applied Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    The Foundations of Applied Mathematics John Baez Category-Theoretic Foundations of Mathematics Workshop May 5, 2013 #12;We often picture the flow of information about mathematics a bit like this: SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLIED MATHEMATICS PURE MATHEMATICS FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS #12;Of course

  5. Supercritical carbon dioxide behavior in porous silica aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciccariello, Salvino [Universita di Padova; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the tails of the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensities relevant to samples formed by porous silica and carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 0 to 20 MPa and at temperatures of 308 and 353 K confirms that the CO2 fluid must be treated as a two-phase system. The first of these phases is formed by the fluid closer to the silica wall than a suitable distance [delta] and the second by the fluid external to this shell. The sample scattering-length densities and shell thicknesses are determined by the Porod invariants and the oscillations observed in the Porod plots of the SANS intensities. The resulting matter densities of the shell regions (thickness 15-35 {angstrom}) are approximately equal, while those of the outer regions increase with pressure and become equal to the bulk CO2 at the higher pressures only in the low-temperature case.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and thermodynamic parameters of vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi Ji [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Dalian Life Science College, Dalian Nationalities University, 18 Laohe West Road, Dalian 116600 (China); Ning Guiling [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Lin Yuan [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2008-08-04

    A novel process was developed for synthesizing pure thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) by thermal reduction of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in ammonia gas. The process of thermal reduction of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was optimized by both experiments and modeling of thermodynamic parameters. The product VO{sub 2} was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental results indicated that pure thermochromic VO{sub 2} crystal particles were successfully synthesized. The phase transition temperature of the VO{sub 2} is approximately 342.6 K and the enthalpy of phase transition is 44.90 J/g.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques. Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP), Scanning Electron Microsco-py SEM, and Sedigraph measurements are used to assess the pore-throat-size distribu-tion, sorting, texture, and grain size of the samples. Also, displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation (Pd) and graphically derived threshold pressure (Pc) were deter-mined by MIP technique. SEM images were used for qualitative study of the minerals and pores texture of the core samples. Moreover, EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spec-trometer), BET specific surface area, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements were performed to study various parameters and their possible effects on sealing capaci-ty of the samples. We found that shales have the relatively higher average sealing threshold pressure (Pc) than carbonate and sandstone samples. Based on these observations, shale formations could be considered as a promising caprock in terms of retarding scCO{sub 2} flow and leak-age into above formations. We hypothesized that certain characteristics of shales (e.g., 3 fine pore size, pore size distribution, high specific surface area, and strong physical chemical interaction between wetting phase and mineral surface) make them an effi-cient caprock for sealing super critical CO{sub 2}. We found that the displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation could not be the ultimate representative of the sealing capacity of the rock sample. On the other hand, we believe that graphical method, introduced by Cranganu (2004) is a better indicator of the true sealing capacity. Based on statistical analysis of our samples from Oklahoma Panhandle we assessed the effects of each group of properties (textural and compositional) on maximum supercriti-cal CO{sub 2} height that can be hold by the caprock. We conclude that there is a relatively strong positive relationship (+.40 to +.69) between supercritical CO{sub 2} column height based on Pc and hard/ soft mineral content index (ratio of minerals with Mohs hardness more than 5 over minerals with Mohs hardness less than 5) in both shales and limestone samples. Average median pore rad

  8. Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

  9. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  10. Statistically designed study of the variables and parameters of carbon dioxide equations of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohue, M.D.; Naiman, D.Q.; Jin, Gang; Loehe, J.R.

    1991-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is used widely in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes to maximize the production of crude oil from aging and nearly depleted oil wells. Carbon dioxide also is encountered in many processes related to oil recovery. Accurate representations of the properties of carbon dioxide, and its mixtures with hydrocarbons, play a critical role in a number of enhanced oil recovery operations. One of the first tasks of this project was to select an equation of state to calculate the properties of carbon dioxide and its mixtures. The equations simplicity, accuracy, and reliability in representing phase behavior and thermodynamic properties of mixtures containing carbon dioxide with hydrocarbons at conditions relevant to enhanced oil recovery were taken into account. We also have determined the thermodynamic properties that are important to enhanced oil recovery and the ranges of temperature, pressure and composition that are important. We chose twelve equations of state for preliminary studies to be evaluated against these criteria. All of these equations were tested for pure carbon dioxide and eleven were tested for pure alkanes and their mixtures with carbon dioxide. Two equations, the ALS equation and the ESD equation, were selected for detailed statistical analysis. 54 refs., 41 figs., 36 tabs.

