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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

2

Abstract--Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused by an increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design alternatives provides reduction of CO2 emission levels such that the CO2 emissions for 2050 meet Abstract-- Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused regulations at airports through reduction of CO2 for all components of flight operations. The purpose

3

Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called ?chloride process?. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to be extremely effective in achieving these targets. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO{sub 2} per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A flow sheet was developed and a mass and energy balance was performed. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicate that implementation of the new process in the US would result in a 21% decrease in energy consumption, an annual energy savings of 42.7 million GJ. The new process would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% in comparison to the chloride process, an annual reduction of 2.70 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Since the process equipment employed in the new process is well established in other industrial processes and the raw materials for the two processes are identical we believe the capital, labor and materials cost of production of pigment grade TiO{sub 2} using the new method would be at least equivalent to that of the chloride process. Additionally, it is likely that the operating costs will be lower by using the new process because of the reduced energy consumption. Although the new process technology is logical and feasible based on its chemistry, thermodynamic principles, and experimental results, its development and refinement through more rigorous and comprehensive research at the kilogram scale is needed to establish it as a competitive industrial process. The effect of the recycling of process streams on the final product quality should also be investigated. Further development would also help determine if the energy efficiency and the environmental benefits of the new process are indeed significantly better than current commercial methods of pigment manufacture.

Fang, Zhigang Zak [University of Utah] [University of Utah

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

5

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as wellCO2 emissions (including cement process and fossil fuel combustion

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide (NEU-CO2) emissions, represent a signi?cantSimply described, NEU-CO2 emissions are generated via twoData permitting, NEU-CO2 emissions arising from energy

Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

CO2 displacement mechanisms: phase equilibria effects and carbon dioxide sequestration studies.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Supercritical carbon dioxide is injected into underground formations to enhance oil recovery and for subsurface sequestration to minimize the impact of CO2 emissions due to… (more)

Pasala, Sangeetha M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California Stephane de la Rue du Can, Tom carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion1 to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft

10

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California Stephane de la Rue du Can, Tom dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion1 to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft

11

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arkansas (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arkansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arkansas to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.7 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,507 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use carbonation processes. One aspect was to verify the possible use of mineral carbon- ation for the separation, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological

Zevenhoven, Ron

14

Projecting human development and CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate cumulative CO2 emissions during the period 2000 to 2050 from developed and developing countries based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita emissions of individual countries we make three assumptions which are detailed below. First, we use logistic regressions to fit and extrapolate the HDI on a country level as a function of time. This is mainly motivated by the fact that the HDI is bounded between 0 and 1 and that it decelerates as it approaches 1. Second, we employ for individual countries the correlations between CO2 per capita emissions and HDI in order to extrapolate their emissions. This is an ergodic assumption. Third, we let countries with incomplete data records evolve similarly as their close neighbors (in the emissions-HDI plane, see Fig. 1 in the main text) with complete time series of CO2 per capita emissions and HDI. Country-based emissions estimates a...

Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Reduction of CO2 emissions and utilization of slag  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduction of CO2 emissions and utilization of slag products by producing calcium-based products-free calcium-based ma- terial, such as steelmaking slags, significant re- ductions in CO2 emissions may of the CO2 emissions reduction achieved. However, the pu- rity and crystal structure of the PCC produced

Zevenhoven, Ron

16

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model Inputs Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid tonne CO2/MWh)  CO2 Emission factor for fuel  (tonne CO2/TJ)Improvements and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Updated Analysis of Advanced/2003) #12;PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Analysis of Advanced Technology of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at 450 parts per million by volume (ppmv) and 550 ppmv in MiniCAM. Each

18

Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China's Cement Production: Methodologies and Uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L. , 2006. Discussion of CO2 emission reduction in ChineseFurther discussion of CO2 emission reduction in Chinesecalculation method of CO2 emissions of cement production.

Ke, Jing

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

accelerating co2 emissions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita...

20

An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series with regions of strong anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Citation: Erickson, D. J., III, R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, T. J

Hoffman, Forrest M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of unadjusted energy-related CO2 emissions is attributed toEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 TOTAL Energy EmissionsEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 Coal Coke and Other

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline Edited by Leif Sønderberg Petersen and Hans Larsen Risø-R-1712(EN) September 2009 Proceedings Risø International Energy Conference 2009 #12;Editors: Leif Sønderberg Petersen and Hans Larsen Title: Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak

23

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

24

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Others* Air Conditioner Frozen Scenario Total CO2 EmissionsCO2 Emissions (million tonnes CO2)Improvement Scenario Total CO2 Emissions *Others include:

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions...

27

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

Uppsala Universitet

28

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

29

Sandia National Laboratories: lower CO2 emission  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine blade manufacturinglife-cycleionlow-temperature dieselCO2

30

Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision-makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multi-state spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multi-state perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements. Keywords: Fossil-fuel; Carbon dioxide emissions; Sectoral; Spatial cluster; Emissions mitigation policy

Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sedimentary basins. 1. Introduction #12;In recent years emissions of carbon dioxide from the UK electricity of these measures for deployment in 2020 depends entirely on final UK carbon emission targets and the abilityScope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment

Haszeldine, Stuart

32

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on GTAP data of energy consumed and trade in each region byper unit of energy. Using trade data, these emissions aretrade, economic input–output by sector, GDP, population, energy

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Decarbonization and the time-delay between peak CO2 emissions and concentrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is the main contributor to anthropogenic global warming, and the timing of its peak concentration in the atmosphere is likely to govern the timing of maximum radiative forcing. While dynamics of atmospheric CO2 is governed by multiple time-constants, we idealize this by a single time-constant to consider some of the factors describing the time-delay between peaks in CO2 emissions and concentrations. This time-delay can be understood as the time required to bring CO2 emissions down from its peak to a small value, and is governed by the rate of decarbonizaton of economic activity. This decarbonization rate affects how rapidly emissions decline after having achieved their peak, and a rapid decline in emissions is essential for limiting peak radiative forcing. Long-term mitigation goals for CO2 should therefore consider not only the timing of peak emissions, but also the rate of decarbonization. We discuss implications for mitigation of the fact that the emissions peak corresponds to small bu...

Seshadri, Ashwin K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption:10. China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy: Sectoral16 Table 11. China's 2008 CO 2 Emissions from Energy:

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Implications. J. ofcommitment to reduce CO2 emissions from new passenger carsACEA’s Commitment on CO2 Emission Reductions from Passenger

Schipper, Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report. Science Press,Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s CementEnergy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s Cement

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report (CEACER). Beijing:Oil consumption and CO2 emissions in China’s road transport:Growth, Oil Demand and CO2 Emissions through 2050. Report

G. Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s CementEnergy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s Cementenergy savings and CO2 emission reduction potentials are

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory October, 2008 Contract #05-310 "Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Continuous Emissions Monitoring CHP Combined Heat and Power CO2 Carbon Dioxide DMV Department of Motor

40

Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s Commitment on CO2 Emission Reductions from Passenger Cars.is a small extra reduction in CO2 emissions per km due to a

Schipper, Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in theUS $/GJ- saved) CO2 Emissions Reduction (Mt CO 2 ) CCF RankUS$/GJ- saved) CO2 Emissions Reduction (Mt CO 2 ) * The

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission- reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies The

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

8, 73737389, 2008 Scientists' CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 7373­7389, 2008 Scientists' CO2 emissions A. Stohl Title Page Abstract Introduction substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this pa- per, the CO2 emissions of the employees working, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China’s 2008 Thermal Electricity Sector CO 2 Emissions byheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissionsheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissions

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction PotentialsModel Inputs Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid electricity (tonne CO2/MWh)  CO2 Emission factor for fuel (

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

Montes-Hernandez, German

47

The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental reduction target of 40­45% relative to 2005 and a non-fossil primary energy target of 15% by 2020. DuringThe Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development in China Xiliang Zhang, Tianyu

48

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in theElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andresdioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

function of CO2 taxes (or CO2 emission limits) 10 . b) Taxesrefinery process areas CO2 emissions from the control of COfertilizer use. CH4 and CO2 emissions from soil (parameters

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Leaf isoprene emission rate as a function of atmospheric CO2 concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaf isoprene emission rate as a function of atmospheric CO2 concentration M I C H A E L J . W I L not show an increase in isoprene emission at the lowest CO2 concentration. However, isoprene emission rates exhibited a 30­40% reduction in isoprene emission rate when grown at 800 ppmv CO2, compared with 400 ppmv CO

Jackson, Robert B.

52

Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part II: Experimental results and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part II: Experimental results-92322 Ch^atillon, France Abstract Measurements of CO2 emission spectra at high temperature in the 2.7 µm emission measurements using a microwave post-discharge in CO2 flow as emission source. The measurements

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source An experimental setup is developed to analyze infrared emission of CO2 plas- mas at atmospheric pressure using CO emission in the overtone vibrational bands v=2. Analysis of the measurements of CO2 emission

Boyer, Edmond

54

Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 in surface air across North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by COregional, and national fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbon

Hsueh, Diana Y; Krakauer, Nir Y; Randerson, James T; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E; Southon, John R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentialsand Its Impact on CO2 Emission," Iron & Steel, 2010, 45(5):Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid electricity (

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Spatio-temporal changes in CO2 emissions during the second ZERT...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spatio-temporal changes in CO2 emissions during the second ZERT injection, August-September 2008. Spatio-temporal changes in CO2 emissions during the second ZERT injection,...

57

Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy...

58

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

way of reducing total energy consumption and CO2 emissions.deducted from the total energy consumption to avoid double-However, total energy consumption and CO2 emissions will

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motor Vehicle Growth, Oil Demand and CO2 Emissions through61 4.3.2 Crude Oil Demand and TradeMotor Vehicle Growth, Oil Demand and CO2 Emissions through

G. Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements J. Ray1, V: Develop a technique to estimate anthropogenic (fossil- fuel) CO2 emissions from sparse observations · Motivations: ­ An alternative to estimating ffCO2 emission using bottom-up (economic model) techniques

Ray, Jaideep

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Project EARTH-13-TM1: Understanding CO2 emissions from Europe's restless caldera-forming volcanoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project EARTH-13-TM1: Understanding CO2 emissions from Europe's restless caldera-forming volcanoes the information contained in volcano CO2 emissions is important from both a volcanic hazards perspective into this program. The opportunity will also be taken to map out CO2 emissions at these systems and to review what

Henderson, Gideon

62

Allocation of Transportation Cost & CO2 Emission in Pooled Supply Chains Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Allocation of Transportation Cost & CO2 Emission in Pooled Supply Chains Using Cooperative Game and the transport CO2 emissions. In this regard, this paper introduces a scheme to share in a fairly manner the savings. After a summary of the concept of pooled-supply-networks optimization and CO2 emission model, we

Boyer, Edmond

63

A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050 Pascal da mitigation targets for CO2 emissions, which reflect their own specific situations. In this article, scenarios for CO2 emissions up to 2050 are set up for three representative countries: the United States of America

Boyer, Edmond

64

Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

Gurney, Kevin R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Analysis of CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel in Korea: 19611994 Ki-Hong Choi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................................................................................7 3.2 Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions ................................................................8 3.2.1 Energy Consumption Pattern Appendix 3. Emission Coefficient of Electricity

67

Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma J. R. The expanding plume was then reheated by a 35 ns CO2 laser operating at 10.6 m. The role of prepulse wavelength, Tanaka et al.11 demonstrated the advantages of using a CO2 laser for generating higher CE. The CO2 LPP

Harilal, S. S.

68

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per kWh), but that CO2 emissions from hydropower plantswill be less than CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel plants.kg/ha) 2. Difference in CO2 emissions vs. control plot (kg/

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report (in Chinese) (the energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential of9503 TWh, and annual CO2 emissions would be 16% lower than

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential of theTWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction would be 35% lowerwould result in a CO2 emissions reduction of over 9.1

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GW coal-fired power plants, and annual CO 2 emissions wouldGW coal-fired power plants, and annual CO 2 emissions would

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heater Residential CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) 2020 ResidentialEnergy Industrial Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) IndustrialFigure 5. Power Sector CO2 Emissions by Scenario E3 Max Tech

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Present Status and Marketing Prospects of the Emerging Hybrid-Electric and Diesel Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions of New Light-Duty Vehicles in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions of New Light- Dutyreduce their CO2 emissions. The emerging technologiessignificantly reduce their CO2 emissions. These technologies

Burke, Andy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Path of China's CO2 Emissions Using Province LevelTransportation (Lbs of CO2) Emissions from Home Heating (LbsStandardized Household CO2 Emissions for Households Living

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

On the realized volatility of the ECX CO2 emissions 2008 futures contract: distribution, dynamics and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: The recent implementation of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) in January 2005 created new financial of CO2 emissions allowances, valid for compliance under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

The Power to Reduce CO2 Emissions: the Full Portfolio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy- efficient CO 2 capture for pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle plants. Both nuclear and advanced coal with CCS technologies are...

79

Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soviet Union (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Russia),kg CO 2 /$GDP FSS Ukraine Kazakhstan Iran East Asia BelarusAsia China South Africa Kazakhstan Malaysia Russia Thailand

Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Evaluation of KDOT's Vehicle Fleet's CO2 Emissions and Possible Energy Reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their net CO2 emissions when a full life cycle analysis is considered, although some fuel system problems may arise with higher biofuel blends especially in cold weather....

Nielsen, Eric

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, China’sthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric co2 emissions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 16 EARTH'S CLIMATE, THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT, AND ENERGY Summary: al. Mauna Loa - Keeling 12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time...

83

What is the fast track to future energy systems with lower CO2 emissions?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What is the fast track to future energy systems with lower CO2 emissions? Main findings2 emissions? Main findings and recommendations from the Workshop on Future Energy Systems................................................21 How do we make Denmark peak before 2020 when it comes to CO2

84

THE POTENTIAL FOR CO2 EMISSIONS TRADING IN TRANSPORT: THE CASE OF PERSONAL VEHICLES AND FREIGHT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 THE POTENTIAL FOR CO2 EMISSIONS TRADING IN TRANSPORT: THE CASE OF PERSONAL VEHICLES AND FREIGHT, it is of some interest to explore the inclusion of road transport in emission trading schemes. Starting from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in trade (EET) and therefore equals emissions embodied inexports (EEE) less emissions embodied in imports (EEI).re?ects the net export of emissions and a negative value

Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

88

CO2 emissions, Nuclear energy, Renewable energy and Economic growth in Taiwan.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??When the government decided to energy policy, we must first understand the energy and economic growth with a causal link between carbon dioxide emissions, this… (more)

Lin, Yi-Ching

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geochemical reactions in deep subsurface environments are complicated by the consolidated nature and mineralogical complexity of sedimentary rocks. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions is critical to our ability to make long-term predictions about subsurface processes such as pH buffering, alteration in rock structure, permeability changes, and formation of secondary precipitates. In this project, we used a combination of experiments and numerical simulation to bridge the gap between our knowledge of these reactions at the lab scale and rates that are meaningful for modeling reactive transport at core scales. The focus is on acid-driven mineral dissolution, which is specifically relevant in the context of CO2-water-rock interactions in geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The project led to major findings in three areas. First, we modeled reactive transport in pore-network systems to investigate scaling effects in geochemical reaction rates. We found significant scaling effects when CO2 concentrations are high and reaction rates are fast. These findings indicate that the increased acidity associated with geological sequestration can generate conditions for which proper scaling tools are yet to be developed. Second, we used mathematical modeling to investigate the extent to which SO2, if co-injected with CO2, would acidify formation brines. We found that there exist realistic conditions in which the impact on brine acidity will be limited due to diffusion rate-limited SO2 dissolution from the CO2 phase, and the subsequent pH shift may also be limited by the lack of availability of oxidants to produce sulfuric acid. Third, for three Viking sandstones (Alberta sedimentary basin, Canada), we employed backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to statistically characterize mineral contact with pore space. We determined that for reactive minerals in sedimentary consolidated rocks, abundance alone is not a good predictor of mineral accessible surface area, and should not be used in reactive transport modeling. Our work showed that reaction rates would be overestimated by three to five times.

