National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for diffuse-flow hydrothermal vent

  1. Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor hydrothermal vents with associated rare earth element data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2016-02-10

    Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor hydrothermal vents that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) Hydrothermal Vents" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"

  2. Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-10-01

    Compilation of rare earth element and associated major and minor dissolved constituent analytical data for USA geothermal fields and global seafloor hydrothermal vents. Data is in original units. Reference to and use of this data should be attributed to the original authors and publications according to the provisions outlined therein.

  3. Characterizing Microbial Community and Geochemical Dynamics at Hydrothermal Vents Using Osmotically Driven Continuous Fluid Samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robidart, Julie C.; Callister, Stephen J.; Song, Peng F.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wheat, Charles G.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-05-07

    Microbes play a key role in mediating all aquatic biogeochemical cycles, and ongoing efforts are aimed at better understanding the relationships between microbial phylogenetic and physiological diversity, and habitat physical and chemical characteristics. Establishing such relationships is facilitated by sampling and studying microbiology and geochemistry at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales, to access information on the past and current environmental state that contributes to observed microbial abundances and activities. A modest number of sampling systems exist to date, few of which can be used in remote, harsh environments such as hydrothermal vents, where the ephemeral nature of venting underscores the necessity for higher resolution sampling. We have developed a robust, continuous fluid sampling system for co-registered microbial and biogeochemical analyses. The osmosis-powered bio-osmosampling system (BOSS) use no electricity, collects fluids with daily resolution or better, can be deployed in harsh, inaccessible environments and can sample fluids continuously for up to five years. Here we present a series of tests to examine DNA, RNA and protein stability over time, as well as material compatability, via lab experiments. We also conducted two field deployments at deep-sea hydrothermal vents to assess changes in microbial diversity and protein expression as a function of the physico-chemical environment. Our data reveal significant changes in microbial community composition co-occurring with relatively modest changes in the geochemistry. These data additionally provide new insights into the distribution of an enigmatic sulfur oxidizing symbiont in its free-living state. Data from the second deployment reveal differences in the representation of peptides over time, underscoring the utility of the BOSS in meta-proteomic studies. In concert, these data demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, and illustrate the value of using this method to study

  4. Gas venting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edwin F.

    1976-01-01

    Improved gas venting from radioactive-material containers which utilizes the passageways between interbonded impervious laminae.

  5. Vented Capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan

    2006-04-11

    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  6. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  7. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  8. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  9. Battery venting system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  10. Geothermal hydrothermal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The geothermal hydrothermal section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  11. Coil spring venting arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-10-21

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

  12. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-08-31

    This two-page fact sheet provides an overview of hydrothermal resources and hydrothermal reservoir creation and operation.

  13. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate

  14. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Process Design and Economics for Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction, a paper from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  15. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  16. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and ...

  17. Hydrothermal Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Geothermal electricity production has grown steadily, tapping a reliable, nearly inexhaustible reserve of hydrothermal systems where fluid, heat, and permeability intersect naturally in the subsurface. The United States Geological Survey estimates that 30 GW of hydrothermal resources lie beneath the surface--ten times the current installed capacity. Hydrothermal Projects Projects Database Program Links What is Play Fairway

  18. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  19. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, L.D.; Rahimi, R.S.; Edling, D.

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Wednesday, 29 April 2009 00:00 Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in

  1. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  2. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity....

  3. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  4. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Date: 12312015 Next Release Date: 01292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Arizona Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Vented and Flared...

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release Date: 03312016 Next Release Date: 04292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Vented and ...

  6. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  7. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  8. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  9. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  10. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  11. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  12. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  13. Examination of frit vent from Sixty-Watt Heat Source simulant fueled clad vent set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    The flow rate and the metallurgical condition of a frit vent from a simulant-fueled clad vent set (CVS) that had been hot isostatically pressed (HIP) for the Sixty-Watt Heat Source program were evaluated. The flow rate form the defueled vent cup subassembly was reduced approximately 25% from the original flow rate. No obstructions were found to account for the reduced flow rate. Measurements indicate that the frit vent powder thickness was reduced about 30%. Most likely, the powder was compressed during the HIP operation, which increased the density of the powder layer and thus reduced the flow rate of the assembly. All other observed manufacturing attributes appeared to be normal, but the vent hole activation technique needs further refinement before it is used in applications requiring maximum CVS integrity.

  14. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.; Jackaway, Adam D.

    2000-05-16

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  15. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  16. Petroleum generation and migration in submarine hydrothermal systems; An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    The conversion of organic matter to petroleum by hydrothermal activity is an easy process,occurring in nature in many types of environments. Geologically immature organic matter of mariner sediments is being altered by this process in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California), Escanaba Trough and Middle Valley (northeast Pacific), Bransfield Strait (Antarctica), and Atlantis II and Kebrit Deeps (Red Sea). Contemporary organic detritus and viable microorganisms are also converted in part to petroleum-like products by the same process when present to become entrained, as for example on the East Pacific Rise at 13{degrees}N and 21{degrees}N and on the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26{degrees}N. The hydrocarbon products (methane to asphalt) generated in all these areas have been elucidated in terms of composition, organic matter sources, and analogy to reservoir petroleum. This petroleum represents a major input of carbon to the primary chemosynthetic productivity of hydrothermal vent systems and may be important to interactions with metals in hydrothermal ore formation.

  17. Hydrothermal Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About the Geothermal Technologies Office » Hydrothermal Resources Hydrothermal Resources The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The development of advanced exploration tools and technologies will accelerate the discovery and utilization of the U.S. Geological Survey's estimated 30,000 MWe of undiscovered hydrothermal

  18. Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    been provided for this term. Add a Definition Opalized rock is often valued for its spectacular colors and it may indicate past hydrothermal activity (reference: https:...