  11. The effect of carbon dioxide-oxygen mixtures on oil recovery by in-situ combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Neal Joseph

    1970-01-01

    into the combustion reaction but will move through the burning front. It will carry a greater amount of heat to the unburned portion of the O. l 50 IOO ISO TEMPERATURE ( F) FIGURE I: CHANGE OF VISCOSITY WITH TEMPERATURE reservoir. Second, carbon dioxide has...=tively. The higher recovery from Run 1 as compared to Run 3 was attributed to two properties of carbon dioxide, First, the higher heat capacity of carbon dioxide, as compared to nitrogen, made it possible to carry more heat forward to the unburned portion...

  12. GRADUATE BOOKLET Physics / Applied Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    GRADUATE BOOKLET Physics / Applied Physics This booklet contains rules, guidelines and general information about graduate studies in the Physics Department at Texas Tech University. It does not replace documents. Contents I. General Comments: Admission, general policies, deadlines, etc II. Minimum

  13. Modeling applied to problem solving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawl, Andrew

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...

  14. IIT SCHOOL OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    . MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY. #12;BE A LEADER OF THE NEXT INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. An undergraduate degree in IndustrialINDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT IIT SCHOOL OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIAL OPERATIONS. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT. SUSTAINABILITY

  15. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and develop models to compare different working models of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas and oil production. Laboratory researchers have published a paper in Applied...

  16. Methods for hydrographic data collection and use applied to infer biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Brendan Rae

    2011-01-01

    properties (temperature and pressure), and at least two additional chemical measurements relevant to carbon dioxide

  17. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

  18. Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. ...

  19. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-02-21

    Objectives of this project was to understand asphaltene precipitation in General and carbon dioxide induced precipitation in particular. To this effect, thermodynamic and kinetic experiments with the Rangely crude oil were conducted and thermodynamic and reservoir models were developed.

  20. Experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigation focused mainly on assessing condensation onset during rapid expansion of CO? into the two-phase ...

  1. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  2. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions. Citation Details In-Document...

  3. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy...

  4. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Brayton Energy, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is building and testing a new solar receiver that uses supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the heat-transfer...

  5. DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide storage in geologic formations.

  6. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized...

  7. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  8. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard R. (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Bowman, Lawrence E. (Richland, WA); Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent.

  9. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Bacon, Diana H. carbon...

  10. A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kung, Yan

    Ni–Fe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns ...

  11. The vibrational and rotational structure of the 2400 to 1950 A? absorption spectrum of sulfur dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riggs, James Willborn

    1958-01-01

    Over the past century, fossil fuel consumption has added carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at rapidly increasing rates. The prospect of further acceleration of this rate by turning from petroleum to coal has alarmed ...

  12. Systematic biases in measurement of urban nitrogen dioxide using passive diffusion samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Kirby, C; Cape, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of nitrogen dioxide using passive diffusion tube over 22 months in Cambridge, U.K. are analysed as a function of sampler exposure time, and compared with NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located ...

  13. Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on the Actinide Dioxides AnO2 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coupling on the Actinide Dioxides AnO2 (AnTh, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am): A Screened Hybrid Density Functional Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of...

  14. Application of conditional sampling for measuring ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide exchange in coastal wetlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobos, Douglas Russell

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange rate (CER) is an indicator of an ecosystem's response to changing environmental conditions. Long-term measurements of CO? exchange between coastal wetlands and the atmosphere will improve our understanding of daily...

  15. Geochemistry of silicate-rich rocks can curtail spreading of carbon dioxide in subsurface aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Silvana S. S.; Andres, J. T. H.

