National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for digester gases methane

  1. Biomass Gasification and Methane Digester Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to be eligible for the exemption, methane digester equipment must be certified by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the farm must be verified as compliant under the Michig...

  2. Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-C: Beyond Biofuels Larry Baresi, Professor of Biology, California State University, Northridge PDF icon b13_baresi_1-C.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Environmental

  3. Definition:Digester Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    digestion is a biological process that produces a gas principally composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) otherwise known as biogas. These gases are produced...

  4. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 | Department of Energy 5: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 The Environmental Protection Agency finalized Tier 3 emission standards in a rule issued in March 2014. One effect of the rule is a decrease in the combined amount of non-methane organic gases

  5. Anaerobic Digestion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaerobic digestion is a common technology in today's agriculture, municipal waste, and brewing industries. It uses bacteria to break down waste organic materials into methane and other gases, which can be used to produce electricity or heat.

  6. Methane activation using noble gases in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-08-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gasesHe, Ne, and Aras additives. The empirical results obtained clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by thy type of noble gas used. Through 0-D calculations, the discharge parameters inside the reactor, i.e., electron temperature and electron density, are estimated using experiment results. A comparison of the discharge characteristics and experimental results shows that the electron temperature is an important factor in achieving high methane activation and the mixture with Ar gas shows the highest methane conversion. These results are constructed using the mechanisms of energy and charge transfer from excited and ionized noble gas atoms to methane molecules, considering the number density of active atoms of noble gases. Finally, electron temperatures obtained for gas mixtures having different reactant compositions and concentrations are analyzed to estimate methane activation.

  7. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  8. Nanostructured carbon materials for adsorption of methane and other gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stadie, Nicholas P.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Murialdo, Maxwell

    2015-06-30

    Provided are methods for storing gases on porous adsorbents, methods for optimizing the storage of gases on porous adsorbents, methods of making porous adsorbents, and methods of gas storage of optimized compositions, as in systems containing porous adsorbents and gas adsorbed on the surface of the porous adsorbent. The disclosed methods and systems feature a constant or increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption as a function of uptake of the gas onto the exposed surface of a porous adsorbent. Adsorbents with a porous geometry and surface dimensions suited to a particular adsorbate are exposed to the gas at elevated pressures in the specific regime where n/V (density) is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law by more than several percent.

  9. Methane enrichment digestion experiments at the anaerobic experimental test unit at Walt Disney World. Final report, March 1989-August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Hill, A.H.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the project was to determine the technical feasibility of utilizing a novel concept in anaerobic digestion, in-situ methane enrichment digestion or MED for producing utility-grade gas from a pilot-scale anaerobic digester. MED tests conducted during this program consistently achieved digester product gas with a methane (CH4) content of greater than 90% (on a dry-, nitrogen-free basis). The MED concept, because it requires relatively simple equipment and modest energy input, has the potential to simplify gas cleanup requirements and substantially reduce the cost of converting wastes and biomass to pipeline quality gas.

  10. Influence of H/sub 2/ stripping on methane production in conventional digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poels, J.; Van Assche, P.; Verstraete, W.

    1985-12-01

    Hydrogen is a central metabolite in the methanization process. In this study the partial pressure of hydrogen in the gas phase of laboratory manure digesters was monitored over extensive periods of time and found to vary between 50 and 100.10/sup -6/ atm. By sparging the gas phase of the digester through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were allowed to develop at the expense of hydrogen and carbon dioxide present in the biogas, independently of the liquid or cell residence time in the main reactor. By scrubbing ca. 100 volumes of biogas per liter reactor per day through an auxiliary reactor, hydrogen concentration could be decreased maximally 25%. This resulted in an increase in the gas production rate of the main digester of ca. 10% and a concomitant improved removal of volatile fatty acids from the mixed liquor. The results obtained indicate that considerable stripping of hydrogen from the digester could be achieved at acceptable energy expenditure. However, the microbial removal of the hydrogen at these low concentrations is extremely slow and limits the applicability of this approach.

  11. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  12. Effects of nickel on biological methane generation from a laboratory poultry waste digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, C.M.; Shih, J.C.H.; Spears, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel added in concentrations as low as 10..mu..M significantly increased biogas production in a laboratory poultry waste digester utilizing excreta from laying hens as the organic energy source. It was shown that the initial rate of biogas production increased as early as 4 h after the addition of nickel to the laboratory cultures. Analysis of the excreta for nickel content prior to addition of exogenous NiCl/sub 2/ showed appreciable amounts of nickel present. The data indicate that nickel naturally present in layer excreta is suboptimal or unavailable to the bacteria for biogas production purposes.

  13. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  14. Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuels from methane: a sustainable, abundant resource that does not compete with the human food chain 3 Sustainable Methane * Methane can be captured from anaerobic digestion of...

  15. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ? The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ? Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ? Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 1021%. ? Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to inoculated substrates, and substrates without inoculum, respectively.

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  17. Gram-scale, high-yield synthesis of a robust metal-organic framework for storing methane and other gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmer, CE; Farha, OK; Yildirim, T; Eryazici, I; Krungleviciute, V; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT

    2013-04-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new metal-organic framework (MOF) material, NU-125, that, in the single-crystal limit, achieves a methane storage density at 58 bar (840 psi) and 298 K corresponding to 86% of that obtained with compressed natural gas tanks (CNG) used in vehicles today, when the latter are pressurized to 248 bar (3600 psi). More importantly, the deliverable capacity (58 bar to 5.8 bar) for NU-125 is 67% of the deliverable capacity of a CNG tank that starts at 248 bar. (For crystalline granules or powders, particle packing inefficiencies will yield densities and deliverable capacities lower than 86% and 67% of high-pressure CNG.) This material was synthesized in high yield on a gram-scale in a single-batch synthesis. Methane adsorption isotherms were measured over a wide pressure range (0.1-58 bar) and repeated over twelve cycles on the same sample, which showed no detectable degradation. Adsorption of CO2 and H-2 over a broad range of pressures and temperatures are also reported and agree with our computational findings.

  18. Methane generation from animal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    The conversion of manure to biogas via anaerobic digestion is described. The effluent resulting from the conversion retains fertilizer value and is environmentally acceptable. Discussion is presented under the headings: methane formation in the digester; the Tarleton State Poultry Waste to Methane production system; operating experience at Tarleton State; economics of biogas production from poultry waste; construction cost and biogas value; energy uses; feed and waste processing; and advantages of anaerobic digestion. (DMC)

  19. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  20. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  1. Methane Gas Conversion Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under Iowa's methane gas conversion property tax exemption, real and personal property used to decompose waste and convert the waste to gas, collect the methane or other gases, convert the gas to...

  2. ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What are Greenhouse Gases? Carbon Dioxide Methane Gas Oxides of Nitrogen Halocarbons Ozone Water Vapor Greenhouse gases are atmospheric gases that trap infrared radiation emitted from the earth, lower atmosphere, or clouds or aerosols and, as

  3. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samani, Zohrab A. (Las Cruces, NM); Hanson, Adrian T. (Las Cruces, NM); Macias-Corral, Maritza (Las Cruces, NM)

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  4. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  5. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  6. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  7. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4:

  8. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  9. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellinger, A.

    1995-11-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters-type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates-define the investment and operating costs of anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters in somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 11/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  10. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayr, S. Ojanper, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Rendering wastes mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  11. Where Greenhouse Gases Come From | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Where Greenhouse Gases Come From In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions come primarily from the burning of fossil fuels in energy use. Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. In 2013, 82% of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions were carbon dioxide emissions, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, solid waste, trees, wood, and other chemical reactions. Methane and Other Gases Another greenhouse gas, methane, comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and natural gas

  12. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  13. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  14. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  15. Single stage anaerobic digester at Tarleton State University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The design and operation of the demonstration plant facilities at Tarleton State University to produce methane in a single stage anaerobic digester are described. A combination of manures from hogs and poultry are used as feedstock. Uses for the methane, cost of the digester, and value of the energy produced are discussed. During the 21 months of operation, 310 people have visited the project. (DMC)

  16. Methane production by attached film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jewell, William J. (202 Eastwood Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850)

    1981-01-01

    A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

  17. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of screened dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the operating results of a two-phase process that separate the acid-phase and methane-phase digestion of screened dairy manure under mesophilic temperature. Acidogenesis pretreatment prior to the methanogenic fixed-film reactor phase resulted in a significant increase in methane yield.

  18. Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill gas-to-energy projects. PDF icon 20120717_perdido_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-001860: Categorical Exclusion Determination 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization CX-002678: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  19. ARM - Methane Background Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Background Information What is Methane? Why Do We Use Methane? How is Methane Made? Where Do We Find Methane? Can Methane Be Dangerous? Does Methane Contribute to Climate Change? What is Methane?

  20. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  1. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  2. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Global lWarming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16

  3. Coalbed Methane

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coalbed methane is natural gas found in coal deposits. It was once considered a nuisance and mine safety hazard, but today has become a valuable part of the U.S. energy portfolio. A major reason for this is resource characterization and the establishment of efficient recovery methods pioneered by Office of Fossil Energy R&D.

  4. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  5. EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ‹ Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses

  6. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  7. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  8. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  9. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  10. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  11. Methane Credit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Credit Jump to: navigation, search Name: Methane Credit Place: Charlotte, North Carolina Zip: 28273 Product: Specialises in utilising methane produced on municipal landfill...

  12. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-10-15

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anaerobic Digestion (Redirected from - Anaerobic Digestion) Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Anaerobic Digestion Incentives Retrieved from "http:...

  14. RCM Digesters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RCM Digesters Jump to: navigation, search Name: RCM Digesters Place: Berkeley, California Zip: CA 94704 Product: Manufactures anaerobic manure digesters which process animal waste...

  15. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  16. Greenhouse Gases into Gold

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Greenhouse Gases into Gold Greenhouse Gases into Gold NERSC simulations reveal reaction mechanism behind CO₂ conversion into carbon-neutral fuels and chemicals November 6, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Environmentalists have long lamented the destructive effects of greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) often accused of being the primary instigator of global climate change. As a result, numerous efforts are under way to find ways to prevent,

  17. Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.

    2011-12-14

    In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH{sub 4} and the quantity of CH{sub 4} lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N{sub 2}O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

  18. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  19. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress July 2012 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | July 2012 FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report entitled U.S. Department of Energy FY 2011 Methane

  20. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fiscal Year 2013 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress October 2014 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | October 2014 Fiscal Year 2013 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary The Department of Energy is required 1 to submit to Congress an annual report on the actions taken to carry out methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed Report to Congress, Fiscal Year 2013 Methane Hydrate Program.

  1. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  3. Methane Hydrate | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Methane Hydrate Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and

  4. Improved efficiency and stable digestion of biomass in non-mixed upflow solids reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Fannin, K.F.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Frank, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR), which permitted longer solids than hydraulic retention times, was used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The performance of the USR was compared to that of the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at different organic loading rates in terms of methane yield, methane production rate, and process stability. Results showed that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp compositional variability, methane yields and production rates in the USR were significantly higher than those observed with the CSTR. Results also showed that volatile acid concentrations, which are generally inversely related to digester stability, were significantly lower in the USR than in the CSTR. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  6. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  7. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fiscal Year 2012 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress August 2013 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | August 2013 Fiscal Year 2012 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the actions taken to carry out methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report, entitled U.S.

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  9. The future of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce ca. 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions steming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. Until all these aspects of methane are better understood, its future role in the world`s energy mix will remain uncertain. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity and importance of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  10. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  11. Anaerobic digestion as a waste disposal option for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C

    1993-01-01

    Tuna sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal problem as well as an emerging opportunity for use in renewable fuel production. This research project focuses on the biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products including methane and fertilizer-grade residue through anaerobic high solids digestion. In this preliminary study, the anaerobic bioconversion of tuna sludge with MSW appears promising.

  12. Biofuels Digest | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Digest Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuels Digest Address: 801 Brickell Avenue Suite 900 Place: Miami, Florida Zip: 33131 Sector: Services Product: Information Year Founded:...

  13. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production March 24, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Area Review Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Ph. D. Argonne National Laboratory Goal Statement  Ultimate Goal: Transform negative-value or low-value biosolids into high- energy-density, fungible hydrocarbon precursors through targeted research, development and demonstration. - Enhance anaerobic digestion of biosolids to produce biogas with ~90% methane content and hydrogen sulfide at

  14. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  15. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  16. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  17. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). > Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. > FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. > Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS{sub added} when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  18. The future of energy gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO {sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO {sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce each 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions stemming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane is known to exist in the mantle and lower crust. Near the Earth`s surface, methane occurs in enormous oil and/or gas reservoirs in rock, and is absorbed in coal, dissolved in water, and trapped in a latticework of ice-like material called gas hydrate. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, methane accounts for roughly 25 percent of current U.S. consumption, but its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  19. A mass transfer model of ammonia volatilisation from anaerobic digestate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, M.J.; Everitt, T.; Villa, R.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly popular for treating organic waste. The methane produced can be burned to generate electricity and the digestate, which is high in mineral nitrogen, can be used as a fertiliser. In this paper we evaluate potential losses of ammonia via volatilisation from food waste anaerobic digestate using a closed chamber system equipped with a sulphuric acid trap. Ammonia losses represent a pollution source and, over long periods could reduce the agronomic value of the digestate. Observed ammonia losses from the experimental system were linear with time. A simple non-steady-state partitioning model was developed to represent the process. After calibration, the model was able to describe the behaviour of ammonia in the digestate and in the trap very well. The average rate of volatilisation was approximately 5.2 g N m{sup -2} week{sup -1}. The model was used to extrapolate the findings of the laboratory study to a number of AD storage scenarios. The simulations highlight that open storage of digestate could result in significant losses of ammonia to the atmosphere. Losses are predicted to be relatively minor from covered facilities, particularly if depth to surface area ratio is high.

