National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for digital elevation models

  1. Digital Elevation Model, 0.5-m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rowland,Joel; Gangodagamage,Chandana; Wilson,Cathy

    2013-12-08

    The dataset is a digital elevation model, DEM, of a 2km by 7km region in the vicinity of the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Ak.

  2. Spatial disaggregation of satellite-derived irradiance using a high-resolution digital elevation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin; Cebecauer, Tomas; Suri, Marcel

    2010-09-15

    Downscaling of the Meteosat-derived solar radiation ({proportional_to}5 km grid resolution) is based on decomposing the global irradiance and correcting the systematic bias of its components using the elevation and horizon shadowing that are derived from the SRTM-3 digital elevation model (3 arc sec resolution). The procedure first applies the elevation correction based on the difference between coarse and high spatial resolution. Global irradiance is split into direct, diffuse circumsolar and diffuse isotropic components using statistical models, and then corrections due to terrain shading and sky-view fraction are applied. The effect of reflected irradiance is analysed only in the theoretical section. The method was applied in the eastern Andalusia, Spain, and the validation was carried out for 22 days on April, July and December 2006 comparing 15-min estimates of the satellite-derived solar irradiance and observations from nine ground stations. Overall, the corrections of the satellite estimates in the studied region strongly reduced the mean bias of the estimates for clear and cloudy days from roughly 2.3% to 0.4%. (author)

  3. Digital Elevation Model, 0.25 m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cathy Wilson; Garrett Altmann

    2015-11-20

    This 0.25m horizontal resolution digital elevation model, DEM, was developed from Airborne Laser Altimetry flown by Aerometric Inc, now known as Quantum Spatial, Inc. on 12 July, 2013. One Mission was flown and the data jointly processed with LANL personnel to produce a 0.25m DEM covering a region approximately 2.8km wide and 12.4km long extending from the coast above North Salt Lagoon to south of Gas Well Road. This DEM encompasses a diverse range of hydrologic, geomorphic, geophysical and biological features typical of the Barrow Peninsula. Vertical accuracy at the 95% confidence interval was computed as 0.143m. The coordinate system, datum, and geoid for this DEM are UTM Zone 4N, NAD83 (2011), NAVD88 (GEOID09).

  4. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a

  5. Geometric correction and digital elevation extraction using multiple MTI datasets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Smith, Jody Lynn; Storey, James C.

    2004-08-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are traditionally acquired from a stereo pair of aerial photographs sequentially captured by an airborne metric camera. Standard DEM extraction techniques can be naturally extended to satellite imagery, but the particular characteristics of satellite imaging can cause difficulties. The spacecraft ephemeris with respect to the ground site during image collects is the most important factor in the elevation extraction process. When the angle of separation between the stereo images is small, the extraction process typically produces measurements with low accuracy, while a large angle of separation can cause an excessive number of erroneous points in the DEM from occlusion of ground areas. The use of three or more images registered to the same ground area can potentially reduce these problems and improve the accuracy of the extracted DEM. The pointing capability of some sensors, such as the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), allows for multiple collects of the same area from different perspectives. This functionality of MTI makes it a good candidate for the implementation of a DEM extraction algorithm using multiple images for improved accuracy. Evaluation of this capability and development of algorithms to geometrically model the MTI sensor and extract DEMs from multi-look MTI imagery are described in this paper. An RMS elevation error of 6.3-meters is achieved using 11 ground test points, while the MTI band has a 5-meter ground sample distance.

  6. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  7. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer tomore » true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.« less

  8. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer to true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.

  9. Process-scale modeling of elevated wintertime ozone in Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Holdridge, D. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-31

    Measurements of meteorological variables and trace gas concentrations, provided by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality for Daniel, Jonah, and Boulder Counties in the state of Wyoming, were analyzed for this project. The data indicate that highest ozone concentrations were observed at temperatures of -10 C to 0 C, at low wind speeds of about 5 mph. The median values for nitrogen oxides (NOx) during these episodes ranged between 10 ppbv and 20 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during these periods were insufficient for quantitative analysis. The few available VOCs measurements indicated unusually high levels of alkanes and aromatics and low levels of alkenes. In addition, the column ozone concentration during one of the high-ozone episodes was low, on the order of 250 DU (Dobson unit) as compared to a normal column ozone concentration of approximately 300-325 DU during spring for this region. Analysis of this observation was outside the scope of this project. The data analysis reported here was used to establish criteria for making a large number of sensitivity calculations through use of a box photochemical model. Two different VOCs lumping schemes, RACM and SAPRC-98, were used for the calculations. Calculations based on this data analysis indicated that the ozone mixing ratios are sensitive to (a) surface albedo, (b) column ozone, (c) NOx mixing ratios, and (d) available terminal olefins. The RACM model showed a large response to an increase in lumped species containing propane that was not reproduced by the SAPRC scheme, which models propane as a nearly independent species. The rest of the VOCs produced similar changes in ozone in both schemes. In general, if one assumes that measured VOCs are fairly representative of the conditions at these locations, sufficient precursors might be available to produce ozone in the range of 60-80 ppbv under the conditions modeled.

  10. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation E. Wood, E. Burton, A. Duran, and J. Gonder Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-61109 June 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No.

  11. Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO sub 2 and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.F.; Hilbert, D.W.; Chen, Jia-lin; Harley, P.C.; Kemp, P.R.; Leadley, P.W.

    1992-03-01

    While the exact effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on global climate are unknown, there is a growing consensus among climate modelers that global temperature and precipitation will increase, but that these changes will be non-uniform over the Earth's surface. In addition to these potential climatic changes, CO{sub 2} also directly affects plants via photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal closure. Global climate change, in concert with these direct effects of CO{sub 2} on plants, could have a significant impact on both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Society's ability to prepare for, and respond to, such changes depends largely on the ability of climate and ecosystem researchers to provide predictions of regional level ecosystem responses with sufficient confidence and adequate lead time.

  12. Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.F.; Hilbert, D.W.; Chen, Jia-lin; Harley, P.C.; Kemp, P.R.; Leadley, P.W.

    1992-03-01

    While the exact effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on global climate are unknown, there is a growing consensus among climate modelers that global temperature and precipitation will increase, but that these changes will be non-uniform over the Earth`s surface. In addition to these potential climatic changes, CO{sub 2} also directly affects plants via photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal closure. Global climate change, in concert with these direct effects of CO{sub 2} on plants, could have a significant impact on both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Society`s ability to prepare for, and respond to, such changes depends largely on the ability of climate and ecosystem researchers to provide predictions of regional level ecosystem responses with sufficient confidence and adequate lead time.

  13. Assessment of Fluctuating Reservoir Elevations Using Hydraulic Models and Impacts to Larval Pacific Lamprey Rearing Habitat in the Bonneville Pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2015-02-24

    This report presents the results of a modeling assessment of likely lamprey larval habitat that may be impacted by dewatering of the major tributary delta regions in the Bonneville Pool of the Columbia River. This assessment was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP). The goal of the study was to provide baseline data about how the regions of interest would potentially be impacted at three river flows (10, 50, and 90 percent exceedance flow) for four different forebay elevations at Bonneville Dam. Impacts of unsteady flows at The Dalles Dam and changing forebay elevation at Bonneville Dam for a 2-week period were also assessed. The area of dewatered regions was calculated by importing modeled data outputs into a GIS and then calculating the change in inundated area near tributary deltas for the four Bonneville forebay surface elevations. From the modeled output we determined that the overall change in area is less sensitive to elevations changes during higher river discharges. Changing the forebay elevation at Bonneville and the resulting impact to total dewatered regions was greater at the lowest modeled river flow (97 kcfs) and showed the greatest variation at the White Salmon/Hood River delta regions followed by the Wind, Klickitat and the Little White Salmon rivers. To understand how inundation might change on a daily and hourly basis. Unsteady flow models were run for a 2-week period in 2002 and compared to 2014. The water surface elevation in the upstream pool closely follows that of the Bonneville Dam forebay with rapid changes of 1 to 2-ft possible. The data shows that 2.5-ft variation in water surface elevation occurred during this period in 2002 and a 3.7-ft change occurred in 2014. The duration of these changes were highly variable and generally did not stay constant for more than a 5-hr period.

  14. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  15. Perona Malik anisotropic diffusion model using Peaceman Rachford scheme on digital radiographic image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim, Suhaila Abd; Razak, Rohayu Abd; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Manurung, Yupiter HP

    2014-06-19

    In image processing, it is important to remove noise without affecting the image structure as well as preserving all the edges. Perona Malik Anisotropic Diffusion (PMAD) is a PDE-based model which is suitable for image denoising and edge detection problems. In this paper, the Peaceman Rachford scheme is applied on PMAD to remove unwanted noise as the scheme is efficient and unconditionally stable. The capability of the scheme to remove noise is evaluated on several digital radiography weld defect images computed using MATLAB R2009a. Experimental results obtained show that the Peaceman Rachford scheme improves the image quality substantially well based on the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The Peaceman Rachford scheme used in solving the PMAD model successfully removes unwanted noise in digital radiographic image.

  16. Elevated Temperature Primary Load Design Method Using Pseudo Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Peter; Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I

    2012-01-01

    A new primary load design method for elevated temperature service has been developed. Codification of the procedure in an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Code Case is being pursued. The proposed primary load design method is intended to provide the same margins on creep rupture, yielding and creep deformation for a component or structure that are implicit in the allowable stress data. It provides a methodology that does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Use of elastic-perfectly plastic analysis based on allowable stress with corrections for constraint, steady state stress and creep ductility is described. This approach is intended to ensure that traditional primary stresses are the basis for design, taking into account ductility limits to stress re-distribution and multiaxial rupture criteria.

  17. Test Cases for Wind Power Plant Dynamic Models on Real-Time Digital Simulator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present test cases for wind turbine generator and wind power plant models commonly used during commissioning of wind power plants to ensure grid integration compatibility. In this paper, different types of wind power plant models based on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council Wind Generator Modeling Group's standardization efforts are implemented on a real-time digital simulator, and different test cases are used to gauge their grid integration capability. The low-voltage ride through and reactive power support capability and limitations of wind turbine generators under different grid conditions are explored. Several types of transient events (e.g., symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults, frequency dips) are included in the test cases. The differences in responses from different types of wind turbine are discussed in detail.

  18. Elevated carbon dioxide is predicted to promote coexistence among competing species in a trait-based model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ali, Ashehad A.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Aubier, Thomas G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-10-06

    Differential species responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) could lead to quantitative changes in competition among species and community composition, with flow-on effects for ecosystem function. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of how elevated Ca (eCa) will affect plant competition, or how composition of plant communities might change. Such theoretical analysis is needed for developing testable hypotheses to frame experimental research. Here, we investigated theoretically how plant competition might change under eCa by implementing two alternative competition theories, resource use theory and resource capture theory, in a plant carbon and nitrogen cycling model. The model makes several novelmore » predictions for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. Using resource use theory, the model predicts that eCa is unlikely to change species dominance in competition, but is likely to increase coexistence among species. Using resource capture theory, the model predicts that eCa may increase community evenness. Collectively, both theories suggest that eCa will favor coexistence and hence that species diversity should increase with eCa. Our theoretical analysis leads to a novel hypothesis for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. In this study, the hypothesis has potential to help guide the design and interpretation of eCa experiments.« less

  19. Long-term performance of ceramic matrix composites at elevated temperatures: Modelling of creep and creep rupture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtin, W.A.; Fabeny, B.; Ibnabdeljalil, M.; Iyengar, N.; Reifsnider, K.L.