Peters, Catherine A

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the ProvincialResults Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National Level In

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks of suchan option basedon the use of commercially ready technologies involving coal gasification for power08544,USA June 1991 Abstract. New energytechnologiesare neededto limit CO2 emissions and the detrimental

92

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

93

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A bottom up approach to on-road CO2 emissions estimates: improved spatial accuracy and applications for regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A bottom up approach to on-road CO2 emissions estimates: improved spatial accuracy and applications Environment Environmental Science & Technology #12;1 A bottom up approach to on-road CO2 emissions estimates-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Mapping vehicle emissions

Wing, Ian Sue

95

Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

Qi, Tianyu

96

Gas-phase CO2 emission toward Cepheus A East: the result of shock activity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the first detection of gas-phase CO2 emission in the star-forming region Cepheus A East, obtained by spectral line mapping of the v2 bending mode at 14.98 micron with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The gaseous CO2 emission covers a region about 35'' x 25'' in extent, and results from radiative pumping by 15 micron continuum photons emanating predominantly from the HW2 protostellar region. The gaseous CO2 exhibits a temperature distribution ranging from 50 K to 200 K. A correlation between the gas-phase CO2 distribution and that of H2 S(2), a tracer of shock activity, indicates that the CO2 molecules originate in a cool post-shock gas component associated with the outflow powered by HW2. The presence of CO2 ice absorption features at 15.20 micron toward this region and the lack of correlation between the IR continuum emission and the CO2 gas emission distribution further suggest that the gaseous CO2 molecules are mainly sputtered off grain mantles -- by the passage of slow non-dissociative shocks with velocities of 15-30 km/s -- rather than sublimated through grain heating.

P. Sonnentrucker; E. González-Alfonso; D. A. Neufeld; E. A. Bergin; G. J. Melnick; W. J. Forrest; J. L. Pipher; D. M. Watson

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79.9% was achieved with a stressed algae sample containing 40% algae oil. The effort concluded that producing biodiesel directly from the algae biomass could be an efficient, cost-effective and readily scalable way to produce biodiesel by eliminating the oil extraction process.

Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy T

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

98

Research Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions to Useful Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Research to help find ways of converting into useful products CO2 captured from emissions of power plants and industrial facilities will be conducted by six projects announced today by the U.S. Department of Energy.

99

Dynamics of Implementation of Mitigating Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Commercial Aviation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO2 emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

Kar, Rahul

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

100

Absolute vs. Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission Control: Performance Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We elucidate the differences between absolute and intensity-based limits of CO2 emission when there is uncertainty about the future. We demonstrate that the two limits are identical under certainty, and rigorously establish ...

Sue Wing, Ian.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model Uwe earth system model con- sisting of an atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean general

Winguth, Arne

102

China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) % of Installed Capacity Decarbonization (Fuel Switching) & Coal Tech Switching Demand Reduction

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

Hall, Sharon J.

104

12 Absolute versus Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a component of cli- mate policy in the UK Emissions Trading Scheme (UK DEFRA 2001),2 and in 2001 the Bush

105

nature geoscience | VOL 2 | NOVEMBER 2009 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 737 CO2 emissions from forest loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to account for about 20% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions2­5 . A recalculation of this fraction using combustion suggests that in 2008, the relative contribution of CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The two main assessments of CO2 emissions from deforestation

Jackson, Robert B.

106

ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions Pascal Boeckx negative to positive. We studied the short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions. We site, an intermediately aerated Luvisol in Belgium, were similar. Nitrous oxide and CO2 emissions were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

In Situ Molecular Spectroscopic Evidence for CO2 Intercalation into Montmorillonite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e. close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO2 molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO2 conditions is due to CO2 migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO2 molecules are rotationally constrained and do not appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO2 does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state.

Loring, John S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Thompson, Christopher J.; Miller, Quin RS; Martin, Paul F.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

108

Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Technology Shares and Efficiencies, 2005- Figure 54 China CIS Total and Power Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions,coal capacity 100-200 MW power sector carbon dioxide emissionsemissions. Table 41 Comparison of CCS Assumptions in Different Studies % of Coal Power

G. Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to an increase in atmospheric CO2 are partly offset by the carbon uptake by the oceans and the restAnalytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes 2008; accepted 18 June 2008; published 12 September 2008. [1] Carbon perturbations leading

Follows, Mick

113

Towards Zero Emissions CO2-Reduction in Mediterranean Social Housing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESL-IC-08-10-47 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 ABSTRACT An in-depth study of the construction, use and deconstruction of a 60 apartment social housing..., and associated emissions. The necessary data were ESL-IC-08-10-47 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 mainly extracted from the data bases of the Catalan Technology Institute...

Sabate, J.; Peters, C.; Cuchi, A.; Lopez, F.; Sagrera, A.; Wadel, G.; Vidal, J.; Cantos, S.

114

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emissions. We used TransCom3 annual mean simulations from three transport models to evaluate carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation

Krakauer, Nir Y.

115

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide emissions per 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas. In this case, there is much less energy

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The energy and CO2 emissions impact of renewable energy development in China*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide a solid foundation for the public and private decisions needed to mitigate and adapt targets and subsidies make renewable electricity economically viable in the short term. Cumulative CO2 electricity leads to increases in other sectors, offsetting emissions reductions. The expansion of renewables

117

Assessing velocity and impedance changes due to CO2 saturation using interferometry on repeated seismic sources.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Barcelona : Spain (2010)" #12;Introduction The role played by the industrial emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in climate change has been well documented. Geological sequestration is a process to store CO2

Boyer, Edmond

118

THE INCREASING CONCENTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2: HOW MUCH, WHEN, AND WHY?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consequence of the varying ratio of H to C is that different fuels have different rates of CO2 emissions per emissions when fuel consumption is expressed in energy units. Table 1: CO2 Emission Rates for Fossil community has achieved a broad consensus that: 1.) the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2

119

Deployment of CCS Technologies across the Load Curve for a Competitive Electricity Market as a Function of CO2 Emissions Permit Prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consistent with other published studies, the modelling presented here reveals that baseload power plants are the first aspects of the electricity sector to decarbonize and are essentially decarbonized once CO2 permit prices exceed a certain threshold ($90/ton CO2 in this study). The decarbonization of baseload electricity is met by significant expansions of nuclear power and renewable energy generation technologies as well as the application of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies applied to both coal and natural gas fired power plants. Relatively little attention has been paid thus far to whether intermediate and peaking units would respond the same way to a climate policy given the very different operational and economic context that these kinds of electricity generation units operate under. In this paper, the authors discuss key aspects of the load segmentation methodology used to imbed a varying electricity demand within the GCAM (a state-of-the-art Integrated Assessment Model) energy and economic modelling framework and present key results on the role CCS technologies could play in decarbonizng subpeak and peak generation (encompassing only the top 10% of the load) and under what conditions. To do this, the authors have modelled two hypothetical climate policies that require 50% and 80% reductions in US emissions from business as usual by the middle of this century. Intermediate electricity generation is virtually decarbonized once carbon prices exceed approximately $150/tonCO2. When CO2 permit prices exceed $160/tonCO2, natural gas power plants with CCS have roughly the same marketshare as conventional gas plants in serving subpeak loads. The penetration of CCS into peak load (upper 6% here) is minimal under the scenarios modeled here suggesting that CO2 emissions from this aspect of the U.S. electricity sector would persist well into the future even with stringent CO2 emission control policies in place.

Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

120

Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

On the Road to Climate Stability: The Parable of the Secretary A-Team Report on Prospects for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions James Hansen1,2, Darnell Cain3, Robert Schmunk3 After President Bush) reducing non-CO2 climate forcings, and (2) getting CO2 emissions to level out in the near-term and decline for a path in which the United States achieves an energy and CO2 emissions pathway consistent

Hansen, James E.

122

Methane Oxidation to Methanol without CO2 Emission: Catalysis by Atomic Negative Ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The catalytic activities of the atomic Y-, Ru-, At-, In-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Os- ions have been investigated theoretically using the atomic Au- ion as the benchmark for the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. Dispersion-corrected density-functional theory has been used for the investigation. From the energy barrier calculations and the thermodynamics of the reactions, we conclude that the catalytic effect of the atomic Ag-, At-, Ru-, and Os- ions is higher than that of the atomic Au- ion catalysis of CH4 conversion to methanol. By controlling the temperature around 290K (Os-), 300K (Ag-), 310K (At-), 320K (Ru-) and 325K (Au-) methane can be completely oxidized to methanol without the emission of CO2. We conclude by recommending the investigation of the catalytic activities of combinations of the above negative ions for significant enhancement of the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

Tesfamichael, Aron; Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Observed relationship between CO2-1 and dust emission during post-AGB phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A CO\\,2-1 line survey is performed toward a sample of 58 high Galactic latitude post-AGB (pAGB) stars. To complement the observations, a compilation of literature CO\\,2-1 line data of known pAGB stars is done. After combining the datasets, CO\\,2-1 line data are available for 133 pAGB stars (about 34 per cent of known pAGB stars) among which 44 are detections. The CO line strengths are compared with infrared dust emission for these pAGB stars by defining a ratio between the integrated CO\\,2-1 line flux and {\\it IRAS} 25\\,mu flux density (CO-IR ratio). The relationship between the CO-IR ratio and the {\\it IRAS} color C23 (defined with the 25 and 60\\,mu flux densities) is called here the CO-IR diagram. The pAGB objects are found to be located between AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe), and segregate into three distinctive groups (I, II and III) on the CO-IR diagram. By analyzing their various properties such as chemical types, spectral types, binarity, circumstellar envelope expansion velocities, and pAGB sub...

He, J H; Hasegawa, T I; Schmidt, M R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

126

FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 EMISSIONS STANDARDS, MANUFACTURER PRICING STRATEGIES, AND FEEBATES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and CO2 emissions standards for 2012 to 2016 have significantly increased the stringency of requirements for new light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency. This study investigates the role of technology adoption and pricing strategies in meeting new standards, as well as the impact of feebate policies. The analysis is carried out by means of a dynamic optimization model that simulates manufacturer decisions with the objective of maximizing social surplus while simultaneously considering consumer response and meeting CAFE and emissions standards. The results indicate that technology adoption plays the major role and that the provision of compliance flexibility and the availability of cost-effective advanced technologies help manufacturers reduce the need for pricing to induce changes in the mix of vehicles sold. Feebates, when implemented along with fuel economy and emissions standards, can bring additional fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, but the benefit diminishes with the increasing stringency of the standards.

Liu, Changzheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Bunch, Dr David S. [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Combining geothermal energy with CO2 storage Feasibility study of low temperature geothermal electricity production using carbon dioxide as working and storage fluid.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Abstract One of the emerging solutions for today’s excess of carbon dioxide emissions, which is one of the major causes of global warming, is the… (more)

Janse, D.H.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Efficient 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from Sn plasma irradiated by a long CO2 laser pulse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from Sn plasma irradiated by a long CO2 laser pulse-band 2% bandwidth conversion efficiency CE from a CO2 laser to 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet EUV light was investigated for Sn plasma. It was found that high in-band CE, 2.6%, is consistently obtained using a CO2 laser

Najmabadi, Farrokh

129

Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman and Annelne Decaux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman the advantages of emissions trading. In this paper, the authors derive MACs from EPPA, the MIT Joint Program the benefits of emissions trading in achieving the emission reduction targets implied by the Kyoto Protocol

130

The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We improve on existing estimates of the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of consumption across regions of the United States. Using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) framework, we estimate the direct and indirect CO2 emissions ...

Caron, J.

131

Developing the Fuels of the Future Road transport accounts for 21% of the CO2 emissions of the UK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developing the Fuels of the Future ·Road transport accounts for 21% of the CO2 emissions of the UK required to develop new fuels, reducing NOx, CO2, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates. All new secondary Where : ·One of the most important properties of a fuel. Affects many aspects of combustion. ·Defined

132

Balancing the global energy demand with a decrease in an-thropogenic CO2 emissions to mitigate climate change has  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- and gas-burning power plants, compressed into a supercritical fluid and injected into 11 deep saline, they assumed that the rate of CO2 production from the power plants would increase linearly, reach a maxi- mum to evaluate the prospects of using CCS to store CO2 emissions that would be captured from the flue gas of coal

Entekhabi, Dara

133

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D negative implications for local photochemical ozone production. Keywords: Nitrogen dioxide, automobile strategies, Lemaire [1] suggests that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was forgotten as a separate component of the NOx

Denver, University of

134

The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission levels: Results from a case study in Portland,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission Accepted 29 November 2010 Keywords: Vehicle routing Time-dependent travel time speed GHG or CO2 emissions pressures to limit the impacts associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge

Bertini, Robert L.

135

The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution1 Networks CO2 Emission Levels: results from a case study in Portland,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution1 Networks CO2 Emission pressures to limit the impacts13 associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge on CO2 emissions are hindered by the complexities of vehicle routing18 problems with time

Bertini, Robert L.

136

Potential for CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production, Blue Creek Field, NW Black Warrior Basin, Alabama  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a primary source of greenhouse gases. Injection of CO2 from power plants near coalbed reservoirs is a win-win method to reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. Limited studies have investigated CO2 sequestration...