  19. Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dean, Kevin; Holland, Arthur; Fillmore, Donn

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

  20. Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Author...

  1. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capping Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products Colorful hydrothermal deposits dot the landscape at the Hverir Geothermal Area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified field...

  2. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal...

  3. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-05-22

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that microbiologically produced Fe-complexing ligands may play critical roles in both the delivery of Fe(II) to oxidases, and the limited Fe(III) oxyhydroxide crystallinity observed within the biofilm. Our research provides insight into the structure and formation of naturally occurring, microbiologically produced Fe oxyhydroxide minerals in the deep-sea. We describe the initiation of microbial seafloor weathering, and the morphological and mineralogical signals that result from that process. Our observations provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively weathered seafloor sulfide minerals may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of ancient microbial processes and associated biological signatures.

  4. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  6. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Overview of hydrothermal resources Hydrothermal Fact Sheet.pdf (3.53 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager for the Geothermal Technologies Office presented. Exploration drilling in the Wind River Valley basin validates the

  7. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  8. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Pressure Steam | Department of Energy Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #29 Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam (January 2012)

  9. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (January 2012) (374.64 KB) More Documents & Publications Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems ...

  10. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems Citation Details ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 29 ENERGY PLANNING, ...

  11. Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ntifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the...

  12. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Vented ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas ...

  13. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  14. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  15. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  16. Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by...

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANNEALING; BISMUTH COMPOUNDS; CATALYSTS; CITRATES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS; ION ...

  18. Fluid rare earth element anlayses from geothermal wells located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland and Middle Valley seafloor hydrothermal system on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-05-01

    Results for fluid rare earth element analyses from four Reykjanes peninsula high-temperature geothermal fields. Data for fluids from hydrothermal vents located 2400 m below sea level from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge are also included. Data have been corrected for flashing. Samples preconcentrated using a chelating resin with IDA functional group (InertSep ME-1). Analyzed using an Element magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  19. ARM - Campaign Instrument - cm22-pmod-vent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pmod-vent Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Kipp & Zonen CM22-PMOD Vent (CM22-PMOD-VENT) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Diffuse Shortwave IOP [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2001.09.24 - 2001.10.22 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers for the list of all available measurements,

  20. Building America Case Study - Evaluation of Passive Vents in...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Typical apartments will need 20-45 CFM of outdoor air to meet ASHRAE 62.2-2010 whole-house ... The average airfow through the passive vents fell short of providing the ASHRAE 62.2-2010 ...

  1. Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure And Zones Of High Heat Flow In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska Jump to: navigation,...

  2. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Example An industrial facility vents 10,000 lbhr of steam at near atmospheric pressure 0.3 psig, 212.9F, 1,150.7 Btu per pound (Btulb). Wasted steam can be converted into ...

  3. NATURAL CO2 FLOW FROM THE LOIHI VENT: IMPACT ON MICROBIAL PRODUCTION AND FATE OF THE CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard B. Coffin; Thomas J. Boyd; David L. Knies; Kenneth S. Grabowski; John W. Pohlman; Clark S. Mitchell

    2004-02-27

    The program for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration was initiated December 1997. Preliminary steps involved surveying a suite of biogeochemical parameters off the coast of Kona on the Big Island of Hawaii. The preliminary survey was conducted twice, in 1999 and 2000, to obtain a thorough data set including measurements of pH, current profiles, CO{sub 2} concentrations, microbial activities, and water and sediment chemistries. These data were collected in order to interpret a planned CO{sub 2} injection experiment. After these preliminary surveys were completed, local environment regulation forced moving the project to the coast north east of Bergen, Norway. The preliminary survey along the Norwegian Coast was conducted during 2002. However, Norwegian government revoked a permit, approved by the Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority, for policy reasons regarding the CO{sub 2} injection experiment. As a result the research team decided to monitor the natural CO{sub 2} flow off the southern coast of the Big Island. From December 3rd-13th 2002 scientists from four countries representing the Technical Committee of the International Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Experiment examined the hydrothermal venting at Loihi Seamount (Hawaiian Islands, USA). Work focused on tracing the venting gases, the impacts of the vent fluids on marine organisms, and CO{sub 2} influence on biogeochemical cycles. The cruise on the R/V Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa (KOK) included 8 dives by the PISCES V submarine, 6 at Loihi and 2 at a nearby site in the lee of the Big Island. Data for this final report is from the last 2 dives on Loihi.

  4. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Success Stories Hydrothermal Success Stories June 9, 2015 Hydrothermal Success Stories Energy Department Honored for Inroads in Geothermal Energy As renewable energy takes a stronger role in supplying the U.S. grid, geothermal power could support a more flexible role to balance the intermittent and variable capacity of wind and solar. June 5, 2015 Geothermal energy, traditionally a baseload power source among renewables, is poised to emerge also as a flexible power source, balancing

  5. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for

  6. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis presentation by Kate Young, Dan Getman, and Ariel Esposito at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting on May 10, 2012

  7. Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Numerous types of colorful hydrothermal alterations compose the landscape at Kerlingarfjoll Geothermal area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified...

  8. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  9. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleochori cliffs Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermal alteration refers to rocks that have been altered from their original...

  10. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Detailed surface mapping, subsurface drill hole data, and geophysical modeling are the basis of a structural and hydrothermal model for the western part of Long...

  11. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  12. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  13. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update GTP Peer Review Lunch Presentation Westminster, CO Kate Young Dan Getman Ariel Esposito May 10, 2012 2 Data Gap Analysis PROJECT ...

  14. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Author...

  15. Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Abstract A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly...

  16. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype ...

  17. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  18. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  19. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  20. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  1. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  2. Hydrothermal Exploration at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal Technologies Office, Department of Energy, explored hydrothermal potential at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska and discovered a resource siginificant enough for a spectrum of geothermal energy developments, including on-site power generation.