  20. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  1. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  2. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  3. Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for...

  4. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Bearing Trace Gases A critical scientific and policy oriented question is what are the present day sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the natural environment and how will these sinks evolve under rising CO2 concentrations and expected climate change and ecosystem response. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide impart their signature on the distribution, concentration, and isotopic composition of CO2. Spatial and temporal trends (variability) provide information on the net surface

  5. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  6. Enzymatic Oxidation of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirajuddin, S; Rosenzweig, AC

    2015-04-14

    Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. As potential targets for new gas-to-liquid methane bioconversion processes, MMOs have attracted intense attention in recent years. There are two distinct types of MMO, a soluble, cytoplasmic MMO (sMMO) and a membrane-bound, particulate MMO (pMMO). Both oxidize methane at metal centers within a complex, multisubunit scaffold, but the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms are completely different. This Current Topic review article focuses on the overall architectures, active site structures, substrate reactivities, proteinprotein interactions, and chemical mechanisms of both MMOs, with an emphasis on fundamental aspects. In addition, recent advances, including new details of interactions between the sMMO components, characterization of sMMO intermediates, and progress toward understanding the pMMO metal centers are highlighted. The work summarized here provides a guide for those interested in exploiting MMOs for biotechnological applications.

  7. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  8. ARM - Measurement - Methane concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane concentration The amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  9. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane flux Vertical flux of methane near the surface due to turbulent transport. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  10. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 510% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  12. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  13. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  14. International Cooperation in Methane Hydrates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1982 the multi-national Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) recovered the first subsea substantial methane hydrate deposits, which spurred methane hydrate research in the US and other countries. ...

  15. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigating and Using Biomass Gases Grades: 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Eric Benson and Melissa Highfill Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is...

  16. Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

  17. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  18. Refeeding biogas digester solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is composed larely of non-nutritive residues. 5 refs.

  19. Methane Hydrate Annual Reports | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrate Annual Reports Methane Hydrate Annual Reports Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of Methane Hydrate research. Listed are the Annual Reports per Fiscal Year. PDF icon FY 13 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to Congress PDF icon FY 12 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to Congress PDF icon FY 11 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to Congress PDF icon FY 10 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to

  20. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  1. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  2. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  3. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  4. Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo M, Edgar Fernando . E-mail: efcastil@uis.edu.co; Cristancho, Diego Edison; Victor Arellano, A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg{sup -1} of wet waste day{sup -1}. Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT.

  5. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19-6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20-30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352-450 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  6. Energy Recovery Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Landfill Gas, Digester Gas, mixed methane and Greenhouse gases recovery and utilization equipment and projects. Number of...

  7. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  8. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  9. Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

    2013-11-22

    Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the results that were obtained.

  10. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee The Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee was created in response to provisions of the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 and reauthorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Committee is to advise the Secretary of Energy on potential applications of methane hydrate; assist in developing recommendations and priorities for the methane hydrate research and development program; and submit to Congress one or more

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. methane_hydrates | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrates Special Report: Frozen Heat: A Global Outlook on Methane Hydrates The United Nations Environmental Programme released this new, two-volume report in March 2015....

  13. Methane Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Inc Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Methane Power Inc. Name: Methane Power Inc. Address: 121 Edinburgh South Drive Place: Cary, NC Zip: 27511 Sector: Renewable Energy...

  14. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 6th - 7th, 2013 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting...

  15. Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enzymatic Digestibility and ...

  16. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranon, E.; Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y.; Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  17. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  18. A novel plug-flow digester for biogasification of conventional and hazardous organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Kato, Y.; Liu, T.; Fukushi, K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel plug-flow digestion system of simple construction was designed, fabricated and operated for several years with a synthetic mixture of solid and liquid wastes simulating conditions south of the US-Mexican border and other developing countries. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX) were mixed with the synthetic feed in several phases of this research to simulate field conditions where these solvents are discharged to public sewers and mixed with non-hazardous pollutants. The mesophilic plug-flow digester exhibited a high gas yield of 0.46 SCM /kg VS added, a methane content of 77 mol%, and a VS reduction of 75% at an HRT of 13 days with a 96% biodegradation of the feed toluene. At a feed concentration of 50 mg/l, toluene did not inhibit anaerobic fermentation. Gas and methane yields, and VS and COD conversion efficiencies were about the same with or without toluene present in the feed. At a reduced HRT of 8 days, a high feed COD concentration of 50,000 mg/l, and a loading rate of 0.48 kg VS/m{sup 3}-day, the digester afforded a gas yield of 3.1 SCM /kg VS added, and a methane content of 67 mol%. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were biodegraded at efficiencies of 94%, 90%, and 88%, respectively. The degradation kinetics of the xenobiotic compound could be described by a model based on cometabolic degradation of these secondary substrates.

  19. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time they’ll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

  20. Biogasification of sorghum in a novel anaerobic digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Isaacson, H.R.; Hayes, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) conducted pilot-scale anaerobic digestion experiments with ensiled sorghum in a 160 ft/sup 3/ digester at the experimental test unit (ETU) facility at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex in Florida. The study focused on improving bioconversion efficiencies and process stability by employing a novel reactor concept developed at IGT. Steady-state performance data were collected from the ETU as well as from a laboratory-scale conventional stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at loading rates of 0.25 and 0.50 lb organic matter/ft/sup 3/-day at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively. This paper will describe the ETU facility, novel digester design and operating techniques, and the results obtained during 12 months of stable and uninterrupted operation of the ETU and the CSTR which showed that methane yields anad rates from the ETU were 20% to 50% higher than those of the CSTR. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  2. Isolation of butyrate-utilizing bacteria from thermophilic and mesophilic methane-producing ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of various ecosystems to convert butyrate to methane was studied in order to isolate the bacteria responsible for the conversion. When thermophilic digester sludge was enriched with butyrate, methane was produced without a lag period. Marine sediments enriched with butyrate required a 2-week incubation period before methanogenesis began. A thermophilic digester was studied in more detail and found by most-probable-number enumeration to have ca. 5 x 10/sup 6/ butyrate-utilizing bactera/ml of sludge. A thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium was isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and a Methanosarcina sp. This bacterium was a gram-negative, slightly curved rod that occurred singly, was nonmotile, and did not appear to produce spores. The thermophilic digester was infused with butyrate at the rate of 10 ..mu..moles/ml of sludge per day. Biogas production increased by 150%, with the percentage of methane increasing from 58% to 68%. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate did not accumulate. Butyrate-utilizing enrichments from mesophilic ecosystems were used in obtaining cocultures of butyrate-utilizing bacteria. These cocultures served as inocula for attempts to isolate pure cultures of butyrate-utilizing bacteria by use of hydrogenase-containing membrane fragments of Escherichia coli. After a 3-week incubation period, colonies appeared only in inoculated tubes that contained membrane fragments and butyrate.

  3. Coalbed Methane Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 1,914 1,886 1,763 1,655 1,466 1,404 1989-2014 Alabama 105 102 98 91 62 78 1989-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Arkansas 3 3 4 2 2 2 2005-2014 California 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Colorado 498 533 516 486 444 412 1989-2014 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Kansas 43 41 37 34 30 27

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  5. Methane Stakeholder Roundtables | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Stakeholder Roundtables Methane Stakeholder Roundtables April 24, 2014 - 3:00pm Addthis Methane Stakeholder Roundtables Advancing the Interagency Methane Strategy As directed by President Obama in his Climate Action Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) collaborated with other Federal agencies to develop a Strategy to Reduce Methane Emissions, which was formally announced by the White House last month. To advance this strategy, DOE is now working with other Federal agencies and the White

  6. methane hydrates | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methane hydrates methane-hydrates.jpg Maintaining a focused vision on what's next is one trait that makes NETL a lab of the future, and methane hydrates are one "cool" part of that vision. Found in Arctic and deep-water marine environments, methane hydrates are an untapped abundant source of natural gas. A hydrate comprises a crystal structure in which frozen water creates a cage that traps molecules of primarily methane (natural gas). NETL researchers are exploring and developing

  7. Methane emission from single cropping rice paddies amended different manures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Daodeng; Tao Zhan

    1996-12-31

    Methane emission fluxes were determined from single cropping rice paddies amended with different manures through a productively comparative experiment. The average fluxes in the whole growth season ranged from 3.92 to 10.96 mg/m{sup 2}.hr. The compost amended paddies gave the highest emission fluxes of 10.26 mg/m{sup 2}.hr, while the fluxes from the other manure amended paddies ranked as follows: horse dung biogas digester sediment 10.02, chemical fertilizer only 8.81, nightsoil biogas sediment 7.76, chicken dropping biogas digester sediment 4.48 and pig dung biogas digester sediment 3.92 mg/m{sup 2}.hr. The latter 3 sediments gave the significant less ({alpha} < 0.05) fluxes than compost. The highest fluxes peaks of all treated paddies appeared unanimously between the stages of the midtillering and the earing, with a half of total CH{sub 4} emissions were produced in this period which could be chosen as the key period for control of CH{sub 4} emission from the single cropping rice paddies. The positive correlation of the fluxes with the temperatures in 5 cm soil layers and the negative correlation of the fluxes with the rice yields, the soil N and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents were also observed.

  8. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting May 15, 2014 11:00am - 12:30pm (EDT) Public Access U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building, Room 3G-043 1000 Independence Ave., SW...

  9. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 1824 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  10. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  11. China United Coalbed Methane Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coalbed Methane Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China United Coalbed Methane Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100011 Product: Coal bed methane developer in...

  12. Metro Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Metro Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Facility Metro Methane Recovery Facility Sector Biomass...

  13. Methane Hydrates and Climate Change | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrates and Climate Change Methane Hydrates and Climate Change Methane hydrates store huge volumes of methane formed by the bacterial decay of organic matter or leaked from ...

  14. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline...

  15. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the...

  16. Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nopharatana, Annop; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.; Clarke, William P.

    2007-07-01

    A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200 l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 deg. C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50 mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations.

  17. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.20.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  19. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30

    In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

  20. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kirchman

    2011-12-31

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (??Methane in the Arctic Shelf? or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (??metagenomes?). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation.

  1. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  2. Rural biogas technology: effect of digester pressure on gas rate and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamad, M.A.; Abdel, Dayem, A.M.; El-Halwagi, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of digester pressure on gas rate and composition was studied using an experimental Chinese-type digester of 5 m/sup 3/ volume. Water buffalo dung was used as feedstock and was fermented at 40 days retention time. The increase in digester pressure was accompanied by a decrease in the amount of biogas produced. However, this decrease was partially compensated for by the increase in methane content. The latter may be attributed to the transfer of carbon dioxide from the gas phase to the liquid phase. The remainder of the noted decrease in the obtained gas amount was related to the increase of the nonconfined amount of slurry in the outlet chamber. Thus, it can be concluded that the initial amount of gas liberated was not a direct consequence of varying the digester pressure. A modified design for the outlet chamber is proposed. Such modification is anticipated to decrease the gas losses, partially stabilize the gas pressure and accordingly increase the efficiency of the digester operation as well as the gas combustion process.

  3. Anaerobic waste-activated sludge digestion - A bioconversion mechanism and kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Tatsuo; Kudo, Kenzo; Nasu, Yoshikazu )

    1993-05-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of raw and mechanically lysed waste-activated sludge was kinetically investigated. The hydrolysis of the biopolymers, such as protein, which leaked out from the biological sludge with ultrasonic lysis, was a first-order reaction in anaerobic digestion and the rate constant was much higher than the decay rate constant of the raw waste activated sludge. An anaerobic digestion model that is capable of evaluating the effect of the mechanical sludge lysis on digestive performance was developed. The present model includes four major biological processes - the release of intracellular matter with sludge lysis; hydrolysis of biopolymers to volatile acids; the degradation of various volatile acids to acetate; and the conversion of acetate and hydrogen to methane. Each process was assumed to follow first-order kinetics. The model approximately simulated the overall process performance of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. The model suggested that when the lysed waste-activated sludge was fed, the overall digestive performance remarkably increased in the two-phase system consisting of an acid forming process and a methanogenic process, which ensured the symbiotic growth of acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria.

  4. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  5. METHANE HYDRATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE U.S. Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    METHANE HYDRATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE U.S. Department of Energy Advisory Committee Charter - - - - ---- ---- ------ 1. Committee's Official Designation. Methane Hydrate Advisory...

  6. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ? MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ? Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ? In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ? Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively.

  7. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes May 15, 2014 Washington, DC PDF icon May 15, 2014 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011

  8. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charter Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter PDF icon Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011

  9. File:Methane.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Methane.pdf Size of this preview: 448 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 Go next page next page ...

  10. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuermer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Greg A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-07-17

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 101 mbar methane or 105 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~ 107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 105 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak watergas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~ 43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~ 100 K. As a result, similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  11. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thuermer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Greg A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-07-17

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10–1 mbar methane or 10–5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~ 107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10–5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence ofmore » the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water–gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~ 43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~ 100 K. As a result, similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.« less

  12. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, R.P.; Taylor, C.E.; D`Este, J.R.

    1998-02-24

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time. 3 figs.

  13. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); D'Este, Joseph R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time.