He, Ting

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

137

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

138

Can Radiative Forcing Be Limited to 2.6 Wm?2 Without Negative Emissions From Bioenergy AND CO2 Capture and Storage?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining bioenergy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies (BECCS) has the potential to remove CO2 from the atmosphere while producing useful energy. BECCS has played a central role in scenarios that reduce climate forcing to low levels such as 2.6Wm-2. In this paper we consider whether BECCS is essential to limiting radiative forcing (RF) to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100 using the Global Change Assessment Model, a closely coupled model of biogeophysical and human Earth systems. We show that BECCS can potentially reduce the cost of limiting RF to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100 but that a variety of technology combinations that do not include BECCS can also achieve this goal, under appropriate emissions mitigation policies. We note that with appropriate supporting land-use policies terrestrial sequestration could deliver carbon storage ranging from 200 to 700 PgCO2-equiavalent over the 21st century. We explore substantial delays in participation by some geopolitical regions. We find that the value of BECCS is substantially higher under delay and that delay results in higher transient RF and climate change. However, when major regions postponed mitigation indefinitely, it was impossible to return RF to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100. Neither finite land resources nor finite potential geologic storage capacity represented a meaningful technical limit on the ability of BECCS to contribute to emissions mitigation in the numerical experiments reported in this paper.

Edmonds, James A.; Luckow, Patrick W.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

140

Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent emissions constraints; we find that at carbon prices above 150$/tCO2, over 90% of biomass in the energy system is used in combination with CCS. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, it is a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. CCS is also used heavily with other fuels such as coal and natural gas, and by 2095 a total of 1530 GtCO2 has been stored in deep geologic reservoirs. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels as two representative conversion processes and shows that both technologies may be important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics.

Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Simulation assessment of CO2 sequestration potential and enhanced methane recovery in low-rank coalbeds of the Wilcox Group, east-central Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) from energy consumption is a primary source of greenhouse gases. Injection of CO2 from power plants in coalbed reservoirs is a plausible method for reducing atmospheric emissions, and it can have the additional benefit...

Hernandez Arciniegas, Gonzalo

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Feasibility Evaluation for East Texas Oil Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) has been undergoing for four decades and is now a proven technology. CO2-EOR increases oil recovery, and in the meantime reduces the greenhouse gas emissions by capture CO2 underground. The objectives...

Lu, Ping

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

145

Origin of the patchy emission pattern at the ZERT CO2 Release Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical experiment was carried out to test whether the patchy CO{sub 2} emission patterns observed at the ZERT release facility are caused by the presence of packers that divide the horizontal injection well into six CO2-injection zones. A three-dimensional model of the horizontal well and cobble-soil system was developed and simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7CA were carried out. Simulation results show patchy emissions for the seven-packer (six-injection-zone) configuration of the field test. Numerical experiments were then conducted for the cases of 24 packers (23 injection zones) and an effectively infinite number of packers. The time to surface breakthrough and the number of patches increased as the number of packers increased suggesting that packers and associated along pipe flow are the origin of the patchy emissions. In addition, it was observed that early breakthrough occurs at locations where the horizontal well pipe is shallow and installed mostly in soil rather than the deeper cobble. In the cases where the pipe is installed at shallow depths and directly in the soil, higher pipe gas saturations occur than where the pipe is installed slightly deeper in the cobble. It is believed this is an effect mostly relevant to the model rather than the field system and arises through the influence of capillarity, permeability, and pipe elevation of the soil compared to the cobble adjacent to the pipe.

Lewicki, J.L.; Pan, L.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 abatement using the calcium looping cycle. Energy Environ.the CO 2 captured by the calcium looping system, use of the16. Flow diagram of calcium-looping CO 2 capture and cement

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

world’s largest annual CO 2 emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities

G. Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny Ellerman, Henry D. Jacoby and Annelne Decaux*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny by the scope of CO2 emissions trading, by various limitations that Annex I countries might place on emissions.1 Trade in Goods with No Emissions Trading

150

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates #12 Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission es- timates / by Bas Subject headings: satellite retrieval / nitrogen dioxide / ozone / air pollution / emis- sion estimates

Haak, Hein

151

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

154

Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

155

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Synthesis, characterization and performance of single-component CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOL) for post combustion CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the atmosphere will increase significantly with the shift to coal powered plants for energy generation. This increase in CO2 emission will contribute to climate change. There is need to capture and sequester large amounts of CO2 emitted from these coal power plants in order to mitigate the environmental effects. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and system performance of multiple third generation CO2 binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) as a solvent system for post combustion gas capture. Alkanolguanidines and alkanolamidines are single component CO2BOLs that reversibly bind CO2 chemically as liquid zwitterionic amidinium / guanidinium alkylcarbonates. Three different alkanolguanidines and alkanolamidines were synthesized and studied for CO2 capacity and binding energetics. Solvent performance of these three CO2BOLs was evaluated by batch-wise CO2 uptake and release over multiple cycles. Synthesis of CO2BOLs, characterization, CO2 uptake, selectivity towards CO2 as well as solvent tolerance to water will be discussed.

Koech, Phillip K.; Heldebrant, David J.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Looping Technology Description: Amine scrubbing carboncarbon capture using absorption technologies Calera process CO 2 sequestration in concrete curing technology Carbonate looping

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of CO 2 Storage for Full-Scale Deployment, Ground Water,storage sites leading to the most serious impacts at the ground

Oldenburg, C.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and/or used in enhanced oil recovery. This technology can beCO 2 for underground storage, enhanced oil recovery or other

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

75 Figure 60 Planned HVDC Projects inmine-mouth generation with HVDC by 2062 Mtce 4393 Mt CO 2intermittency. Figure 60 Planned HVDC Projects in China

G. Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zone2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites: CO 2 migrationGeologic Carbon Sequestration as a Global Strategy to

Oldenburg, C.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, 14:179-190, 2006 Energy Pay-Back and Life Cycle CO2 Emissions of the BOS in an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cycle CO2 Emissions of the BOS in an Optimized 3.5 MW PV Installation J.M. Mason1 , V.M. Fthenakis2 , T-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 29 kg CO2-eq. /m2 . From field measurements, the energy payback time (EPT, energy payback, greenhouse gas emissions #12;INTRODUCTION This study is a life-cycle analysis

163

EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6 Growth in...

164

Energy, cost, and CO2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel1 systems and radiator systems2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy, cost, and CO2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel1 systems and radiator systems215 by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-16 radiant66 systems and their comparison with other heating systems regarding energy consumption and67

Boyer, Edmond

165

Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs and fens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs, glacial, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), methane (CH4), peatland, wetland. Summary · Wetlands were the largest (n = 8 per treatment) and measured gaseous CH4 flux, pore water dissolved CH4 and volatile fatty acid

Gauci, Vincent

166

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution, suggesting hysteresis and a possible rearrangement of coal structure due to CO2 sorption.

Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Co. (2008) Carbon capture and storage: Assessing theof Carbon Dioxide, in Carbon Capture and SequestrationWilson and Gerard, editors, Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Oldenburg, C.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010. Cement and concrete nanoscience and nanotechnology.of 100 Percent Fly Ash Concrete. 2005 World of Coal Ash (carbon dioxide in precast concrete. TECHNOLOGY REVIEW – A

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. EPA), 2005.. Emission Inventory Improvement Program,National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Annex 8A.2: Reportingin the fossil CO 2 emissions inventories, and verify whether

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acronyms ATC BTS CALEB CARB CEC CHP CO 2 EEA EIA EMFAC FHWANatural Gas Electricity & CHP Plants On-road vehiclesRail Marine NG: Refining Coal: CHP Coal: Cement P: Cement P:

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TULARE TUOLUMNE VENTURA YOLO YUBA Refining ElectricityTULARE TUOLUMNE VENTURA YOLO YUBA Refining ElectricityTULARE TUOLUMNE VENTURA YOLO YUBA State average 9.8 tCO2 per

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

174

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used5 Identify carbon emission coefficients and calculate total35 Appendix: Overview of the China Carbon Emissions

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Summary Human activities are increasing the concentra-tions of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to forest soils. Because the quality and quantity of labile and recalcitrant carbon (C) com- pounds, soluble phenolics and condensed tannins. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased lit- ter biomass] and tropospheric [O3] that we observed, combined with changes in litter biomass production, could significantly

178

Survey of cometary CO2, CO, and particulate emissions using the Spitzer Space Telescope: Smog check for comets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We surveyed 23 comets using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope in wide filters centered at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Emission in the 3.6 micron filter arises from sunlight scattered by dust grains; these images generally have a coma near the nucleus and a tail in the antisolar direction due to dust grains swept back by solar radiation pressure. The 4.5 micron filter contains the same dust grains, as well as strong emission lines from CO2 and CO gas; these show distinct morphologies, in which cases we infer they are dominated by gas. Based on the ratio of 4.5 to 3.6 micron brightness, we classify the survey comets as CO2+CO "rich" and "poor." This classification is correlated with previous classifications by A'Hearn based on carbon-chain molecule abundance, in the sense that comets classified as "depleted" in carbon-chain molecules are also "poor" in CO2+CO. The gas emission in the IRAC 4.5 micron images is characterized by a smooth morphology, typically a fan in the sunward hemisphere with a ...

Reach, William T; Vaubaillon, Jeremie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clean CO 2 for storage and a hydrogen stream to be recycledand storage ? Flexibility to make CO 2 -free hydrogen forand storage computational fluid dynamics carbon monoxide carbon dioxide direct reduced iron electric arc furnace gram gigajoules hour diatomic hydrogen

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

PASSIVE WIRELESS SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE SENSORS FOR MONITORING SEQUESTRATION SITES CO2 EMISSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/?. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/?. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2. The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2. With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

Wang, Yizhong; Chyu, Minking; Wang, Qing-Ming

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Future Trajectory of US CO2 Emissions: The Role of State vs. Aggregate Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

drives down per capita energy use/carbon emissions. The ?nalreasons why per capita energy use and carbon emissions mayin per capita carbon emissions since the ?rst energy crisis.

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Steinhauser, Ralf

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from natural gas combustion by stationary sources,2 emissions from natural gas combustion, closely followed byemissions from natural gas combustion per capita vary widely

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Author's personal copy CO2/CH4, CH4/H2 and CO2/CH4/H2 separations at high pressures using Mg2(dobdc)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

improvements will lead to global energy savings [1]. Additionally, carbon capture and storage is an exciting possibility for preventing the release of anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hinges on gas be a step in one method for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. In pre- combustion CO2 cap

186

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Biomass torrefaction and CO2 capture using mining wastes A new approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of co-firing plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for an efficient biomass/coal co-firing could thus be further enhanced by curbing the overall process CO2 emissions as well as using ionic-liquid-impregnated torrefac- tion to increase birch wood constituents' torrefaction saturation, and carbon monoxide and methane concen- trations on mining residues CO2 uptake was studied

Devernal, Anne

188

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions are allocated to that sector accordingly. Biogas.The majority of biogas consumed in China is from rural

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Impact of solar EUV flux on CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in the dayglow of Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study is aimed at making a calculation about the impact of the two most commonly used solar EUV flux models -- SOLAR2000 (S2K) of \\cite{Tobiska04} and EUVAC model of \\cite{Richards94} -- on photoelectron fluxes, volume emission rates, ion densities and CO Cameron and CO$_2^+$ UV doublet band dayglow emissions on Mars in three solar activity conditions: minimum, moderate, and maximum. Calculated limb intensities profiles are compared with SPICAM/Mars Express and Mariner observations. Analytical yield spectrum (AYS) approach has been used to calculate photoelectron fluxes in Martian upper atmosphere. Densities of prominent ions and CO molecule in excited triplet a$^3\\Pi$ state are calculated using major ion-neutral reactions. Volume emission rates of CO Cameron and CO$_2^+$ UV doublet bands have been calculated for dif{}ferent observations (Viking condition, Mariner and Mars Express SPICAM observations) on Mars. For the low solar activity condition, dayglow intensities calculated using the S2K model are $\\...

Jain, Sonal Kumar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

191

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion Factors methodology as well as conversion factors used for the CO 2related emissions. Conversion Factors This study uses the

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy/Energy Information Administration. Natural Gasof Energy/Energy Information Administration . Emission ofStates 2006, Energy Information Administration, Office of

Gurney, Kevin R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Energy use and sulphur dioxide emissions in Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of energy use in 22 selected countries of Asia and estimates the anthropogenic emission of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) for the selected countries, both at national and disaggregated sub-country-regional levels. The paper also makes a comparative assessment of the Asian countries in terms of SO{sub 2} emission intensity (i.e. emission per GDP), emission per capita and emission density (i.e. emission per unit area). Total SO{sub 2} emission in the region was estimated to be about 38 million tons in 1990 Five countries, China, India, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, accounted for over 91% of the regional SO{sub 2} emission. Coal use had the dominant share (81%) of the total emission from the region. Among the economic sectors, industry contributed the largest share (49%) to the total emissions of the selected countries as a whole, followed by the power sector (30%). These findings suggest the need for mitigation strategies focussed on the industry and power sectors of the major emitting countries in Asia. 20 refs., 10 tabs.

Shrestha, R.M.; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Malla, S. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)] [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Statistical Model to Assess Indirect CO2 Emissions of the UAE Residential Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Determination of household energy using ?fingerprints? from energy billing data. Energy Research 10(4), pp: 393?405. [5] Snakin JPA, 2000. An engineering model for heating energy and emission assessment The case of North Karelia, Finland. Applied Energy...

Radhi, H.; Fikry, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern for the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern South), respectively, the monthly pCO2 fields were computed. The derived pCO2 was compared with the shipboard pCO2

196

Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Measurement of radon in springs has improved significantly since the field program first began; however, in situ measurement of 222Rn and particularly 220Rn in springs is problematic. Future refinements include simultaneous salinity measurements and systematic corrections, or adjustments to the partition coefficient as needed for more accurate radon concentration determination. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; he is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Both graduate students are poised to begin work in a CCS technology area. Laboratory experiments evaluated important process-level fundamentals that effect measurements of radon and CO2. Laboratory tests established that fine-grained source minerals yield higher radon emissivity compared to coarser-sized source minerals; subtleties in the dataset suggest that grain size alone is not fully representative of all the processes controlling the ability of radon to escape its mineral host. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn increases linearly with temperature due to reaction of rocks with water, consistent with faster diffusion and enhanced mineral dissolution at higher temperatures. The presence of CO2 changes the relative importance of the factors that control release of radon. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn in CO2-bearing experiments is greater at all temperatures compared to the experiments without CO2, but emissivity does not increase as a simple function of temperature. Governing processes may include a balance between enhanced dissolution versus carbonate mineral formation in CO2-rich waters.

Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ris-R-1203(EN) The Feasibility of Domestic CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning

199

Cimpor regista patente que reduz emisses de CO2 at 25%  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rocha, director de sustentabilidade da Cimpor. A cimenteira produz actual- mente cerca de 18 milhões de dois níveis", garantiu o director de sustentabilidade da empresa No primeiro caso, a utilização de ma continuar. PAULO ROCHA Director de sustentabilidade da Cimpor 4.000.000 Toneladas, por ano, de emissões de

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

200

Variations in mid-ocean ridge CO2 emissions driven by glacial cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The geological record shows links between glacial cycles and volcanic productivity, both subaerially and at mid-ocean ridges. Sea-level-driven pressure changes could also affect chemical properties of mid-ocean ridge volcanism. We consider how changing sea-level could alter the \\cotwo{} emissions rate from mid-ocean ridges, on both the segment and global scale. We develop a simplified transport model for a highly incompatible element through a homogenous mantle; variations in the melt concentration the emission rate of the element are created by changes in the depth of first silicate melting. The model predicts an average global mid-ocean ridge \\cotwo{} emissions-rate of $53$~Mt/yr, in line with other estimates. We show that falling sea level would cause an increase in ridge \\cotwo{} emissions with a lag of about $100$~kyrs after the causative sea level change. The lag and amplitude of the response are sensitive to mantle permeability and plate spreading rate. For a reconstructed sea-level time series of the ...