  3. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  4. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  5. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 330 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  6. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126,629 129,408 130,766 1970's 129,629 39,799 38,797 36,411 34,199 31,802 30,197 29,186 27,489 26,605 1980's 25,555 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release

  7. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 98 96 99 75 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  8. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 347 367 277 26 47 32 101 1980's 143 106 162 108 182 124 122 125 123 95 1990's 22 56 23 21 8 0 0 1 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  9. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 6 15 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  10. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-10-12

    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative.

  11. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 355 284 837 607 1980's 677 428 435 198 34 13 54 30 166 450 1990's 286 482 245 205 220 28 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  12. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126 102 93 1970's 122 3,997 1,806 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  13. Device and method for remotely venting a container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vodila, James M. (North Huntingdon, PA); Bergersen, Jeffrey A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A device for venting a container having a bung includes a saddle assembly curable to a container and having a support extending therefrom. A first arm is rotatably secured to the support, and the first arm extends in a first direction. A second arm has a first end portion drivingly engaged with the first arm, so that rotation of the first arm causes rotation of the second arm. A second end portion of the first arm is positionable proximate the bung of the container. A socket is operably associated and rotatable with the second end portion and is drivingly engageable with the bung, so that rotation of the socket causes corresponding rotation of the bung for thereby venting the container.

  14. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 408 180 165 376 585 339 156 117 126 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  15. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  16. Natural input of arsenic into a coral-reef ecosystem by hydrothermal fluids and its removal by Fe(III) oxyhydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichler, T.; Veizer, J.; Hall, G.E.M.

    1999-05-01

    The coral reef that circles Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, is exposed to the discharge of a hot, mineralized hydrothermal fluid. The hydrothermal fluids have a pH of {approximately}6 and are slightly reducing and rich in As. Seven individual vents discharge an estimated 1500 g of As per day into an area of approximately 50 x 100 m that has an average depth of 6 m. Despite the amount of As released into the bay, corals, clams, and fish do not show a response to the elevated values. The authors analyzed hydrothermal precipitates for their chemical and mineralogical composition in order to determine As sinks. Two mechanisms efficiently control and buffer the As concentration: (1) dilution by seawater and (2) incorporation in and adsorption on Fe(III) oxyhydroxides that precipitate when the hydrothermal fluids mix with ambient seawater. Fe(III) oxyhydroxides contain up to 76,000 ppm As, by an order of magnitude the highest As values found in a natural marine environment. Following adsorption, As is successfully retained in the Fe(III) oxyhydroxide deposits because oxidizing conditions prevail and high As activity allows for the formation of discrete As minerals, such as claudetite, arsenic oxide, and scorodite.

  17. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  18. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  19. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  20. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquefaction Technology Pathway Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal

  1. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with

  2. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst.

  3. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  4. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy When the pressure of saturated ... tanks and deaerators for excessive flash steam plumes. Reexamine deaerator ...

  5. Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum Venting - Operational Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, Th.L.Jr.; Bhatt, R.N.; Troescher, P.D.; Lattin, W.J.

    2008-07-01

    Remote-handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste drums must be vented to meet transportation and disposal requirement before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The capability to perform remote venting of drums was developed and implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory. Over 490 drums containing RH TRU waste were successfully vented. Later efforts developed and implemented a long-stem filter to breach inner waste bags, which reduced layers of confinement and mitigated restrictive transportation wattage limits. This paper will provide insight to the technical specifications for the drum venting system, development, and testing activities, startup, operations, and lessons learned. (authors)

  6. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Pastor-Perez, Albert; Singer, Brett C.; Wray, Craig P.

    2013-04-01

    VENT-II is a computer program designed to provide detailed analysis of natural draft and induced draft combustion appliance vent-systems (i.e., furnace or water heater). This program is capable of predicting house depressurization thresholds that lead to backdrafting and spillage of combustion appliances; however, validation reports of the program being applied for this purpose are not readily available. The purpose of this report is to assess VENT-II’s ability to predict combustion gas spillage events due to house depressurization by comparing VENT-II simulated results with experimental data for four appliance configurations. The results show that VENT-II correctly predicts depressurizations resulting in spillage for natural draft appliances operating in cold and mild outdoor conditions, but not for hot conditions. In the latter case, the predicted depressurizations depend on whether the vent section is defined as part of the vent connector or the common vent when setting up the model. Overall, the VENTII solver requires further investigation before it can be used reliably to predict spillage caused by depressurization over a full year of weather conditions, especially where hot conditions occur.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Puttagunta, S. Maxwell, D. Berger, and M. Zuluaga

    2015-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research assessed whether these negative pressures prevail through a variety of environmental conditions.

  8. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  9. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  10. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  11. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  12. Effect of pressure vents on the fast cookoff of energetic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.; Erikson, William Wilding

    2013-10-01

    The effect of vents on the fast cookoff of energetic materials is studied through experimental modifications to the confinement vessel of the Radiant Heat Fast Cookoff Apparatus. Two venting schemes were investigated: 1) machined grooves at the EM-cover plate interface; 2) radial distribution of holes in PEEK confiner. EM materials of PBXN-109 and PBX 9502 were tested. Challenges with the experimental apparatus and EM materials were identified such that studying the effect of vents as an independent parameter was not realized. The experimental methods, data and post-test observations are presented and discussed.

  13. Synthesis of Nanoparticles via Solvothermal and Hydrothermal Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianlin; Wu, Qingliu; Wu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the synthesis of various types of nanoparticles as well as surface modifications of nanomaterials using hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. First, the definition, history, instrumentation, and mechanism of hydrothermal and solvothermal methods as well as the important parameters af-fecting the nucleation and crystal growth of nanomaterials are briefly introduced. Then the specific hydrothermal and solvothermal methods used to grow oxides, Group II-VI, III-V, IV, transitional metals, and metal-organic framework nanoparticles are summarized. Finally, the hydrothermal and solvothermal strategies used for the surface modification of nanomaterials are discussed.