  14. Methane Hydrate Production Feasibility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Feasibility Methane Hydrate Production Feasibility The red curves are temperature profiles for various water depths; the blue line shows methane hydrate stability relative to temperature and pressure. The area enclosed by the two curves represents the area of methane hydrate stability. The red curves are temperature profiles for various water depths; the blue line shows methane hydrate stability relative to temperature and pressure. The area enclosed by the two curves represents the

  15. Differences in volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) profiles in biogas from landfills and anaerobic digesters and energetics of VMS transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansel, Berrin Surita, Sharon C.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the 62% and 27% if siloxanes, respectively. In landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were TMSOH (58%) followed by D4 (17%). Methane utilization may be a possible mechanism for TMSOH formation in the landfills. The geometric configurations of D4 and D5 molecules make them very stable. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare the types and levels of volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) present in biogas generated in the anaerobic digesters and landfills, evaluate the energetics of siloxane transformations under anaerobic conditions, compare the conditions in anaerobic digesters and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills which result in differences in siloxane compositions. Biogas samples were collected at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant and South Dade Landfill in Miami, Florida. In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the bulk of total siloxanes (62% and 27%, respectively) whereas in the landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were trimethylsilanol (TMSOH) (58%) followed by D4 (17%). Presence of high levels of TMSOH in the landfill gas indicates that methane utilization may be a possible reaction mechanism for TMSOH formation. The free energy change for transformation of D5 and D4 to TMSOH either by hydrogen or methane utilization are thermodynamically favorable. Either hydrogen or methane should be present at relatively high concentrations for TMSOH formation which explains the high levels present in the landfill gas. The high bond energy and bond distance of the SiO bond, in view of the atomic sizes of Si and O atoms, indicate that Si atoms can provide a barrier, making it difficult to break the SiO bonds especially for molecules with specific geometric configurations such as D4 and D5 where oxygen atoms are positioned inside the frame formed by the large Si atoms which are surrounded by the methyl groups.

  16. Continuous Digester Control Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuous Digester Control Technology Continuous Digester Control Technology Pulp Process Model Identifies Improvements that Save Energy and Improve Productivity The pulp digester is known as the bottleneck unit in the pulp mill flow sheet because it can require 5% to 50% of typical on-line operation time, making this component of the pulping process very capital intensive. Improving digester performance can significantly reduce production losses, operating costs, and negative environmental

  17. Manure digester and power generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santina, P.F.; Chatterjee, A.K.

    1988-06-14

    A manure digester and power generating system is described comprising: a mixing tank for receiving manure, and for mixing water with the manure to produce a manure slurry of desired consistency; a closed anaerobic digester tank of fixed volume; the mixing tank being separate from and spaced from the digester tank; pumping and conduit means for transferring the contents of the mixing tank to the digester tank; automatic control means, associated with the pumping means, for monitoring and controlling temperature and volume of the contents of the mixing tank before transfer to the digester tank; means for discharging effluent by-products out the outflow end of the digester tank; a gas-fueled engine and a generator coupled to the engine, for generating electrical power; heater means; means for drawing off biogas from the digester tank and for conducting it to the engine as fuel, and wherein the manure slurry is heated sufficiently, prior to introduction into the digester tank and separately from the digester tank, to prevent temperature shock of already digesting slurry in the digester tank when the slurry is introduced into the digester tank.

  18. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gasthe ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxideis also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  19. ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolved Gases in Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water Objective The objective of this activity is to prove that ocean water can absorb greenhouse gases and to demonstrate that what appears to be clear water is actually a complex

  20. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  1. Methane sources and emissions in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, G.R.; Castagnola, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    Methane emissions in Italy were assessed in the framework of the measures taken to follow out the commitments undertaken at the 1992 U.N. Conference for Environment and Development. Methane emissions of anthropic origin were estimated to be in the range of 1.6 to 2.3 million ton of methane per year. Some of these methane sources (natural gas production, transmission and distribution; rice paddies; managed livestock enteric fermentation and waste; solid waste landfills) are given here particular care as they mainly contribute to the total methane emission budget.

  2. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  4. Process for separating coal synthesized methane from unreacted intermediate and contaminant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Ray E.; Scott, Charles D.; Ryon, Allen D.

    1982-01-01

    Gas produced from coal and containing CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S is contacted with CO.sub.2 scrub liquid to form (1) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing as solutes CH.sub.4, H.sub.2 S and minor portions of the CO and H.sub.2, and (2) a gas stream containing CO.sub.2 and major portions of the CO and H.sub.2, the CO and H.sub.2 in this stream being recycled to the means which produces gas from coal, and CO.sub.2 in the stream being recycled to the scrub liquid. The solute-bearing liquid CO.sub.2 stream is fractionated into (1) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing CH.sub.4 and H.sub.2 S, and (2) a H.sub.2 /CO gas stream which is recycled into contact with the scrub liquid. The last-mentioned liquid CO.sub.2 stream is fractionated into (1) a CH.sub.4 /CO.sub.2 gas stream the CO.sub.2 of which is recycled to the scrub liquid, and (2) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing H.sub.2 S, and CO.sub.2 of this stream is also recycled to the scrub liquid.

  5. Process for separating coal synthesized methane from unreacted intermediate and contaminant gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, R.E.; Scott, C.D.; Ryon, A.D.

    1980-10-27

    Gas produced from coal and containing CH/sub 4/, CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S is contacted with CO/sub 2/ scrub liquid to form (1) a liquid CO/sub 2/ stream containing as solutes CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/S and minor portions of the CO and H/sub 2/, and (2) a gas stream containing CO/sub 2/ and major portions of the CO and H/sub 2/, the CO and H/sub 2/ in this stream being recycled to the means which produces gas from coal, and CO/sub 2/ in the stream being recycled to the scrub liquid. The solute-bearing liquid CO/sub 2/ stream is fractionated into (1) a liquid CO/sub 2/ stream containing CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/S, and (2) a H/sub 2//CO gas stream which is recycled into contact with the scrub liquid. The last-mentioned liquid CO/sub 2/ stream is fractionated into (1) a CH/sub 4//CO/sub 2/ gas stream the CO/sub 2/ of which is recycled to the scrub liquid, and (2) a liquid CO/sub 2/ stream containing H/sub 2/S, and CO/sub 2/ of this stream is also recycled to the scrub liquid.

  6. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    model years will emit more than the standard, while others will emit less, so long as the average for each Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) product offerings meets the...

  7. Arizona Geological Society Digest 22

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Arizona Geological Society Digest 22 2008 437 Tectonic infuences on the spatial and temporal evolution of the Walker Lane: An incipient transform fault along the evolving Pacifc - North American plate boundary James E. Faulds and Christopher D. Henry Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557, USA ABSTRACT Since ~30 Ma, western North America has been evolving from an Andean type mar- gin to a dextral transform boundary. Transform growth has been marked by

  8. Methane production from marine biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1980-01-01

    The overall concept of the giant brown kelp farm and conversion system, the integrated research program engaged in its study, and IGT's work on biogasification process development are discussed. A summary of results to date on anaerobic digestion will be emphasized. (MHR)

  9. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  10. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 days Second trial experiments needs to be conducted up to 7 days to minimize the biogas production. Summary Renewable Methane Production We developed a novel process...

  11. The Methane to Markets Coal Mine Methane Subcommittee meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: a report from the Administrative Support Group; strategy updates from Australia, India, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland and the USA; coal mine methane update and IEA's strategy and activities; the power of VAM - technology application update; the emissions trading market; the voluntary emissions reduction market - creating profitable CMM projects in the USA; an Italian perspective towards a zero emission strategies; and the wrap-up and summary.

  12. Model calibration and validation for OFMSW and sewage sludge co-digestion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposito, G.; Frunzo, L.; Panico, A.; Pirozzi, F.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Disintegration is the limiting step of the anaerobic co-digestion process. > Disintegration kinetic constant does not depend on the waste particle size. > Disintegration kinetic constant depends only on the waste nature and composition. > The model calibration can be performed on organic waste of any particle size. - Abstract: A mathematical model has recently been proposed by the authors to simulate the biochemical processes that prevail in a co-digestion reactor fed with sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. This model is based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 of the International Water Association, which has been extended to include the co-digestion processes, using surface-based kinetics to model the organic waste disintegration and conversion to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. When organic waste solids are present in the reactor influent, the disintegration process is the rate-limiting step of the overall co-digestion process. The main advantage of the proposed modeling approach is that the kinetic constant of such a process does not depend on the waste particle size distribution (PSD) and rather depends only on the nature and composition of the waste particles. The model calibration aimed to assess the kinetic constant of the disintegration process can therefore be conducted using organic waste samples of any PSD, and the resulting value will be suitable for all the organic wastes of the same nature as the investigated samples, independently of their PSD. This assumption was proven in this study by biomethane potential experiments that were conducted on organic waste samples with different particle sizes. The results of these experiments were used to calibrate and validate the mathematical model, resulting in a good agreement between the simulated and observed data for any investigated particle size of the solid waste. This study confirms the strength of the proposed model and calibration procedure, which can thus be used to assess the treatment efficiency and predict the methane production of full-scale digesters.

  13. Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Mark A; Meike, Annemarie; Anderson, Brian L

    2015-04-28

    A system for concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases. Materials are be added (e.g., via coating the ceramic substrate, use of loose powder(s), or other means) to a HEPA filter (ceramic, metal, or otherwise) to collect gases (e.g., radioactive gases such as iodine). The gases could be radioactive, hazardous, or valuable gases.

  14. Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural gas found in coal deposits. It was once considered a nuisance and mine safety hazard, but today has become a valuable part of the U.S. energy portfolio. A major reason for this is resource characterization and the establishment of efficient recovery methods pioneered by Office of Fossil Energy (FE) research and development. CBM proved reserves and production have grown nearly every year since 1989. Today it accounts for 9 percent of total domestic natural gas

  15. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy January 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes January, 2010 Atlanta, GA PDF icon Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011

  16. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes March 2010 Washington, DC PDF icon Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010

  17. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production More Documents &

  18. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  19. Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY 2010 Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress September 2011 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | September 2011 FY 2010 Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress | Page 2 Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report

  20. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  1. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge EA-1628: Final Environmental Assessment Biogas Markets and ...

  2. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  3. Green House Gases | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green House Gases Did You Know? If it were not for naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the Earth would be about -2°F rather than the 57°F we currently experience. However, levels of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 40% since industrialization began around 150 years ago. During the past 20 years, about three-quarters of human-caused (anthropogenic)

  4. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  5. On flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed [Northeastern University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Parsinejad, Farzan [Chevron Oronite Company LLC, Richmond, CA 94801 (United States); Keck, James C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out at constant pressure and temperature in a constant volume vessel located in a high speed shadowgraph system. The formation and propagation of the hot plasma kernel has been simulated for inert gas mixtures using a thermodynamic model. The effects of various parameters including the discharge energy, radiation losses, initial temperature and initial volume of the plasma have been studied in detail. The experiments have been extended to flame kernel formation and propagation of methane/air mixtures. The effect of energy terms including spark energy, chemical energy and energy losses on flame kernel formation and propagation have been investigated. The inputs for this model are the initial conditions of the mixture and experimental data for flame radii. It is concluded that these are the most important parameters effecting plasma kernel growth. The results of laminar burning speeds have been compared with previously published results and are in good agreement. (author)

  6. Feasibility of a digester gas fuel production facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakes, G.; Greene, D.S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Results of studies on the feasibility of using digester gas produced from wastewater sludge to fuel vehicles are reported. Availability and suitability of digester gas as well as digester gas production records and test analyses on digester gas were reviewed. The feasibility of the project based on economic and environmental considerations is reported and compared to possible alternative uses of the digester gas.

  7. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (MHAC) Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Designated Federal Officer (DFO) for the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (MHAC). She thanked members for their continued...

  8. Ohio Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  9. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Methane Emissions 3.1. Total emissions The major sources of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9 percent higher than the 2008 total of 724 MMTCO2e (Table 17). Methane emissions declined steadily from 1990 to 2001, as emissions from coal mining and landfills fell, then rose from 2002 to 2009 as a result of moderate increases in emissions related to energy,

  10. Kentucky Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Kentucky Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane

  11. Capping methane leaks a win-win

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capping methane leaks a win-win Capping methane leaks a win-win As special correspondent Kathleen McCleery explains, that's why both environmentalists and the energy industry are trying to find ways to capture leaks from oil and gas facilities. November 13, 2015 Capping methane leaks a win-win Methane, the primary component of natural gas, is also a potent greenhouse gas, trapping energy in the atmosphere. Last year NASA released satellite images showing a hot spot in the area where New Mexico,

  12. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    26, 2012 Houston, TX PDF icon July 26, 2012 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January

  13. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    16, 2013 Washington, DC PDF icon July 16, 2013 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March

  14. Understanding the contribution of non-carbon dioxide gases in deep mitigation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gernaat, David; Calvin, Katherine V.; Lucas, Paul; Luderer, Gunnar; Otto, Sander; Rao, Shilpa; Strefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-07-01

    The combined 2010 emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and the fluorinated gasses (F-gas) account for about 20-30% of total emissions and about 30% of radiative forcing. At the moment, most studies looking at reaching ambitious climate targets project the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) to be reduced to zero (or less) by the end of the century. As for non-CO2 gases, the mitigation potential seem to be more constrained, we find that by the end of the century in the current deep mitigation scenarios non-CO2 emissions could form the lions share of remaining greenhouse gas emissions. In order to support effective climate policy strategies, in this paper we provide a more in-depth look at the role of non-CO2 emission sources (CH4, N2O and F-gases) in achieving deep mitigation targets (radiative forcing target of 2.8 W/m2 in 2100). Specifically, we look at the sectorial mitigation potential and the remaining non-CO2 emissions. By including a set of different models, we provide some insights into the associated uncertainty. Most of the remaining methane emissions in 2100 in the climate mitigation scenario come from the livestock sector. Strong reductions are seen in the energy supply sector across all models. For N2O, less reduction potential is seen compared to methane and the sectoral differences are larger between the models. The paper shows that the assumptions on remaining non-CO2 emissions are critical for the feasibility of reaching ambitious climate targets and the associated costs.