Burley, Jonathan M A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are deter- mined by ``Business as Usual'' projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income, and use only national income distributions and economy-wide carbon intensities. National responsibilities a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of ``common but differentiated

202

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

203

CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus: Role of CO in the Cameron band production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Present study deals with the model calculations of CO Cameron band and CO2+ ultraviolet doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus. The overhead and limb intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity conditions. Using updated cross sections, the impact of dierent e-CO cross section for Cameron band production is estimated. The electron impact on CO is the major source mechanism of Cameron band, followed by electron and photon impact dissociation of CO2. The overhead intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are about a factor of 2 higher in solar maximum than those in solar minimum condition. The effect of solar EUV flux models on the emission intensity is ~30-40% in solar minimum condition and ~2-10% in solar maximum condition. At the altitude of emission peak (135 km), the model predicted limb intensity of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in moderate (F10.7 = 130) solar activity condition is about 2400 an...

Bhardwaj, Anil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

205

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Evaluation of the reduction of CO2 emissions from a coal-to-liquids utilities plant by incorporating PBMR energy / M.M. Gouws.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Due to the constantly growing environmental concerns about global warming, there is immense pressure on the coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry to lower carbon dioxide emissions. This… (more)

Gouws, Marizanne Michele

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

208

MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

2001-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

209

Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

Milorad Boji?; Dragan Cvetkovi?; Marko Mileti?; Jovan Maleševi?; Harry Boyer

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

Boji?, Milorad; Mileti?, Marko; Maleševi?, Jovan; Boyer, Harry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and integrated mine-mouth generation. The CIS and AIS results are also contextualized and compared to model scenarios in other published studies. The results of this study show that China's energy and CO{sub 2} emissions will not likely peak before 2030, although growth is expected to slow after 2020. Moreover, China will be able to meet its 2020 carbon intensity reduction target of 40 to 45% under both CIS and AIS, but only meet its 15% non-fossil fuel target by 2020 under AIS. Under both scenarios, efficiency remains a key resource and has the same, if not greater, mitigation potential as new technologies in transport and power sectors. In the transport sector, electrification will be closely linked the degree of decarbonization in the power sector and EV deployment has little or no impact on China's crude oil import demand. Rather, power generation improvements have the largest sector potential for overall emission mitigation while mine-mouth power generation and CCS have limited mitigation potential compared to fuel switching and efficiency improvements. Comparisons of this study's results with other published studies reveal that CIS and AIS are within the range of other national energy projections but alternative studies rely much more heavily on CCS for carbon reduction. The McKinsey study, in particular, has more optimistic assumptions for reductions in crude oil imports and coal demand in its abatement scenario and has much higher gasoline reduction potential for the same level of EV deployment. Despite these differences, this study's scenario analysis of both transport and power sectors illustrate the necessity for continued efficiency improvements and aggressive power sector decarbonization in flattening China's CO{sub 2} emissions.

G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation ofD. , 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Report of

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates be inferred for important trace gases such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Chemical transport models.11 to 3.79. Total nitrogen dioxide columns can be retrieved from space in the 405­465 nm window

Haak, Hein

214

Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

electroseismic monitoring of co2 sequestration: a finite element ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Electroseismic Modeling, Poroelasticity, CO2 sequestration, Finite element methods. 2000 AMS ... carbon dioxide emissisons into the atmosphere.

Fabio Zyserman

216

System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Geologic Storage of CO2, in Carbon Dioxide Capture forFormations - Results from the CO2 Capture Project: GeologicBenson, Process Modeling of CO2 Injection into Natural Gas

Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

218

CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration process is to ensure a sustained confinement of the injected CO2CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining; Case Study of SACROC field, USA Abstract Capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy-related sources and depositing

Mohaghegh, Shahab

219

The response of soil CO2 ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

three major anthropogenic global changes: atmos- pheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, nitrogen (N atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentra- tions, increasing rates of nitrogen (N) deposition, and decliningThe response of soil CO2 ¯ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity J O

Minnesota, University of

220

The Anthropogenic Perturbation of Atmospheric CO2 and the Climate System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon dioxide (CO2), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), are redistributed within the climate system

Fortunat, Joos

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Resource Saving Technologies in Cement Industry.1:87–94. Blue World Crete. 2012. Technology. Available atOakey. 2009. CO 2 Capture Technologies for Cement Industry.

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions, has resulted in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel, combined with the expanded demand for biofuels, will result in higher food prices, since less land by using biofuels (vegetable oils). But the use of biofuels may not reduce CO2 emissions, even when

224

Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

226

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

wastewater treatment or manure management processes; CO2 from the combustion of biogas collected from biological decomposition of waste in landfills, wastewater treatment or...

227

Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

Oldenburg, Curtis M. (LBNL Earth Sciences Division) [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

228

Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

229

Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

Oldenburg

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

In Situ Study of CO2 and H2O Partitioning Between Na-Montmorillonite and Variably Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shale formations play fundamental roles in large-scale geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) aimed primarily to mitigate climate change, and in smaller-scale GCS targeted mainly for CO2-enhanced gas recovery operations. In both technologies, CO2 is injected underground as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), where interactions with shale minerals could influence successful GCS implementation. Reactive components of shales include expandable clays, such as montmorillonites and mixed-layer illite/smectite clays. In this work, we used in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate the swelling/shrinkage and water/CO2 sorption of a pure montmorillonite, Na-SWy-2, when the clay is exposed to variably hydrated scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Measured interlayer spacings and sorbed water concentrations at varying levels of scCO2 hydration are similar to previously reported values measured in air at ambient pressure over a range of relative humidities. IR spectra show evidence of both water and CO2 intercalation, and variations in peak shapes and positions suggest multiple sorbed types with distinct chemical environments. Based on the intensity of the asymmetric CO stretching band of the CO2 associated with the Na-SWy-2, we observed a significant increase in sorbed CO2 as the clay expands from a 0W to a 1W state, suggesting that water props open the interlayer so that CO2 can enter. However, as the clay transitions from a 1W to a 2W state, CO2 desorbs sharply. These observations were placed in the context of two conceptual models concerning hydration mechanisms for expandable clays and were also discussed in light of recent theoretical studies on CO2-H2O-clay interactions. The swelling/shrinkage of expandable clays could affect solid volume, porosity, and permeability of shales. Consequently, the results from this work could aid predictions of shale caprock integrity in large-scale GCS, as well as methane transmissivity in enhanced gas recovery operations.

Loring, John S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Chen, Jeffrey; Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Benezeth, Pascale; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

231

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO 2 : Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on thedescription of reduced carbon emission and oxidationInfluence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the

Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Randerson, James T; Krakauer, Nir; Logan, Jennifer A; Jacob, Daniel J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

size gasification for syngas, substitute natural gas andEffect of CO 2 containing syngas over Pt promoted Co/?-Al 2for biomass-derived syngas. NREL report (Report No. : NREL/

Liu, Zhongzhe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Different types of gasifiers and their integration withCO 2 in a pressurized-gasifier-based process. Energ Fuel.fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier-bed material and fuel

Liu, Zhongzhe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the assumption that technol- ogies available today are used to fully offset net human emissions of carbon dioxideAn idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2). During 2007, countries have been actively engaged in negotiating future

Colorado at Boulder, University of

235

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

239

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Usa Abstract A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long...

240

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

USA Abstract A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Selection of coals of different maturities for CO2 Storage by modelling of CH4 and CO2 adsorption isotherms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this study is to compare and model pure gas sorption isotherms (CO2 and CH4) for well-characterised coals of different maturities to determine the most suitable coal for CO2 storage. Carbon dioxide and methane; Coals; Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption; Modelling isotherms 1. Introduction CO2 is a greenhouse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ppm in the pre-industrial revolution to 37942 ppm in 2005, rising faster in the last 10 years (average atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles the pre-industrial revolution concentration (IPCC,49 2007a 36 insu-00351929,version1-12Jan2009 #12;1. Introduction37 38 Coal caused the first industrial

Boyer, Edmond

243

Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 ?g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

244

High Resolution Simulation and Characterization of Density-Driven Flow in CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are routinely used to study the process of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers. In this paper TOUGH2-MP. 1. Introduction Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration involves injecting CO2

245

A Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications for Regional Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiative (RGGI) and California's Global Warming Solutions Act.3 Both policies set emissions reduction

Hutyra, Lucy R.

246

Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation Frank E. Yeboah Tuncel M. Yegulalp Harmohindar Singh Research Associate Professor Professor Center for Energy Research... them carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This paper assesses the cost of sequestering CO 2 produced by a ZEC power plant using solid sequestration process. INTRODUCTION CO 2 is produced when electrical energy is generated using conventional fossil...

Yeboah, F. E.; Yegulalp, T. M.; Singh, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

Ball, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

ATMOSPHERIC CO2 A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbondioxideatmosphericburden,PgC Land use Fossil CO2 from land use emissions ­ not fossil fuel combustion ­ was the dominant CO2 Comparison of CO2 mixing ratio from fossil fuel combustion and land use changes 400 380 360 340 cores 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Forcing,Wm -2 #12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time series 1700

Schwartz, Stephen E.

249

Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce...

Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

250

Near Miscible CO2 Application to Improve Oil Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection for enhanced oil recovery is a proven technology. CO2 injection is normally operated at a pressure above the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), which is determined by crude oil composition and reservoir conditions...

Bui, Ly H.

2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

251

Potential method for measurement of CO2 leakage from underground sequestration fields using radioactive tracers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) release to the environment is a pressing challenge that should be addressed to avert the potential devastating effects of global warming. Within the United States, the most abundant sources of CO2 emissions are those generate from coal- or gas-fired power plants; one method to control CO2 emissions is to sequester it in deep underground geological formations. From integrated assessment models the overall leakage rates from these storage locations must be less than 0.1% of stored volume per year for long-term control. The ability to detect and characterize nascent leaks, in conjunction with subsequent remediation efforts, will significantly decrease the amount of CO2 released back into the environment. Because potential leakage pathways are not necessarily known a priori, onsite monitoring must be performed; the monitoring region in the vicinity of a CO2 injection well may be as large as 100 km2, which represents the estimated size of a supercritical CO2 bubble that would form under typical injection scenarios. By spiking the injected CO2 with a radiological or stable isotope tracer, it will be possible to detect ground leaks from the sequestered CO2 using fewer sampling stations, with greater accuracy than would be possible using simple CO2 sensors. The relative merits of various sorbent materials, radiological and stable isotope tracers, detection methods and potential interferences will be discussed.

Bachelor, Paula P.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Amonette, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Saripalli, Prasad

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). As indicated by Wagner (2008), the series of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita carbon focuses solely on the energy consumption, carbon dioxide ( 2CO ) emissions and economic growth nexus in countries' energy efficiencies and cross-country differences in the 2CO emissions trajectories are accounted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m2 d1 at the soil surface. Each of the...

256

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management Challenge Many organisations are facing increasing cost challenges and pressure to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions consideration is the carbon dioxide emissions per square metre of floor space. While an important metric

257

CO2 exposure at pressure impacts metabolism and stress responses...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the model sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Abstract: Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration drives physical and geochemical changes in deep...

258

Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

259

NOVEL DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE FIELD NOx AND CO2 CONTINUOUS EMISSION DATA, BASED ON THE EVALUATION OF: (1) AN OFF-ROAD DIESEL COMPACTOR RUNNING ON THREE FUEL TYPES AND (2) TWO COMPACTORS RUNNING ON DIESEL FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In spite of being few in number, off-road vehicles have a significant contribution to air pollutants such as NOx and CO2. Engine dynamometer test cycles have been developed in an effort to better characterize the emissions ...

Guerra, Sergio

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion (N2O emissions peak with particle sizes of about 1 mm), and gas residence time within and after the fixed bed (

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions from Alternative Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping theEMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THEACRONYMS and TERMS AF = alternative fuel AFL = alternative-

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

Denver, University of

263

The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissionsmay prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO 2www.dsireusa.org Renewable Energy Policy Network, http://

Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Surface Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites Phase I SBIR Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Public confidence in safety is a prerequisite to the success of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage for any program that intends to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In that regard, this project addresses the security of CO2 containment by undertaking development of what is called �¢����an open path device�¢��� to measure CO2 concentrations near the ground above a CO2 storage area.

Sheng Wu

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

265

Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

Zhang, Da

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

New Automobile Regulations: Double the Fuel Economy, Half the CO2 Emissions, and Even Automakers Like It  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lead-Time: The Case of US Automobile Greenhouse Gas EmissionNew Automobile Regulations Double the Fuel Economy, Half thephysics of the modern automobile involve an uphill battle to

Lutsey, Nic

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net the rate of in situ decomposition through greater diffusion of oxygen, increasing CO2 emissions, manufacturing, use, and disposition (12, 13). GHG emissions, comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4

Roulet, Nigel T.

268

Modeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global GeertGeert VinkenVinken11,, FolkertFolkert BoersmaBoersma22, and Daniel J. Jacob, and Daniel J. Jacob33  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) emissions 5-7% of global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions 3-4% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions ShipModeling of shippingModeling of shipping NONOxx emissions in globalemissions in global CTMs 70% of the ship emissions occur within 400 km of land Only industrial sector not regulated under

Haak, Hein

269

CO2 sequestration | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO2 sequestration CO2 sequestration Leads No leads are available at this time. Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium on...

270

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions index, we use conversion factors. To determine theof Energy. 11 This conversion factor includes only thebe using different conversion factors for electricity in

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Comprehensive study of carbon dioxide adsorption in the metalorganic frameworks M2(dobdc)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are historically slow, the need for mitigation of current CO2 emissions using carbon capture and sequestration (CCSComprehensive study of carbon dioxide adsorption in the metal­organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M ¼ Mg of adsorption in the M2(dobdc)­CO2 adducts. Introduction Currently, 80% of global energy is supplied by carbon

273

Measurements and analysis of CO and O2 emissions in CH4/CO2/O2 flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or deep saline aquifiers, or used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or enhanced coal bed methane recovery the key tradeoffs associated with optimizing these systems, as well as the dependence of emissions concepts (e.g., Graz [4] or Matiant [5] cycles) and integra- tion with gasification processes for coal

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

274

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing

Stanley, H. Eugene

275

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman Nitrogen dioxide: Less than 5% of the NOx BUT with an outstanding peak for the 2007 MY in Fresno 0. Nitrogen dioxide: less than 5% of NOx except the Fresno fleet containing the 2007 Sprinter ambulances. #12;

Denver, University of

276

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Trends and breaks in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions, 1870-2028  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider per-capita carbon dioxide emission trends in 16 early developed countries over the period 1870-2028. Using a multiple-break time series method we find more evidence for very early downturns in per-capita trends ...