  14. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  15. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  17. Characterization of past hydrothermal fluids in the Humboldt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has permitted hydrothermal circulation, producing both the geothermal area and nearby gold deposits. A total of five wells have been drilled with three obtaining core....

  18. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, USA, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to:...

  19. The Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a deep subsystem or hydrothermal reservoir in the welded tuff containing relatively hot ground water. Hydrologic, isotopic, and thermal data indicate that recharge to the...

  20. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  1. A Hydrothermal Model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Area, Utah...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal system appears to be controlled to some extent by the details of the permeability structure in the immediate vicinity if the high surface heat flow region. Authors...

  2. The effect of venting on cookoff of a melt-castable explosive (Comp-B)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, Michael L.; Kaneshige, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Occasionally, our well-controlled cookoff experiments with Comp-B give anomalous results when venting conditions are changed. For example, a vented experiment may take longer to ignite than a sealed experiment. In the current work, we show the effect of venting on thermal ignition of Comp-B. We use Sandia’s Instrumented Thermal Ignition (SITI) experiment with various headspace volumes in both vented and sealed geometries to study ignition of Comp-B. In some of these experiments, we have used a boroscope to observe Comp-B as it melts and reacts. We propose that the mechanism for ignition involves TNT melting, dissolution of RDX, and complex bubbly liquid flow. High pressure inhibits bubble formation and flow is significantly reduced. At low pressure, a vigorous dispersed bubble flow was observed.

  3. Vented target elements for use in an isotope-production reactor. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium gas in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins equipped with vents, and tritium gas is recovered from the coolant.

  4. System design description for the SY-101 vent header flow element enclosure upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    This document describes the design of the High and Low Range Vent Header Flow Element(s) Field Enclosure for the 241-SY-101 High Level Nuclear Waste Underground Storage Tank.

  5. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  6. Reactor pressure vessel head vents and methods of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gels, John L; Keck, David J; Deaver, Gerald A

    2014-10-28

    Internal head vents are usable in nuclear reactors and include piping inside of the reactor pressure vessel with a vent in the reactor upper head. Piping extends downward from the upper head and passes outside of the reactor to permit the gas to escape or be forcibly vented outside of the reactor without external piping on the upper head. The piping may include upper and lowers section that removably mate where the upper head joins to the reactor pressure vessel. The removable mating may include a compressible bellows and corresponding funnel. The piping is fabricated of nuclear-reactor-safe materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, and/or a Ni--Cr--Fe alloy. Methods install an internal head vent in a nuclear reactor by securing piping to an internal surface of an upper head of the nuclear reactor and/or securing piping to an internal surface of a reactor pressure vessel.

  7. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy - Steam Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. InnoVent InfraVest GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    InfraVest GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: InnoVentInfraVest GmbH Place: Varel, Germany Zip: 26316 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind farm project developer based in Germany....

  9. The effect of venting on cookoff of a melt-castable explosive (Comp-B)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hobbs, Michael L.; Kaneshige, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Occasionally, our well-controlled cookoff experiments with Comp-B give anomalous results when venting conditions are changed. For example, a vented experiment may take longer to ignite than a sealed experiment. In the current work, we show the effect of venting on thermal ignition of Comp-B. We use Sandia’s Instrumented Thermal Ignition (SITI) experiment with various headspace volumes in both vented and sealed geometries to study ignition of Comp-B. In some of these experiments, we have used a boroscope to observe Comp-B as it melts and reacts. We propose that the mechanism for ignition involves TNT melting, dissolution of RDX, and complexmore » bubbly liquid flow. High pressure inhibits bubble formation and flow is significantly reduced. At low pressure, a vigorous dispersed bubble flow was observed.« less

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  11. Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various Sintering Additives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of ...

  12. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  14. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  15. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  16. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.G.; Lagus, P.L.; Fleming, K.M.

    1997-08-01

    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  18. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  20. Hydrogen venting characteristics of commercial carbon-composite filters and applications to TRU waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callis, E.L.; Marshall, R.S.; Cappis, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    The generation of hydrogen (by radiolysis) and of other potentially flammable gases in radioactive wastes which are in contact with hydrogenous materials is a source of concern, both from transportation and on-site storage considerations. Because very little experimental data on the generation and accumulation of hydrogen was available in actual waste materials, work was initiated to experimentally determine factors affecting the concentration of hydrogen in the waste containers, such as the hydrogen generation rate, (G-values) and the rate of loss of hydrogen through packaging and commercial filter-vents, including a new design suitable for plastic bags. This report deals only with the venting aspect of the problem. Hydrogen venting characteristics of two types of commercial carbon-composite filter-vents, and two types of PVC bag closures (heat-sealed and twist-and-tape) were measured. Techniques and equipment were developed to permit measurement of the hydrogen concentration in various layers of actual transuranic (TRU) waste packages, both with and without filter-vents. A test barrel was assembled containing known configuration and amounts of TRU wastes. Measurements of the hydrogen in the headspace verified a hydrogen release model developed by Benchmark Environmental Corporation. These data were used to calculate revised wattage Emits for TRU waste packages incorporating the new bag filter-vent.