  15. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  17. ARM - Danger of Increased Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListDanger of Increased Greenhouse Gases Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Danger of Increased Greenhouse Gases As far back as Greek and Roman times, people built structures which created an indoor environment suited to growing plants throughout the year. This enabled the

  18. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  20. Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane levels larger over Four Corners region Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected over Four Corners region Study is first to show space-based...

  1. Landfill Methane Project Development Handbook | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Project Development Handbook Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Landfill Methane Project Development Handbook AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  2. US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program Jump to: navigation, search Name US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program AgencyCompany Organization United States Environmental Protection...

  3. Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Breakout Session 2-B: NewEmerging Pathways...

  4. Anaerobic digestion submarine in Abbey farmyard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    An anaerobic digestion system and fiber separation plant installed at Bethlehem Abbey (Northern Ireland) produces biogas for central heating and grain drying, and a compost which is bagged and sold. According to one report, it even keeps the monks warm at night. Designed by James Murcott of Farm Gas Ltd., the digester (shaped like a submarine) receives 10% solids slurry.

  5. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

  6. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently usedmore » for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a−1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a−1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a−1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a−1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29–44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11–15% to coal with an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a−1 source from wetlands.« less

  7. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at...

  8. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi...

  9. T-728: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let Remote Users Conduct Bypass Attacks T-728: Apache Tomcat HTTP DIGEST Authentication Weaknesses Let Remote Users Conduct...

  10. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth A.

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-25

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  12. Methane

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... implications for resource use efficiency, worker and public safety, air pollution, and human health (4), and for the climate impact of NG as a large and growing source of energy. ...

  13. Methane

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    emissions from natural gas infrastructure and use in the urban region of Boston, Massachusetts Kathryn McKain a,b,1 , Adrian Down c,d , Steve M. Raciti e,f , John Budney a , Lucy R. Hutyra e , Cody Floerchinger g , Scott C. Herndon g , Thomas Nehrkorn h , Mark S. Zahniser g , Robert B. Jackson c,d,i,j,k , Nathan Phillips e , and Steven C. Wofsy a,b a School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and b Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138; c Nicholas

  14. Reduced gas pressure operation of sludge digesters: Expanded studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Previous investigations strongly suggested that the municipal anaerobic sludge digestion process could be enhanced by reactor operation with subatmospheric headspace pressures. Enhanced solids destruction and methane production along with increased process stability were observed in these earlier studies. However, due to the small scale of the anaerobic reactors used ( {approx}1.5 L), definitive steady-state measurements could not be obtained. These expanded studies were undertaken to verify and define the magnitude of the benefits that might be obtained with vacuum operation of sludge digesters. Four reactors ({approx}15.0 L) were fed municipal sludge at three different organic loading rates while being maintained with a 15-day solids retention time. One reactor had a constant headspace pressure of 1.02 atm; a second was maintained at 0.75 atm; and the remaining two reactors were operated for the majority of the day at 1.02 atm, and for part of the day with a 0.75 atm headspace pressure. Additional small-scale, batch experiments were performed to help identify controlling digestion mechanisms. The results of these expanded studies indicate that vacuum operation did not yield significant advantages over the organic loading range investigated (0.088 to 0.352 lb VSS/ft{sup 3}{center_dot}d).

  15. Department of Energy Advance Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Descriptions for Energy Department Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects, August 31, 2012

  16. Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System Technology available for licensing: Enhanced renewable methane production system provides a low-cost process that accelerates biological methane production rates at least fivefold. Low cost Delivers near-pipeline-quality gas and eliminates carbon dioxide emissions PDF icon methane_production_system

  17. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  18. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  19. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  20. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  1. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  2. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  3. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  4. Montana Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 12 12 13 14 12 2010's 10 6 3 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and

  5. Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 58 68 82 69 55 2010's 45 39 68 65 61 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves

  6. Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 3 5 5 11 16 2010's 3 4 15 13 11 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves

  7. Florida Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Florida Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  8. Kansas Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 17 25 38 47 43 2010's 41 37 34 30 27 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes,

  9. Michigan Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Michigan Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  10. Arkansas Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 3 3 3 3 2010's 3 4 2 2 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and

  11. Utah Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 74 83 103 97 82 75 66 73 71 71 2010's 66 60 55 50 47 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves,

  12. Virginia Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 56 81 85 101 111 2010's 97 100 99 93 108 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves

  13. Wyoming Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 133 278 302 344 320 336 378 401 573 535 2010's 566 506 426 331 264 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Wyoming Coalbed Methane

  14. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy October 2011 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes October 2011 Washington, DC PDF icon Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011 More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010

  15. Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enzymatic Digestibility and Pretreatment Degradation Products of AFEX-Treated Hardwoods (Populus nigra) Authors: Balan, Venkatesh ; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa ; Chundawat, Shishir P. S. ; Marshall, Derek ; Sharma, Lekh N. ; Chambliss, C. Kevin ; Dale, Bruce E. Publication

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  17. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore » methane source of 539 Tg a−1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a−1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a−1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a−1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a−1.« less

  18. Methane storage capabilities of diamond analogues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haranczyk, M; Lin, LC; Lee, K; Martin, RL; Neaton, JB; Smit, B

    2013-01-01

    Methane can be an alternative fuel for vehicular usage provided that new porous materials are developed for its efficient adsorption-based storage. Herein, we search for materials for this application within the family of diamond analogues. We used density functional theory to investigate structures in which tetrahedral C atoms of diamond are separated by-CC-or-BN-groups, as well as ones involving substitution of tetrahedral C atoms with Si and Ge atoms. The adsorptive and diffusive properties of methane are studied using classical molecular simulations. Our results suggest that the all-carbon structure has the highest volumetric methane uptake of 280 VSTP/V at p = 35 bar and T = 298 K. However, it suffers from limited methane diffusion. Alternatively, the considered Si and Ge-containing analogies have fast diffusive properties but their adsorption is lower, ca. 172-179 VSTP/V, at the same conditions.

  19. Lean methane premixed laminar flames doped by components of diesel fuel II: n-propylcyclohexane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pousse, E.; Porter, R.; Warth, V.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Departement de Chimie-Physique des Reactions, Nancy Universite, CNRS, ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    For a better understanding of the chemistry involved during the combustion of components of diesel fuel, the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame doped with n-propylcyclohexane has been investigated. The inlet gases contained 7.1% (molar) methane, 36.8% oxygen, and 0.81% n-propylcyclohexane (C{sub 9}H{sub 18}), corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 0.68 and a C{sub 9}H{sub 18}/CH{sub 4} ratio of 11.4%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa (50 Torr) using argon as diluent, with a gas velocity at the burner of 49.2 cm/s at 333 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products, but also 17 C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} hydrocarbons, seven C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} oxygenated compounds, and only four cyclic C{sub 6+} compounds, namely benzene, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, cyclohexene, and methylenecyclohexane. A new mechanism for the oxidation of n-propylcyclohexane has been proposed. It allows the proper simulation of profiles of most of the products measured in flames, as well as the satisfactory reproduction of experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor. The main reaction pathways of consumption of n-propylcyclohexane have been derived from rate-of-production analysis. (author)

  20. A lean methane premixed laminar flame doped with components of diesel fuel. I. n-Butylbenzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pousse, E.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Departement de Chimie-Physique des Reactions, Nancy Universite, CNRS, ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2009-05-15

    To better understand the chemistry involved in the combustion of components of diesel fuel, the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame doped with n-butylbenzene has been investigated. The inlet gases contained 7.1% (molar) methane, 36.8% oxygen, and 0.96% n-butylbenzene corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 0.74 and a ratio C{sub 10}H{sub 14}/CH{sub 4} of 13.5%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as diluent, with a gas velocity at the burner of 49.2 cm/s at 333 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products, but also 16 C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} hydrocarbons, and 7 C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} oxygenated compounds, as well as 20 aromatic products. A new mechanism for the oxidation of n-butylbenzene is proposed whose predictions are in satisfactory agreement with measured species profiles in flames and flow reactor experiments. The main reaction pathways of consumption of n-butylbenzene have been derived from flow rate analyses. (author)

  1. Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Elias P. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

  2. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 1 C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.970.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  3. New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future August 31, 2012 - 1:37pm Addthis Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped natural gas. Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped

  4. New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future August 31, 2012 - 1:37pm Addthis Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped natural gas. Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the

  5. Simulation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single cell protein from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the operation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single-cell algal protein from a variety of biomass energy crops or waste streams. Economic analysis was performed at the end of each simulation. The model was capable of assisting in the determination of design parameters by providing relative economic information for various strategies. Three configurations of anaerobic reactors were simulated. These included fed-bed reactors, conventional stirred tank reactors, and continuously expanding reactors. A generic anaerobic digestion process model, using lumped substrate parameters, was developed for use by type-specific reactor models. The generic anaerobic digestion model provided a tool for the testing of conversion efficiencies and kinetic parameters for a wide range of substrate types and reactor designs. Dynamic growth models were used to model the growth of algae and Eichornia crassipes was modeled as a function of daily incident radiation and temperature. The growth of Eichornia crassipes was modeled for the production of biomass as a substrate for digestion. Computer simulations with the system model indicated that tropical or subtropical locations offered the most promise for a viable system. The availability of large quantities of digestible waste and low land prices were found to be desirable in order to take advantage of the economies of scale. Other simulations indicated that poultry and swine manure produced larger biogas yields than cattle manure. The model was created in a modular fashion to allow for testing of a wide variety of unit operations. Coding was performed in the Pascal language for use on personal computers.

  6. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  7. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects all survey respondents. Please visit the What's New page for full details. What Is the Voluntary Reporting Program? logo Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations,

  8. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  9. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  10. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  11. Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refinery Yield (Percent) Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes

  12. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

  13. Improved energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in sanitary landfills by two-phase digestion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onu, Chukwu.

    1990-01-01

    The concept under investigaton was the separation of the acidogenic and the methanogenic phases of anaerobic fermentation, converting the sanitary landfill into an acid reactor and using a separate upflow fixed-film anaerobic reactor for methanogenesis. Acidic leachate from the landfill simulator was used as the influent substrate to the anaerobic reactor. The goal of the study was to improve both methane yield and concentration through nutrient addition and two-phase digestion of MSW. Sewage sludge was utilized to provide moisture, buffering capacity, nutrients, and an adequate microbial population. Single-phase systems with other enhancement techniques were also compared to the two-phase with sludge addition. Data from this study indicated that gas produced in the anaerobic reactor had methane concentration as high as 80 Mole % at the fixed-bed reactor (FBR) hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The system reached a cumulative methane production rate of 78.6 {ell}/kg dry waste at an estimated cumulative production rate of approximately 270 {ell}/kg/yr. This performance was better than that reported in the literature for a similar type of feed. This study has also indicated that sewage sludge addition appears to be a successful enhancement technique for methane gas production from municipal solid waste. The addition of mineral nutrients and buffer solutions appears to have influenced the development of a dominant population of methanogenic bacteria in the FBR as indicated by the COD removal efficiency of 90% and 100% conversion of all influent organic acids. In terms of the overall system performance, the two-phase system was superior to the one-phase technique currently in use for methane generation.

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest, 1991 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olive, K L

    1991-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, and the areas NRC licenses. This digest is a compilation of NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1990, with exceptions noted. For operating US commercial nuclear power reactors, information on generating capacity and average capacity factor is obtained from Monthly Operating Reports submitted to the NRC directly by the licensee. This information is reviewed for consistency only. No independent validation and/or verification is performed by the NRC. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications. This digest is published annually for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Mechanism of Methane Chemical Looping Combustion with Hematite Promoted with CeO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Duane D.; Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion that produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream, reducing the energy penalty of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gases. An effective oxygen carrier for CLC will readily react with the fuel gas and will be reoxidized upon contact with oxygen. This study investigated the development of a CeO{sub 2}-promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?hematite oxygen carrier suitable for the methane CLC process. Composition of CeO{sub 2} is between 5 and 25 wt % and is lower than what is generally used for supports in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier preparations. The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} to the natural ore hematite strongly modifies the reduction behavior in comparison to that of CeO{sub 2} and hematite alone. Temperature-programmed reaction studies revealed that the addition of even 5 wt % CeO{sub 2} enhances the reaction capacity of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier by promoting the decomposition and partial oxidation of methane. Fixed-bed reactor data showed that the 5 wt % cerium oxides with 95 wt % iron oxide produce 2 times as much carbon dioxide in comparison to the sum of carbon dioxide produced when the oxides were tested separately. This effect is likely due to the reaction of CeO{sub 2} with methane forming intermediates, which are reactive for extracting oxygen from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a considerably faster rate than the rate of the direct reaction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. These studies reveal that 5 wt % CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives stable conversions over 15 reduction/oxidation cycles. Lab-scale reactor studies (pulsed mode) suggest the methane reacts initially with CeO{sub 2} lattice oxygen to form partial oxidation products (CO + H{sub 2}), which continue to react with oxygen from neighboring Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, leading to its complete oxidation to form CO{sub 2}. The reduced cerium oxide promotes the methane decomposition reaction to form C + H{sub 2}, which continue to react with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to form CO/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. This mechanism is supported by the characterization studies, which also suggest that the formation of carbonaceous intermediates may affect the reaction rate and selectivity of the oxygen carrier.