Lanne, Markku

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theRasmussen. Allocation of co2 emissions permits: A generalthe aggregate annual CO2 emissions for each of the key

Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Original article Interactive effects of elevated CO2, O3,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Interactive effects of elevated CO2, O3, and soil water deficit on spring wheat of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and soil water deficit on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv consisting of two O3levels (ambient and 1.5-times ambient) in combination with two CO2levels (ambient

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (? 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ? P ? 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

Malhotra, Vivak

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and climate change since industrial revolution. · This study assesses the original researches on historical 1850, anthropogenic SO2 emissions were distributed mostly by open burning sources and industrial

284

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

285

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of GDP)to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. Thecommitted to reduce its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

Barthelat, Francois

288

Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

289

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

290

Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

Akinnikawe, Oyewande

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

291

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

10-MW Supercritical-CO2 Turbine  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet describes a 10-megawatt supercritical carbon dioxide turbine project, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The research team, led by NREL, intends to showcase the turbomachinery for a new cycle—the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycle. The cycle is being optimized and tested at conditions representing dry cooling in desert environments, thereby accurately simulating real-world concentrating solar power system operating conditions.

294

Economically Efficient Operation of CO2 Capturing Process Part I: Self-optimizing Procedure for Selecting the Best Controlled Variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the greenhouse gas CO2 that causes global warming. Due to the effect of CO2 emissions on global warming

Skogestad, Sigurd

295

Economics of Energy Efficiency in a CO2 Constrained World Daniel Trombley and Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy efficiency in comparison to purchasing renewable energy certificates or CO2 emission reduction or mandatory CO2 emission reductions, a tax on CO2 emissions, and mandatory CO2 emission reductions effective than purchasing renewable energy certificates or CO2 emission reduction credits as long

Kissock, Kelly

296

GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US SoutheastGHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly understood, but recent studies have indicated that GHG emissions

297

Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

Gurney, Kevin

298

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Aquifer Management for CO2 Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Storage of carbon dioxide is being actively considered for the reduction of green house gases. To make an impact on the environment CO2 should be put away on the scale of gigatonnes per annum. The storage capacity of deep saline aquifers...

Anchliya, Abhishek

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

300

EMSL - CO2 sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

co2-sequestration en Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium on Alumina. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Optimal synthesis of a pressure swing adsorption process for CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emission of carbon dioxide from cement industry and power plants that burn fossil fuels is the major cause for the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere, which causes long-range environmental problems. One option to mitigate the emission of CO2 is to capture it from the emission sources and store it to the ocean or depleted oil field or use it for enhanced oil recovery. CO2 recovery has been achieved by gas absorption employing solutions of carbonates and alkanolamines. However, this process is energy-intensive for the regeneration of solvent and also faces problems due to corrosion. Recently, the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process has been considered as an alternative to the absorption process. PSA processes have been widely applied for the removal of CO2 from various feed mixtures, such as CO2 in the steam reformer off gas, landfill gas and natural gas. In all these commercial PSA cycles, the weakly adsorbed component in the mixture is the desired product and enriching the strongly adsorbed CO2 is not a concern. On the other hand, for the capture of CO2 for sequestration, it is necessary to concentrate the CO2 to a high purity to reduce the compression and transportation cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop a PSA cycle by which a high-purity product for the strongly adsorbed component with a high recovery is obtained. A multitude of PSA cycles and adsorbents have been developed for producing highly pure heavy component (CO2) from feedstock with low CO2 concentration. Kikkinides et al. suggested a 4-bed 4-step process with activated carbon as the sorbent and could recover 68% of CO2 at 99.997% purity. Chue et al. compared activated carbon and zeolite 13X on a 3-bed 7-step process and concluded that the latter is better than the former for CO2 recovery. However, the CO2 recovery was low in their process due to the lack of a countercurrent step in the chosen cycle. Choi et al. reported more than 70% CO2 recovery at more than 90% purity for a modified 3-bed 7-step cycle. However, they solved a very small two variable optimization problem, thus being a specialized case. Zhang et al. have given justifications for using a specific cyclic component step in the adsorption cycle in the context of CO2 capture by using a simplistic mathematical model for the PSA process. Reynolds et al. have suggested a variety of stripping PSA cycles for CO2 recovery at high temperature using a hydrotalcite-like adsorbent. In this study, a two-bed superstructure of the PSA process has been developed to optimally synthesize an appropriate cycle for CO2 capture. The superstructure considers all the possible operating steps in a PSA cycle with two beds. An optimal control problem with a PDE-based model for PSA system has been formulated in which different steps within a cycle are realized with the help of control variables changing with time. The optimization problem has been solved for three different cases of maximizing CO2 recovery (for a given purity), maximizing feed throughput and minimizing specific power (for a given level of CO2 purity and recovery). Current results indicate the superstructure-based approach as a promising technique for deriving optimal PSA cycles. Different cases with different number of control variables indicate convergence to a particular kind of PSA cycle with over 99% purity and recovery of CO2. The results obtained from optimization problem will also be compared with the optimal PSA cycle simulated more accurately in a dynamic simulation environment.

Agarwal, A.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic measurements during the last deglaciation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Click Here for Full Article Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) during the last glacialinterglacial climatic transition remain debated. We analyzed the parallel evolution of CO2 and its stable carbon isotopic ratio (d13 CO2

Chappellaz, Jérôme

303

Novel CO2-Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this contract was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO2.

Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel CO2 Monitoring Approach  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Researchers at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have discovered an innovative way to use bees, pollen, and helium-filled balloons to verify that no carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon sequestration sites.

305

International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FEASIBILITY: TEAPOT DOME EOR PILOT L. Chiaramonte, M.TO IDENTIFY OPTIMAL CO 2 EOR STORAGE SITES V. Núñez Lopez,from a carbon dioxide EOR/sequestration project. Energy

Tsang, Chin-Fu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery project as a prototypeCO 2 injection for enhanced oil recovery. Indeed, most near-as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery projects. REFERENCES

Tsang, Chin-Fu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

DOE Manual Studies 11 Major CO2 Geologic Storage Formations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A comprehensive study of 11 geologic formations suitable for permanent underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is contained in a new manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

308

China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduction in energy consumption per unit of GDP from 2006 toEnergy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of GDP)

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystem, elevated carbon dioxide, nitrogen enrichment, parasites, plant pathogensEffects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal Three components of global change, elevated CO2 , nitrogen addition, and decreased plant species

Crews, Stephen

310

9,248,559 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of January 16, 2015  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE’s Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

311

9,981,117 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of April 2, 2015 | Department...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

312

9,449,421 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 12, 2015...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

313

9,805,742 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 27, 2015...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

314

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Co2 geological sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Xu, Tianfu

2004-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

316

MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

Boyer, Edmond

317

Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight. Paper to appear in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO2 emissions from New calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements

Otago, University of

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2004. Experience curves for power plant emission controlassessments of fossil fuel power plants with CO 2 capturethe future cost of power plants with CO 2 capture Edward S.

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

320

Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet light sensitive video system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Remote measurements of SO/sub 2/ emissions and plume velocities were made with a portable ultraviolet light-sensitive video system and compared with EPA in-stack compliance measurement methods. The instrument system measures the ultraviolet light absorption of SO/sub 2/ and movement of SO/sub 2/ fluctuations in the effluent plume and relates these measurements to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and velocity of the plume. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using this technique for rapid surveillance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. The effects caused by submicron aerosols also were investigated. The field tests were performed on two occasions. On the first occasion, SO/sub 2/ and plume velocity measurements were made at a typical coal-fired power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The second occasion involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study, which resulted in routine SO/sub 2/ emission measurements performed at 12 industrial sites. The results of smoke generator and field tests indicate that the sulfur dioxide concentration of smoke stack emissions can be made with an accuracy less than +/-120 ppm (relative to the EPA stack test compliance method), provided the particulate opacity of the emissions is less than 22 percent. The velocity measurement feature of the instrument correlated poorly with the EPA compliance method for stack gas velocity.

McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Experimental assessment of CO2-mineral-toxic ion interactions in a1 simplified freshwater aquifer: Implications for CO2 leakage from deep2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ton CO2/year),2 caused mainly by fossil fuel combustion, have led to concerns about global warming. To,version1-21Jun2013 #12;5 Introduction1 Unregulated CO2 emissions into the Earth's atmosphere (about 22x1093 maintain the atmospheric CO2 level below 500 ppm, CO2 emissions will have to be stabilized4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Experimental Assessment of CO2Mineral-Toxic Ion Interactions in a Simplified Freshwater Aquifer: Implications for CO2 Leakage from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by fossil fuel combustion, have led to concerns about global warming. To maintain the atmospheric CO2 level. INTRODUCTION Unregulated CO2 emissions into the Earth's atmosphere (about 22 Ã? 109 ton CO2/year), caused mainly below 500 ppm, CO2 emissions will have to be stabilized at current levels, although they are forecast

324

WELL KNOWN . . . TO A FEW PEOPLE: ATTRIBUTION OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND RESULTING GLOBAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE TO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

century the major source of incremental atmospheric CO2 was not FF emissions but emissions from so to deforestation. LUC CO2 emissions have been a substantial fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions throughout the industrial period and even at present are about a third as great as FF emissions. Cumulative LUC CO2

325

European and Global Perspectives for CO2 Capture and Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plants. Therefore, it is recommended to employ mixes of the different CO2 emission reduction options are compared in order to address the question how to achieve significant CO2 emission reductions through2 emission reductions through the application of CCS technologies. The analysis shows that CCS can

326

Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Philippe Quirion. Co2 abatement, competitiveness andDaniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theA short-run case analysis of co2 leakage and nox and so2

Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Regulation for Underground Storage of CO2 Passed by U.S. States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation. Its use, therefore, is necessary in order to achieve the CO2 emission reduction targetRegulation for Underground Storage of CO2 Passed by U.S. States Holly Javedan Massachusetts................................................................................................... 8 2.4 CO2 Ownership

328

A brief study into the impact University of Bath has had on CO2 emissions and the cost of ownership of passenger cars.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to demonstrate fuel economy improvements totalling 4% including: · 3% improvement due to the optimised use of oil needed to protect the engine at any particular time thereby saving energy, fuel and reducing CO2 in fuel economy.[4]. These improvements are now in production in very large volumes. The 2.2L Duratorq

Burton, Geoffrey R.

329

Quantum Alloys Offer Prospects for CO2 Management Technologies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radical new catalysts capable of converting CO2 emissions into fuels, chemicals, and plastics. Their unique discovery involves shrinking gold into a system consisting of just 25...

330

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation Power Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) ExpandedSO2 Control Power Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO 2 ) Reference9 Figure ES-10 Total CO2 Emissions for Steel Production in

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team member's expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z [University of Cincinnati; Dong, J. H. [University of Cincinnati

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

334

Measuring Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions in October, 2010 Catastrophic Eruption from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volcano in Java, Indonesia with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) José A. Morales-Collazo Geology This paper discusses sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud emissions from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia during, Indonesia. In October 26th , 2010, a catastrophic eruption was reported from Merapi causing nearly 386

Gilbes, Fernando

335

HOT SPOT ANALYSIS OF REAL WORLD VEHICLE EMISSIONS BASED UPON A PORTABLE ON-BOARD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon dioxide (CO2, and open loop/closed loop flag were also recorded using the OEM-2100TM . This paper presents examples percent of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, 77 percent of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and 25 percent

Frey, H. Christopher

336

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in west Los Angeles: Year 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emission inventory.1 For a description of the internal combustion engine and causes of pollutants excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can also (or completely) converting engine-out CO, HC and NO emissions to carbon dioxide (CO2), water

Denver, University of

337

Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1 Karen;1 Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth ABSTRACT What are the drivers of future global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions growth and how would the availability of key

Wing, Ian Sue

338

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 recovery and storage (CCS) Emissions after cuts (Technology Advance scenario (substantial C 0 emission reduction)) '

Komiyama, Ryoichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

Santos, Juan

340

Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada David Risk December 2002. [1] Soils constitute the largest terrestrial source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere the climatic controls on soil respiration. We use subsurface CO2 concentrations, surface CO2 flux and detailed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Copyright 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) A History of Atmospheric CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copyright © 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its.00, ISBN 978-0-387- 22069-7. Atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2 ]) concentrations have varied considerably through time. Some estimates suggest extraordinarily high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (~ 4000

Springer, Clint J.

342

EQUILIBRIUM DATA OF CO2-BASED SEMI-CLATHRATES FROM QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Carbone dioxide by gas hydrate formation is a new process for separating CO2 from flue gases Mines de SAINT- ETIENNE, FRANCE ABSTRACT CO2 mitigation represents a major industrial and scientific, especially for the industries in which the gases to be treated are well localized. CO2 capture by using

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, . promoter . 1.2 CO2 HBGS process CO2 , CO2 . CO2 , IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) (fuel gas) CO2 . IGCC CO2 H2 . (gasification) CO H2 (water gas shift reaction) H2 CO CO2 . CO2 H2 turbine H2 . H2 , CO2 #12;. fuel gas CO2 40%, 60% H2 . fuel gas (gasification) HBGS process . CO2 CO2 . venture

Hong, Deog Ki

344

Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SO2-O2 System. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System. Abstract: Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic...