    1996-07-31

    The models developed, contain explicit dependences on constituent material properties and their changes with time, so that composite performance can be predicted. Three critical processes in ceramic composites at elevated temperatures have been modeled: (1) creep deformation of composite vs stress and time-dependent creep of fibers and matrix, and failure of these components; (2) creep deformation of ``interface`` around broken fibers; and (3) lifetime of the composite under conditions of fiber strength loss over time at temperature. In (1), general evolution formulas are derived for relaxation time of matrix stresses and steady-state creep rate of composite; the model is tested against recent data on Ti-MMCs. Calculations on a composite of Hi-Nicalon fibers in a melt-infiltrated SiC matrix are presented. In (2), numerical simulations of composite failure were made to map out time-to-failure vs applied load for several sets of material parameters. In (3), simple approximate relations are obtained between fiber life and composite life that should be useful for fiber developers and testers. Strength degradation data on Hi-Nicalon fibers is used to assess composite lifetime vs fiber lifetime for Hi-Nicalon fiber composites.

  20. Modeling ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds via digitally filtered FTIR spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaltenbach, T.

    1994-12-31

    As part of an agreement with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Eastman Kodak Company has a program to monitor ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds at its fence lines. Currently, canister-based point sensors are used to collect a time-averaged sample every sixth day. The staff required to position, retrieve, and analyze these canisters makes this procedure expensive. Alternative methods are being investigated that can provide similar results in real time, while also saving costs. One such method is Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Radian Corporation performed a series of FTIR fence-line monitoring experiments at Kodak about one year ago. The spectra collected during this experiment are complicated by the presence of water vapor bands. Digital filtering techniques utilizing the Fourier transform are being explored as a means of removing the interference due to water vapor. When a digital filter is used as a spectral preprocessor, partial least squares (PLS) techniques can be employed to provide a powerful prediction pool. This seminar will describe the operation of the Fourier filters and present some encouraging preliminary results from PLS models.

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide is predicted to promote coexistence among competing species in a trait-based model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Ashehad A.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Aubier, Thomas G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-10-06

    Differential species responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) could lead to quantitative changes in competition among species and community composition, with flow-on effects for ecosystem function. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of how elevated Ca (eCa) will affect plant competition, or how composition of plant communities might change. Such theoretical analysis is needed for developing testable hypotheses to frame experimental research. Here, we investigated theoretically how plant competition might change under eCa by implementing two alternative competition theories, resource use theory and resource capture theory, in a plant carbon and nitrogen cycling model. The model makes several novel predictions for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. Using resource use theory, the model predicts that eCa is unlikely to change species dominance in competition, but is likely to increase coexistence among species. Using resource capture theory, the model predicts that eCa may increase community evenness. Collectively, both theories suggest that eCa will favor coexistence and hence that species diversity should increase with eCa. Our theoretical analysis leads to a novel hypothesis for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. In this study, the hypothesis has potential to help guide the design and interpretation of eCa experiments.

  2. SU-E-T-196: Heat Diffusion Modeling for Digital Holographic Interferometry Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavan, A; Meyer, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that with Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) 2D spatial calorimetric measurements of high dose rate radiation sources can be obtained. The impact of heat transfer must be considered when undertaking any form of calorimetric measurement, as the radiation induced temperature distributions are subject to degradation due to heat diffusion. Unaccounted for, this limits the accuracy of the approach especially for long delivery times. Methods: 3D modelling of the heat diffusion in water was undertaken, and two different approaches developed to account for this effect. The mathematical framework to describe heat diffusion in 3D was applied, with the differential equations solved numerically using an implicit method. The first approach involved the comparison of the DHI measurements to an independent dose model of the source. The model was forward modeled to account for the heat diffusion during irradiation, allowing a direct comparison to validate the measured results. The second approach involved the correction of the measured data directly, by comparing the temperature distribution of two instances and subtracting the effects of heat diffusion of the first distribution from the second instance. This required the use of the Abel transform to approximate the 3D dose distribution from the 2D DHI results, thus limiting the approach to radiation applications possessing cylindrical symmetry. Results: The first approach resulted in higher accuracy and was more straightforward, but has a major limitation in that the measured results are only able to be utilized in comparison with an independent dose model. The applicability of the second approach is affected by noise in the measurement data and introduces higher uncertainties, but results in higher usability of the final data. Conclusion: Both approaches were implemented, and if used in conjunction would provide the most utility for the interpretation and use of DHI measurements.

  3. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoversten, Erik A.; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set ({approx} 10{sup 5} galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy H{alpha} equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M{sub {circle_dot}} is {Lambda} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around M{sub r,0.1} = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has M{sub r,0.1} {approx} -21) are well fit by a universal {Lambda} {approx} 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf

  4. A model to non-uniform Ni Schottky contact on SiC annealed at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pristavu, G.; Brezeanu, G.; Badila, M.; Pascu, R.; Danila, M.; Godignon, P.

    2015-06-29

    Ni Schottky contacts on SiC have a nonideal behavior, with strong temperature dependence of the electrical parameters, caused by a mixed barrier on the contact area and interface states. A simple analytical model that establishes a quantitative correlation between Schottky contact parameter variation with temperature and barrier height non-uniformity is proposed. A Schottky contact surface with double Schottky barrier is considered. The main model parameters are the lower barrier (Φ{sub Bn,l}) and a p factor which quantitatively evaluates the barrier non-uniformity on the Schottky contact area. The model is validated on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky contacts, post metallization sintered at high temperatures. The measured I{sub F}–V{sub F}–T characteristics, selected so as not to be affected by interface states, were used for model correlation. An inhomogeneous double Schottky barrier (with both nickel silicide and Ni droplets at the interface) is formed by a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 750 °C. High values of the p parameter are obtained from samples annealed at this temperature, using the proposed model. A significant improvement in the electrical properties occurs following RTA at 800 °C. The expansion of the Ni{sub 2}Si phase on the whole contact area is evinced by an X-Ray diffraction investigation. In this case, the p factor is much lower, attesting the uniformity of the contact. The model makes it possible to evaluate the real Schottky barrier, for a homogenous Schottky contact. Using data measured on samples annealed at 800 °C, a true barrier height of around 1.73 V has been obtained for Ni{sub 2}Si/4H-SiC Schottky contacts.

  5. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    irradiation. This project will focus on modeling microstructural and microchemical evolution of irradiated alloys by performing detailed modeling of such microstructure evolution processes coupled with well-designed in situ experiments that can provide validation and benchmarking to the computer codes. The broad scientific and technical objectives of this proposal are to evaluate the microstructure and microchemical evolution in advanced ferritic/martensitic and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for cladding and duct reactor materials under long-term and elevated temperature irradiation, leading to improved ability to model structural materials performance and lifetime. Specifically, we propose four research thrusts, namely Thrust 1: Identify the formation mechanism and evolution for dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a<100> and determine whether the defect microstructure (predominately dislocation loop/dislocation density) saturates at high dose. Thrust 2: Identify whether a threshold irradiation temperature or dose exists for the nucleation of growing voids that mark the beginning of irradiation-induced swelling, and begin to probe the limits of thermal stability of the tempered Martensitic structure under irradiation. Thrust 3: Evaluate the stability of nanometer sized Y- Ti-O based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) particles at high fluence/temperature. Thrust 4: Evaluate the extent to which precipitates form and/or dissolve as a function of irradiation temperature and dose, and how these changes are driven by radiation induced segregation and microchemical evolutions and determined by the initial microstructure.

  6. Elevance Pilot-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Elevance biorefinery uses catalyst technology to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable, natural oils.

  7. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  8. The development of a generic model for assessing the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on ecosystems. Progress report, September 1, 1987--May 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.F.; Dougherty, R.L.; Harley, P.C.; Hilbert, D.W.; Skiles, J.W.

    1988-12-31

    Nitrogen concentrations in leaves vary in response to resource availability, generally increasing with increasing light or soil nitrogen and decreasing when plants are grown at higher than ambient carbon dioxide concentrations. This decrease in leaf nitrogen which commonly occurs at elevated levels of carbon dioxide Is intriguing and important for a number of reasons. Since leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity are correlated, plants grown at high levels of carbon dioxide often do not display remarkable increases in growth and productivity. This study asks: (1) Is decreased leaf nitrogen in plants grown at elevated carbon dioxide levels an adaptive response of plants? and (2) Is this response predictable and consistent with responses to light and nutrition?

  9. Digital Sofcell Digital Ultracap joint venture | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultracap joint venture Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digital Sofcell - Digital Ultracap joint venture Product: Digital Sofcell will joint venture with Digital Ultracap to...

  10. JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt The NERSC webpages are a great resource for New and Old users, so this is the first stop on the JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt....

  11. Improving Water Management: Applying ModelBuilder to site water impoundments using AEM survey data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sams, J.I.; Lipinski, B.A.; Harbert, W.P.; Ackman, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    ArcGIS ModelBuilder was used to create a GIS-based decision support model that incorporated digital elevation data and electromagnetic geophysical results gathered by helicopter to screen potential sites for water disposal impoundments produced from coal bed natural gas.

  12. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  13. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  14. Digital Ultracap Corp formerly Digital Ultracap LLC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultracap Corp formerly Digital Ultracap LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digital Ultracap Corp (formerly Digital Ultracap LLC) Place: Netherlands Product: Partnership between...

  15. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  16. Boulder County- Elevations Energy Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Elevations Credit Union has partnered with Boulder County and the City/County of Denver to offer this full-suite of services. Both EnergySmart and the Denver Energy Challenge help residents and b...

  17. Elevance Renewable Sciences Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elevance Renewable Sciences Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Elevance Renewable Sciences Inc Place: Bolingbrook, Illinois Zip: 60440 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy...

  18. Physical + Digital: The New Power Couple |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    product's individual parts and each part's unique lifecycles with digital tools like data lakes, model infrastructure, visualization, estimation, controls, and specialized...

  19. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ken D.; Quinn, Edward L.; Mauck, Jerry L.; Bockhorst, Richard M.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  20. Digital rotation measurement unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanderson, S.N.

    1983-09-30

    A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.

  1. Digital sonar system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Kenneth K.; Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.

  2. Digital sonar system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, K.K.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1995-11-21

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal. 4 figs.

  3. Fast transient digitizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display.

  4. JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt The NERSC webpages are a great resource for New and Old users, so this is the first stop on the JGI Digital Scavenger Hunt. Here is your first clue: 1) Log on to Genepool (ssh -Y genepool.nersc.gov) 2) Load the JAMO (dev) module (module load jamo/dev) 3) Run the following sequence of commands and answer the questions: genpool10: ~ $ jamo What is the third letter of the sixth jamo command in the help menu? genepool10: ~ $ jamo info What is the

  5. Digital ac monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  6. Digital ac monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  7. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and rising * About 7% of all U.S. electricity consumption -Much of this digitally networked already Our Future? Media room in high-end home Electronics are Different - Service ...