  16. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

    1985-06-19

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

  17. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

  18. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  19. 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization A chapter on Landfill Methane Utilization from the Clean Energy Strategies for Local Governments publication. PDF icon 7.4_landfill_methane_utilization.pdf More Documents & Publications CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White Paper, September 2007

  20. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    technology (Patent) | SciTech Connect Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator

  1. Draft Report of the Task Force on Methane Hydrates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report presents the findings and recommendations for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Methane Hydrates.

  2. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reduction Scenarios | Department of Energy Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios This study assessed five potential methane reduction scenarios from natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) infrastructure using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of methane reduced. The results show that implementation

  3. Alabama Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 23 1990's 36 68 89 103 108 109 98 111 123 108 2000's 109 111 117 98 121 113 114 114 107 105 2010's 102 98 91 62 78 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane

  4. May 15, 2014 Methane Hydrates Committee Meeting Agenda | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy May 15, 2014 Methane Hydrates Committee Meeting Agenda May 15, 2014 Methane Hydrates Committee Meeting Agenda May 15, 2014 Methane Hydrates Committee Meeting Agenda PDF icon Meeting Agenda More Documents & Publications Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, May 7, 2015 Presentations from the May 7, 2015 Advisory Committee Meeting Federal Register Notice for May 15, 2014 Meeting

  5. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    March 27-28, 2014 Washington, DC PDF icon March 27-28, 2014, Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011

  6. Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerm, S.; Kleyboecker, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Alawi, M.; Kasina, M.; Liebrich, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study demonstrates that the coexistence of two types of methanogens, i.e. hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens is necessary to respond successfully to perturbation and leads to stable process performance.

  7. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M. (Santa Fe, NM); Maier, II, William B. (Los Alamos, NM); Holland, Redus F. (Los Alamos, NM); Beattie, Willard H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (.about.2 ppm) present in commercial Xe and ppm levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  8. Biogas from refuse via an earth-sheltered passive solar digester. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    As originally conceived, the project involved the design, construction and operation of a test-scale refuse digestion system and alternative energy technology, as an integral component of a planned comprehensive waste management system based on the concept of recycling and resource recovery. Specific technologies employed in the digestion system included aerobic composting and anaerobic fermentation. System inputs included non-recycleable organic refuse (paper, food wastes, etc.) and septage (septic tank sludge), both of which represent disposal problems for many North American communities, and heat. Anticipated system outputs were biogas (50 to 60% methane), a premium fuel, and compostable sludge, a potential soil amendment-fertilizer. Projected net energy output was enhanced by incorporating biological feedstock preheating, earth sheltering, passive solar heating, and sludge heat recovery into the project design. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of this system versus competing waste-to-energy technologies. Due primarily to institutional barriers and related factors, the project did not progress to the point of enabling the stated purpose to be demonstrated.

  9. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are Greenhouse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gases? What are Greenhouse Gases? Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What are Greenhouse Gases? Many chemical compounds found in the Earth's atmosphere act as "greenhouse gases." These gases allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. When sunlight strikes the Earth's surface, some of it is reflected back towards space as infrared radiation (heat). Greenhouse gases absorb this infrared radiation and trap the heat in the atmosphere. Many gases exhibit these

  10. Study of electron transport in hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.

    2015-04-07

    The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of electrons in the organic gases, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300?K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of electrons by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (?????) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.

  11. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  12. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  13. Generating power with drained coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

  14. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  15. Thermodynamic properties and diffusion of water + methane binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2014-03-14

    Thermodynamic and diffusion properties of water + methane mixtures in a single liquid phase are studied using NVT molecular dynamics. An extensive comparison is reported for the thermal pressure coefficient, compressibilities, expansion coefficients, heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, zero frequency speed of sound, and diffusion coefficient at methane concentrations up to 15% in the temperature range of 298650 K. The simulations reveal a complex concentration dependence of the thermodynamic properties of water + methane mixtures. The compressibilities, heat capacities, and diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing methane concentration, whereas values of the thermal expansion coefficients and speed of sound increase. Increasing methane concentration considerably retards the self-diffusion of both water and methane in the mixture. These effects are caused by changes in hydrogen bond network, solvation shell structure, and dynamics of water molecules induced by the solvation of methane at constant volume conditions.

  16. Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized MetalOrganic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

    2012-02-29

    The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

  17. Modified biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to assess biodegradation potential of landfilled refuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J.E.; Rose, C.; Piorkowski, R.

    1989-01-01

    Modified Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays were used to assess biogas production potential of solid landfill samples. In landfill samples with visible soil content, moisture addition alone was generally as effective at stimulating biogas production as the addition of a comprehensive nutrient media. In a variety of samples from humid and semiarid landfills, addition of an aqueous nutrient media was the most effective stimulant for biogas production; however, moisture addition was almost as effective for most samples, suggesting that water addition would be the most cost-effective field approach. Onset of methanogenesis was slower in fresh refuse samples (even when inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge) than in landfill samples, indicating that the soil into which materials are landfilled is a major source of microorganisms. High volatile solids loading in fresh refuse and landfill assays retarded methanogenesis. A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic sample handling techniques showed no significant differences with regard to onset of methanogenesis and total gas production. The technique shows initial promise with regard to replication and reproducibility of results and could be a meaningful addition to landfill site evaluations where commercial gas recovery is anticipated. The BMP technique could also be adapted to assess anaerobic biodegradability of other solid waste materials for conventional anaerobic digestion applications. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  19. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  20. Evaluating anaerobic digestion for reduction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    A small-scale anaerobic digestion test has been developed for monitoring start-up work with inoperative digesters. The test is described and variables critical to its consistent operation are detailed. The method has been used in many anaerobic digestion studies, including evaluation of the digestibility of various municipal solid wastes like grass and hedge clippings, garbage and newspapers. Digestion rates are expressed in terms of the rate of production of combustible gas and the retention time needed for a fixed degree of volatile solids destruction. An example shows the advantage of digesting selected combined charges, and it is suggested that this approach might be fruitful with many toxic organic materials. Application of this test to find the digestion rates of some high-yield biomass crops is also described.

  1. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes June 6th - 7th, 2013 Washington, DC PDF icon Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate

  2. Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cavitation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble Cavitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble Cavitation Sonoluminescence spectra were collected from Cr(CO){sub 6} solutions in octanol and dodecane saturated with various noble gases. The emission from excited-state metal atoms serves as an internal thermometer of cavitation. The intensity

  3. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  4. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Suspended May 2011 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ("1605(b)") Program has been suspended. The suspension is due to recent reductions in budget appropriations and is effective immediately. Survey respondents may still submit data to the 1605(b) Program using the

  5. ARM - Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PlansAmount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere Objective The objective is to feel the changes of the amounts of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere. Materials Each group of

  6. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon energetics_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Controlled Rapid Pressurization Using Liquid Propellants for EGS Well Stimulation track 4: enhanced geothermal systems

  7. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  8. Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases And It's Implications For Sensitivity And Accuracy In Air And Stack Monitoring Test Results For Physical Separation ...

  9. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA

  10. Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble Cavitation ... The intensity and temperature of sonoluminescence increases from He to Xe. The intensity ...

  11. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place: Taipei, Taiwan Sector: Solar Product: BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United...

  12. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  14. Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

  15. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop a process for converting light alkane gases to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination using highly selective, stable catalysts in fixed-bed reactors designed to remove the large amount of heat generated, so as to control the reaction temperature. Further, the objective is to obtain the engineering data base necessary for developing a commercially feasible process and to evaluate t economics of the process. Significant progress was made in six different technical areas during this quarter. These key highlights are: (1) Evaluation of catalyst samples from UCI led to the ordering of the OHC PDU catalyst batch. This catalyst batch arrived, was screened and found to be defective, and was reordered. (2) Natural gas containing higher hydrocarbons was used as a methane source. The reactant mixture formed oxygenates at temperatures lower than observed in the past. Burning at such low temperatures seems to create a product stream containing very little CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. (3) Although it has not been decided if the PDU will use natural gas from the plant or methane or natural gas from cylinders as a methane feed source, it was concluded that an adsorption unit to remove sulfur and higher hydrocarbons is not necessary at this time. (4) PDU construction was completed in December. The bulk of insulation work was completed at the end of November. Much effort has been put into pressure testing the PDU`s systems. The startup team has become adept at finding and correcting such leaks. (5) SOP writing for the PDU was completed this quarter with communication with the software programmer to insure agreement between the software and SOP.

  16. Effect of bubble size and density on methane conversion to hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leske, J.; Taylor, C.E.; Ladner, E.P.

    2007-03-01

    Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. One area of investigation is the storage of methane as methane hydrates. An economical and efficient means of storing methane in hydrates opens many commercial opportunities such as transport of stranded gas, off-peak storage of line gas, etc.We have observed during our investigations that the ability to convert methane to methane hydrate is enhanced by foaming of the methanewater solution using a surfactant. The density of the foam, along with the bubble size, is important in the conversion of methane to methane hydrate.

  17. TITAN'S TRANSPORT-DRIVEN METHANE CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2012-09-10

    The mechanisms behind the occurrence of large cloud outbursts and precipitation on Titan have been disputed. A global- and annual-mean estimate of surface fluxes indicated only 1% of the insolation, or {approx}0.04 W m{sup -2}, is exchanged as sensible and/or latent fluxes. Since these fluxes are responsible for driving atmospheric convection, it has been argued that moist convection should be quite rare and precipitation even rarer, even if evaporation globally dominates the surface-atmosphere energy exchange. In contrast, climate simulations indicate substantial cloud formation and/or precipitation. We argue that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative imbalance is diagnostic of horizontal heat transport by Titan's atmosphere, and thus constrains the strength of the methane cycle. Simple calculations show the TOA radiative imbalance is {approx}0.5-1 W m{sup -2} in Titan's equatorial region, which implies 2-3 MW of latitudinal heat transport by the atmosphere. Our simulation of Titan's climate suggests this transport may occur primarily as latent heat, with net evaporation at the equator and net accumulation at higher latitudes. Thus, the methane cycle could be 10-20 times previous estimates. Opposing seasonal transport at solstices, compensation by sensible heat transport, and focusing of precipitation by large-scale dynamics could further enhance the local, instantaneous strength of Titan's methane cycle by a factor of several. A limited supply of surface liquids in regions of large surface radiative imbalance may throttle the methane cycle, and if so, we predict more frequent large storms over the lakes district during Titan's northern summer.

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  19. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL); Herman, Harold (Park Forest, IL)

    1989-01-01

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases absorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel.

  20. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  1. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Greens function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  2. EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases Summary EPA's advanced notice of proposed rulemaking on mobile sources of greenhouse gas emissions. PDF icon deer08_charmley.pdf More Documents & Publications EPA Diesel Update Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews EPA Mobile Source Rule Update

  3. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2007-07-31

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  4. Eastern States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 58 69 68 71 72 90 24 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane

  5. Four Corners methane hotspot points to coal-related sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane hotspot points to coal-related sources Four Corners methane hotspot points to coal-related sources Methane is very efficient at trapping heat in the atmosphere and, like carbon dioxide, it contributes to global warming. October 14, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory measurement instruments were placed in the field for analysis of Four Corners area power plant emissions. Los Alamos National Laboratory measurement instruments were placed in the field for analysis of Four Corners area

  6. Converting Methane to Methanol: Structural Insight into the Reaction Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Particulate Methane Monooxygenase 3 Raquel L. Lieberman,* Amy C. Rosenzweig,* and Timothy L. Stemmler# *Depts. of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology and of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA #Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA. Methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are extremely attractive from a chemist's perspective because these organisms convert methane

  7. Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Breakout Session 2-B: New/Emerging Pathways Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Dr. Lori Giver, Vice President of Biological Engineering, Calysta Energy, Inc. PDF icon giver_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-100166 Categorical Exclusion Determination Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015:

  8. Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System Benefits Wastewater Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants, Farms, and Landfills - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System Benefits Wastewater Treatment Plants, Farms, and Landfills Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Argonne&rsquo;s Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System &mdash; Process Schematic.</p> Argonne's Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System - Process Schematic.

  9. Western States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Western States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Western States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4 14 33 51 77 89 108 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Production

  10. Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Slope | Department of Energy Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope October 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and ConocoPhillips will work together to test innovative technologies for producing methane gas from hydrate deposits on the Alaska North Slope. The collaborative testing will

  11. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  12. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potawatomi Community - A Case Study | Department of Energy A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study Presented by Jason Rieth, Industrial Construction Executive at Miron Construction at the April 16, 2013, Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters CommRE Webinar. PDF icon mironconstruction_rieth.pdf More Documents & Publications

  13. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sewage Sludge | Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Principal Environmental Engineer, Argonne National Laboratory

  14. ,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"06301989"...

  15. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  16. ,"New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2014,"0...

  17. DOE Announces $2 Million Funding for Methane Hydrates Projects...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    a total of 2 million in funding to five research projects that will assess the energy potential, safety, and environmental aspects of methane hydrate exploration and development. ...

  18. Kentucky Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 7 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Kentucky Coalbed Methane Proved

  19. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-02-23

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resultedmore » in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels.« less

  20. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources. Authors: Tonkovich, Anna Lee 1 ; Qiu, Dongming 2 ; Dritz, Terence ...

  1. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... migration of the imbedded resources, flows back, and when the plugs that separated ... The interhemispheric gradient and the seasonal cycle, as well as the renewed methane ...

  2. Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 1 1 1 0 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves,

  3. ,"Louisiana--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  4. ,"California--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  5. ,"Texas--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  6. Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption Colorado State University Contact...