  1. Biodegradation of jet fuel in vented columns of water-unsaturated sandy soil. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coho, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of soil water content on the rate of jet fuel (JP-4) biodegradation in air-vented, water-unsaturated columns of sandy soil was investigated. The contaminated soil was obtained from a spill site located on Tyndall AFB, Fla. The initial soil loading was 4590 mg of JP-4/kg of dry soil. Three laboratory columns were packed with the contaminated soil, saturated and drained for periods of 81-89 days. Two columns were continuously vented with air, and the third, intended to provide an anaerobic control, was vented with nitrogen. The venting gas flows were maintained between 1 and 2.5 soil pore volume changeouts per day. The total JP-4 removal in the air-vented columns averaged 44% of the mass originally present. Biodegradation and volatilization accounted for 93% and 7% of the total removal, respectively. A maximum biodegradation rate of 14.3 mg of JP-4/kg of moist soil per day was observed at a soil water content of approximately 72% saturation. Soil drainage characteristics indicated that this water content may have corresponded to 100% of the in situ field capacity water content. Theses.

  2. Containment venting as a mitigation technique for BWR Mark I plant ATWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Containment venting is studied as a mitigation strategy for preventing or delaying severe fuel damage following hypothetical BWR Anticipated Transient Without SCRAM (ATWS) accidents initiated by MSIV-closure, and compounded by failure of the Standby Liquid Control (SLC) system injection of sodium pentaborate solution and by the failure of manually initiated control rod insertion. The venting of primary containment after reaching 75 psia (0.52 MPa) is found to result in the release of the vented steam inside the reactor building, and to result in inadequate Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for any system pumping from the pressure suppression pool. CONTAIN code calculations show that personnel access to large portions of the reactor building would be lost soon after the initiation of venting and that the temperatures reached would be likely to result in independent equipment failures. It is concluded that containment venting would be more likely to cause or to hasten the onset of severe fuel damage than to prevent or to delay it.

  3. Oil heat venting technology and NFPA standard 31 revision year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajewski, R.F.

    1997-09-01

    The revision of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 for the year 2000 offers an opportunity to update the Appendix which currently offers recommendations for basic metal relining of masonry chimneys up to and including 25 feet. The paper discusses the proposed update of the existing recommendations to include flexible (rough) metal liners. In addition, the discussion addresses the inclusion of additional information for unlined (non-conforming), lined (conforming to NFPA 211) masonary chimneys, insulated metal chimneys, chimney heights beyond what are now published, as well as power venting both forced and induced draft. Included in the paper is a discussion of the existing Oil Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP Version 3.0) and issues that need resolution to make it a better vent system model.

  4. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

    1981-08-28

    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  5. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Long Valley Caldera Citation Arthur H. Lachenbruch,Michael L. Sorey,Robert Edward Lewis,John H. Sass. 1976. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera....

  6. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  7. Potential Flammable Gas Explosion in the TRU Vent and Purge Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, A

    2006-04-05

    The objective of the analysis was to determine the failure of the Vent and Purge (V&P) Machine due to potential explosion in the Transuranic (TRU) drum during its venting and/or subsequent explosion in the V&P machine from the flammable gases (e.g., hydrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds [VOCs]) vented into the V&P machine from the TRU drum. The analysis considers: (a) increase in the pressure in the V&P cabinet from the original deflagration in the TRU drum including lid ejection, (b) pressure wave impact from TRU drum failure, and (c) secondary burns or deflagrations resulting from excess, unburned gases in the cabinet area. A variety of cases were considered that maximized the pressure produced in the V&P cabinet. Also, cases were analyzed that maximized the shock wave pressure in the cabinet from TRU drum failure. The calculations were performed for various initial drum pressures (e.g., 1.5 and 6 psig) for 55 gallon TRU drum. The calculated peak cabinet pressures ranged from 16 psig to 50 psig for various flammable gas compositions. The blast on top of cabinet and in outlet duct ranged from 50 psig to 63 psig and 12 psig to 16 psig, respectively, for various flammable gas compositions. The failure pressures of the cabinet and the ducts calculated by structural analysis were higher than the pressure calculated from potential flammable gas deflagrations, thus, assuring that V&P cabinet would not fail during this event. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 68 calculations showed that for a failure pressure of 20 psig, the available vent area in the V&P cabinet is 1.7 to 2.6 times the required vent area depending on whether hydrogen or VOCs burn in the V&P cabinet. This analysis methodology could be used to design the process equipment needed for venting TRU waste containers at other sites across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex.

  8. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  9. track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review Inability to accurately predict temperature and permeability of the geothermal reservoir from the surface is a major cost and exploration risk for geothermal systems. While the majority of known geothermal resources across America have been identified, the USGS predicts that more than 30 gigawatts of geothermal energy potential - enough to power about 30 million homes - resides deep in the earth in

  10. Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  12. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  13. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Brugger, Ronald P.

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  14. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  15. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  16. Income Tax Deduction for Solar-Powered Roof Vents or Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The taxpayer must provide proof of the taxpayer’s costs for installation of a solar powered roof vent or fan and a list of the persons or corporations that supplied labor or materials for the solar...

  17. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Andrew; Matthews, Topher; Lenhof, Renae; Deason, Wesley; Harter, Jackson

    2015-01-16

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  18. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  19. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal...

  20. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730

  1. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  2. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 | Department of Energy Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing highly stable, sulfur-tolerant oxidation catalysts that use less Pt via surface modification of silica supports

  3. A NOVEL APPROACH TO DRUM VENTING AND DRUM MONITORINGe/pj

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohl, P.C.; Farwick, C.C.; Douglas, D.G.; Cruz, E.J.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the details and specifications associated with drum venting and drum monitoring technologies, and discusses the maturity of in-place systems and current applications. Each year, unventilated drums pressurize and develop bulges and/or breaches that can result in potentially hazardous explosions, posing undesirable hazards to workers and the environment. Drum venting is accomplished by the safe and simple installation of ventilated lids at the time of packaging, or by the inherently risky in-situ ventilation (depressurization) of ''bulged'' drums. Drum monitoring employs either a Magnetically Coupled Pressure Gauge (MCPG) Patent Pending and/or a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. Through patented magnetic sensor coupling, these devices enable the noninvasive and remote monitoring of the potentially hazardous materials and/or spent nuclear fuel that is contained in 55-gal drums and associated steel overpack containers.