    2014-12-11

    in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. These results challenge our view of carbon sequestration...

  16. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  17. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  18. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    dioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emissionP. P. : Linking emissions of fossil fuel CO 2 and other

  19. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Yonker, C.R.; Hallen, R.R.; Baker, E.G.; Bowman, L.E.; Silva, L.J.

    1999-01-26

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent. 3 figs.

  20. Dynamic shape factors for hydox-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-sperical objects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohaus, James Harold

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic shape factors of HYDOX-generated plutonium dioxide-type non-spherical objects were estimated with computational methods. Leith's empirical methods were used to modify classical Stokes's law for aerosol dynamics (1987). The dynamic shape...

  1. Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO?) ...

  2. Microbial and objective quality of whole muscle beef cuts packaged in film containing chlorine dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Timothy David

    1999-01-01

    The microbial and objective quality of top round steak treated with two deferent prototype chlorine dioxide containing films were evaluated deleing 14 days of refrigerated storage. The films were designed to deliver different dose rates of chlorine...

  3. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Nitrogen and Water in Flue Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mera, Hilda 1989-

    2012-04-12

    coefficients of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water in MOFs. The metal-organic frameworks studied are copper trimesate (Cu-BTC), zinc terephthalate (IRMOF1), and MIL-47, which belongs to the Materials of the Institute Lavoisier series. Diffusion coefficients...

  4. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  5. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide" [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214507 (2005)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid quilibrium properties.Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  6. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage Program: Closing Long-Term CO2 Geological Storage Gaps Relevant to Regulatory and Policy Development Jump to:...

  7. Carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plants : a real potions analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekar, Ram Chandra

    2005-01-01

    Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal ...

  8. An Exploration of the Effect of Temperature on Different Alloys in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlevy, Michael William

    2009-01-01

    In the constant effort to increase efficiency, safety margins, and lower cost, a new breed of nuclear reactors, Generation IV, is being developed in which supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO?) is a prime coolant candidate. ...

  9. Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

    2009-01-01

    The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

  10. Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2008-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO?) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and ...

  11. Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

    2014-06-24

    Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

  12. New Energy Efficient Method for Cleaning Oilfield Brines with Carbon Dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, C. T.; Seibert, A. F.; Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    METHOD FOR CLEANING OILFIELD BRINES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE C. T. LITTLE A. F. SEIBERT Research Engineer Technical Manager Amoco Oil Company Separations Research Program Naperville, Illinois The University of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Water... are used to purify these waters. However, if stricter discharge limits are imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the gas flotation method is likely to be inadequate. A new process was developed which utilizes carbon dioxide to clean oilfield...

  13. Oil recovery by carbon dioxide injection into consolidated and unconsolidated sandstone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Fwu-Jin Frank

    1975-01-01

    a displacement effic1ency approaching 100 percent. (3) Carbon Dioxide neither achieves direct miscible displacement at practical reservoir pressures, like LPG, nor depend upon the presence of light hydrocarbons in the reservoir oil. A f1eld... strong function of pore size dis- tribution, probably contributed a great effect on the oil displacement effic1enc1es between the consolidated sandstone core and the unconsolidated sand pack. 4. No significant over-riding effect of carbon dioxide...

  14. Effect of pore geometry in porous media on the miscibility of crude oil and carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkhosh, Hamed

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Approved as to styie and content by Chai, an of Committee Head...

  15. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Novel Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Willis; Annabelle Benin; John Low; Ganesh Venimadhavan; Syed Faheem; David Lesch; Adam Matzger; Randy Snurr