  7. Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) ...

  8. Kenaf Bast Fibers—Part I: Hermetical Alkali Digestion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Jinshu; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Barnes, H. Michael; Horstemeyer, Mark; Wang, Jinwu; Hassan, El-Barbary M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a hermetical alkali digestion process to obtain single cellulosic fibers from kenaf bast. Kenaf bast were hermetically digested into single fiber using a 5% sodium hydroxide solution for one hour at four different temperatures (80 ° C, 110 ° C, 130 ° C, and 160 ° C). The hermetical digestion process used in this study produced fibers with high cellulose content (84.2–92.3%) due to the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses. The surface hardness and elastic modulus of the fibers digested at 130 ° C and 160 ° C were improved significantlymore » compared with those digested at 80 ° C. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the individual fibers reduced as the digestion temperature increased from 110 ° C to 160 ° C. Micropores were generated in fiber cell wall when the fibers were digested at 130 ° C and 160 ° C. The studies on the composites that were made from polypropylene reinforced with the digested fibers indicated that the compatibility between the digested fibers and polypropylene matrix was poor.« less

  9. Current State of Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes in North...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012015 ISSN 2196-3010 Keywords anaerobic digestion, biogas, biosolids, fertilizer, food waste, manure, organic waste, renewable energy Abstract With the large volumes of...

  10. Regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Kimbell, J.S.; Russell, M.L.

    1992-06-29

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of factors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. The authors reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret toxicological data, to evaluate experimental dosimetry studies, and to develop dosimetry models. Selected dosimetry experiments involving laboratory animals and humans were discussed, showing the variability and uptake according to animal species and respiratory tract region for various reactive gases. New experimental dosimetry approaches, such as those involving isotope ratio mass spectroscopy and cyclotron generation reactive gases, were discussed that offer great promise for improving the ability to study regional respiratory tract absorption of reactive gases. Various dosimetry modeling applications were discussed which demonstrate: the importance of airflow patterns for site-specific dosimetry in the upper respiratory tract, the influence of the anatomical model used to make inter- and intraspecies dosimetric comparisons, the influence of tracheobronchial path length on predicted dose curves, and the implications of ventilatory unit structure and volume on dosimetry and response. Collectively, these examples illustrate important aspects of regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases. Given the complex nature of extent and pattern of injury in the respiratory tract from exposure to reactive gases, understanding interspecies differences in the absorption of reactive gases will continue to be an important area for study.

  11. Presentations from June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting Presentations from June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting PDF icon ConocoPhillips test results and data analysis PDF icon Methane Hydrate Workshop as part of the FY 2013 Methane Hydrate Field Program PDF icon Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting: Program Funding PDF icon Update on BOEM Lower 48 Assessment: A presentation to the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee PDF icon Gas Hydrate Program Activities in

  12. A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems July 29, 2014 - 3:33pm Addthis A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy

  13. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  14. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Under Construction

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Under Construction Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program This Page is Currently Under Construction Please check back at a later time For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, contact us via e-mail, phone, fax, or U.S. mail: E-Mail: InfoGHG@eia.doe.gov Phone: Toll-Free: 800-803-5182 Local: 202-586-0688 Fax: 202-586-3045 U.S. Mail: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Energy Information Administration, EI-81 U.S. Department of Energy 1000

  15. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Contact For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, contact us via e-mail, phone, fax, or U.S. mail: E-Mail: InfoGHG@eia.doe.gov Phone: Toll-Free: 800-803-5182 Local: 202-586-0688 Fax: 202-586-3045 U.S. Mail: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Energy Information Administration, EI-81 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave, SW Washington, DC 20585

  16. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, andmore » herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.« less

  17. Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting PDF icon International Gas...

  18. Colorado Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 12 1990's 26 48 82 125 179 226 274 312 401 432 2000's 451 490 520 488 520 515 477 519 497 498 2010's 533 516 486 444 412 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed

  19. MethaneHydrateRD_FC.indd

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    gas is an important energy resource for the United States, providing nearly one-quarter of total energy use. The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has played a major role in developing technologies to help tap new, unconventional sources of natural gas. FOSSIL ENERGY RESEARCH BENEFITS Methane Hydrate R&D "The (DOE) Program has supported and managed a high-quality research portf olio that has enabled signifi cant progress toward the (DOE) Program's long-term

  20. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  1. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  2. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  3. A mixed plug flow anaerobic digester for dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M.S.; Delisle, U.; Ferland, D.; Chagnon, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, a ''mixed plug-flow'' anaerobic digester has been built to produce biogas from the manure of 350 dairy cows and, subsequently, to produce electricity for on-farm use only. This paper describes the digester and presents the main results of one year of technical follow-up.

  4. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  5. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  6. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  7. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  8. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat...

  9. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  10. Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rings and Other Defects (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects « Prev Next » Title: Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects Authors: Scherpelz, Peter ; Padavić, Karmela ; Rançon, Adam ; Glatz, Andreas ; Aranson, Igor S. ; Levin, K. Publication Date: 2014-09-16 OSTI Identifier: 1180434 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  11. Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rings and Other Defects (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects Authors: Scherpelz, Peter ; Padavić, Karmela ; Rançon, Adam ; Glatz, Andreas ; Aranson, Igor S. ; Levin, K. Publication Date: 2014-09-16 OSTI Identifier: 1180434 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

  12. New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detection Model tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection Scientists have developed a new, more thorough method for detecting underground nuclear explosions by coupling two fundamental elements-seismic models with gas-flow models. December 17, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and

  13. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in

  14. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form EIA-1605 may seem daunting at first, even for entities that have reported under the original program. That's why EIA has developed the Getting Started page to help entities take a systematic approach to reporting their emissions and reductions. The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for reporting their entity's

  15. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  16. Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases (Conference)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | SciTech Connect Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy

  17. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2. Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the deficit in methane production in the TPMR attributed to COD loss due to biomass synthesis and adsorption of hard COD onto the flocs. These results including the complicated operational procedure of the two-phase process and the economic factors suggested that the single-phase process could be the preferred system for FVW.

  18. METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z.; Grundy, W. M.; Romanishin, W.; Vilas, F. E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

  19. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  20. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  1. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  2. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  3. Source Characterization and Temporal Variation of Methane Seepage from Thermokarst Lakes on the Alaska North Slope in Response to Arctic Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-30

    The goals of this research were to characterize the source, magnitude and temporal variability of methane seepage from thermokarst lakes (TKL) within the Alaska North Slope gas hydrate province, assess the vulnerability of these areas to ongoing and future arctic climate change and determine if gas hydrate dissociation resulting from permafrost melting is contributing to the current lake emissions. Analyses were focused on four main lake locations referred to in this report: Lake Qalluuraq (referred to as Lake Q) and Lake Teshekpuk (both on Alaska?s North Slope) and Lake Killarney and Goldstream Bill Lake (both in Alaska?s interior). From analyses of gases coming from lakes in Alaska, we showed that ecological seeps are common in Alaska and they account for a larger source of atmospheric methane today than geologic subcap seeps. Emissions from the geologic source could increase with potential implications for climate warming feedbacks. Our analyses of TKL sites showing gas ebullition were complemented with geophysical surveys, providing important insight about the distribution of shallow gas in the sediments and the lake bottom manifestation of seepage (e.g., pockmarks). In Lake Q, Chirp data were limited in their capacity to image deeper sediments and did not capture the thaw bulb. The failure to capture the thaw bulb at Lake Q may in part be related to the fact that the present day lake is a remnant of an older, larger, and now-partially drained lake. These suggestions are consistent with our analyses of a dated core of sediment from the lake that shows that a wetland has been present at the site of Lake Q since approximately 12,000 thousand years ago. Chemical analyses of the core indicate that the availability of methane at the site has changed during the past and is correlated with past environmental changes (i.e. temperature and hydrology) in the Arctic. Discovery of methane seeps in Lake Teshekpuk in the northernmost part of the lake during 2009 reconnaissance surveys provided a strong impetus to visit this area in 2010. The seismic methods applied in Lake Teshekpuk were able to image pockmarks, widespread shallow gas in the sediments, and the relationship among different sediment packages on the lake?s bottom, but even boomer seismics did not detect permafrost beneath the northern part of the lake. By characterizing the biogeochemistry of shallow TKL with methane seeps we showed that the radical seasonal shifts in ice cover and temperature. These seasonal environmental differences result in distinct consumption and production processes of biologically-relevant compounds. The combined effects of temperature, ice-volume and other lithological factors linked to seepage from the lake are manifest in the distribution of sedimentary methane in Lake Q during icecovered and ice-free conditions. The biogeochemistry results illustrated very active methanotrophy in TKLs. Substantial effort was subsequently made to characterize the nature of methanotrophic communities in TKLs. We applied stable isotope probing approaches to genetically characterize the methanotrophs most active in utilizing methane in TKLs. Our study is the first to identify methane oxidizing organisms active in arctic TKLs, and revealing that type I methanotrophs and type II methanotrophs are abundant and active in assimilating methane in TKLs. These organisms play an important role in limiting the flux of methane from these sites. Our investigations indicate that as temperatures increase in the Arctic, oxidation rates and active methanotrophic populations will also shift. Whether these changes can offset predicted increases in methanogenesis is an important question underlying models of future methane flux and resultant climate change. Overall our findings indicate that TKLs and their ability to act as both source and sink of methane are exceedingly sensitive to environmental change.

  4. Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81 5.02 NA .27

  5. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with emphasis; (6) detailed study of CH4-CO2 exchange as a unique alternative to recover CH4 gas while sequestering CO2; (7) the relevance of fines in otherwise clean sand sediments on gas recovery and related phenomena such as fines migration and clogging, vuggy structure formation, and gas-driven fracture formation during gas production by depressurization.

  6. Microbial ecology of thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen H. Zinder

    2000-04-15

    This grant supported research on methanogenic archaea. The two major areas that were supported were conversion of acetic acid to methane and nitrogen fixation by Methanosarcina. Among the achievements of this research were the isolation of novel methanogenic cultures, elucidation of the pathways from acetate to methane, description of a specific DNA-binding complex in nitrogen fixing methanogens, and demonstration of an alternative nitrogenase in Methanosarcina.

  7. Demonstration of anaerobic biogas digesters in developing countries. Part III. The Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.H.; Morales, E.C.

    1980-03-01

    The main theme of this series of articles is that ours is now a world-wide society, short on meeting needs for energy yet long on waste from our industrial, agricultural and human consumption processes. This is a study report about developments in the Philippines where waste management has been recognized and considered as an important practical source of energy. This is revealed by several reports of the number of biogas plants in operation in this country. According to the July 31, 1977 survey made by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries, 200 biogas plants were then installed and in operation of which 46 were government-owned and 154 privately-owned. More have been installed since then. This report presents some of the operating observations and developments from the joint engineering analyses project of the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industry, Man and the Biosphere Inter-Agency Committee on Ecological Studies, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and the National Institute of Science and Technology. The project's main objective was to show that establishing a biogas plant involves not only the production of a methane gas mixture but the integration of its other products as part of a system (i.e., using effluent water from the biogas digester for production of algae chlorell sp. for livestock and poultry feed, production of fish and fertilizing-irrigating of pasture and vegetable plots.). Housing development sewer systems with added biogas generators are also discussed.

  8. Studying methane migration mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D methane hydrate reservoir modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Mohanty, Kishore; Cook, Ann; Hillman, Jess

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ microbial methanogenesis, the influence of pore size contrast on solubility gradients, and the impact of salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on dissolved methane equilibrium in pore water. Using environmental parameters from Walker Ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. We find that with sufficient methane being supplied by organic methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x pore size contrast between clays and sands allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of methane hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand layer, a phenomenon that is observed in well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for the increase in sand-clay solubility contrast with depth from about 1.6% near the top of the sediment column to 8.6% at depth, which leads to a progressive strengthening of the diffusive flux of methane with time. By including an exponentially decaying organic methanogenesis input to the clay lithology with depth, we see a decrease in the aqueous methane supplied to the clays surrounding the sand layer with time, which works to further enhance the contrast in hydrate saturation between the sand and surrounding clays. Significant diffusive methane transport is observed in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand layer and about 4m below it, which matches well log observations. The clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to completely eliminate hydrate (as observed in logs), because the diffusive flux of aqueous methane due to a contrast in pore size occurs slower than the rate at which methane is supplied via organic methanogenesis. Therefore, it is likely that additional mechanisms are at play, notably bound water activity reduction in clays. Three-dimensionality allows for inclusion of lithologic heterogeneities, which focus fluid flow and subsequently allow for heterogeneity in the methane migration mechanisms that dominate in marine sediments at a local scale. Incorporating recently acquired 3D seismic data from Walker Ridge to inform the lithologic structure of our modeled reservoir, we show that even with deep adjective sourcing of methane along highly permeable pathways, local hydrate accumulations can be sourced either by diffusive or advective methane flux; advectively-sourced hydrates accumulate evenly in highly permeable strata, while diffusively-sourced hydrates are characterized by thin strata-bound intervals with high clay-sand pore size contrasts.

  9. Economic evaluation of a swine farm covered anaerobic lagoon digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1996-12-31

    It is helpful to evaluate anaerobic digestion technologies using objective economic criteria. Options can then be ranked in terms of their relative cost effectiveness, leading to rational deployment decisions. This study presents the results of a hypothetical pro forma economic evaluation of one type of digestion system that could commonly be found on many swine farms; a covered anaerobic lagoon. The digester was assumed to be located in North Carolina, a major swine-producing state. Electricity generation with waste heat recovery was assumed to be the major end-use application of biogas manufactured from this process.