  4. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  5. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study ...

  6. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zirconia based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillot, T. Salama, Z.; Chanut, N.; Cadete Santos Aires, F.J.; Bennici, S.; Auroux, A.

    2013-07-15

    In this work, three equimolar mixed oxides ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a reference ZrO{sub 2} have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and surface properties of these materials have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, surface area measurement, chemical analysis, XPS, infrared spectroscopy after adsorption of pyridine and adsorption microcalorimetry of NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} probe molecules. All investigated mixed oxides are amphoteric and possess redox centers on their surface. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acidbase properties than classical coprecipitation method. Both Lewis and Brnsted acid sites are present on the surface of the mixed oxides. Compared to the other samples, the ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} material appears to be the best candidate for further application in acidbase catalysis. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous amorphous phase with a high surface area of titania zirconia mixed oxide obtained by hydrothermal preparation. - Highlights: Three zirconia based catalysts and a reference were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Mixed oxides present larger surface areas than the reference ZrO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents a mesoporous structure with high surface area. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents simultaneously strong acidic and basic properties.

  8. An Evaluation of Frangible Materials as Veneers on Vented Structural Member Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jameson, Kevin Jay

    2015-10-01

    Literature shows there has been extensive research and testing done in the area of wall panels and frangible materials. There is evidence from past research that shows it is possible to vent a structure that has had an accidental internal explosion [1]. The reviewed literature shows that most designs vent the entire wall panel versus a frangible material attached to the wall panel. The frangible material attachment points are important to determine the overall loading of the wall panel structure [2]. The materials used in the reviewed literature were securely attached as well as strong enough to remain intact during the pressure loading to move the entire wall panel. Since the vented wall panel was the weakest part of the overall structure, the other walls of the structure were substantially larger. The structure was usually built from concrete and large amounts of steel with dirt and sand over the top of the structure.The study will be conducted at Sandia National Laboratories located in Albuquerque New Mexico. The skeletal structural design for evaluation is a rectangular frame with a square grid pattern constructed from steel. The skeletal structure has been given to the researcher as a design requirement. The grid pattern will be evaluated strictly on plastic deformation and the loading that is applied from the frangible material. The frangible material tested will either fit into the grid or will be a veneer lightly attached to the structure frame. The frangible material may be required on both sides of the structure to adequately represent the application.

  9. A vent sizing program with particular reference to hybrid runaway reaction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, J.C.; Noronha, J.A.; Torres, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    VSSPH (Vent Sizing Software Program for Hybrid System) is a software program designed to yield rapid evaluation of emergency requirements requirements for a general class of hybrid system runaway reaction - a system which generate both condensable vapor and noncondensable gases. The calculational method is based on transient numerical solutions as well as analytical solutions. This program only requires a few key input parameters as well as physical properties. The program also incorporates the latest two-phase pipe flow model based on the {omega} methodology. This paper describes the model construction and summarizes the results of sample runs. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Sims, Kenneth W.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). School of Energy Resources; Pluda, Allison R. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Wyoming High-Precision Isotope Lab.

    2014-03-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  11. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  12. Biogenicity of silica precipitation around geysers and hot-spring vents, North Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.; Rosen, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before anthropogenic modifications, Ohaaki Pool (Broadlands-Ohaaki) and Dragon`s Mouth Geyser (Wairakei) emitted waters at temperatures of 93--98 C. The siliceous sinter that precipitated around their vents has the characteristics of geyserite, a dense laminated deposit of presumed abiogenic origin, that was precipitated from waters too hot (>73C) to support microbes other than thermophilic bacteria. Petrographic and SEM examinations of the sinters show that they incorporate columnar stromatolites and silicified, laminated stromatolitic mats that contain well-preserved filamentous microbes. At both localities the microbes lack evidence of desiccation or shrinkage, which implies that they were silicified rapidly at or shortly after their death. Although boiling and very hot (>90 C) waters were discharged, temperatures at many sites surrounding the vents remained sufficiently low and moist to support a microbial community that included thermophilic bacteria and cyanobacteria. In these cooler niches, the microbes and their biofilms served as highly favorable templates for the nucleation and growth of amorphous silica, and collectively provided a microbial framework for the laminated accretionary sinter. Some columnar, spicular, and stratiform geyserites are probably not abiotic precipitates, but are true silica stromatolites.

  13. The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospiracrunogena XCL-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Kathleen M.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Abril, Fereniki N.; Ball,Lois A.; Barrett, Chantell J.; Blake, Rodrigo A.; Boller, Amanda J.; Chain, Patrick S.G.; Clark, Justine A.; Davis, Carisa R.; Detter, Chris; Do, Kimberly F.; Dobrinski, Kimberly P.; Faza, BrandonI.; Fitzpatrick,Kelly A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Harmer, Tara L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Hugler, Michael; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Klotz, Martin G.; Kong, William W.; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Larimer, Frank W.; Longo, Dana L.; Lucas,Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Massey, Steven E.; Martin, Darlene D.; McCuddin, Zoe; Meyer, Folker; Moore, Jessica L.; Ocampo, Luis H.; Paul,John H.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Reep, Douglas K.; Ren, Qinghu; Ross, Rachel L.; Sato, Priscila Y.; Thomas, Phaedra; Tinkham, Lance E.; Zeruth, Gary T.