  8. Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, S.M.; Stoughton, C.; Newberg, H.; Loveday, J.; Petravick, D.; Gurbani, V.; Berman, E.; Sergey, G.; Lupton, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey will produce a detailed digital photometric map of half the northern sky to about 23 magnitude using a special purpose wide field 2.5 meter telescope. From this map we will select {approximately} 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars, and obtain high resolution spectra using the same telescope. The imaging catalog will contain 10{sup 8} galaxies, a similar number of stars, and 10{sup 6} quasar candidates.

  9. Digital Actuator Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst

    2014-09-01

    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator

  10. Digital field ion microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sijbrandij, S.J.; Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.; Thomson, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns, there is a trend to avoid the use of chemicals needed to develop negatives and to process photographic paper, and to use digital technologies instead. Digital technology also offers the advantages that it is convenient, as it enables quick access to the end result, allows image storage and processing on computer, allows rapid hard copy output, and simplifies electronic publishing. Recently significant improvements have been made to the performance and cost of camera-sensors and printers. In this paper, field ion images recorded with two digital cameras of different resolution are compared to images recorded on standard 35 mm negative film. It should be noted that field ion images exhibit low light intensity and high contrast. Field ion images were recorded from a standard microchannel plate and a phosphor screen and had acceptance angles of {approximately} 60{degree}. Digital recordings were made with a Digital Vision Technologies (DVT) MICAM VHR1000 camera with a resolution of 752 x 582 pixels, and a Kodak DCS 460 digital camera with a resolution of 3,060 x 2,036 pixels. Film based recordings were made with Kodak T-MAX film rated at 400 ASA. The resolving power of T-MAX film, as specified by Kodak, is between 50 and 125 lines per mm, which corresponds to between 1,778 x 1,181 and 4,445 x 2,953 pixels, i.e. similar to that from the DCS 460 camera. The intensities of the images were sufficient to be recorded with standard fl:1.2 lenses with exposure times of less than 2 s. Many digital cameras were excluded from these experiments due to their lack of sensitivity or the inability to record a full frame image due to the fixed working distance defined by the vacuum system. The digital images were output on a Kodak Digital Science 8650 PS dye sublimation color printer (300 dpi). All field ion micrographs presented were obtained from a Ni-Al-Be specimen.

  11. Strontium sorption on hematite at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasyova, O.N.; Ivanova, L.I.; Lakshtanov, L.Z.; Loevgren, L.

    1999-12-15

    Acid-base reactions and surface complexation of Sr(II) at the hematite/water interface have been studied by means of potentiometric titrations at three different temperatures: 25, 50, and 75 C. Equilibrium measurements were performed in 0.1 M NaCl. In the evaluation of equilibrium models for the acid-base reactions and complexation reactions in the three-component system H{sup +} -({triple{underscore}bond}FeOH)-Sr{sup 2+}, the constant capacitance model was applied. During the titrations with Sr, aliquots of the suspension were sampled at in several points. The aqueous concentrations of Sr were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Treatment of data included tests for formation of both inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes of different stoichiometric composition. The proposed equilibrium model consists of the following surface complexes of inner sphere type: {triple{underscore}bond}FeOHSr{sup 2+} and {triple{underscore}bond}FeOSrOH. Besides the stability constants for the surface complexes, the thermodynamic parameters {Delta}H and {Delta}S were evaluated. The combined effect of a decrease in pH{sub pzc} with increasing temperature and positive enthalpies of surface complex formation favors adsorption of Sr at elevated temperatures.

  12. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  13. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  14. Digital Image Correlation Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Dan; Crozier, Paul; Reu, Phil

    2015-10-06

    DICe is an open source digital image correlation (DIC) tool intended for use as a module in an external application or as a standalone analysis code. It's primary capability is computing full –field displacements and strains from sequences of digital These images are typically of a material sample undergoing a materials characterization experiment, but DICe is also useful for other applications (for example, trajectory tracking). DICe is machine portable (Windows, Linux and Mac) and can be effectively deployed on a high performance computing platform. Capabilities from DICe can be invoked through a library interface, via source code integration of DICe classes or through a graphical user interface.

  15. FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program Elevation Certificate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Instructions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: FEMA - National Flood Insurance Program Elevation Certificate and Instructions...

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: Elevate Energy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Elevate Energy educates residential real estate agents, appraisers, and appraiser regulatory officials about solar energy systems through web-based, continuing education classes. ...

  17. EERE Digital Data Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EERE Digital Data Management EERE Digital Data Management The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Policy on Digital Data Management is part of the ...

  18. Evidence for Stratospheric Downwelling Associated with High-Elevation Topography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finkel, R

    2009-01-28

    The continued presence of elevated chlorine-36 in Sierra Nevada streams is commonly interpreted as residual nuclear fallout, but this prolonged storage contradicts accepted hydrologic models, which indicate much less short-term groundwater storage. Our hypothesis is that the chlorine-36 source is stratospheric downwelling during high-intensity storms by measuring beryllium-7 and -10, sodium-22, and chlorium-36 in precipitation, lake, and soil samples. These nuclides are produced in abundance in the stratosphere and, except for chlorine-36, did not occur as nuclear fallout. This project will either substantially change hydrologic models or reveal an unrecognized pathway for stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Either result will have substantial scientific impact. The test of the hypothesis is straightforward. If stratospheric downwelling occurs to the extent indicated by observed Sierran chlorine-36 levels, it should be detectable by elevated levels of beryllium-7 and -10, sodium-22, and chlorine-36 in storm precipitation. Samples will be collected from an established array of sampling locations. If elevated levels of these nuclides are not found, it would cast severe doubt on the hypothesis. In this case, Sierran hydrologic models will have to take into account high levels of long-term groundwater storage. If elevated levels of these nuclides are found in Sierran precipitation, it could only be from stratospheric input, both because nuclear fallout is no longer occurring and because beryllium-7 and -10 and sodium-22 are not produced by atmospheric nuclear tests.

  19. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  20. ELECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, J.J. Jr.; Bettis, E.S.; Mann, E.R.

    1957-10-01

    The electronic digital computer is designed to solve systems involving a plurality of simultaneous linear equations. The computer can solve a system which converges rather rapidly when using Von Seidel's method of approximation and performs the summations required for solving for the unknown terms by a method of successive approximations.

  1. Digital Architecture – Results From a Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Thomas, Kenneth David; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2015-09-01

    The digital architecture is defined as a collection of IT capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide-spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for nuclear power plant performance improvements. The digital architecture can be thought of as an integration of the separate I&C and information systems already in place in NPPs, brought together for the purpose of creating new levels of automation in NPP work activities. In some cases, it might be an extension of the current communication systems, to provide digital communications where they are currently analog only. This collection of IT capabilities must in turn be based on a set of user requirements that must be supported for the interconnected technologies to operate in an integrated manner. These requirements, simply put, are a statement of what sorts of digital work functions will be exercised in a fully-implemented seamless digital environment and how much they will be used. The goal of the digital architecture research is to develop a methodology for mapping nuclear power plant operational and support activities into the digital architecture, which includes the development of a consensus model for advanced information and control architecture. The consensus model should be developed at a level of detail that is useful to the industry. In other words, not so detailed that it specifies specific protocols and not so vague that it is only provides a high level description of technology. The next step towards the model development is to determine the current state of digital architecture at typical NPPs. To investigate the current state, the researchers conducted a gap analysis to determine to what extent the NPPs can support the future digital technology environment with their existing I&C and IT structure, and where gaps exist with respect to the full deployment of technology over time. The methodology, result, and conclusions from the gap analysis are described in this report.

  2. Metrological digital audio reconstruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fadeyev; Vitaliy , Haber; Carl

    2004-02-19

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

  3. Digital scale converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  4. Digital Image Correlation Engine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-06

    DICe is an open source digital image correlation (DIC) tool intended for use as a module in an external application or as a standalone analysis code. It's primary capability is computing full –field displacements and strains from sequences of digital These images are typically of a material sample undergoing a materials characterization experiment, but DICe is also useful for other applications (for example, trajectory tracking). DICe is machine portable (Windows, Linux and Mac) and canmore » be effectively deployed on a high performance computing platform. Capabilities from DICe can be invoked through a library interface, via source code integration of DICe classes or through a graphical user interface.« less

  5. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and ... (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. ...

  6. DIGITAL Q METER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briscoe, W.L.

    1962-02-13

    A digital Q meter is described for measuring the Q of mechanical or electrical devices. The meter comprises in combination a transducer coupled to an input amplifier, and an upper and lower level discriminator coupled to the amplifier and having their outputs coupled to an anticoincidence gate. The output of the gate is connected to a scaler. The lower level discriminator is adjusted to a threshold level of 36.8 percent of the operating threshold level of the upper level discriminator. (AEC)

  7. DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE PROJECT PLAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an industry consensus document on how to scope and implement the underlying information technology infrastructure that is needed to support a vast array of real-time digital technologies to improve NPP work efficiency, to reduce human error, to increase production reliability and to enhance nuclear safety. A consensus approach is needed because: • There is currently a wide disparity in nuclear utility perspectives and positions on what is prudent and regulatory-compliant for introducing certain digital technologies into the plant environment. For example, there is a variety of implementation policies throughout the industry concerning electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), cyber security, wireless communication coverage, mobile devices for workers, mobile technology in the control room, and so forth. • There is a need to effectively share among the nuclear operating companies the early experience with these technologies and other forms of lessons-learned. There is also the opportunity to take advantage of international experience with these technologies. • There is a need to provide the industry with a sense of what other companies are implementing, so that each respective company can factor this into their own development plans and position themselves to take advantage of new work methods as they are validated by the initial implementing companies. In the nuclear power industry, once a better work practice has been proven, there is a general expectation that the rest of the industry will adopt it. However, the long-lead time of information technology infrastructure could prove to be a delaying factor. A secondary objective of this effort is to provide a general understanding of the incremental investment that would be required to support the targeted digital technologies, in terms of an incremental investment over current infrastructure. This will be required for business cases to support the adoption of these new

  8. Digital Identities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digital Identities Digital Identities banner-957163_960_720.jpg Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a comprehensive system that provides public-key encryption and digital signature services: Authentication - Uniquely identifies the information originator and consumer Confidentiality or Privacy - Assures information and data are protected from unauthorized access Data integrity - Assures data has not been accidentally or deliberately altered Non-Repudiation - Provides proof of the integrity and

  9. Stored program digital process controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephenson, Dwight L.

    1977-01-04

    A digital process control function generator wherein a timing clock, in conjunction with programmable read only memories controls variables in a process with respect to time.

  10. Digital Lumens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lumens Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digital Lumens Address: 110 Canal Street Place: Boston, Massachusetts Zip: 02114 Region: Greater Boston Area Product: Intelligent Lighting...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night Experiment: Doppler Lidar Operations Related Campaigns ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night...

  12. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James A.; Johnson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency of phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention.

  13. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  14. Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) Digital...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (REEEP) Digital Library Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) Digital Library AgencyCompany...

  15. Digital Data Management Glossary | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glossary Digital Data Management Glossary Digital data management glossary terms are defined below. Data preservation: Data preservation means providing for the usability of data ...