    2008-02-04

    The goal of this program was to develop a low cost novel sorbent to remove carbon dioxide from flue gas and gasification streams in electric utilities. Porous materials named metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were found to have good capacity and selectivity for the capture of carbon dioxide. Several materials from the initial set of reference MOFs showed extremely high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities and very desirable linear isotherm shapes. Sample preparation occurred at a high level, with a new family of materials suitable for intellectual property protection prepared and characterized. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be useful for the facile characterization of MOF materials during adsorption and especially, desorption. Further, the development of a Raman spectroscopic-based method of determining binary adsorption isotherms was initiated. It was discovered that a stronger base functionality will need to be added to MOF linkers in order to enhance CO{sub 2} selectivity over other gases via a chemisorption mechanism. A concentrated effort was expended on being able to accurately predict CO{sub 2} selectivities and on the calculation of predicted MOF surface area values from first principles. A method of modeling hydrolysis on MOF materials that correlates with experimental data was developed and refined. Complimentary experimental data were recorded via utilization of a combinatorial chemistry heat treatment unit and high-throughput X-ray diffractometer. The three main Deliverables for the project, namely (a) a MOF for pre-combustion (e.g., IGCC) CO{sub 2} capture, (b) a MOF for post-combustion (flue gas) CO{sub 2} capture, and (c) an assessment of commercial potential for a MOF in the IGCC application, were completed. The key properties for MOFs to work in this application - high CO{sub 2} capacity, good adsorption/desorption rates, high adsorption selectivity for CO{sub 2} over other gases such as methane and nitrogen, high stability to contaminants, namely moisture, and easy regenerability, were all addressed during this program. As predicted at the start of the program, MOFs have high potential for CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC and flue gas applications.

  16. CX-009418: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electron Beam Melting CX(s) Applied: None applied. Date: 10/30/2012 Location(s): Missouri Offices(s): Kansas City Site Office

  17. CX-009420: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Additive Manufacturing Using EOSINT M280 CX(s) Applied: None applied. Date: 10/30/2012 Location(s): Missouri Offices(s): Kansas City Site Office

  18. CX-009419: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Magnetic Pulser CX(s) Applied: None applied. Date: 10/30/2012 Location(s): Missouri Offices(s): Kansas City Site Office

  19. Carbon dioxide and global climate change: The birth and arrested development of an idea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, F.B.

    1996-12-31

    G.S. Callendar (1897--1964) is regarded the originator of the modern theory of carbon dioxide and global climate change. However, this paper shows that the theory was developed and became well accepted during the nineteenth century. Carbon dioxide was discovered by Black in 1752. From 1820 to 1890 a steadily growing number of measurements of its atmospheric concentration were made using steadily improving techniques; the average results fell from around 500 ppm in 1820 to about 300 ppm in 1890. By the end of the following decade the greenhouse theory of global climate change seemed widely accepted. However in 1900 and 1901 Aangstroem appeared to demolish the theory when he reported that changes in the carbon dioxide level can have little effect because of the overlap of the water and carbon dioxide spectral bands. At a stroke, all interest in the measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels seemed to disappear, although during the 1920s and 1930s a few workers resumed the work but for reasons unconnected to climate change. Over the next thirty years the writers of authoritative textbooks dismissed the theory of carbon dioxide and climate change as an example of misguided speculation. Then in 1938 Callendar`s first paper appeared, reviving the theory which had lain forgotten for nearly forty years.

  20. Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Shropshire

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

  1. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-07-15

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

  2. Titanium-dioxide nanotube p-n homojunction diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alivov, Yahya E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu; Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu

    2014-12-29

    Application of semiconductors in functional optoelectronic devices requires precise control over their doping and formation of junction between p- and n-doped semiconductors. While doped thin films have led to several semiconductor devices, need for high-surface area nanostructured devices for photovoltaic, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications has been hindered by lack of desired doping in nanostructures. Here, we show titanium-dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N) and niobium (Nb) as acceptors and donors, respectively, and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes p-n homojunction. This TiO{sub 2}:N/TiO{sub 2}:Nb homojunction showed distinct diode-like behaviour with rectification ratio of 1115 at ±5?V and exhibited good photoresponse for ultraviolet light (??=?365?nm) with sensitivity of 0.19?A/W at reverse bias of ?5?V. These results can have important implications for development of nanostructured metal-oxide solar-cells, photodiodes, LED's, photocatalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.