345

Hydro-mechanical modelling of geological CO2 storage and the study of possible caprock fracture mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydro-mechanical modelling of geological CO2 storage and the study of possible caprock fracture element modelling of a hypothetical underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage operation. The hydro

346

Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO2-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the offshore Miocene interval is a storage resource of National interest for providing CO2 storage as an atmospheric emissions abatement strategy. The natural petroleum system was used as an analog to infer seal quality and predict possible migration pathways of fluids in an engineered system of anthropogenic CO2 injection and storage. The regional structural features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone) that exert primary control on the trapping and distribution of Miocene hydrocarbons are expected to perform similarly for CCS. Industrial?scale CCS will require storage capacity utilizing well?documented Miocene hydrocarbon (dominantly depleted gas) fields and their larger structural closures, as well as barren (unproductive, brine?filled) closures. No assessment was made of potential for CO2 utilization for enhanced oil and gas recovery. The use of 3D numerical fluid flow simulations have been used in the study to greatly assist in characterizing the potential storage capacity of a specific reservoir. Due to the complexity of geologic systems (stratigraphic heterogeneity) and inherent limitations on producing a 3D geologic model, these simulations are typically simplified scenarios that explore the influence of model property variability (sensitivity study). A specific site offshore San Luis Pass (southern Galveston Island) was undertaken successfully, indicating stacked storage potential. Downscaling regional capacity estimates to the local scale (and the inverse) has proven challenging, and remains an outstanding gap in capacity assessments. In order to characterize regional seal performance and identify potential brine and CO2 leakage pathways, results from three high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic datasets acquired by the study using novel HR3D (P-Cable) acquisition system showed steady and significant improvements in data quality because of improved acquisition and processing technique. Finely detailed faults and stratigraphy in the shallowest 1000 milliseconds (~800 m) of data allowed for the identification and mapping of unconformable surfaces including what is probably

Meckel, Timothy; Trevino, Ramon

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere ?14CO2: Post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO 2 Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cementof seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Tellus,contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,

Randerson, J. T; Enting, I. G; Schuur, E. A. G; Caldeira, K.; Fung, I. Y

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation Characteristics of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorococcum littorale, and Chlorella sp. Used For CO2 Fixation and Biofuel Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photobiological hydrogen production [57, 58]. Under singlesimultaneous hydrogen fuel production and CO 2 mitigation”,dioxide for the production of hydrogen”, International

Berberoglu, Halil; Gomez, Pedro; Pilon, Laurent

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Insights into Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-term geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered an integral part to moderating CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and subsequently minimizing effects of global climate change. Although subsurface injection of CO2 is common place in certain industries, deployment at the scale required for emission reduction is unprecedented and therefore requires a high degree of predictability. Accurately modeling geochemical processes in the subsurface requires experimental derived data for mineral reactions occurring between the CO2, water, and rocks. Most work in this area has focused on aqueous-dominated systems in which dissolved CO2 reacts to form crystalline carbonate minerals. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet supercritical fluid phase. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably hydrated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) that simulate conditions in geologic repositories. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by three novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the supercritical CO2 resulted in increased silicate carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared spectroscopy and determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes. Even in extreme low water conditions, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance detected formation of Q3 [Si(OSi)3OH] and Q4 [Si(OSi)4] amorphous silica species. Unlike the thick (<10 ?m) passivating silica layers observed in the fully water saturated scCO2 experiments, images obtained from a focused ion beam sectioned sample indicted these coatings were chemically wollastonite but structurally amorphous. In addition, evidence of an intermediate hydrated amorphous calcium carbonate forming under these conditions further emphasize the importance of understanding geochemical processes occurring in water bearing scCO2 fluids.

Miller, Quin RS; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Bowden, Mark E.; Hoyt, David W.; Hu, Jian Z.; Arey, Bruce W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Improved quantification of Chinese carbon fluxes using CO2//CO correlations in Asian outflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increases in Chinese anthropogenic CO2 emissions and would also imply a further reduction of the Chinese budget including, in particular, Chinese emissions. The CO2/CO emission ratio varies with the sourceImproved quantification of Chinese carbon fluxes using CO2//CO correlations in Asian outflow

Palmer, Paul

351

Seismic modeling to monitor CO2 geological storage: The Atzbach ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 8, 2012 ... greenhouse effect. In order to avoid these emissions, one of the options is the geological storage of carbon dioxide in depleted hydrocarbon ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

A seismic modeling methodology for monitoring CO2 geological ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 20, 2011 ... possible causes of the greenhouse effect. In order to avoid these emissions, one of the. 30 options is the geological storage of carbon dioxide ...

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

353

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late in Phase 1 an opportunity arose to collaborate with another turbine-development team to construct a shared s-CO2 test facility. The synergy of the combined effort would result in greater facility capabilities than either separate project could produce and would allow for testing of both turbine designs within the combined budgets of the two projects. The project team requested a no-cost extension to Phase 1 to modify the subsequent work based on this collaborative approach. DOE authorized a brief extension, but ultimately opted not to pursue the collaborative facility and terminated the project.

Turchi, Craig

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

356

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 2. Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions Coefficients,and Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption, and CarbonEnergy – Related Carbon Emissions Fuel Energy Use Carbon (

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Long-Term Trends in Motor Vehicle Emissions in U.S. Urban Areas Brian C. McDonald and Drew R. Gentner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

suggest rates of reduction in NMHC versus CO emissions may differ somewhat. Emission ratios of CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) are coemitted with carbon dioxide (CO2) during which are mostly diesel powered. Emission reduction measures in the U.S. have been implemented over

Cohen, Ronald C.

359

Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast states that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 megawatts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for global warming. Human activities have contributed to the rise in sea level, change in wind patterns to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find, and increase in temperatures. If this trend in CO2 levels continues to rise it can lead to the loss of portions

Petta, Jason

362

Oxidation in Environments with Elevated CO2 Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy power productions focus primarily on either pre- or post-combustion removal of CO2. The research presented here examines corrosion and oxidation issues associated with two types of post-combustion CO2 removal processes—oxyfuel combustion in refit boilers and oxyfuel turbines.

Gordon H. Holcomb

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Ex post evaluations of CO2 based taxes: a survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fossil fuels, and which are introduced with the explicit intention of abating CO2 emissions. This paper and, especially, subsidies, has been called into question. Secondly, the CO2-based taxes themselves and subsidies), it is unlikely that they have been cost-effective (in the sense of attaining their environmental

Watson, Andrew

364

Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration Tarun R Naik1 and Rakesh sequestration. Most of the studies related to the carbonation are limited to its effects on corrosion. The possibility of using carbonation process as a direct means for carbon dioxide sequestration is yet

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

365

Implementation of the El Mar (Delaware) Unit CO2 flood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Union Royalty, Inc., Amoco Production Company, and Enron Liquids Pipeline Company recently announced that they have commenced operations of an innovative enhanced oil recovery project at the El Mar (Delaware) Unit in Loving County, Texas, about 100 miles west of Midland, Texas. The project will convert the unit`s existing oil recovery system from a secondary (waterflood) system to a tertiary (CO2 flood) system designed to use carbon dioxide and water to increase crude oil production from the unit. What makes this EOR project unique is the creative deal structured by the partners involved. Amoco, Union Royalty, and Enron have worked out an unprecedented arrangement whereby Amoco essentially trades CO2 for an interest in Union Royalty`s future oil production from the unit. By pioneering this innovative deal new production life has been restored to a field that otherwise might dry up. Enron is participating in the project by transporting CO2 to the unit via a 40-mile expansion of its Central Basin Pipeline system from the Dollarhide oil field in Andrews county, Texas. The project will be implemented in four phases. The first phase in operation today comprises seven CO2 injection wells which have begun to process the reservoir with CO2. Plans now call for more CO2 injectors to be installed during the next three to five years until a total of 65 CO2 injectors and an on-site CO2 compression facility serve the unit`s 70 production wells.

McKnight, T.N. Jr. [Union Royalty, Inc., Midland, TX (United States); Merchant, D.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases in global temperatures is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Is there a relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global temperatures? Data Collection

Carriquiry, Alicia

367

Canada’s Bitumen Industry Under CO2 Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effects of implementing CO2 emissions reduction policies on Canada’s oil sands industry, the largest of its kind in the world. The production of petroleum products from oils sands involves extraction of ...

Chen, Y.-H. Henry

368

Investigation of geothermal power plant performance using sequestered carbon dioxide as a heat transfer or working fluid.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study investigates the potential for combining carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration with geothermal power production in areas with low geothermal resource temperatures. Using sequestered CO2… (more)

Janke, Brian D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

How secure is CO2 storage? Leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology available to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large point sources such as power plants and the burial of organic rich rocks such as coal seams.2 We have compiled the first global dataset on natural CO ­ but not necessarily leaking. Figure 4: Diagram showing the state of CO2 in the studied reservoirs. Supercritical

370

CO2 interaction with aquifer and seal on geological timescales: the Miller oilfield, UK North Sea   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as a feasible technology to reduce CO2 emissions whilst permitting the continued use of fossil fuels. Injected CO2 must remain efficiently isolated from the atmosphere ...

Lu, Jiemin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

On the Role of Sacrificial Donors in the Catalytic Reduction of CO2 by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complexes Jay Agarwal Gonghu Li Department of Chemistry University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 4/23/2010 #12;Carbon Dioxide Breakdown (Gas) (Liquid) Gasoline Breakdown Gasoline (+Additives) CO2 + H2O

New Hampshire, University of

372

Strategy for prevention of sequestered CO2 seepage from CBM formations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study introduces a new strategy for the prevention of post-sequestration carbon dioxide (CO2) seepage to the surface from CBM (coalbed methane) formations that is… (more)

Tovar Torrealba, Miguel Angel.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Physical and chemical effects of CO2 storage in saline aquifers of the southern North Sea   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most promising mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Deep saline aquifers are seen as the most efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) storage sites, ...

Heinemann, Niklas

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Transport properties of CO2-expanded acetonitrile from molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by acetonitrile and carbon dioxide, in which the CO2 mole fraction is adjusted by changing the pressure, at a constant temperature of 298K. They report values of translational diffusion coefficients, rotational correlation times, and shear viscosities...

Houndonougbo, Yao; Laird, Brian Bostian; Kuczera, Krzysztof

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

375

DOE Research Projects to Examine Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy today announced 11 projects valued at $75.5 million aimed at increasing scientific understanding about the potential of promising geologic formations to safely and permanently store carbon dioxide (CO2).

376

Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis and Chemical-Production Cell for H2 Production and CO2 Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the production of these solutions needs to be carbon-neutral. A microbial-effective and environmentally friendly method for CO2 sequestration. INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide concentrations and CO2 Sequestration Xiuping Zhu,* Marta C. Hatzell, and Bruce E. Logan Department of Civil

377

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

378

CO2 Sequestration short course  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

379

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide;#12;Summary The tourism sector is not only affected by climate change but also has an impact on the Earth of such measures, we calculated the climate efficiency of the tourism sector in the case of Switzerland.We defined

Fischlin, Andreas

380

Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air Kurt Zenz Housea,b,1 , Antonio C for review August 20, 2010) Capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere ("air capture") in an industrial suggest these air capture systems may cost a few hundred dollars per tonne of CO2, making it cost

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ORIGINAL PAPER Potential volume for CO2 deep ocean sequestration: an assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-year storage and 61 m for one decade. Keywords Carbon dioxide Á Ocean sequestration Á RegressionORIGINAL PAPER Potential volume for CO2 deep ocean sequestration: an assessment of the area located in an average amount of 6.957 Gt within this duration. If deep sea sequestration for CO2 can be the possible

Wu, Yih-Min

382

Remediation of CO2 Leakage from Deep Saline Aquifer Storage Based on Reservoir and Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the geological storage of carbon dioxide IEA-GHG, 2007. Remediation of Leakage from CO2 Storage Reservoirs. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, 2007/11, September 2007. Le Guenan T : review and modelling., in CO2NET 2009 Annual Seminar Agenda - Trondheim - Norway - 18-19 June 2009. Xu T

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins: Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This multitask research project was conducted in anticipation of a possible future increase in industrial efforts at CO2 storage in Colorado sedimentary basins. Colorado is already the home to the oldest Rocky Mountain CO2 storage site, the Rangely Oil Field, where CO2-EOR has been underway since the 1980s. The Colorado Geological Survey has evaluated storage options statewide, and as part of the SW Carbon Sequestration Partnership the Survey, is deeply engaged in and committed to suitable underground CO2 storage. As a more sustainable energy industry is becoming a global priority, it is imperative to explore the range of technical options available to reduce emissions from fossil fuels. One such option is to store at least some emitted CO2 underground. In this NETL-sponsored CO2 sequestration project, the Colorado School of Mines and our partners at the University of Colorado have focused on a set of the major fundamental science and engineering issues surrounding geomechanics, mineralogy, geochemistry and reservoir architecture of possible CO2 storage sites (not limited to Colorado). Those are the central themes of this final report and reported below in Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 6. Closely related to these reservoir geoscience issues are also legal, environmental and public acceptance concerns about pore space accessibility—as a precondition for CO2 storage. These are addressed in Tasks 1, 5 and 7. Some debates about the future course of the energy industry can become acrimonius. It is true that the physics of combustion of hydrocarbons makes it impossible for fossil energy to attain a carbon footprint anywhere nearly as low as that of renewables. However, there are many offsetting benefits, not the least that fossil energy is still plentiful, it has a global and highly advanced distribution system in place, and the footprint that the fossil energy infrastructure occupies is orders of magnitude smaller than renewable energy facilities with equivalent energy capacity. Finally, inexpensive natural gas here in North America is pushing coal for electricity generation off the market, thus reducing US CO2 emissions faster than any other large industrialized nation. These two big factors argue for renewed efforts to find technology solutions to reduce the carbon footprint (carbon dioxide as well as methane and trace gases) of conventional and unconventional oil and gas. One major such technology component is likely to be carbon capture, utilization and storage.

Nummedal, Dag; Sitchler, Alexis; McCray, John; Mouzakis, Katherine; Glossner, Andy; Mandernack, Kevin; Gutierrez, Marte; Doran, Kevin; Pranter, Matthew; Rybowiak, Chris

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Northern California CO2 Reduction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

Hymes, Edward

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

385

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***includes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***ncludes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite observations of CO2 from TES and surface flask measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We infer CO2 surface fluxes using satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and measurements of CO2 from surface flasks in a time-independent inversion analysis based on the GEOS-Chem model. Using TES CO2 observations over oceans, spanning 40 S 40 N, we find that the horizontal and vertical coverage of the TES and flask data are complementary. This complementarity is demonstrated by combining the datasets in a joint inversion, which provides better constraints than from either dataset alone, when a posteriori CO2 distributions are evaluated against independent ship and aircraft CO2 data. In particular, the joint inversion offers improved constraints in the tropics where surface measurements are sparse, such as the tropical forests of South America. Aggregating the annual surface-to-atmosphere fluxes from the joint inversion for the year 2006 yields 1.13 0.21 PgC for the global ocean, 2.77 0.20 PgC for the global land biosphere and 3.90 0.29 PgC for the total global natural flux (defined as the sum of all biospheric, oceanic, and biomass burning contributions but excluding CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion). These global ocean and global land fluxes are shown to be near the median of the broad range of values from other inversion results for 2006. To achieve these results, a bias in TES CO2 in the Southern Hemisphere was assessed and corrected using aircraft flask data, and we demonstrate that our results have low sensitivity to variations in the bias correction approach. Overall, this analysis suggests that future carbon data assimilation systems can benefit by integrating in situ and satellite observations of CO2 and that the vertical information provided by satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 combined with measurements of surface CO2, provides an important additional constraint for flux inversions.