  16. NERSC Hosts Digital Stargazing Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Hosts Digital Stargazing Portal NERSC Hosts Digital Stargazing Portal June 4, 2015 Legacy highres 1400x800 Courtesy of DECam Legacy Survey Even non-scientists can now browse sky survey images hosted at NERSC. The DECam Legacy Survey has published the first in a series of web-based catalogs that will offer an update to images of the night sky originally taken with the 15-year-old camera of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In the spirit of the new information age, the survey will share frequent

  17. Digital-data receiver synchronization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.; Turner, Gary W.

    2005-08-02

    Digital-data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock can be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  18. EBR-II and TREAT Digitization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, George W.; Rabiti, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    Digitizing the technical drawings for EBR-II and TREAT provides multiple benefits. Moving the scanned or hard copy drawings to modern 3-D CAD (Computer Aided Drawing) format saves data that could be lost over time. The 3-D drawings produce models that can interface with other drawings to make complex assemblies. The 3-D CAD format can also include detailed material properties and parametric coding that can tie critical dimensions together allowing easier modification. Creating the new files from the old drawings has found multiple inconsistencies that are being flagged or corrected improving understanding of the reactor(s).

  19. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-10-16

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into amore » time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator.All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the 'optimal' method. In conclusion, the purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization.« less

  20. Gas-Alloy Interactions at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyave, Raymundo; Gao, Michael

    2012-11-07

    The understanding of the stability of metals and alloys against oxidation and other detrimental reactions, to the catalysis of important chemical reactions and the minimization of defects associated with processing and synthesis have one thing in common: At the most fundamental level, all these scientific/engineering problems involve interactions between metals and alloys (in the solid or liquid state) and gaseous atmospheres at elevated temperatures. In this special issue, we have collected a series of articles that illustrate the application of different theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to investigate gas-alloy interactions.

  1. Digital Library Research & Prototyping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This data model specification, merging with the Harvard-based Annotation Ontology work and intensive community feedback in a W3C Community Group, led to the recent approval by the ...

  2. Apparatus and method for managing digital resources by passing digital resource tokens between queues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Henry J.; Lindenstruth, Volker

    1999-01-01

    A method of managing digital resources of a digital system includes the step of reserving token values for certain digital resources in the digital system. A selected token value in a free-buffer-queue is then matched to an incoming digital resource request. The selected token value is then moved to a valid-request-queue. The selected token is subsequently removed from the valid-request-queue to allow a digital agent in the digital system to process the incoming digital resource request associated with the selected token. Thereafter, the selected token is returned to the free-buffer-queue.

  3. Apparatus and method for managing digital resources by passing digital resource tokens between queues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, H.J.; Lindenstruth, V.

    1999-06-29

    A method of managing digital resources of a digital system includes the step of reserving token values for certain digital resources in the digital system. A selected token value in a free-buffer-queue is then matched to an incoming digital resource request. The selected token value is then moved to a valid-request-queue. The selected token is subsequently removed from the valid-request-queue to allow a digital agent in the digital system to process the incoming digital resource request associated with the selected token. Thereafter, the selected token is returned to the free-buffer-queue. 6 figs.

  4. Precision digital pulse phase generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.

  5. Precision digital pulse phase generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-10-08

    A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.

  6. Mesofluidic two stage digital valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J; Lind, Randall F; Richardson, Bradley S

    2013-12-31

    A mesofluidic scale digital valve system includes a first mesofluidic scale valve having a valve body including a bore, wherein the valve body is configured to cooperate with a solenoid disposed substantially adjacent to the valve body to translate a poppet carried within the bore. The mesofluidic scale digital valve system also includes a second mesofluidic scale valve disposed substantially perpendicular to the first mesofluidic scale valve. The mesofluidic scale digital valve system further includes a control element in communication with the solenoid, wherein the control element is configured to maintain the solenoid in an energized state for a fixed period of time to provide a desired flow rate through an orifice of the second mesofluidic valve.

  7. Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

  8. Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-08-17

    A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

  9. Additional Guidance for EERE Digital Data Management Plans |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Services Funding Digital Data Management Additional Guidance for EERE Digital Data Management Plans Additional Guidance for EERE Digital Data Management Plans Beyond the ...

  10. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    . Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

  11. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  12. Plasma digital density determining device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien C.; Lovell, Thomas W.; Holly, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The density of a decaying plasma in an electrically conducting enclosure is determined by applying an excitation to the cavity formed by the enclosure and counting digitally the number of resonant frequencies traversed by the combination of the cavity and the decaying plasma.

  13. Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakala, Harri; Mustalahti, Jorma; Aulanko, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

  14. Federal Digital Strategy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Federal Digital Strategy Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 19 September, 2012 - 14:32 OpenEI part of the Federal Digital Strategy data...

  15. CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY TOOL (CMT): A GIS-BASED AUTOMATED EXTRACTION MODEL FOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUDI, DAVID; KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY; BERSCHEID, ALAN

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  16. Federal Digital Strategy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Digital Strategy Federal Digital Strategy New expectations require the Federal Government to be ready to deliver and receive digital information and services anytime, anywhere and on any device. It must do so safely, securely, and with fewer resources. To build for the future, the Federal Government has developed a Digital Strategy that embraces the opportunity to innovate more with less, and enables entrepreneurs to better leverage government data to improve the quality of services to

  17. EERE Digital Data Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Apply for Funding » EERE Digital Data Management EERE Digital Data Management The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Policy on Digital Data Management is part of the implementation of the Department of Energy's Public Access Plan and was developed in alignment with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy on Digital Data Management. EERE's mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the transition to a global clean energy economy. EERE leads the Department of

  18. Importance of Elevation and Temperature Inversions for the Interpretat...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with elevation, on which temperature inversions appear superimposed as opposite trends. Such inversions are common and they should be taken into account, along with the...

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Convection at Night Experiment: Doppler Lidar Operations 2015.06.01, Turner, SGP Comments? ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract The Plains Elevated ...

  20. Chemical Impact of Elevated CO2on Geothermal Energy Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    analyzing the geochemistry of existing geothermal fields with elevated natural CO2; measuring realistic rock-water rates for geothermal systems using laboratory and field-based ...

  1. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Suppresses Dominant Plant Species in...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    depend on interannual variation in precipitation and (2) the effects of elevated carbon dioxide are not limited to water saving because they differ from those of irrigation. ...

  2. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  3. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  4. DC 12m telescope. Preliminary calculations. Investigation of elevation axis position.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guarino, V. J.; High Energy Physics

    2009-12-18

    This paper examines some simple calculations of a 2D model of a telescope in order to understand how different design parameters affect the design. For the design of a telescope it is assumed that they need a design that minimizes deflections of the dish and also minimizes the size of the motors and torques needed to rotate in elevation. A common belief is that a lighter dish and minimum counterweight is desirable. However, these calculations show this is not necessarily true. The torque needed for rotation depends on the moment of inertia and if the telescope is balanced about the elevation axis. A light dish with no CW requires that the elevation axis be several meters in front of the dish (8-9m) in order to be balanced. This is not practical from a structural point of view. If the elevation axis is only 2m in front of the dish and there is no counterweight then the telescope will be unbalanced and the toruqes required will be very high - much higher than the torques needed only to overcome inertia. A heavy dish though can act as its own counterweight and the elevation axis only has to be 2-3m in front of the dish in order to achieve a balanced telescope. Also the struts that support the camera from the dish place a load on the dish which will put a bending moment on the dish. This bending moment will deform the dish and require it to be stiffer. A counterweight structure performs two functions. First, it allows the telescope to be balanced about the elevation axis. Second, it applies a force on the dish that opposes the forces from the camera struts, thereby reducing the bending moment and deformations of the dish.

  5. Digital Mapping Of Structurally Controlled Geothermal Features...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GPS Units And Pocket Computers Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Digital Mapping Of Structurally Controlled Geothermal Features...

  6. Digital Power Capital LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digital Power Capital LLC Place: Greenwich, Connecticut Zip: 6830 Product: A private equity firm focused on new technologies that...

  7. Half Metallic Digital Ferromagnetic Heterostructure Composed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Half Metallic Digital Ferromagnetic ... originating from hybridized Mn-d and nearest-neighbor Si-p states, and the corresponding ...

  8. Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surveying Specialists Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Author Directional Surveying...

  9. Half Metallic Digital Ferromagnetic Heterostructure Composed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The authors propose and investigate the properties of a digital ferromagnetic ... Letters, vol. 96, NA, January 19, 2006, pp. 027211; Journal Volume: 96 Research Org: ...

  10. Digital Gas Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digital Gas Inc Place: Dallas, Texas Sector: Solar Product: Company with a number of subsidiaries involved in mining, solar power, waste...

  11. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  12. Digital Data Management Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements Digital Data Management Requirements To integrate data management planning into an overall research plan, the following requirements will apply to all Office of Energy ...

  13. Digital Data Management Roles and Responsibilities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digital Data Management Roles and Responsibilities The roles and responsibilities associated with Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) data management plans ...

  14. Digital Data Management Frequently Asked Questions | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Frequently Asked Questions Digital Data Management Frequently Asked Questions Submitting a Data Management Plan 1. I am submitting an applicationproposal for research funding in ...

  15. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D; Parsons, D; Geerts, B

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  16. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, P.H.; Yu, D.U.L.

    1995-02-28

    A digital-to-analog converter is disclosed for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration. 18 figs.

  17. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Patrick H.; Yu, David U. L.

    1995-01-01

    A digital-to analogue converter for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration.

  18. Study of catalysis of coal gasification at elevated pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Study of catalysis of coal gasification at elevated pressures. Evaluation of 20 compounds at 850sup 0C Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of catalysis of coal ...

  19. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElevators | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ctrtyUsePercElevators" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.125907012528 + Sweden Building...

  20. City and County of Denver- Elevations Energy Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Elevations Credit Union has partnered with Boulder County and the City/County of Denver to offer this full-suite of services. Both EnergySmart and the Denver Energy Challenge help residents and b...

  1. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen; Raring, James; Skogen, Erik J.

    2009-07-21

    An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

  2. The Digital Revolution in Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2013-02-27

    This paper considers what it means to make a measurement, and the changes in measurement technology over the years. The impact of the latest changes, which have resulted in most electrical measurements being done digitally, is explored. It is argued that the process of measurement can be considered equivalent to one of data compression. The smart grid will certainly result in many more signals being made available, and therefore a great deal of data compression will be taking place. Measurements will be made in parts of the power system presently unmonitored, as well as parts that are already well covered by instrumentation. The smart grid engineer must decide what it means to have “useful” information. Unless care is taken, the signal processing may furnish information that is not useful, and may not even make sense. The paper concludes by examining the possibilities of data compression from multiple separate signals.

  3. Lessons learned in digital upgrade projects digital control system implementation at US nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, S.; Bolian, T. W.

    2006-07-01

    AREVA NP has gained significant experience during the past five years in digital upgrades at operating nuclear power stations in the US. Plants are seeking modernization with digital technology to address obsolescence, spare parts availability, vendor support, increasing age-related failures and diminished reliability. New systems offer improved reliability and functionality, and decreased maintenance requirements. Significant lessons learned have been identified relating to the areas of licensing, equipment qualification, software quality assurance and other topics specific to digital controls. Digital control systems have been installed in non safety-related control applications at many utilities within the last 15 years. There have also been a few replacements of small safety-related systems with digital technology. Digital control systems are proving to be reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain. Digital technology is gaining acceptance and momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies based upon the successes of these installations. Also, new plants are being designed with integrated digital control systems. To support plant life extension and address obsolescence of critical components, utilities are beginning to install digital technology for primary safety-system replacement. AREVA NP analyzed operating experience and lessons learned from its own digital upgrade projects as well as industry-wide experience to identify key issues that should be considered when implementing digital controls in nuclear power stations.