  10. Kinetic model for anaerobic digestion of biogas biological sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlostathis, S.G.; Gossett, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    The principal objective of this study was the development and evaluation of a comprehensive kinetic model capable of predicting digester performance when fed biological sludge. Preliminary conversion mechanisms such as cell deaths, lysis, and hydrolysis responsible for rendering viable biological sludge organisms to available substrate were studied in depth. The results of this study indicate that hydrolysis of the dead, particulate biomass - primarily consisting of protein - is the slowest step, and therefore kinetically controls the overall process of an anaerobic digestion of biological sludge. A kinetic model was developed which could accurately describe digester performance and predict effluent quality.

  11. Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 19 28 29 41 17 2010's 16 17 13 23 11 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31

  12. Mississippi (with State off) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Mississippi Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  13. Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 73 77 66 75 37 2010's 64 25 11 16 11 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Montana Coalbed Methane Proved

  14. New Mexico--East Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico--East Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 25 26 23 23 26 2010's 27 27 28 26 24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production NM, East Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves,

  15. New Mexico--West Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico--West Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 489 484 371 420 406 2010's 375 347 327 330 349 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production NM, West Coalbed Methane Proved

  16. New York Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production New York Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  17. North Dakota Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production North Dakota Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  18. Federal Offshore California Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Offshore California Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Coalbed Methane Proved

  19. Federal Offshore--Texas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Texas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves,

  20. Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 257 234 340 301 163 2010's 258 228 183 189 211 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved

  1. Louisiana (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 1 1 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Louisiana Coalbed Methane Proved

  2. Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 1 1 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production North Louisiana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves

  3. Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 1 7 9 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 North Louisiana Coalbed Methane Proved

  4. Louisiana--South Onshore Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production LA, South Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane

  5. Louisiana--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production LA, State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane

  6. Lower 48 Federal Offshore Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Federal Offshore U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane

  7. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Alaska Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  8. Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 30 34 31 31 22 2010's 28 21 10 13 15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved

  9. California (with State off) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production California Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  10. California - Coastal Region Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Coastal Region Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, Coastal Region Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves

  11. California--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and

  12. Texas (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 11 8 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Texas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves

  13. Texas--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production TX, State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane

  14. West Virginia Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 30 18 25 28 31 2010's 17 18 9 8 11 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves,

  15. Texas (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 81 57 61 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31

  16. New York Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 New York Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

  17. North Dakota Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Dakota Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 North Dakota Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves

  18. Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 568 684 1,265 511 338 2010's 325 274 439 440 602 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Oklahoma

  19. Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 45 50 108 102 131 2010's 129 124 106 161 158 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31

  20. Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,592 1,685 1,725 1,224 934 902 750 922 893 725 2010's 718 679 518 523 538 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as

  1. Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,572 1,813 1,948 1,851 2,261 2010's 1,752 1,623 1,535 1,387 2,233 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of

  2. West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 186 194 255 246 220 2010's 220 139 107 113 76 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 West

  3. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution efficiency. This approach does not allow any conclusion regarding the possible advantage of sonication in selective dissolution of plutonium traces incorporated into an inorganic or organic fraction of the samples.

  4. The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Methane

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrates | Department of Energy Methane Hydrates The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Methane Hydrates The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Methane Hydrates is composed of SEAB members and independent experts charged with recommending a framework for DOE methane hydrate research programs. Purpose of the Task Force: The purpose of this task force is to provide a framework for DOE's pre-commercial methane hydrate research effort, in particular, the

  5. Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity program is designed to support small-sized electricity generation where the energy generated is used primarily at the electric customer's location (third...

  6. Producing pipeline-quality biomethane via anaerobic digestion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and <5 ppb H2S), facilitated CO2 removal by up to 86.3%, boosted average CH4 content in biogas by up to 42.4% compared with the control digester, close to fungibility of natural...

  7. Hard probes of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-06-18

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  8. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  9. Commodity chemicals from natural gas by methane chlorination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, S.C.; Minet, R.G.; Giacobbe, F.; Mullick, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) can be produced from natural gas through methane chlorination by reacting methane and chlorine at 900/sup 0/C or higher. Experimental results indicate total ethylene equivalent yield from methane of 45%(wt) and marginal process economics. Fundamental kinetic modeling predicts improved C/sub 2/ yields of up to 70%(wt) at optimum reaction conditions. This optimum condition established the basis for the process design study to evaluate the potential for producing ethylene and VCM from natural gas. HCl by-product is recycled for economic viability. Using the Kel-Chlor process for recycling HCl, the proposed plant produces 27,200 TPA of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 383,800 TPA of VCM. The Midwest is an ethylene consumption area requiring imports of ethylene derivatives from other regions. A methane chlorination plant located on a Midwestern natural gas pipeline network has a good commercial potential.

  10. Radiolytic and thermal generation of gases from Hanford grout samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H{sub 2}) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N{sub 2}) = 0.12, G(O{sub 2}) = 0.026, G(N{sub 2}O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H{sub 2}) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 {degree}C, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.

  11. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  12. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  13. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  14. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  15. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  16. Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679

  17. Ownership questions can stymie development of coalbed methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counts, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Although the technology exists for commercial recovery of coalbed methane, production has been hindered because of the legal quandary as to ownership. The author discusses how claims to ownership of coalbed methane can and have been made by the coal owner or lessee, the oil and gas owner or lessee, the surface owner, or any combination thereof. The federal perspective on this question of ownership is described and several state rulings are assessed.

  18. Method of determining methane and electrochemical sensor therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Otagawa, Takaaki (Westmont, IL); Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about about 1.4 volts versus R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  19. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-07-15

    A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

  20. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

  1. Energy Department Advances Research on Methane Hydrates - the World's

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Largest Untapped Fossil Energy Resource | Department of Energy News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Energy Department today announced the selection of 14 new research projects across 11 states that will be a part of an expanding portfolio of projects designed to increase our understanding of methane hydrates' potential as a future energy supply. Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside, and are found both onshore and offshore -

  2. Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum Authors: Peterson, Joseph R. ; Labhsetwar, Piyush Search SciTech Connect for author "Labhsetwar, Piyush" Search SciTech Connect for ORCID "0000000159333609" Search orcid.org for ORCID "0000000159333609" ; Ellermeier, Jeremy

  3. Methane Hydrate R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Methane Hydrate R&D Natural gas is an important energy resource for the United States, providing nearly one-quarter of total energy use. The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy has played a major role in developing technologies to help tap new, unconventional sources of natural gas. PDF icon Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Methane Hydrate More Documents & Publications Idaho Operations AMWTP Fact Sheet Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System CERTIFIED REALTY SPECIALIST

  4. Impact of mammalian megaherbivores on global methane examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December » Impact of mammalian megaherbivores on global methane examined Impact of mammalian megaherbivores on global methane examined Examining the past consequences of large herbivore loss yields insights into contemporary ecosystem function. December 21, 2015 Artist's depiction of the late Pleistocene landscape with some of the megaherbivores that became extinct. Artist's depiction of the late Pleistocene landscape with some of the megaherbivores that became extinct. Communications Office

  5. Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | DOE PAGES Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum Title: Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum Authors: Peterson, Joseph R. ; Labhsetwar, Piyush Search DOE PAGES for author "Labhsetwar, Piyush" Search DOE PAGES for ORCID "0000000159333609" Search orcid.org for ORCID "0000000159333609" ; Ellermeier, Jeremy R. ; Kohler, Petra R. A. ; Jain, Ankur Search DOE PAGES for author "Jain, Ankur" Search DOE

  6. Energy Department Advances Research on Methane Hydrates - the World's

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Largest Untapped Fossil Energy Resource | Department of Energy Research on Methane Hydrates - the World's Largest Untapped Fossil Energy Resource Energy Department Advances Research on Methane Hydrates - the World's Largest Untapped Fossil Energy Resource August 31, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Energy Department today announced the selection of 14 new research projects across 11 states that will be a part of an expanding portfolio of projects designed to increase our

  7. Experimental and numerical study of the accuracy of flame-speed measurements for methane/air combustion in a slot burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selle, L.; Ferret, B. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-15

    Measuring the velocities of premixed laminar flames with precision remains a controversial issue in the combustion community. This paper studies the accuracy of such measurements in two-dimensional slot burners and shows that while methane/air flame speeds can be measured with reasonable accuracy, the method may lack precision for other mixtures such as hydrogen/air. Curvature at the flame tip, strain on the flame sides and local quenching at the flame base can modify local flame speeds and require corrections which are studied using two-dimensional DNS. Numerical simulations also provide stretch, displacement and consumption flame speeds along the flame front. For methane/air flames, DNS show that the local stretch remains small so that the local consumption speed is very close to the unstretched premixed flame speed. The only correction needed to correctly predict flame speeds in this case is due to the finite aspect ratio of the slot used to inject the premixed gases which induces a flow acceleration in the measurement region (this correction can be evaluated from velocity measurement in the slot section or from an analytical solution). The method is applied to methane/air flames with and without water addition and results are compared to experimental data found in the literature. The paper then discusses the limitations of the slot-burner method to measure flame speeds for other mixtures and shows that it is not well adapted to mixtures with a Lewis number far from unity, such as hydrogen/air flames. (author)

  8. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Litt, Robert D.; Dongming, Qiu; Silva, Laura J.; Lamont, Micheal Jay; Fanelli, Maddalena; Simmons, Wayne W.; Perry, Steven

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  9. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  10. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  11. Field Exploration of Methane Seep Near Atqasuk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katey Walter, Dennis Witmer, Gwen Holdmann

    2008-12-31

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) in natural gas is a major energy source in the U.S., and is used extensively on Alaska's North Slope, including the oilfields in Prudhoe Bay, the community of Barrow, and the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA). Smaller villages, however, are dependent on imported diesel fuel for both power and heating, resulting in some of the highest energy costs in the U.S. and crippling local economies. Numerous CH{sub 4} gas seeps have been observed on wetlands near Atqasuk, Alaska (in the NPRA), and initial measurements have indicated flow rates of 3,000-5,000 ft{sup 3} day{sup -1} (60-100 kg CH{sub 4} day{sup -1}). Gas samples collected in 1996 indicated biogenic origin, although more recent sampling indicated a mixture of biogenic and thermogenic gas. In this study, we (1) quantified the amount of CH{sub 4} generated by several seeps and evaluated their potential use as an unconventional gas source for the village of Atqasuk; (2) collected gas and analyzed its composition from multiple seeps several miles apart to see if the source is the same, or if gas is being generated locally from isolated biogenic sources; and (3) assessed the potential magnitude of natural CH{sub 4} gas seeps for future use in climate change modeling.

  12. Effect of particle size reduction on anaerobic sludge digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koutsospyros, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of organic pollutants in primary sludge are suspended in the form of particulate rather than soluble matter. Microbial organisms cannot assimilate this material without initial solubilization. In anaerobic digestion, the initial size breakdown is accomplished by hydrolytic bacteria. The extent of solubilization is limited by the size of particulate matter. Thus, size reduction prior to digestion is a sound alternative. Size reduction pretreatment was achieved by means of ultrasonic waves. Sonication proved an effective method for size reduction of particulate matter in primary sludge. In addition, although the method produced relatively high amounts of finely dispered solids, the filtration properties of resulting sludges were not affected. Chemical characteristics of sludge, important in anaerobic digestion, were not affected, at least within the attempted range of sonication time and amplitude. The effect of size reduction of primary sludge solids was studied under batch and semi-continuous feed conditions. Preliminary batch digestion experiments were conducted in five 1.5 liter reactors that accepted sonicated feeds of varying pretreatment at four different feed loads (3.3-13.3% by volume). The digestion efficiency and gas production were increased by as much as 30 percent as a result of sonication without any deterioration in the filtration properties of the digester effluent. At higher feed loads the digester efficiency dropped drastically and significant deterioration of the effluent filtration properties from all reactors was evident. Semi-continuous runs were conducted in four reactors. Solids retention time (SRT) was varied from 8 to 20 days. Process efficiency and gas production were enhanced as a result of sonication. Process improvement was more evident under short SRT (8-10 days).

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Methane Digester Loan Program In order to be eligible for a Methane Digester Loan, a borrower...

  14. Methane Hydrate Field Program. Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, Tim; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Frye, Matt; Goldberg, Dave; Husebo, Jarle; Koh, Carolyn; Malone, Mitch; Shipp, Craig; Torres, Marta; Myers, Greg; Divins, David; Morell, Margo

    2013-12-31

    This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these efforts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these efforts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and offers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.

  15. A lean methane premixed laminar flame doped with components of diesel fuel part III: Indane and comparison between n-butylbenzene, n-propylcyclohexane and indane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pousse, E.; Tian, Z.Y.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Laboratoire des Reactions et de Genie des Procedes, CNRS, Nancy Universite, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 NANCY Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    To better understand the chemistry of the combustion of components of diesel fuel, the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame doped with indane has been investigated. The inlet gases contained 7.1% (molar) of methane, 36.8% of oxygen and 0.9% of indane corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 0.67 and a ratio C{sub 10}H{sub 14}/CH{sub 4} of 12.8%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa (50 Torr) using argon as diluent, with a gas velocity at the burner of 49.1 cm s{sup -1} at 333 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products, but also 16 C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} non-aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} non-aromatic oxygenated compounds, as well as 22 aromatic products, namely benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenylacetylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, propenylbenzene, allylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, methylstyrenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, n-butylbenzene, dimethylethylbenzene, indene, methylindenes, methylindane, benzocyclobutene, naphthalene, phenol, benzaldehyde, and benzofuran. A new mechanism for the oxidation of indane was proposed whose predictions were in satisfactory agreement with measured species profiles in both flames and jet-stirred reactor experiments. The main reaction pathways of consumption of indane have been derived from flow rate analyses in the two types of reactors. A comparison of the effect of the addition of three components of diesel fuel, namely indane, n-butylbenzene and n-propylcyclohexane (parts I and II of this series of paper), on the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame is also presented. (author)

  16. Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.R. . E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk; Lang, N.L.; Cheung, K.H.M.; Spanoudaki, K.