    2006-08-23

    Presented here is the complete genome sequence ofThiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, representative of ubiquitouschemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from deep-seahydrothermal vents. This gammaproteobacterium has a single chromosome(2,427,734 bp), and its genome illustrates many of the adaptations thathave enabled it to thrive at vents globally. It has 14 methyl-acceptingchemotaxis protein genes, including four that may assist in positioningit in the redoxcline. A relative abundance of CDSs encoding regulatoryproteins likely control the expression of genes encoding carboxysomes,multiple dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate transporters, as wellas a phosphonate operon, which provide this species with a variety ofoptions for acquiring these substrates from the environment. T. crunogenaXCL-2 is unusual among obligate sulfur oxidizing bacteria in relying onthe Sox system for the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. A 38 kbprophage is present, and a high level of prophage induction was observed,which may play a role in keeping competing populations of close relativesin check. The genome has characteristics consistent with an obligatelychemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, including few transporters predicted tohave organic allocrits, and Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle CDSs scatteredthroughout the genome.

  14. Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, T.P.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

  15. Development of a practical training program based on BNL`s input to new NFPA Lined Masonary Chimney Venting Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes how we developed a practical training program for technicians and sales personnel from the BNL studies that evolved into the Lined Chimney Venting Tables. One of the topics discussed is our search for solutions to the reoccurring problems associated with flue gas condensation on newly installed oil fired appliances. The paper will also discuss our own experiences in applying the new venting tables and working through the questions that arise when we encounter installations beyond the scope of the present tables.

  16. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than

  17. Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

  18. Gaseous fission product management for molten salt reactors and vented fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messenger, S. J.; Forsberg, C.; Massie, M.

    2012-07-01

    Fission gas disposal is one of the unresolved difficulties for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) and advanced reactors with vented fuel systems. As these systems operate, they produce many radioactive isotopes of xenon and krypton (e.g. {sup 135}Xe t{sub 1/2} = 9.14 hours and {sup 85}Kr t{sub 1/2}= 10.73 years). Removing these gases proves vital to the success of such reactor designs for two reasons. First, the gases act as large neutron sinks which decrease reactivity and must be counterbalanced by increasing fuel loading. Second, for MSRs, inert fission product gases naturally separate quickly from high temperature salts, thus creating high vapor pressure which poses safety concerns. For advanced reactors with solid vented fuel, the gases are allowed to escape into an off-gas system and thus must be managed. Because of time delays in transport of fission product gases in vented fuel systems, some of the shorter-lived radionuclides will decay away thereby reducing the fission gas source term relative to an MSR. To calculate the fission gas source term of a typical molten salt reactor, we modeled a 1000 MWe graphite moderated thorium MSR similar to that detailed in Mathieu et al. [1]. The fuel salt used in these calculations was LiF (78 mole percent) - (HN)F 4 (22 mole percent) with a heavy nuclide composition of 3.86% {sup 233}U and 96.14% {sup 232}Th by mass. Before we can remove the fission product gases produced by this reactor configuration, we must first develop an appropriate storage mechanism. The gases could be stored in pressurized containers but then one must be concerned about bottle failure. Methods to trap noble gases in matrices are expensive and complex. Alternatively, there are direct storage/disposal options: direct injection into the Earth or injecting a grout-based product into the Earth. Advances in drilling technologies, hydro fracture technologies, and methods for the sequestration of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants are creating new options

  19. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  20. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  2. Vanadium oxides nanostructures: Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mjejri, I.; Etteyeb, N.; Sediri, F.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium oxides nanostructures were synthesized hydrothermally. • Reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process. • Doping/dedoping is easier for Li{sup +} to Na{sup +}. • Energy-related applications such as cathodes in lithium batteries. - Abstract: A facile and template-free one-pot strategy is applied to synthesize nanostructured vanadium oxide particles via a hydrothermal methodology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples. The products are gradually changed from sheet-shaped VO{sub 2}(B) to rod-like V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O with decreasing cyclohexanediol as both protective and reducing agent. The specific surface area of the VO{sub 2}(B) nanosheets and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O nanorods was found to be 22 and 16 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. Thin films of VO{sub 2}(B) and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O deposited on ITO substrates were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The voltammograms show reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process corresponding to reversible cation intercalation/de-intercalation into the crystal lattice of the nanorods/nanosheets. This process is easier for the small Li{sup +} cation than larger ones Na{sup +}.

  3. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  4. The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A

    2006-01-01

    Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

  5. Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator for soft x-ray free-electron laser timing-observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response-time...

  6. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of eight priority pathways chosen to convert biomass into hydrocarbon fuels by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. These pathways were down-selected from an initial list of 18.

  7. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  8. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  9. SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials with enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiangyun

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials were synthesized by adding silicon carbide suspension in the molecular sieve precursor solvent followed by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The dopped materials have a wormhole-like mesoporous structure and exhibit enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Highlights: {yields} SiC-dopped MCM-41 was synthesized by in situ hydrothermal synthesis of molecular sieve precursor combined with SiC. {yields} The dopped MCM-41 materials show a wormhole-like mesoporous structure. {yields} The thermal stability of the dopped materials have an increment of almost 100 {sup o}C compared with the pure MCM-41. {yields} The hydrothermal stability of the dopped materials is also better than that of the pure MCM-41. -- Abstract: SiC-dopped MCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized by the in situ hydrothermal synthesis, in which a small amount of SiC was added in the precursor solvent of molecular sieve before the hydrothermal treatment. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} physical adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of MCM-41 materials can be improved obviously by incorporating a small amount of SiC. The structure collapse temperature of SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials is 100 {sup o}C higher than that of pure MCM-41 according to the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Hydrothermal treatment experiments also show that the pure MCM-41 will losses it's ordered mesoporous structure in boiling water for 24 h while the SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials still keep partial porous structure.