  4. Shock sensitivity of IHE at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urtiew, P.A.; Cook, T.M.; Maienschein, J.L.; Tarver, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    Insensitive high explosives (IHE`s) based on triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB) have been demonstrated to be very insensitive to shock, thermal, friction and other stimuli. Hazard scenarios can involve more than one stimulus, such as heating followed by fragment impact (shock). The shock sensitivity of the IHE`s LX-17 and PBX-9502 preheated to a temperature (250{degree}C) just below thermal runaway is quantitatively studied using embedded manganin pressure gauges. The thermal expansion of TATB to 250{degree}C is measured to determine the state of the explosive prior to shock initiation. LX-17 and PBX-9502 are found to be significantly more sensitive at 250{degree}C than at lower temperatures, but still less sensitive than ambient temperature HMX-based explosives. An ignition and growth reactive flow computer model of the shock initiation of hot IHE is developed to allow predictions of the response of hot IHE to impact scenarios which can not be tested directly.

  5. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge ...

  6. Improved Engine Control Strategies Enabled by Digital Signal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Control Strategies Enabled by Digital Signal-Processing Method for Zirconia Exhaust Sensors Improved Engine Control Strategies Enabled by Digital Signal-Processing Method ...

  7. DOE Policy for Digital Research Data Management | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Policy for Digital Research Data Management The Department of Energy (DOE) is ... Here, data management involves all stages of the digital data lifecycle including capture, ...

  8. Digital Data Management Additional Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Guidance Digital Data Management Additional Guidance Beyond the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) digital data management requirements, the ...

  9. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Monitor Telescope Pipeline (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Monitor Telescope Pipeline Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Monitor Telescope Pipeline You are accessing a...

  10. SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY ...

  11. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Title: Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and ...

  12. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  13. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 ON ROOT FUNCTION AND SOIL RESPIRATION IN A MOJAVE DESERT ECOSYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Robert S.

    2007-12-19

    Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration during the last 250 years are unequivocal, and CO{sub 2} will continue to increase at least for the next several decades (Houghton et al. 2001, Keeling & Whorf 2002). Arid ecosystems are some of the most important biomes globally on a land surface area basis, are increasing in area at an alarming pace (Dregne 1991), and have a strong coupling with regional climate (Asner & Heidebrecht 2005). These water-limited ecosystems also are predicted to be the most sensitive to elevated CO{sub 2}, in part because they are stressful environments where plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} may be amplified (Strain & Bazzaz 1983). Indeed, all C{sub 3} species examined at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF) have shown increased A{sub net} under elevated CO{sub 2} (Ellsworth et al. 2004, Naumburg et al. 2003, Nowak et al. 2004). Furthermore, increased shoot growth for individual species under elevated CO{sub 2} was spectacular in a very wet year (Smith et al. 2000), although the response in low to average precipitation years has been smaller (Housman et al. 2006). Increases in perennial cover and biomass at the NDFF are consistent with long term trends in the Mojave Desert and elsewhere in the Southwest, indicating C sequestration in woody biomass (Potter et al. 2006). Elevated CO{sub 2} also increases belowground net primary production (BNPP), with average increases of 70%, 21%, and 11% for forests, bogs, and grasslands, respectively (Nowak et al. 2004). Although detailed studies of elevated CO{sub 2} responses for desert root systems were virtually non-existent prior to our research, we anticipated that C sequestration may occur by desert root systems for several reasons. First, desert ecosystems exhibit increases in net photosynthesis and primary production at elevated CO{sub 2}. If large quantities of root litter enter the ecosystem at a time when most decomposers are inactive, significant quantities of carbon may be stored

  14. ChemCam sends digital 'thumbs up'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ChemCam sends digital 'thumbs up' ChemCam sends digital 'thumbs up' Members of the team got a digital thumbs up about the operational readiness of their instrument just hours after the rover landed on Martian soil. August 8, 2012 Researchers from LANL and the French Space Agency examine data from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover from inside the ChemCam Operations Center at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on Monday, Aug. 6, 2012, less than a day after the rover landed on Mars. The

  15. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  16. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  17. Digital radiography: a focus on clinical utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R.R.; Rollo, F.D.; Monahan, W.G.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This book is interesting and timely in that it covers the new and exciting area of digital radiography. The book begins with chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and terminology of digital radiography. Then cost-benefit ratios, legal implication, and outpatient vs. inpatient studies are discussed. The clinical chapters follow. These are applicable to the head and neck, heart, lungs, kidneys, peripheral arteries, and pediatric population. Discussion then centers on intraarterial digital subtraction, clinical experience at Wisconsin, nonangiography application of digital radiology in children, and analog film-screen subtraction intravenous angiography. The book ends by briefly discussing microwave imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance, emission tomography, real-time and Doppler sonography, analog tomography, and the future photoelectric radiology department.

  18. Daylighting Digital Dimmer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting Digital Dimmer Daylighting Digital Dimmer Lead Performer: MoJo Labs Inc. - Longmont, CO DOE Total Funding: $992,918 Project Term: July 28, 2015 - July 27, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 2 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE The novel solid-state lighting control architecture successfully demonstrated during the Phase I effort produced a product called the RiteBriteTM, which uses a patent-pending technology called Task-to-Wall (TTW) Translation. It provides

  19. Concurrent signal combining and channel estimation in digital communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Mason, John J.

    2011-08-30

    In the reception of digital information transmitted on a communication channel, a characteristic exhibited by the communication channel during transmission of the digital information is estimated based on a communication signal that represents the digital information and has been received via the communication channel. Concurrently with the estimating, the communication signal is used to decide what digital information was transmitted.

  20. Everything Digital: Converting the world in 2 Exabytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesk, Michael

    2003-11-05

    Nearly everything created today is in digital format: music is on digital CDs, documents come from word processing, still photography is switching to digital cameras and even movies are now edited digitally. What about the past? We have projects like the Million Book Project scanning one million books, and we know technically how to convert everything: the problems are legal, economic and organizational.

  1. Division of Energy and Mineral Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    boundary - Wind resource - Existing transmission lines - Digital elevation model - ... - Energy Recovery Facility * 5 MW power plant, - 150 tonsday MSW * Pyrolysis...

  2. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  3. Performance of MOV Stem Lubricants at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWall, Kevin George; Nitzel, Michael Everett; Watkins, John Clifford

    2001-07-01

    This paper documents the results of recent tests sponsored by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These tests address the effectiveness of the lubricant used on the threaded portion of the valve stem, where the stem nut turns on the stem. Recent testing indicates that an elevated temperature environment can lead to significant increases in the friction coefficient at the stem/stem-nut interface. Most valve actuator qualification tests are performed at room temperature. Similarly, in-service tests are run at ambient plant temperatures, usually 70 to 100°F. Since design conditions can lead to valve operating temperatures in the 200 to 300°F range, it is important to know whether a temperature-induced increase in friction at the stem/stem-nut interface will prevent the required operation of critical valves. Lubricant aging is another phenomenon that might have deleterious effects on the thrust output of a valve actuator. Laboratory experience and field experience both indicate that after long periods in elevated temperature environments, the lubricants may lose their lubrication qualities. The scope of the current test program includes testing of five different lubricants on four different valve stems. Pending completion of the testing, results of the tests conducted using two of the four stems are discussed. The test series included collection of baseline data at room temperature, single step temperature tests where the temperature of the test setup was elevated directly to 250°F, and step testing where the temperature was elevated in steps to 130, 190, and 250°F, then returned to 70°F. All greases tested showed evidence of physical change after elevated temperature tests. Except for one particular lubricant, all of the greases tested showed increased coefficients of friction at elevated temperatures. Numerous other preliminary conclusions are presented

  4. Tool 0.2: Value Brief Elevator Speech | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Value Brief Elevator Speech Tool 0.2: Value Brief Elevator Speech Tool 0.2: Value Brief Elevator Speech from the Introduction to Community Energy Strategic Planning. Tool 0.2: Value Brief Elevator Speech (44.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Guide to Community Energy Strategic Planning: Introduction CESP Tool 2.2: Stakeholder Invite

  5. Direct-to-digital holography and holovision

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Rasmussen, David A.; Voelkl, Edgar; Castracane, James; Simkulet, Michelle; Clow, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods for direct-to-digital holography are described. An apparatus includes a laser; a beamsplitter optically coupled to the laser; a reference beam mirror optically coupled to the beamsplitter; an object optically coupled to the beamsplitter, a focusing lens optically coupled to both the reference beam mirror and the object; and a digital recorder optically coupled to the focusing lens. A reference beam is incident upon the reference beam mirror at a non-normal angle, and the reference beam and an object beam are focused by the focusing lens at a focal plane of the digital recorder to form an image. The systems and methods provide advantages in that computer assisted holographic measurements can be made.

  6. Digital gate pulse generator for cycloconverter control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, Frederick F.; Mutone, Gioacchino A.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital gate pulse generator which controls the output of a cycloconverter used for electrical power conversion applications by determining the timing and delivery of the firing pulses to the switching devices in the cycloconverter. Previous gate pulse generators have been built with largely analog or discrete digital circuitry which require many precision components and periodic adjustment. The gate pulse generator of the present invention utilizes digital techniques and a predetermined series of values to develop the necessary timing signals for firing the switching device. Each timing signal is compared with a reference signal to determine the exact firing time. The present invention is significantly more compact than previous gate pulse generators, responds quickly to changes in the output demand and requires only one precision component and no adjustments.

  7. Virtual mask digital electron beam lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baylor, L.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Voelkl, E.; Moore, J.A.; Simpson, M.L.; Paulus, M.J.

    1999-04-06

    Systems and methods for direct-to-digital holography are described. An apparatus includes a laser; a beamsplitter optically coupled to the laser; a reference beam mirror optically coupled to the beamsplitter; an object optically coupled to the beamsplitter, a focusing lens optically coupled to both the reference beam mirror and the object; and a digital recorder optically coupled to the focusing lens. A reference beam is incident upon the reference beam mirror at a non-normal angle, and the reference beam and an object beam are focused by the focusing lens at a focal plane of the digital recorder to form an image. The systems and methods provide advantages in that computer assisted holographic measurements can be made. 5 figs.

  8. Virtual mask digital electron beam lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baylor, Larry R.; Thomas, Clarence E.; Voelkl, Edgar; Moore, James A.; Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for direct-to-digital holography are described. An apparatus includes a laser; a beamsplitter optically coupled to the laser; a reference beam mirror optically coupled to the beamsplitter; an object optically coupled to the beamsplitter, a focusing lens optically coupled to both the reference beam mirror and the object; and a digital recorder optically coupled to the focusing lens. A reference beam is incident upon the reference beam mirror at a non-normal angle, and the reference beam and an object beam are focused by the focusing lens at a focal plane of the digital recorder to form an image. The systems and methods provide advantages in that computer assisted holographic measurements can be made.

  9. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1989-11-14

    Disclosed is a digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output. 6 figs.

  10. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output.

  11. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1986-09-02

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) and method are disclosed. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material. Other applications include optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range, while preserving all of the current art's DPSGs' operational features.