  3. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. ); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. ); Cropp, J.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  5. Strain effects on oxygen transport in tetragonal zirconium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks

    2013-11-01

    Temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the strain effects on oxygen interstitial and vacancy migration in tetragonal zirconium dioxide. At zero external strain, the anisotropic migration mechanisms of oxygen defects are characterized. At non-zero strains, both the crystal structure and defect migration barriers are modified by strain. Under compressive strains, the defect migration barrier increases with the increasing strain for both interstitials and vacancies. The crystal structure transforms from a tetragonal to a nearly cubic fluorite structure. Accordingly, the defect migration becomes nearly isotropic. Under dilative strains, the migration barrier first decreases then increases with increasing strain for both types of defects. The tetragonal phase transforms to a lower symmetry structure that is close to the orthorhombic phase. In turn, the defect migration becomes highly anisotropic. Under both compressive and dilative strains, interstitials respond to strain more strongly than vacancies. At small dilative strains, an oxygen interstitial has comparable diffusivity to a vacancy, suggesting that both types of defects can contribute to oxygen transport, if they are present. Although currently no previous result is available to validate oxygen interstitial diffusion behavior, the trend of strain effects on oxygen vacancy diffusion is in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical studies in the literature.

  6. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2013-11-02

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  7. Applying for a Training Contract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , usual deadline is July 31, 2013 for entry in September 2015. Students should apply in the 2nd year aimed at 2nd year LLB students & final year non-law students. Competition for these places is often more will successfully complete the Legal Practice Course each year. From the point of view of the student, there can

  8. Applied Sustainability Political Science 319

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Paul Thomas

    1 Applied Sustainability Political Science 319 College of Charleston Spring 2013 Day/Time: TH 1 Address: fisherb@cofc.edu Office: 284 King Street, #206 (Office of Sustainability) Office Hours: by appt sustainability. It will focus on the development of semester-long sustainability projects, from conception

  9. Journal of Applied Ecology 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Len

    Journal of Applied Ecology 2006 43, 377­384 © 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2006 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd METHODOLOGICAL INSIGHTS Point transect sampling with traps, Etive House, Beechwood Park, Inverness IV2 3BW, UK Summary 1. The ability to monitor abundance of animal

  10. Applying the Continuous Monitoring Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by providing technical leadership for the nation's measurement and standards infrastructure. ITL develops tests of technical, physical, administrative, and management standards and guidelines for the cost-effective securityApplying the Continuous Monitoring Technical Reference Model to the Asset, Configuration

  11. temperature heat pumps applied to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Very high- temperature heat pumps applied to energy efficiency in industry Application of industrial heat pumps June 21 th 2012 J-L Peureux, E. Sapora, D. Bobelin EDF R&D #12;Achema 2012 Frankfurt There are thermal requirements in the industrial plant Treq Heat exchanger = Cons ~ 0 CO2 ~ -100% Treq

  12. Electric field induced structural colour tuning of a Silver/Titanium dioxide nanoparticle one-dimensional photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluicio-Sarduy, E; del Valle, D G Figueroa; Kriegel, I; Scotognella, F

    2015-01-01

    The active tuning of the structural colour in photonic crystals by an electric field represents an effective external stimulus with impact on light transmission manipulation. In this work we present this effect in a photonic crystal device with alternating layers of Silver and Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showing shifts of around 10 nm for an applied voltage of 10 V only. The accumulation of charges at the metal/dielectric interface with applied electric field leads to an effective increase of the charges contributing to the plasma frequency in Silver. This initiates a blue shift of the Silver plasmon band with a simultaneous blue shift of the photonic band gap as a result of the change in Silver dielectric function, i.e. decrease of the effective refractive index. These results are the first demonstration of active colour tuning in Silver/TiO2 nanoparticle based photonic crystals and open the route to metal/dielectric based photonic crystals as electro-optic switches.

  13. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

  14. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO{sub 2} capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO{sub 2} absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  17. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    sulfur dioxide smelting reduction smelting reduction iron three-dimensional tonne top-gas recycling blast furnace tonnes per day ultra-low-

  18. Development of a microbial process for the conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity to higher alcohols as biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Han

    2013-01-01

    EI, Liao JC. Direct biofuel production from carbon dioxide.for biohydrogen and biofuel production. Curr Opin Biotechnolin regulating the biofuel production gene. The system is

  19. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  20. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.