Nassar, Ray [University of Toronto; Jones, DBA [University of Toronto; Kulawik, SS [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Worden, JR [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Bowman, K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Suntharalingam, P [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Brenninkmeijer, CAM [Max Planck Institut fur Chemie, Mainz; Schuck, TJ [Max Planck Institut fur Chemie, Mainz; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Worthy, DE [Environment Canada

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

The EU ETS: CO2 prices drivers during the learning experience (2005-2007)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Union Allowances (EUAs), valid for compliance under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is to regulate CO2 emissions from the most energy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

An Assessment of the Commercial Availability of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies as of June 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, there is considerable confusion within parts of the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technical and regulatory communities regarding the maturity and commercial readiness of the technologies needed to capture, transport, inject, monitor and verify the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in deep, geologic formations. The purpose of this technical report is to address this confusion by discussing the state of CCS technological readiness in terms of existing commercial deployments of CO2 capture systems, CO2 transportation pipelines, CO2 injection systems and measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) systems for CO2 injected into deep geologic structures. To date, CO2 has been captured from both natural gas and coal fired commercial power generating facilities, gasification facilities and other industrial processes. Transportation via pipelines and injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface are well established commercial practices with more than 35 years of industrial experience. There are also a wide variety of MMV technologies that have been employed to understand the fate of CO2 injected into the deep subsurface. The four existing end-to-end commercial CCS projects – Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah and Weyburn – are using a broad range of these technologies, and prove that, at a high level, geologic CO2 storage technologies are mature and capable of deploying at commercial scales. Whether wide scale deployment of CCS is currently or will soon be a cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is largely a function of climate policies which have yet to be enacted and the public’s willingness to incur costs to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the Earth’s climate. There are significant benefits to be had by continuing to improve through research, development, and demonstration suite of existing CCS technologies. Nonetheless, it is clear that most of the core technologies required to address capture, transport, injection, monitoring, management and verification for most large CO2 source types and in most CO2 storage formation types, exist.

Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

389

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Obstacles to Global CO2 Trading: A Familiar Problem A. Denny Ellerman1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

obstacles to the development of an international CO2 emissions trading system, but the biggest is a feature emissions trading. The paper reviews the various instruments by which such the Kyoto target might be met. The development of an international system for CO2 emissions trading should not be expected to be either quick

391

Coupling geothermal energy capture with carbon dioxide sequestration in naturally permeable, porous geologic formations  – a novel approach for expanding geothermal energy utilization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis research presents a new method to harness geothermal energy by combining it with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. CO2 is injected into deep,… (more)

Randolph, Jimmy Bryan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Outsourcing CO2 within China.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6. Lo AY (2012) Carbon emissions trading in China. Nat Climof interprovincial emissions trading (6–9). Additionally,the central coast. The emissions trading scheme being tested

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Outsourcing CO2 within China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6. Lo AY (2012) Carbon emissions trading in China. Nat Climof interprovincial emissions trading (6–9). Additionally,the central coast. The emissions trading scheme being tested

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Modeling long-term CO2 storage, sequestration and cycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of numerical and analytical models to the problem of storage, sequestration and migration of carbon dioxide in geologic formations is discussed. A review of numerical and analytical models that have been applied to CO2 sequestration are presented, as well as a description of frameworks for risk analysis. Application of models to various issues related to carbon sequestration are discussed, including trapping mechanisms, density convection mixing, impurities in the CO2 stream, changes in formation porosity and permeability, the risk of vertical leakage, and the impacts on groundwater resources if leakage does occur. A discussion of the development and application of site-specific models first addresses the estimation of model parameters and the use of natural analogues to inform the development of CO2 sequestration models, and then surveys modeling that has been done at two commercial-scale CO2 sequestration sites, Sleipner and In Salah, along with a pilot-scale injection sites used to study CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers (Frio) and an experimental site designed to test monitoring of CO2 leakage in the vadose zone (ZERT Release Facility).

Bacon, Diana H.

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

395

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 Jason J. Heinrich, Howard J. Herzog, David M. Reiner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analogs: acid gas injection (AGI), enhanced oil recovery (EOR), natural gas storage, and CO2 transportENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 * Jason J. Heinrich, Howard J. Herzog, David M of reducing CO2 emissions. The storage of CO2 in underground geologic reservoirs is one such idea that employs

396

CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability Richard J for review May 9, 2010) Stimulation of terrestrial plant production by rising CO2 concentra- tion is projected to reduce the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coupled climate­carbon cycle

397

Embedding Covalency into Metal Catalysts for Efficient Electrochemical Conversion of CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- throughput screening to propose silver-based catalysts for efficient electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO. Many researchers anticipate the efficient transformation of CO2 from various emission sources into moreEmbedding Covalency into Metal Catalysts for Efficient Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 Hyung

Goddard III, William A.

398

Capturing CO2 from Air Anca Timofte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capturing CO2 from Air Anca Timofte Climeworks AG Birchstrasse 155, 8050 Zürich www.climeworks.com, contact@climeworks.com Carbon Mitigation Lecture, 27 October 2014 #12;Air Climeworks CO2 capture plant CO2-free air Pure CO2 #12;3 Climeworks Products Demonstrator · 1 ton CO2 per year · Online since 12

Fischlin, Andreas

399

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

400

Techno-economic modelling of CO2 capture systems for Australian industrial sources.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Australia is recognising that carbon capture and storage (CCS) may be a feasible pathway for addressing increasing levels of CO2 emissions. This thesis presents a… (more)

Ho, Minh Trang Thi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that energy use and CO2 emissions in developed countries w icap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions from the electricalout and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost and

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimated to produce CO2 emission reductions ranging frombetween low CO2 emissions and the reductions in the auto usea 16 percent reduction in CO2 traffic emissions within the

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Cementfor Fuel Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron andElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

Fridley, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe Office of FossilMembershipoftheManagementHasdecDioxide Budget Trading

405

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Power  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe Office of FossilMembershipoftheManagementHasdecDioxidePlants and Other

406

A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

numbered 0-6. Plots of F CO2 measured along the surface wellin Figure 2. Figure 2. Log F CO2 maps for measurements madeof soil CO 2 flux (F CO2 ). The surface leakage onset,

Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

High Fidelity Computational Analysis of CO2 Trapping at Pore Scales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With an alarming rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from anthropogenic sources, CO2 sequestration has become an attractive choice to mitigate the emission. Some popular storage media for CO{sub 2} are oil reservoirs, deep coal-bed, and deep oceanic-beds. These have been used for the long term CO{sub 2} storage. Due to special lowering viscosity and surface tension property of CO{sub 2}, it has been widely used for enhanced oil recovery. The sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration or enhanced oil recovery mostly consist of porous rocks. Lack of knowledge of molecular mobility under confinement and molecule-surface interactions between CO2 and natural porous media results in generally governed by unpredictable absorption kinetics and total absorption capacity for injected fluids, and therefore, constitutes barriers to the deployment of this technology. Therefore, it is important to understand the flow dynamics of CO{sub 2} through the porous microstructures at the finest scale (pore-scale) to accurately predict the storage potential and long-term dynamics of the sequestered CO{sub 2}. This report discusses about pore-network flow modeling approach using variational method and analyzes simulated results this method simulations at pore-scales for idealized network and using Berea Sandstone CT scanned images. Variational method provides a promising way to study the kinetic behavior and storage potential at the pore scale in the presence of other phases. The current study validates variational solutions for single and two-phase Newtonian and single phase non-Newtonian flow through angular pores for special geometries whose analytical and/or empirical solutions are known. The hydraulic conductance for single phase flow through a triangular duct was also validated against empirical results derived from lubricant theory.

Kumar, Vinod

2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

409

Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co'sChina’s cumulative CO2 emissions given the global cumulativeBaseline LBNL CIS Total CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) LBNL CIS with

Zheng, Nina

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

411

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E EPM2- TIP4P2005 PPL- TIP4P2005 Predicted (f) a P ? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE a Surface excess CO

Nielsen, L.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A well documented, publicly available, global data set for surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968 2007). The SOCAT gridded data is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust regularly spaced fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address.

Sabine, Christopher [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Hankin, S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Koyuk, H [Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington; Bakker, D C E [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Pfeil, B [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen; Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway; Olsen, A [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Metzl, N [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Fassbender, A [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Manke, A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Malczyk, J [Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University; Akl, J [CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Alin, S R [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Bellerby, R G J [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Borges, A [University of Liege, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liege, Belgium; Boutin, J [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Brown, P J [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Cai, W-J [Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia; Chavez, F P [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA; Chen, A [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Cosa, C [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Feely, R A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Gonzalez-Davila, M [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,; Goyet, C [Institut de Modélisation et d'Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Université de Perpignan; Hardman-Mountford, N [CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia; Heinze, C [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Hoppema, M [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Hunt, C W [Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire; Hydes, D [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK; Ishii, M [Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; Johannessen, T [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Key, R M [Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Kortzinger, A [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany; Landschutzer, P [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Lauvset, S K [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Lefevre, N [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Lenton, A [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Lourantou, A [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Merlivat, L [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Midorikawa, T [Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan; Mintrop, L [MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany; Miyazaki, C [Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan; Murata, A [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakadate, A [Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan; Nakano, Y [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakaoka, S [National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan; Nojiri, Y [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; et al.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 in surface air across North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

changes resulting from fossil-fuel CO 2 release and cosmic-for recently added fossil fuel CO 2 in the atmosphere anddioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

Hsueh, Diana Y; Krakauer, Nir Y; Randerson, James T; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E; Southon, John R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

Kharecha, P A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

6, 1092910958, 2006 Regional scale CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using radon A. I. Hirsch Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes A. I (Adam.Hirsch@noaa.gov) 10929 #12;ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Comparative Assessment of Status and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal in North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery, Energy Conversionin the U.S. for enhanced oil recovery for approximately 35gained from CO 2 -enhanced oil recovery has provided a solid

Oldenburg, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The economic feasibility of enhanced coalbed methane recovery using CO2 sequestration in the San Juan Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, due to the chemical and physical properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 sequestration is a potential option for substantially enhancing coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). The San Juan Fruitland coal has the most prolific coal seams in the United States...

Agrawal, Angeni

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

422

Stragegies to Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based on Monitoringand Analysis of CO2 in the Near-Surface Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the potential for CO2 monitoring in thenear-surface environment as an approach to exploration for hiddengeothermal systems. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration from a modelhidden geothermal system show that CO2 concentrations can reach highlevels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low CO2 fluxes.Therefore, subsurface measurements offer an advantage over above-groundmeasurements which are affected by winds that rapidly disperse CO2. Tomeet the challenge of detecting geothermal CO2 emissions within thenatural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach thatintegrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statisticalanalysis and modeling.

Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

423

arbon dioxide (CO2 atmosphere has increased by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on how plants and ecosystems may respond to this change in atmospheric composition, giving us confidence surface and scale up to affect the landscape water balance. Thus, through its impacts on plant water use and water to produce organic compounds. Since photosynthesis is an unsaturated biochemical reaction

424

CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 from

Yaghi, Omar M.

426

Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

427

Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year that it will be available for CO2 storage. The modeling framework and assumptions used to assess the impact of the timing of CO2 storage resource availability on the region’s deployment of CCS technologies is also described. The purpose of this report is to describe the data and methodology for examining the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage capacity resource of a major hydrocarbon province incorporating estimated depletion dates for its oil and gas fields with the largest CO2 storage capacity. This allows the development of a projected timeline for CO2 storage availability across the basin and enables a more realistic examination of potential oil and gas field CO2 storage utilization by the region’s large CO2 point sources. The Alberta Basin of western Canada was selected for this initial examination as a representative mature basin, and the development of capacity and depletion date estimates for the 227 largest oil and gas pools (with a total storage capacity of 4.7 GtCO2) is described, along with the impact on source-reservoir pairing and resulting CO2 transport and storage economics. The analysis indicates that timing of storage resource availability has a significant impact on the mix of storage reservoirs selected for utilization at a given time, and further confirms the value that all available reservoir types offer, providing important insights regarding CO2 storage implementation to this and other major oil and gas basins throughout North America and the rest of the world. For CCS technologies to deploy successfully and offer a meaningful contribution to climate change mitigation, CO2 storage reservoirs must be available not only where needed (preferably co-located with or near large concentrations of CO2 sources or emissions centers) but also when needed. The timing of CO2 storage resource availability is therefore an important factor to consider when assessing the real opportunities for CCS deployment in a given region.

Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

2007-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

428

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been warming, and the development of efficient methods for capturing CO2 from industrial flue gas has become

Paik Suh, Myunghyun

429

Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

430

A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closed and semi-closed saline formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, USA 1. Introduction Geological carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep forma- tions (e.g., saline of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Carbon Sequestration Regio 2008 Published on line 21 March 2008 Keywords: Geological CO2 sequestration Storage capacity Saline

Zhou, Quanlin

431

PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of carbon dioxide as refrigerant in supermarket refrigeration systems. The work includes fieldPhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

Kazachkov, Ivan

432

CO2 Sequestration in Non-air Entrained Concrete Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh Kumar, and Rudolph N. Kraus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 Sequestration in Non-air Entrained Concrete Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh Kumar, and Rudolph N. Kraus dioxide (CO2) sequestration in non-air entrained concrete. Several experimental factors sequestration in non-air entrained concrete. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

433

Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T. crunogena produces a reasonable return when treating a sour gas stream of 120 million SCFD containing 2.5 percent H2S. In this case, the primary source of revenue is from desulfurization of the gas stream. While the technology has significant application in sequestering carbon dioxide in cell biomass or single cell proten (SCP), perhaps the most immediate application is in desulfurizing LGNG or other gas streams. This biological approach is a viable economical alternative to existing hydrogen sulfide removal technology, and is not sensitive to the presence of hydrocarbons which act as catalyst poisons.

James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

434

MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE Lars Imsland Dagfinn Snarheim and control of a semi-closed O2/CO2 gas turbine cycle for CO2 capture. In the first part the process predictive control, Gas turbines, CO2 capture 1. INTRODUCTION Gas turbines are widely used for power

Foss, Bjarne A.

435

An investigation of the evolution and present distribution of residual oil zones (ROZ) in the Permian Basin, West Texas and its implications for carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and widespread development of CO2-EOR in the Permian Basin have made production from ROZ economically attractive) in the Permian Basin, West Texas and its implications for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage West, L. 1 logan significant new resources for tertiary oil production through carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (CO2

Texas at Austin, University of

436

New demands, new supplies : a national look at the water balance of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process.

Krumhansl, James Lee; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Morgantown, WV); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Fehsenfeld, F. C. : Emission sources and ocean uptake ofand No- vakov, T. : Emissions of trace gases and particlesGroot, W. J. : Future emissions from Canadian boreal forest

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Incomplete Environmental Regulation, Imperfect Competition, and Emissions Leakage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. (2005), ‘ Allocation of CO2 emission allowances in the2005), ‘ Evaluation of CO2 emissions allocations as a partcorresponding, unit-speci…c CO2 emissions rate (measured in

Fowlie, Meredith

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

43 International trends in CO2 emissions and GDP per capita,53 Figure 62 Transport CO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by54 Figure 63 AIS EV Change in CO2 Emissions Relative to

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,12. Global Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by End-Use Sector,2030. Energy-Related CO2 Emissions (GtC) Transport Buildings

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 62 Transport CO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by Fuel57 Figure 67 AIS Power Sector CO2 Emissions Reduction by67 AIS Power Sector CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source Energy

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A techno-economic plant- and grid-level assessment of flexible CO2 capture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Carbon dioxide (CO?) capture and sequestration (CCS) at fossil-fueled power plants is a critical technology for CO? emissions mitigation during the transition to a sustainable… (more)

Cohen, Stuart Michael, 1984-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

CO2 http://andrew.ucsd.edu/co2qc/ University of California, San Diego  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooled by liquid nitrogen. The water and CO2 are separated from one another by sublimation and the CO2 for oceanic CO2 analysis: A method for the certification of total alkalinity. Marine Chemistry 80, 185

444

QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10. Shah, Minish. Capturing CO2 from Oxy-Fuel Combustion Flue Gas. Cottbus, Germany : Praxair Inc., 2005. 11. Spitznogle, Gary O. CO2 Impurity Specification at AEP Mountaineer....