  12. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Carey, Joanna C.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2015-01-13

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, longterm free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwoodmore » species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.« less

  13. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chan, Kwai S.; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry; Liang, Wuwei

    2012-07-31

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  14. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia Digital Media

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Digital Media Now Playing Featured Categories At Sandia Community Service Energy Engineering - Nuclear Health-Safety Historical Material National Security Sciences and Engineering Technical Training Search Videos Webinars There are no current webinars at this time. For Media Browse Sandia's Media B-Roll. For additional information, view Sandia's Media Contacts and Resources page.

  16. Development of GEM-Based Digital Hadron Calorimetry Using the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Development of GEM-Based Digital Hadron Calorimetry Using the SLAC KPiX Chip Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of GEM-Based Digital Hadron...

  17. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens Sample from the Fifth Data Release Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey...

  18. Consortium on Digital Energy CoDE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on Digital Energy CoDE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Consortium on Digital Energy (CoDE) Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC2A 1QP Product: London-based consortium...

  19. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well injection at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Grand Junction ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site; modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  20. BacNet and Analog/Digital Interfaces of the Building Controls Virtual Testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael; Li, Zhengwei; Pang, Xiufeng; Bhattachayra, Prajesh; Haves, Philip

    2011-11-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent developments in the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB), a framework for co-simulation and hardware-in-the- loop. First, a general overview of the BCVTB is presented. Second, we describe the BACnet interface, a link which has been implemented to couple BACnet devices to the BCVTB. We present a case study where the interface was used to couple a whole building simulation program to a building control system to assess in real-time the performance of a real building. Third, we present the ADInterfaceMCC, an analog/digital interface that allows a USB-based analog/digital converter to be linked to the BCVTB. In a case study, we show how the link was used to couple the analog/digital converter to a building simulation model for local loop control.

  1. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Analysis Sandia Develops Stochastic ...

  2. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monte Carlo modeling it was found that for noisy signals with a significant background component, accuracy is improved by fitting the total emission data which includes the...

  3. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Actuarial Practice" Read More Permalink New Project Is the ACME of Computer Science to Address Climate Change Analysis, Climate, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, ...

  4. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Sandia Labs Releases New Version of PVLib Toolbox Sandia has released version 1.3 of PVLib, its widely used Matlab toolbox for modeling photovoltaic (PV) power ...

  5. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sandia Will Host PV Bankability Workshop at Solar Power International (SPI) 2013 Computational Modeling & Simulation, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Facilities, Grid ...

  6. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Though adequate for modeling mean transport, this approach does not address ... Microphysics such as diffusive transport and chemical kinetics are represented by ...

  7. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  8. V-115: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges V-115: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 20, 2013 - 12:08am Addthis PROBLEM: Apple iOS Bugs...

  9. Recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2008-03-25

    Systems and methods are described for recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image. A method includes digitally recording, at a first reference beam-object beam angle, a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a first spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the first reference beam-object beam angle; digitally recording, at a second reference beam-object beam angle, a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a second spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the second reference beam-object beam angle; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and define a first result; performing a first inverse Fourier transform on the first result; applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and define a second result; and performing a second inverse Fourier transform on the second result, wherein the first reference beam-object beam angle is not equal to the second reference beam-object beam angle and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  10. Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al

  11. The Focusing DIRC with Waveform Digitizing Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, L.L.; Nishimura, K.; Varner, G.S.; Vavra, J.; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; /SLAC

    2012-06-15

    We have tested a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. The prototype's concept is based on the BaBar DIRC with several important improvements: (a) much faster, pixelated photon detectors, (b) a mirror that makes the photon detector smaller and less sensitive to background in future applications, and (c) electronics capable of measuring single photon resolution to {sigma} {approx} 150 ps, which allows for correction due to chromatic error. In this test, the prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. This version of the FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope providing muon tracks with {approx}1 mrad angular resolution and a muon momentum cutoff of {ge} 1.6 GeV/c.

  12. Fundamental Concepts of Digital Image Processing

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Twogood, R. E.

    1983-03-01

    The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

  13. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colley, R.W.

    1982-06-29

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  14. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colley, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  15. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress? By David E. Wojick, Walter L. Warnick, Bonnie C. Carroll, and June Crowe Introduction With the United States federal government spending over $130 billion annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. It is well known that all scientific advancement is based on work that has come before. Isaac Newton expressed this

  16. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  17. Image display device in digital TV

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Seung Jong

    2006-07-18

    Disclosed is an image display device in a digital TV that is capable of carrying out the conversion into various kinds of resolution by using single bit map data in the digital TV. The image display device includes: a data processing part for executing bit map conversion, compression, restoration and format-conversion for text data; a memory for storing the bit map data obtained according to the bit map conversion and compression in the data processing part and image data inputted from an arbitrary receiving part, the receiving part receiving one of digital image data and analog image data; an image outputting part for reading the image data from the memory; and a display processing part for mixing the image data read from the image outputting part and the bit map data converted in format from the a data processing part. Therefore, the image display device according to the present invention can convert text data in such a manner as to correspond with various resolution, carry out the compression for bit map data, thereby reducing the memory space, and support text data of an HTML format, thereby providing the image with the text data of various shapes.

  18. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  19. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS CASE METHODOLOGY GUIDE & WORKBOOK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ken; Lawrie, Sean; Hart, Adam; Vlahoplus, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Performance advantages of the new digital technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on demonstrating actual cost reductions that can be credited to budgets and thereby truly reduce O&M or capital costs. Technology enhancements, while enhancing work methods and making work more efficient, often fail to eliminate workload such that it changes overall staffing and material cost requirements. It is critical to demonstrate cost reductions or impacts on non-cost performance objectives in order for the business case to justify investment by nuclear operators. This Business Case Methodology approaches building a business case for a particular technology or suite of technologies by detailing how they impact an operator in one or more of the three following areas: Labor Costs, Non-Labor Costs, and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Key to those impacts will be identifying where the savings are harvestable, meaning they result in an actual reduction in headcount and/or cost. The report consists of a Digital Technology Business Case Methodology Guide and an accompanying spreadsheet workbook that will enable the user to develop a business case.

  20. Digital I and C system upgrade integration technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H. W.; Shih, C.; Wang, J. R.; Huang, K. C.

    2012-07-01

    This work developed an integration technique for digital I and C system upgrade, the utility can replace the I and C systems step by step systematically by this method. Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin-Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo-Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) Procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (I) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR- 1011710 (2005) 'Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems' which was published by the Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SVandV), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. A

  1. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with application in modeling NDCX-II experiments Wangyi Liu 1 , John Barnard 2 , Alex Friedman 2 , Nathan Masters 2 , Aaron Fisher 2 , Alice Koniges 2 , David Eder 2 1 LBNL, USA, 2...

  2. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Earth at Night Video EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Global, Modeling, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting, Videos NASA Earth at Night Video Have you ever wondered what the ...

  3. Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2003-04-08

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

  4. Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2004-07-06

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with-the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

  5. Jefferson Lab Groups Encourage Digital Literacy Through Worldwide 'Hour

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Code' Campaign | Jefferson Lab Groups Encourage Digital Literacy Through Worldwide 'Hour of Code' Campaign Dana Cochran, Jefferson Lab staff member, helps students as they participate in a coding activity. Dana Cochran, Jefferson Lab staff member, helps students as they participate in a coding activity. Jefferson Lab Groups Encourage Digital Literacy Through Worldwide 'Hour of Code' Campaign To raise awareness of the need for digital literacy and a basic understanding of computer science,

  6. Human Reliability Analysis for Digital Human-Machine Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the fact that existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods do not provide guidance on digital human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Digital HMIs are becoming ubiquitous in nuclear power operations, whether through control room modernization or new-build control rooms. Legacy analog technologies like instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are costly to support, and vendors no longer develop or support analog technology, which is considered technologically obsolete. Yet, despite the inevitability of digital HMI, no current HRA method provides guidance on how to treat human reliability considerations for digital technologies.

  7. Jefferson Lab Groups Encourage Digital Literacy Through Worldwide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To raise awareness of the need for digital literacy and a basic understanding of computer science, Jefferson Lab's Information Technology Division and Science Education staff are ...

  8. EERE Digital Data Management Frequently Asked Questions | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frequently Asked Questions EERE Digital Data Management Frequently Asked Questions Submitting a Data Management Plan 1. I am submitting an applicationproposal for research funding ...

  9. DOE Policy for Digital Research Data Management: Suggested Elements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan DOE Policy for Digital Research Data Management: Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan The Principal Investigator or other ...

  10. EERE Digital Data Management Glossary | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Digital data management glossary terms are defined below. Data preservation: Data preservation means providing for the usability of data beyond the lifetime of the research ...

  11. Impact of Utility Rates on PV Economics - Digital Appendix |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for The Impacts of Utility Rates and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems. This digital appendix contains supplement material for the NREL technical...

  12. Sandia Energy - Digital In-Line Holography Helps Researchers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    droplets of fuel are generated and behave in such cases. Sandia researchers developed 3-D measurement techniques based on digital in-line holography (DIH). Sandia advanced DIH...

  13. Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Tryggvason, G.; Tsuji, Y.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Crowe, Clayton T.; Berlemont, A.; Reeks, M.; Simonin, O.; Frank, Th; Onishi, Yasuo; Van Wachem, B.

    2005-09-01

    Slurry flows occur in many circumstances, including chemical manufacturing processes, pipeline transfer of coal, sand, and minerals; mud flows; and disposal of dredged materials. In this section we discuss slurry flow applications related to radioactive waste management. The Hanford tank waste solids and interstitial liquids will be mixed to form a slurry so it can be pumped out for retrieval and treatment. The waste is very complex chemically and physically. The ARIEL code is used to model the chemical interactions and fluid dynamics of the waste.

  14. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

  15. Chemical Impact of Elevated CO2on Geothermal Energy Production | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Impact of Elevated CO2on Geothermal Energy Production Chemical Impact of Elevated CO2on Geothermal Energy Production This is a two phase project to assess the geochemical impact of CO2on geothermal energy production by: analyzing the geochemistry of existing geothermal fields with elevated natural CO2; measuring realistic rock-water rates for geothermal systems using laboratory and field-based experiments to simulate production scale impacts.

  16. Digital Instrumentation and Control Failure Events Derivation and Analysis by Frame-Based Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui-Wen Huang; Chunkuan Shih [National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Swu Yih [DML International, 18F-1 295, Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yen-Chang Tzeng; Ming-Huei Chen [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    A frame-based technique, including physical frame, logical frame, and cognitive frame, was adopted to perform digital I and C failure events derivation and analysis for generic ABWR. The physical frame was structured with a modified PCTran-ABWR plant simulation code, which was extended and enhanced on the feedwater system, recirculation system, and steam line system. The logical model is structured with MATLAB, which was incorporated into PCTran-ABWR to improve the pressure control system, feedwater control system, recirculation control system, and automated power regulation control system. As a result, the software failure of these digital control systems can be properly simulated and analyzed. The cognitive frame was simulated by the operator awareness status in the scenarios. Moreover, via an internal characteristics tuning technique, the modified PCTran-ABWR can precisely reflect the characteristics of the power-core flow. Hence, in addition to the transient plots, the analysis results can then be demonstrated on the power-core flow map. A number of postulated I and C system software failure events were derived to achieve the dynamic analyses. The basis for event derivation includes the published classification for software anomalies, the digital I and C design data for ABWR, chapter 15 accident analysis of generic SAR, and the reported NPP I and C software failure events. The case study of this research includes (1) the software CMF analysis for the major digital control systems; and (2) postulated ABWR digital I and C software failure events derivation from the actual happening of non-ABWR digital I and C software failure events, which were reported to LER of USNRC or IRS of IAEA. These events were analyzed by PCTran-ABWR. Conflicts among plant status, computer status, and human cognitive status are successfully identified. The operator might not easily recognize the abnormal condition, because the computer status seems to progress normally. However, a well

  17. U-094: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EMC Documentum Content Server contains a privilege elevation vulnerability that may allow an unauthorized user to obtain highest administrative privileges on the system.