    2005-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the principal method of stabilising biosolids from urban wastewater treatment in the UK, and it also has application for the treatment of other types of biowaste. Increasing awareness of the potential risks to human and animal health from environmental sources of pathogens has focused attention on the efficacy of waste treatment processes at destroying pathogenic microorganisms in biowastes recycled to agricultural land. The degree of disinfection achieved by a particular anaerobic digester is influenced by a variety of interacting operational variables and conditions, which can often deviate from the ideal. Experimental investigations demonstrate that Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are not damaged by mesophilic temperatures, whereas rapid inactivation occurs by thermophilic digestion. A hydraulic, biokinetic and thermodynamic model of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion showed that a 2 log{sub 10} reduction in E. coli (the minimum removal required for agricultural use of conventionally treated biosolids) is likely to challenge most conventional mesophilic digesters, unless strict maintenance and management practices are adopted to minimise dead zones and by-pass flow. Efficient mixing and organic matter stabilisation are the main factors controlling the rate of inactivation under mesophilic conditions and not a direct effect of temperature per se on pathogenic organisms.

  17. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

  18. Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

  19. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the project reports.

  20. Production of methane by anaerobic fermentation of waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitzman, D.O.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing methane by anaerobic fermentation of waste material, comprising: cavity means in the earth for holding a quantity of the waste material; means for covering a quantity of the waste material in the cavity means and thereby separating the quantity of the waste material from the atmosphere; first conduit means communicating between the waste material in the cavity means and a location remote from the cavity means for conveying gas comprising carbon dioxide and methane from the cavity means to the location; gas separation means communicating with the first conduit means at the location for separating carbon dioxide from methane, the first conduit means including at least one pipe having a plurality of apertures therein and disposed in the cavity means extending into and in fluid flow communication with the waste material for receiving gas liberated by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste material and comprising carbon dioxide and methane, through the apertures therein for conveyance via the first conduit means to the gas separation means; second conduit means communicating between the gas separation means and the waste material in the cavity means for conveying carbon dioxide from the gas separation means to the waste material; and third conduit means communicating with the gas separation means for conveying methane from the gas separation means.

  1. Liquid-liquid extraction of short-chain organic acids from anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wene, E.G.; Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters with glucose or municipal solid waste (MSW) feed were operated to maximize production of short-chain organic acids. Digester effluent was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or trioctylamine (TOA) in heptane or 2-heptanone as the water immiscible phase. Digester effluent was recycled to digesters after extraction. Both TOPO and TOA in organic solvents effectively extract organic acids from anaerobic digester fluid. Longer chain acids have a higher distribution coefficient than shorter-chain acids. Long term extraction of digester fluid with recycle was not toxic to the anaerobic production of short-chain acids.

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 1994 edition. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, L.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest (digest) provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRCs regulatory responsibility the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. The digest, published annually, is a compilation of nuclear-and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1993, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating US commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed.

  3. Discussion of ``The anaerobic digestion of organic waste``

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    With respect to economics, the presenter indicated that anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) may not be economical based on the value of the energy produced. This will most likely be the case, partly because of the low energy prices in this country. These facilities would have to rely on tipping fees paid for receiving and processing the waste. As stated earlier, the high solids process will help improve the economics. While there are said to be 20 plants operating in Europe on MSW, there seems to be none in the US, and that is the condition this paper addresses. It was hoped that by exploring the benefits of co-digestion and stimulation, and showing how digestible certain components of MSW can be, more operators of existing anaerobic facilities would consider expanding their operations to include at least some elements of MSW.

  4. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  5. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  6. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  7. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  8. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

  9. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,813 3,440 3,591 7,549 6,265 8,763 9,872 18,776 13,652 9,971 1990's 9,981 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  10. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,813 3,440 3,591 7,549 6,265 8,763 9,872 18,776 13,652 9,971 1990's 9,981 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  11. Methane drainage with horizontal boreholes in advance of longwall mining: an analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabello, D.P.; Felts, L.L.; Hayoz, F.P.

    1981-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center has implemented a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of coalbed methane as an energy resource. The program is directed toward solution of technical and institutional problems impeding the recovery and use of large quantities of methane contained in the nation's minable and unminable coalbeds. Conducted in direct support of the DOE Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, this study analyzes the economic aspects of a horizontal borehole methane recovery system integrated as part of a longwall mine operation. It establishes relationships between methane selling price and annual mine production, methane production rate, and the methane drainage system capital investment. Results are encouraging, indicating that an annual coal production increase of approximately eight percent would offset all associated drainage costs over the range of methane production rates and capital investments considered.

  12. SOLUBILITY OF METHANE I N WATER UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS A LABORATORY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOLUBILITY OF METHANE I N WATER UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS A LABORATORY STUDY , ... S o l u b i l i t y o f Crude O i l and Water i n Methane . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ...

  13. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  14. DOE-Sponsored Beaufort Sea Expedition Studies Methane's Role in Global Climate Cycle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington, D.C. -- Increased understanding of methane's role in the global climate cycle and the potential of methane hydrate as a future energy resource could result from a recent joint research...

  15. System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, John S.; Ognibene, Ted J.; Bench, Graham S.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2009-11-03

    A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

  16. MOFs Can Tune the Critical Point of Gases | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome MOFs Can Tune the Critical Point of Gases

  17. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  18. Investigation of Compton profiles of molecular methane and ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Xu, Long-Quan; Kang, Xu; Liu, Ya-Wei; Ni, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yang, Ke Ma, Yong-Peng; Yan, Shuai

    2015-02-28

    The Compton profiles of methane and ethane molecules have been determined at an incident photon energy of 20 keV based on the third generation synchrotron radiation, and the statistical accuracy of 0.2% is achieved near p{sub z} = 0. The density functional theory with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set was used to calculate the Compton profiles of methane and ethane. The present experimental Compton profiles are in better agreement with the theoretical calculations in the whole p{sub z} region than the previous experimental results, which indicates that the present experimental Compton profiles are accurate enough to serve as the benchmark data for methane and ethane molecules.

  19. Dewatering of coalbed methane wells with hydraulic gas pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amani, M.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    The coalbed methane industry has become an important source of natural gas production. Proper dewatering of coalbed methane (CBM) wells is the key to efficient gas production from these reservoirs. This paper presents the Hydraulic Gas Pump as a new alternative dewatering system for CBM wells. The Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP) concept offers several operational advantages for CBM wells. Gas interference does not affect its operation. It resists solids damage by eliminating the lift mechanism and reducing the number of moving parts. The HGP has a flexible production rate and is suitable for all production phases of CBM wells. It can also be designed as a wireline retrievable system. We conclude that the Hydraulic Gas Pump is a suitable dewatering system for coalbed methane wells.

  20. EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

  1. An adaptive strategy to control anaerobic digesters for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroy, O.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Cuervo, F.; Femat, R.

    1996-10-01

    The design and implementation of a new adaptive controller for anaerobic digesters is presented using a general nonlinear model and an uncertainties estimation scheme. The primary advantage of this controller over standard adaptive controllers is that biogas flow rate measurements are not required. The resulting controller is similar in form to standard adaptive controllers and can be tuned analogously. The adaptive control strategy has been implemented in a pilot-scale anaerobic digester showing good performance and robustness against changes in the feed load.

  2. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  3. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID); Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tuggle, Dale G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

  4. Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2007-07-01

    For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

  5. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why Report Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, reductions, and sequestration under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The purpose of the Voluntary Reporting Program is to encourage corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their

  6. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  7. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  8. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  9. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  10. Benefits and hurdles for biological methane upgrading; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The presentation will focus on the technical hurdles for bioconversion of methane into chemical and liquid fuel.

  11. Report of the Task Force on Methane Hydrates | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Methane Hydrates Report of the Task Force on Methane Hydrates This report presents the findings and recommendations for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Methane Hydrates. The Task Force was charged to review the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) methane hydrates research program to evaluate the program's pre-commercial research activities and progress in (1) understanding the assessment and exploitation of hydrates as an energy resource, and (2) understanding the

  12. Mississippi (with State off) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Mississippi Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

  13. Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 1990's 1 3 10 18 34 47 56 70 99 130 2000's 0 -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  14. Florida Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Florida Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

  15. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Coalbed Methane

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec.

  16. Louisiana (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 1 7 9 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Louisiana

  17. Louisiana--South Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 LA, South Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and

  18. Louisiana--State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 LA, State Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and

  19. Lower 48 Federal Offshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Federal Offshore U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and

  20. Lower 48 States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,732 1,758 1,753 1,966 1,914 2010's 1,886 1,763 1,655 1,466 1,404 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Lower 48 States

  1. Lower 48 States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 19,892 19,620 21,874 20,798 18,578 2010's 17,508 16,817 13,591 12,392 15,696 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of

  2. Michigan Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Michigan Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

  3. US COALBED METHANE The Past: Production The Present: Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Panel 2 of 2 US COALBED METHANE The Past: Production The Present: Reserves The Future: Resources Annual coalbed methane gas production data through 12/31/2006 was obtained from 17 state oil & gas regulatory entities or geological surv eys and one producing company. Data for 2006 were not yet av ailable for West Virginia and Pennsy lvania so the 2005 v olumes were assumed to repeat in 2006. Produced CBM gas v olumes from each state were clas sified by basin. The cumulative production pie

  4. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Alaska Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

  5. California (with State off) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 California Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

  6. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Los Angeles Basin Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, Los Angeles

  7. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) San Joaquin Basin Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, San Joaquin

  8. ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Temelso, B.; Vinatier, S.; Bezard, B.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Mandt, K. E.; Sherrill, C. D.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-04-20

    The existence of methane in Titan's atmosphere ({approx}6% level at the surface) presents a unique enigma, as photochemical models predict that the current inventory will be entirely depleted by photochemistry in a timescale of {approx}20 Myr. In this paper, we examine the clues available from isotopic ratios ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H) in Titan's methane as to the past atmosphere history of this species. We first analyze recent infrared spectra of CH{sub 4} collected by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer, measuring simultaneously for the first time the abundances of all three detected minor isotopologues: {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D, and {sup 13}CH{sub 3}D. From these we compute estimates of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 86.5 {+-} 8.2 and D/H = (1.59 {+-} 0.33) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, in agreement with recent results from the Huygens GCMS and Cassini INMS instruments. We also use the transition state theory to estimate the fractionation that occurs in carbon and hydrogen during a critical reaction that plays a key role in the chemical depletion of Titan's methane: CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. Using these new measurements and predictions we proceed to model the time evolution of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H in Titan's methane under several prototypical replenishment scenarios. In our Model 1 (no resupply of CH{sub 4}), we find that the present-day {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C implies that the CH{sub 4} entered the atmosphere 60-1600 Myr ago if methane is depleted by chemistry and photolysis alone, but much more recently-most likely less than 10 Myr ago-if hydrodynamic escape is also occurring. On the other hand, if methane has been continuously supplied at the replenishment rate then the isotopic ratios provide no constraints, and likewise for the case where atmospheric methane is increasing. We conclude by discussing how these findings may be combined with other evidence to constrain the overall history of the atmospheric methane.

  9. Methane storage in advanced porous materials | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Methane storage in advanced porous materials Previous Next List Trevor A. Makal, Jian-Rong Li, Weigang Lu and Hong-Cai Zhou, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012,41, 7761-7779 DOI: 10.1039/C2CS35251F Abstract: The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However,

  10. Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cu-3(btc)(2) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in Cu-3(btc)(2) Previous Next List Hulvey, Zeric; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Mason, Jarad A.; Tsivion, Ehud; Dougherty, Timothy P.; Bloch, Eric D.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Smit, Berend; Long, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Craig M. Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in Cu-3(btc)(2). J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 137, 10816-10825

  11. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Felipe Gándara, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Seungkyu Lee, and Omar M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136, 5271-5274 (2014) DOI: 10.1021/ja501606h Abstract Image Abstract: The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and

  12. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platform in search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths of approximately 1200 to 2500 ft MD. A secondary objective was the gas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval at approximately 3000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis of the well are presented in this report.

  13. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models and to research teams for developing future gas-hydrate projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and has been documented by the project team. This Topical Report documents drilling and coring operations and other daily activities.

  14. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists planning hydrate exploration and development projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this and other project reports. This Topical Report contains details describing logging operations.

  15. Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Research and Development Act of 2000 Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 PDF icon Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 More Documents & Publications NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL404.106 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004

  16. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel-alcohol plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengtson, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    An anaerobic-digestion system, coupled with a fuel-alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm-energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components; a hog finishing house with a manure pit; a solids handling pump to feed the manure; and a 13,000-gallon railroad tank car as the main digester vessel and pump to transfer effluent from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digester was operated for sufficient time to demonstrate the use of hot water in an automated digester temperature control system. Sufficient biogas was produced to demonstrate the use of biogas in a converted propane boiler.

  17. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  19. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  20. Gettering of Hydrogen and Methane from a Helium Gas Mixture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cardenas, Rosa E.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-10-21

    In our study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H2 and CH4 can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172® getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. Moreover, the optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110°C to remove the hydrogen. Finally, this approach eliminatedmore » the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.« less