445

Exploratory study of some potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production, using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). A high volatile bituminous coal, Pittsburgh No. 8, was reacted with synthetic produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40°C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilisation of toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction and chemical analysis of the synthetic produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilising toxic trace elements from coal beds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Y.; Jones, R.J.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; White, C.M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for eachindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by (

Riley, W.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

5, 33133340, 2005 SCIAMACHY CO2 and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 3313­3340, 2005 SCIAMACHY CO2 and aerosols S. Houweling et al. Title Page Abstract Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols S. Houweling 1,2 , W. Hartmann 1 Commons License. 3313 #12;ACPD 5, 3313­3340, 2005 SCIAMACHY CO2 and aerosols S. Houweling et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

448

2, 711743, 2006 Glacial CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CPD 2, 711­743, 2006 Glacial CO2 sequestration L. C. Skinner Title Page Abstract Introduction CO2 change: a simple "hypsometric effect" on deep-ocean carbon sequestration? L. C. Skinner Godwin Scientist Award win- ners 2006 711 #12;CPD 2, 711­743, 2006 Glacial CO2 sequestration L. C. Skinner Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

Modeling of Near-Surface Leakage and Seepage of CO2 for Risk Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep geologic carbon sequestration sites entails risk that CO2 will leak away from the primary storage formation and migrate upwards to the unsaturated zone from which it can seep out of the ground. We have developed a coupled modeling framework called T2CA for simulating CO2 leakage and seepage in the subsurface and in the atmospheric surface layer. The results of model simulations can be used to calculate the two key health, safety, and environmental (HSE) risk drivers, namely CO2 seepage flux and nearsurface CO2 concentrations. Sensitivity studies for a subsurface system with a thick unsaturated zone show limited leakage attenuation resulting in correspondingly large CO2 concentrations in the shallow subsurface. Large CO2 concentrations in the shallow subsurface present a risk to plant and tree roots, and to humans and other animals in subsurface structures such as basements or utility vaults. Whereas CO2 concentrations in the subsurface can be high, surfacelayer winds reduce CO2 concentrations to low levels for the fluxes investigated. We recommend more verification and case studies be carried out with T2CA, along with the development of extensions to handle additional scenarios such as calm conditions, topographic effects, and catastrophic surface-layer discharge events.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre A.J.

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

450

A PILOT STUDY OF THE ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO2 data that are used to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air supply. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements and to save energy by avoiding ventilation rates exceeding design requirements. However, there have been many anecdotal reports of poor CO2 sensor performance in actual commercial building applications. This study evaluated the accuracy of 44 CO2 sensors located in nine commercial buildings to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. CO2 measurement errors varied widely and were sometimes hundreds of parts per million. Despite its small size, this study provides a strong indication that the accuracy of CO2 sensors, as they are applied and maintained in commercial buildings, is frequently less than needed to measure typical values of maximum one-hour-average indoor-outdoor CO2 concentration differences with less than a 20percent error. Thus, we conclude that there is a need for more accurate CO2 sensors and/or better sensor maintenance or calibration procedures.

Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y ,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by OP-FTIR K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y , K E V I N B . B R O O concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) caused by emissions from to average emissions results obtained from on-road exhaust analysis using individual vehicle remote sensing

Denver, University of

453

PhD studentship on Catalyst for Fuel Synthesis Title: Novel catalysts for synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels from H2 and CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels from H2 and CO2 A three year PhD studentship is available in Department of Chemical & Process or after September, 2013. Carbon capture is an important area to reduce global CO2 emission but it is time to find an outlet for the captured CO2. To synthesis hydrocarbon from H2 and CO2 is a key

Martin, Ralph R.

454

A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FE0007634), to efficiently and cost effectively separate carbon dioxide from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The CEPACS system is based on FCE’s electrochemical membrane (ECM) technology utilizing the Company’s internal reforming carbonate fuel cell products carrying the trade name of Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cells offers an innovative approach for separation of CO2 from existing fossil-fuel power plant exhaust streams (flue gases). The ECM-based CEPACS system has the potential to become a transformational CO2-separation technology by working as two devices in one: it separates the CO2 from the exhaust of other plants such as an existing coal-fired plant and simultaneously produces clean and environmentally benign (green) electric power at high efficiency using a supplementary fuel. The overall objective of this project is to successfully demonstrate the ability of FCE’s electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system technology to separate ? 90% of the CO2 from a simulated Pulverized Coal (PC) power plant flue-gas stream and to compress the captured CO2 to a state that can be easily transported for sequestration or beneficial use. Also, a key project objective is to show, through a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study and bench scale testing (11.7 m2 area ECM), that the electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system is an economical alternative for CO2 capture in PC power plants, and that it meets DOE objectives for the incremental cost of electricity (COE) for post-combustion CO2 capture.

Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Jolly, Stephen; Patel, Dilip; Hunt, Jennifer; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

455

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.201000431  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with annual global emissions of CO2 having escalated by approximately 80% between 1970 and 2004 of amine absorbers ("scrubbers") and cryogenic coolers.[6] The IPCC estimates that CO2 emissions plants is one option for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions; however, currently the capture alone

456

Samenvatting CO2 is het meest belangrijke broeikasgas. The concentratie van CO2 in de atmosfeer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Samenvatting CO2 is het meest belangrijke broeikasgas. The concentratie van CO2 in de atmosfeer brandstoffen en veranderingen in landgebruik. Toenemende concentraties van CO2 in de atmosfeer zullen naar toename van CO2 in de atmosfeer op de dynamiek van de microbiële gemeenschap in de directe omgeving van de

van den Brink, Jeroen

457

MAC-Kaust Project P1 CO2 Sequestration Modeling of CO2 sequestration including parameter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAC-Kaust Project P1 ­ CO2 Sequestration Modeling of CO2 sequestration including parameter identification and numerical simulation M. Brokate, O. A. PykhteevHysteresis aspects of CO2 sequestration modeling K-H. Hoffmann, N. D. Botkin Objectives and methods of CO2 sequestration There is a popular belief

Turova, Varvara

458

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide Water vapor #12;Atmospheric composition (parts per million by volume) · Nitrogen (N2) 780Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0

Olver, Peter

459

The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Benefits Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Benefits Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics:...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sunday, June 10, 2007 Ecofocus: Even older forests help control CO2 Summary: is a form of carbon sequestration. During photosynthesis, trees remove carbon dioxide from the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dioxide co2 emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous carbon dioxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 3 CO2 Sequestration using Steelmaking Slag Investigators Summary: Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide through Aqueous Processing of Steelmaking Slag," Rawlins,...

462

The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, when attributed on a consumption basis, California's per capita emissions are over 25 percent higherThe CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions

463

EFFECTS OF CO2 LEAKAGES FROM STORAGE SITES ON THE QUALITY OF POTABLE GROUNDWATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was packed into two fixed-bed PVC columns. In the one column, gas CO2 and water were co-injected while only gas effect due mainly to the combustion of fossil fuels and CO2 emissions in the atmosphere

464

A Plant-Level Simulation Model for Evaluating CO2 Capture Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Resource use Environmental Emissions - Air, water, land Plant & Process Costs - Capital - O&M - COE #12;E · Subcritical · Supercritical · Ultra-supercritical Furnace Firing Types · Tangential · Wall · Cyclone Furnace: - Water gas shift + CO2 capture (pre-combustion) · CO2 Transport Options Pipelines (six U.S. regions

465

Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

Kisholoy Goswami

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

466

DOE Partner Begins Injecting 50,000 Tons of CO2 in Michigan Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Building on an initial injection project of 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide into a Michigan geologic formation, a U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 50,000 additional tons into the formation, which is believed capable of storing hundreds of years worth of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

467

Elevated CO2 and O3 Alter Soil Nitrogen Transformations beneath  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elevated CO2 and O3 Alter Soil Nitrogen Transformations beneath Trembling Aspen, Paper Birch, North Carolina 27695, USA ABSTRACT Nitrogen cycling in northern temperate forest ecosystems could change to a negative feed- back on N availability. Key words: Acer saccharum; Betula papyrifera; Carbon dioxide; FACE

468

Short Communication Enhancement of CO2/CH4 selectivity in metal-organic frameworks containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lithium cations Youn-Sang Bae a,1 , Brad G. Hauser b,1 , Omar K. Farha b , Joseph T. Hupp b, , Randall Q November 2010 Keywords: Lithium doping Carbon dioxide (CO2) Metal-organic framework (MOF) Separation improvement by the Li cation exchange comes from enhanced solid­gas interactions. Ó 2010 Elsevier Inc. All

469

CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 Eric Chassefirea,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hal-00804822,version1-26Mar2013 #12;3 1. Introduction53 54 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been proposed1 CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 2 Eric Chassefièrea,b , Emmanuel Dartoisc hal-00804822,version1-26Mar2013 Author manuscript, published in "Icarus 223, 2 (2013) 878-891" DOI

Boyer, Edmond

470

Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating of a transcritical carbon dioxide heat pump system are presented in this article. A computer code has been developed conditions. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved. Keywords: Optimization; Heat pump; Carbon

Bahrami, Majid

471

DOE Partnership Completes Successful CO2 Injection Test in the Mount Simon Sandstone  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership, one of seven partnerships in the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program, has successfully injected 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the Mount Simon Sandstone, a deep saline formation that is widespread across much of the Midwest.

472

DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 8,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate the carbon storage potential and test the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of the Mississippian-aged Clore Formation in Posey County, Ind.

473

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant, community composition, grassland, niche partitioning hypothesis, nitrogen fertilization, plant richness

Minnesota, University of

474

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant enrichment, community composition, grassland, niche partitioning hypothesis, nitrogen fertilization, plant

Minnesota, University of

475

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Particle-scale CO2 adsorption kinetics modeling considering three reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the presence of water (H2O), dry and wet adsorptions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and physical adsorption of H2O happen concurrently in a sorbent particle. The three reactions depend on each other and have a complicated, but important, effect on CO2 capturing via a solid sorbent. In this study, transport phenomena in the sorbent were modeled, including the tree reactions, and a numerical solving procedure for the model also was explained. The reaction variable distribution in the sorbent and their average values were calculated, and simulation results were compared with experimental data to validate the proposed model. Some differences, caused by thermodynamic parameters, were observed between them. However, the developed model reasonably simulated the adsorption behaviors of a sorbent. The weight gained by each adsorbed species, CO2 and H2O, is difficult to determine experimentally. It is known that more CO2 can be captured in the presence of water. Still, it is not yet known quantitatively how much more CO2 the sorbent can capture, nor is it known how much dry and wet adsorptions separately account for CO2 capture. This study addresses those questions by modeling CO2 adsorption in a particle and simulating the adsorption process using the model. As adsorption temperature changed into several values, the adsorbed amount of each species was calculated. The captured CO2 in the sorbent particle was compared quantitatively between dry and wet conditions. As the adsorption temperature decreased, wet adsorption increased. However, dry adsorption was reduced.

Suh, Dong-Myung; Sun, Xin

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

CO2 Abatement in the UK Power Sector: Evidence from the EU ETS Trial Period  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides an empirical assessment of CO2 emissions abatement in the UK power sector during the trial period of the EU ETS. Using an econometrically estimated model of fuel switching, it separates the impacts of ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 6, 2011 ... atmosphere, increasing its temperature (greenhouse effect). To minimize climate change impacts, geological sequestration of CO2 is an ...

santos,,,

479

Legal Implications of CO2 Ocean Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

role in naturally removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the ocean is considered an essential dioxide in addition to the vast quantities already stored naturally. A few recent research to contradict each other regarding the use of the ocean as a "sink" or disposal area for carbon dioxide. On one

480

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of power plants, increase their use of renewable energy sources, and halt investment in new coal plants, with severe threats to human populations and the loss of unique and irreplaceable ecosystems. It is therefore% of worldwide emissions. WWF is challenging the electric power sector to become CO2-free by the middle

Combes, Stacey A.

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481

Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2005-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

482

Fixation of CO2 by chrysotile in low-pressure dry and moist carbonation: Ex-situ and in-situ characterizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Emitted in large proportions, especially from (stationary) fossil-fuel based power plants, carbon dioxide­1200 °C), humidity (0­10 mol %) and CO2 partial pressure (20­67 mol %), thermal preconditioning

Long, Bernard

483

Page 1 of 10 Assessing the effectiveness of policy options to reduce CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contributor to UK CO2 emissions, and whilst efficiency improvements are expected to reduce emissions per of 10 indicated that the potential for policies to deliver carbon emissions reduction through to current UK energy policy, and address the key question: What policies are effective at reducing carbon

484

Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Case 25 Figure 9 CO2 Emissions from Commercial Buildings (27 Figure 12 CO2 Emissions by Sector (Primary Energy,16 Office Building CO2 Emissions (Reference Case, Primary

Fridley, David G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980 todrivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proceedings of thefraction of China’s CO2 emissions can be attributed to

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

4, 23852405, 2007 CO2 and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 4, 2385­2405, 2007 CO2 and climate affect European carbon ballance R. Harrison and C. Jones Competing roles of rising CO2 and climate change in the contemporary European carbon balance R. Harrison and C. Jones Met Office, Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK Received: 13 April 2007

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

489

CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project overview provides background on carbonic anhydrase transport mechanism for CO2 in the human body and proposed approach for ARPA-E project to create a synthetic enzyme analogue and utilize it in a membrane for CO2 capture from flue gas.

Harry Cordatos

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Study of CO2 Mobility Control in Heterogeneous Media Using CO2 Thickening Agents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 injection is an effective method for performing enhanced oil recovery (EOR). There are several factors that make CO2 useful for EOR, including promoting swelling, reducing oil viscosity, decreasing oil density, and vaporizing and extracting...

Al Yousef, Zuhair

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

491

meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both the facilities and laboratories will need flow meters. ULAR is currently in the process of identifying a cost-effective, accurate, and durable flow meter to install in all of the CO2 chambers in all of the vivaria. When a specific model

Bushman, Frederic

492

Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs.

Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

493

Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state-of-the-art in reservoir model development, the data types and analyses that need to be performed in order to develop and parameterize credible and robust reservoir simulation models, and to review existing software that is applicable to these analyses. This report describes this effort and highlights areas in which additional software development, wiki application extensions, or related GS3 infrastructure development may be warranted.

Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

494

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. I