  18. T-608: HP Virtual Server Environment Lets Remote Authenticated Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A potential security vulnerability has been identified in HP Virtual Server Environment for Windows. The vulnerability could be exploited remotely to elevate privileges.

  19. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation ...

  20. Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-10-29

    The Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector software requires a digital x-ray image of a pipe as input to the program, such as the image in Attachment A Figure 1. The image may be in a variety of software formats such as bitmap, jpeg, tiff, DICOM or DICONDE. The software allows the user to interactively select a region of interest from the image for analysis. This software is used to analyze digital x-ray images of pipes tomore » evaluate loss of wall thickness. The software specifically provides tools to analyze the image in (a) the pipe walls, (b) between the pipe walls. Traditional software uses only the information at the pipe wall while this new software also evaluates the image between the pipewalls. This makes the inspection process faster, more thorough, more efficient, and reduces expensive reshots. Attachment A Figure 2 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user around an anomaly in the pipe wall. This area is automatically analyzed by the external pipe wall tool with the result shown in Attachment A Figure 3. The edges of the pipe wall are detected and highlighted in yellow and areas where the wall thickness in less the the minimum wall threshold are shown in red. These measurements are typically made manually in other software programs, which lead to errors and inconsistency because the location of the edges are estimated by the user. Attachment A Figure 4 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user between the pipe walls. As can be seen there are intensity anomalies that correspond to wall defects. However, this information is not used directly by other software programs. In order to fully investigate these anomalies, the pipe would be reinspected in a different orientation to attempt to obtain a view of the anomaly in the pipe wall rather than the interior of the pipe. The pipe may need to be x-rayed a number of times to obtain the correct orientation. This is very costly and time consuming. The new software can perform the

  1. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-06-15

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research.

  2. Digital reverse propagation in focusing Kerr media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-03-15

    Lenses allow the formation of clear images in homogeneous linear media. Holography is an alternative imaging method, but its use is limited to cases in which it provides an advantage, such as three-dimensional imaging. In nonlinear media, lenses no longer work. The light produces intensity-dependent aberrations. The reverse propagation method used in digital holography to form images from recorded holograms works even in Kerr media [M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).]. The principle has been experimentally demonstrated recently in defocusing media [C. Barsi, W.Wan, and J.W. Fleischer, Nat. Photonics 3, 211 (2009).]. Here, we report experimental results in focusing media.

  3. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  4. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T.sub.ij (x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval.

  5. Synchronous digitization for high dynamic range lock-in amplification in beam-scanning microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, Ryan D.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Oglesbee, Robert A.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2014-03-15

    Digital lock-in amplification (LIA) with synchronous digitization (SD) is shown to provide significant signal to noise (S/N) and linear dynamic range advantages in beam-scanning microscopy measurements using pulsed laser sources. Direct comparisons between SD-LIA and conventional LIA in homodyne second harmonic generation measurements resulted in S/N enhancements consistent with theoretical models. SD-LIA provided notably larger S/N enhancements in the limit of low light intensities, through the smooth transition between photon counting and signal averaging developed in previous work. Rapid beam scanning instrumentation with up to video rate acquisition speeds minimized photo-induced sample damage. The corresponding increased allowance for higher laser power without sample damage is advantageous for increasing the observed signal content.

  6. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui

    2012-09-15

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  7. Theoretical investigations of defects in a Si-based digital ferromagne...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    digital ferromagnetic heterostructure - a spintronic material Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical investigations of defects in a Si-based digital ...

  8. Temperature elevation by HIFU in ex vivo porcine muscle: MRI measurement and simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovchuk, Maxim A.; Hwang, San Chao; Chang, Hsu; Thiriet, Marc; Sheu, Tony W. H.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound is a rapidly developing medical technology with a large number of potential clinical applications. Computational model can play a pivotal role in the planning and optimization of the treatment based on the patient's image. Nonlinear propagation effects can significantly affect the temperature elevation and should be taken into account. In order to investigate the importance of nonlinear propagation effects, nonlinear Westervelt equation was solved. Weak nonlinear propagation effects were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the predicted and measured temperature elevations and lesion in a porcine muscle. Methods: The investigated single-element transducer has a focal length of 12 cm, an aperture of 8 cm, and frequency of 1.08 MHz. Porcine muscle was heated for 30 s by focused ultrasound transducer with an acoustic power in the range of 24–56 W. The theoretical model consists of nonlinear Westervelt equation with relaxation effects being taken into account and Pennes bioheat equation. Results: Excellent agreement between the measured and simulated temperature rises was found. For peak temperatures above 85–90 °C “preboiling” or cavitation activity appears and lesion distortion starts, causing small discrepancy between the measured and simulated temperature rises. From the measurements and simulations, it was shown that distortion of the lesion was caused by the “preboiling” activity. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that for peak temperatures below 85–90 °C numerical simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data in three dimensions. Both temperature rise and lesion size can be well predicted. Due to nonlinear effect the temperature in the focal region can be increased compared with the linear case. The current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resolution is not sufficient. Due to the inevitable averaging the measured

  9. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff

  10. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.W. Markman

    1999-09-17

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control

  11. Microtopographic characterization of ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska: a digital map of troughs, rims, centers derived from high resolution (0.25 m) LiDAR data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-07-03

    The dataset represents microtopographic characterization of the ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska. Three microtopographic features are delineated using 0.25 m high resolution digital elevation dataset derived from LiDAR. The troughs, rims, and centers are the three categories in this classification scheme. The polygon troughs are the surface expression of the ice-wedges that are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The elevated shoulders of the polygon interior immediately adjacent to the polygon troughs are the polygon rims for the low center polygons. In case of high center polygons, these features are the topographic highs. In this classification scheme, both topographic highs and rims are considered as polygon rims. The next version of the dataset will include more refined classification scheme including separate classes for rims ad topographic highs. The interior part of the polygon just adjacent to the polygon rims are the polygon centers.

  12. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO 2 and O 3 on Paper Birch ( Betula papyrifera ): Reproductive Fitness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darbah, Joseph N. T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vaapavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 and tropospheric O 3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO 3 and O 3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO 2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O 3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little floweringmore » has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO 2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO 2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO 2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O 3 (elevated O 3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO 2 , plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO 2 , while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O 3 . Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO 2 and O 3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.« less

  13. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2and O3on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera): Reproductive Fitness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darbah, Joseph N. T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vaapavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2and tropospheric O3are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3and O3for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2had significant positive effect on birchmorecatkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O3(elevated O3decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2and O3can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.less

  14. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  15. A Modular, Standards-based Digital Object Repository

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    The aDORe repository architecture, designed and implemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital Objects. aDORe was originally created for use at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture, the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format to represent Digital Objects that can consist of multiple datastreams as Open Archival Information System Archival Information Packagesmore » (OAIS AIPs).« less

  16. Feed-forward digital phase and amplitude correction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, D.U.L.; Conway, P.H.

    1994-11-15

    Phase and amplitude modifications in repeatable RF pulses at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier are made utilizing a digital feed-forward correction system. A controlled amount of the output power is coupled to a correction system for processing of phase and amplitude information. The correction system comprises circuitry to compare the detected phase and amplitude with the desired phase and amplitude, respectively, and a digitally programmable phase shifter and attenuator and digital logic circuitry to control the phase shifter and attenuator. The phase and amplitude of subsequent are modified by output signals from the correction system. 11 figs.

  17. Feed-forward digital phase and amplitude correction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U. L.; Conway, Patrick H.

    1994-01-01

    Phase and amplitude modifications in repeatable RF pulses at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier are made utilizing a digital feed-forward correction system. A controlled amount of the output power is coupled to a correction system for processing of phase and amplitude information. The correction system comprises circuitry to compare the detected phase and amplitude with the desired phase and amplitude, respectively, and a digitally programmable phase shifter and attenuator and digital logic circuitry to control the phase shifter and attenuator. The Phase and amplitude of subsequent are modified by output signals from the correction system.

  18. Bringing a Digital Mindset to Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bringing a Digital Mindset to Manufacturing Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Bringing a Digital Mindset to Manufacturing The digital age will provide manufacturing insights that will save money and transform how we work across supply chains. By Christine M. Furstoss Technology Director, Materials &

  19. Digital data storage systems, computers, and data verification methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groeneveld, Bennett J.; Austad, Wayne E.; Walsh, Stuart C.; Herring, Catherine A.

    2005-12-27

    Digital data storage systems, computers, and data verification methods are provided. According to a first aspect of the invention, a computer includes an interface adapted to couple with a dynamic database; and processing circuitry configured to provide a first hash from digital data stored within a portion of the dynamic database at an initial moment in time, to provide a second hash from digital data stored within the portion of the dynamic database at a subsequent moment in time, and to compare the first hash and the second hash.

  20. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  1. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board. 16 figs.

  2. Digital Television and Media Innovations | Princeton Plasma Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28, 2007, 4:15pm to 5:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium Digital Television and Media Innovations Dr. Michael A. Isnardi Sarnoff Corporation Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma...

  3. OSTIblog Articles in the digitization Topic | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... OSTI's most recent contributions to... Related Topics: digitization, DOE Green Energy, preservation, Science.gov, ScienceCinema, ScienceEducation.gov Read more... You Can Be a Part ...

  4. Sandia Lightning Early Warning Network: Digital-based upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G.M.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the layout and operation of the recently upgraded Sandia Lightning Early Warning Network, which was upgraded from an analog-based to a digital-based telemetry system.

  5. LM Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) has successfully completed a project to digitize nearly 400,000 medical x‑rays of former DOE contractor employees.

  6. Live Broadcast on Transforming Digital Technologies Across Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Thursday, March 24 at 1:00pm ET, join the Office of the Chief Information Office for a discussion on transforming digital technologies across the federal government.

  7. EERE Website and Digital Media Standards and Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Find guidance on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) requirements, standards, and best practices for websites and other digital media such as applications, videos, and social media.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR ELEVATED X-RAY EMISSION IN LOCAL LYMAN BREAK GALAXY ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Goncalves, Thiago S.; Fragos, Tassos; Heckman, Timothy M.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Schiminovich, David

    2013-09-10

    Our knowledge of how X-ray emission scales with star formation at the earliest times in the universe relies on studies of very distant Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). In this paper, we study the relationship between the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity (L{sub X}), assumed to originate from X-ray binaries (XRBs), and star formation rate (SFR) in ultraviolet (UV) selected z < 0.1 Lyman break analogs (LBAs). We present Chandra observations for four new Galaxy Evolution Explorer selected LBAs. Including previously studied LBAs, Haro 11 and VV 114, we find that LBAs demonstrate L{sub X}/SFR ratios that are elevated by {approx}1.5{sigma} compared to local galaxies, similar to the ratios found for stacked LBGs in the early universe (z > 2). Unlike some of the composite LBAs studied previously, we show that these LBAs are unlikely to harbor active galactic nuclei, based on their optical and X-ray spectra and the spatial distribution of the X-rays in three spatially extended cases. Instead, we expect that high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) dominate the X-ray emission in these galaxies, based on their high specific SFRs (sSFRs {identical_to} SFR/M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1}), which suggest the prevalence of young stellar populations. Since both UV-selected populations (LBGs and LBAs) have lower dust attenuations and metallicities compared to similar samples of more typical local galaxies, we investigate the effects of dust extinction and metallicity on the L{sub X}/SFR for the broader population of galaxies with high sSFRs (>10{sup -10} yr{sup -1}). The estimated dust extinctions (corresponding to column densities of N{sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) are expected to have insignificant effects on observed L{sub X}/SFR ratio for the majority of galaxy samples. We find that the observed relationship between L{sub X}/SFR and metallicity appears consistent with theoretical expectations from XRB population synthesis models. Therefore, we conclude that lower metallicities, related to

  9. MULTIPLE INPUT BINARY ADDER EMPLOYING MAGNETIC DRUM DIGITAL COMPUTING APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1960-12-01

    A digital computing apparatus is described for adding a plurality of multi-digit binary numbers. The apparatus comprises a rotating magnetic drum, a recording head, first and second reading heads disposed adjacent to the first and second recording tracks, and a series of timing signals recorded on the first track. A series of N groups of digit-representing signals is delivered to the recording head at time intervals corresponding to the timing signals, each group consisting of digits of the same significance in the numbers, and the signal series is recorded on the second track of the drum in synchronism with the timing signals on the first track. The multistage registers are stepped cyclically through all positions, and each of the multistage registers is coupled to the control lead of a separate gate circuit to open the corresponding gate at only one selected position in each cycle. One of the gates has its input coupled to the bistable element to receive the sum digit, and the output lead of this gate is coupled to the recording device. The inputs of the other gates receive the digits to be added from the second reading head, and the outputs of these gates are coupled to the adding register. A phase-setting pulse source is connected to each of the multistage registers individually to step the multistage registers to different initial positions in the cycle, and the phase-setting pulse source is actuated each N time interval to shift a sum digit to the bistable element, where the multistage register coupled to bistable element is operated by the phase- setting pulse source to that position in its cycle N steps before opening the first gate, so that this gate opens in synchronism with each of the shifts to pass the sum digits to the recording head.

  10. GE's Digital Marketplace to Revolutionize Manufacturing | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research GE's Digital Marketplace to Revolutionize Manufacturing Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE's Digital Marketplace to Revolutionize Manufacturing GE will lead an effort to create an online community for manufacturing collaboration and data analysis The open source project will build the

  11. Digital-data receiver synchronization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F. [Loudon, TN; Turner, Gary W. [Clinton, TN

    2009-09-08

    Digital data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock can be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  12. Digital-data receiver synchronization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.; Turner, Gary W.

    2005-12-06

    Digital-data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock may be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  13. DOE Data ID Service - Digital object identifiers for DOE scientific

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    research datasets | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Data ID Service DataCite | Contact DOE Data ID Service DOE Data ID Service DOE Data ID Service The DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) offers a service for registering datasets to help increase access to digital data from DOE-funded scientific research. Through the DOE Data ID Service, OSTI assigns persistent identifiers, known as Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), to datasets

  14. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulthess, Jason

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  15. Data Acquisition Scan for Large Area Flat Panel Digital X-ray Detector Array

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-01

    Interface large area flat panel digital detector and motion control system for computed tomographic data acquisition.

  16. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... data and textual information; and 4. Modeling scientific exchange in the research process. ... for conceptual context and the importance of reviewing the body of knowledge that exists. ...

  17. U-068:Linux Kernel SG_IO ioctl Bug Lets Local Users Gain Elevated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Linux Kernel SGIO ioctl Bug Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges PLATFORM: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop (v. 6) Red Hat Enterprise Linux HPC Node (v. 6) Red Hat...

  18. Shock sensitivity of LX 04 at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urtiew, P.A.; Tarver, C.M.; Gorbes, J.W.; Garcia, G.

    1997-07-01

    Hazard scenarios can involve multiple stimuli, such as heating followed by fragment impact (shock). The shock response of LX-04 (85 weight % HMX and 15 weight % Viton binder) preheated to temperatures hear 170C is studied in a 10.2 cm bore diameter gas gun using embedded manganin pressure gauges. The pressure histories at various depths in the LX-04 targets and the run distances to detonation at several input shock pressures are measured and compared to those obtained in ambient temperature LX-04. The hot LX-04 is significantly more shock sensitive than ambient LX-04. Ignition and Growth reactive flow models are developed for ambient and hot LX-04 to allow predictions of impact scenarios that a can not be tested directly.

  19. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen

  20. U-128: VMware ESX/ESXi Buffer Overflow and Null Pointer Dereference Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in VMware ESX. A local user can obtain elevated privileges on the target system.

  1. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Stephanie M. Wagner, Louis K.; Brateman, Libby F.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: That scattered radiation negatively impacts the quality of medical radiographic imaging is well known. In mammography, even slight amounts of scatter reduce the high contrast required for subtle soft-tissue imaging. In current clinical mammography, image contrast is partially improved by use of an antiscatter grid. This form of scatter rejection comes with a sizeable dose penalty related to the concomitant elimination of valuable primary radiation. Digital mammography allows the use of image processing as a method of scatter correction that might avoid effects that negatively impact primary radiation, while potentially providing more contrast improvement than is currently possible with a grid. For this approach to be feasible, a detailed characterization of the scatter is needed. Previous research has modeled scatter as a constant background that serves as a DC bias across the imaging surface. The goal of this study was to provide a more substantive data set for characterizing the spatially-variant features of scatter radiation at the image detector of modern mammography units. Methods: This data set was acquired from a model of the radiation beam as a matrix of very narrow rays or pencil beams. As each pencil beam penetrates tissue, the pencil widens in a predictable manner due to the production of scatter. The resultant spreading of the pencil beam at the detector surface can be characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were calculated from measurements obtained using the beam stop method. Two digital mammography units were utilized, and the SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and presence or absence of a grid. These values were then used to generate general equations allowing the SF and MRE to be calculated for any combination of the above parameters. Results: With a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of about 0.05 to a maximum of about 0

  2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION OF THREE MOJAVE DESERT GRASSES IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. A. DEFALCO; C. K. IVANS; P. VIVIN; J. R. SEEMANN; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, biomass and N allocation were compared among three Mojave Desert grasses representing different functional types to determine if photosynthetic responses and the associated allocation of resources within the plant changed after prolonged exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}. Leaf gas exchange characteristics were measured for Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (C{sub 3} invasive annual), Achnatherum hymenoides (C{sub 3} native perennial) and Pleuraphis rigida (C{sub 4} native perennial) exposed to 360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (ambient) and 1000 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated) CO{sub 2} concentrations in a glasshouse experiment, and tissue biomass and total N pools were quantified from three harvests during development. The maximum rate of carboxylation by the N-rich enzyme Rubisco (Vc{sub max}), which was inferred from the relationship between net CO{sub 2} assimilation (A{sub net}) and intracellular CO{sub 2} concentration (c{sub i}), declined in the C{sub 3} species Bromus and Achnatherum across all sampling dates, but did not change at elevated CO{sub 2} for the C{sub 4} Pleuraphis. Whole plant N remained the same between CO{sub 2} treatments for all species, but patterns of allocation differed for the short- and long-lived C{sub 3} species. For Bromus, leaf N used for photosynthesis was reallocated to reproduction at elevated CO{sub 2} as inferred from the combination of lower Vc{sub max} and N per leaf area (NLA) at elevated CO{sub 2}, but similar specific leaf area (SLA, cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and of greater reproductive effort (RE) for the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. Vc{sub max}, leaf N concentration and NLA declined for the perennial Achnatherum at elevated CO{sub 2} potentially due to accumulation of carbohydrates or changes in leaf morphology inferred from lower SLA and greater total biomass at elevated CO{sub 2}. In contrast, Vc{sub max} for the C{sub 4} perennial Pleuraphis did not change at elevated CO{sub 2}, and tissue biomass and total N were

  3. SRT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    freely available Dictionary.png SRT: The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was an international research effort that obtained digital elevation models on a near-global...

  4. BPA-2014-01847-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (and 2014 once it becomes available this fall). I am particularly interested in the Digital Elevation Models ofthe topographic surveys." Response: We conducted a search of the...

  5. Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that thisoutcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of...

  6. BPA-2014-01847-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 (and 2014 once it becomes available this fall). I am particularly interested in the Digital Elevation Models of the topographic surveys. Specify preferred form or format:...

  7. Digital regulation of a phase controlled power converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultheiss, C.; Haque, T.

    1995-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, now in construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will use phase controlled power converters for the main dipole and quadrupole magnet strings. The rectifiers in these power supplies will be controlled by a digital regulator based on the TI 320C30 Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The DSP implements the current loop, the voltage loop, and a system to actively reduce the sub-harmonic ripple components. Digital firing circuits consisting of a phase locked lop and counters are used to fire the SCRs. Corrections for the sub-harmonic reduction are calculated by the DSP and stored in registers in the firing circuit. These corrections are added in hardware, to the over-all firing count provided by the DSP. the resultant count is compared to a reference counter to fire the SCRs. This combination of a digital control system and the digital firing circuits allows the correction of the sub-harmonics in a real-time sense. A prototype of the regulator has been constructed, and the preliminary testing indicates a sub-harmonic reduction of 60 dB.

  8. Accelerating the Customer-Driven Microgrid Through Real-Time Digital Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Leonard; T. Baldwin; M. Sloderbeck

    2009-07-01

    Comprehensive design and testing of realistic customer-driven microgrids requires a high performance simulation platform capable of incorporating power system and control models with external hardware systems. Traditional non real-time simulation is unable to fully capture the level of detail necessary to expose real-world implementation issues. With a real-time digital simulator as its foundation, a high-fidelity simulation environment that includes a robust electrical power system model, advanced control architecture, and a highly adaptable communication network is introduced. Hardware-in-the-loop implementation approaches for the hardware-based control and communication systems are included. An overview of the existing power system model and its suitability for investigation of autonomous island formation within the microgrid is additionally presented. Further test plans are also documented.

  9. The FBI compression standard for digitized fingerprint images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brislawn, C.M.; Bradley, J.N.; Onyshczak, R.J.; Hopper, T.

    1996-10-01

    The FBI has formulated national standards for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. The compression algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition, a technique referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations. We will review the current status of the FBI standard, including the compliance testing process and the details of the first-generation encoder.

  10. Digital intermediate frequency QAM modulator using parallel processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Tran, Binh-Nien

    2008-05-27

    The digital Intermediate Frequency (IF) modulator applies to various modulation types and offers a simple and low cost method to implement a high-speed digital IF modulator using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The architecture eliminates multipliers and sequential processing by storing the pre-computed modulated cosine and sine carriers in ROM look-up-tables (LUTs). The high-speed input data stream is parallel processed using the corresponding LUTs, which reduces the main processing speed, allowing the use of low cost FPGAs.