  10. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  11. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  12. Hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology of the Canino Hydrothermal System (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiodini, G.; Giaquinto, S.; Frondini, F.; Santucci, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the Canino area, central Italy, is characterized by the discharge of a large quantity of Ca-SO{sub 4} thermal waters, the total flow rate of which is estimated to be 200 l/s. Ten to twenty l/s of the thermal flow are of an Na-Cl component from a deep source, which was identified by means of the B, Cl, Cs, Na, and Li contents of the waters. The Canino Na-Cl fluids have ratios among these species close to those of the geothermal fluids of Latera. The Canino hydrothermal system, which is located within buried carbonate structures, is therefore made up of a shallower zone, where the Ca-SO{sub 4} hydrotype is prevalent, and another deeper zone where an Na-Cl brine is present. For the sulphate fluids circulating in the upper levels of the system, a temperature of 70-100{degrees} C has been estimated, while a possible higher enthalpy resource may be represented by the chloride aqueous solutions circulating at deeper levels.

  13. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.; Gerardo, J.Y.; Araguas, L.

    1996-01-24

    The Momotombo geotherinal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data (δ18O and δD) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ plotted on the Na- K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to resenroir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2. Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than sonic of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred froin a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  14. Fish debris record the hydrothermal activity in the Atlantis II deep sediments (Red Sea)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudin, E.; Cocherie, A.

    1988-01-01

    The REE and U, Th, Zr, Hf, Sc have been analyzed in samples from Atlantis II and Shaban/Jean Charcot Deeps in the Red Sea. The high Zr/Hf ratio in some sediments indicates the presence of fish debris or of finely crystallized apatite. The positive ..sigma..REE vs P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and ..sigma..REE vs Zr/Hf correlations show that fish debris and finely crystallized apatite are the main REE sink in Atlantis II Deep sediments as in other marine environments. The hydrothermal sediments and the fish debris concentrates have similar REE patterns, characterized by a LREE enrichment and a large positive Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is also observed in E.P.R. hydrothermal solutions. Fish debris from marine environments acquire their REE content and signature mostly from sea water during early diagenesis. The hydrothermal REE signature of Atlantis II Deep fish debris indicate that they probably record the REE signature of their hydrothermal sedimentation and diagenetic environment. The different REE signatures of the Shaban/Jean Charcot and Atlantis II Deep hydrothermal sediments suggest a sea water-dominated brine in the Shaban/Jean Charcot Deep as opposed to the predominantly hydrothermal brine in Atlantis II Deep. Atlantis II Deep fish debris are also characterized by their high U but low Th contents. Their low Th contents probably reflect the low Th content of the various possible sources (sea water, brine, sediments). Their U contents are probably controlled by the redox conditions of sedimentation.

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  16. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and othermore » conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  17. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and other conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  18. A study of thermal properties of sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preda, Silviu; Rutar, Melita; Umek, Polona; Zaharescu, Maria

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The microwave-assisted hydrothermal route was used for titanate nanotubes synthesis. • Conversion to single-phase nanotube morphology completes after 8 h reaction time. • The nanotube morphology is stable up to 600 °C, as determined by in-situ XRD and SEM. • Sodium ions migrate to the surface due to thermal motion and structure condensation. - Abstract: Sodium titanate nanotubes (NaTiNTs) were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of commercial TiO{sub 2}, at constant temperature (135 °C) and different irradiation times (15 min, 1, 4, 8 and 16 h). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and specific surface area measurements. The irradiation time turned out to be the key parameter for morphological control of the material. Nanotubes were observed already after 15 min of microwave irradiation. The analyses of the products irradiated for 8 and 16 h confirm the complete transformation of the starting TiO{sub 2} powder to NaTiNTs. The nanotubes are open ended with multi-wall structures, with the average outer diameter of 8 nm and specific surface area up to 210 m{sup 2}/g. The morphology, surface area and crystal structure of the sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method were similar to those obtained by conventional hydrothermal method.

  19. Hydrothermal Phase Relations Among Uranyl Minerals at the Nopal I Analog Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, William M.

    2007-07-01

    Uranyl mineral paragenesis at Nopal I is an analog of spent fuel alteration at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic studies suggest a variety of possible hydrothermal conditions for uranium mineralization at Nopal I. Calculated equilibrium phase relations among uranyl minerals show uranophane stability over a broad range of realistic conditions and indicate that uranyl mineral variety reflects persistent chemical potential heterogeneity. (author)

  20. Synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machmudah, Siti Widiyastuti, W. Prastuti, Okky Putri Nurtono, Tantular Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-02-24

    Zirconium oxide (zirconia, ZrO{sub 2}) is the most common material used for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia has attracted attention for applications in optical coatings, buffer layers for growing superconductors, thermal-shield, corrosion resistant coatings, ionic conductors, and oxygen sensors, and for potential applications including transparent optical devices and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, fuel cells, catalysts, and advanced ceramics. In this work, zirconia particles were synthesized from ZrCl{sub 4} precursor with hydrothermal treatment in a batch reactor. Hydrothermal treatment may allow obtaining nanoparticles and sintered materials with controlled chemical and structural characteristics. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 150 200C with precursor concentration of 0.1 0.5 M. Zirconia particles obtained from this treatment were analyzed by using SEM, PSD and XRD to characterize the morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity, respectively. Based on the analysis, the size of zirconia particles were around 200 nm and it became smaller with decreasing precursor concentration. The increasing temperature caused the particles formed having uniform size. Zirconia particles formed by hydrothermal treatment were monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystal.

  1. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  2. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  3. Optical characteristics of ZnO single crystal grown by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. Z.; Yin, J. G. E-mail: yjg@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, Y. C.; Zhang, C. L.; Gu, S. L.; Hang, Y.

    2015-12-15

    ZnO single crystals have been grown by the hydrothermal method. Raman scattering and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) have been used to study samples of ZnO that were unannealed or annealed in different ambient gases. It is suggested that the green emission may originate from defects related to copper in our samples.

  4. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  5. Method of characterizing VOC concentration in vented waste drums with multiple layers of confinement using limited sampling data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Vaughn, M.E.; Jensen, B.A.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    Characterization of transuranic waste destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant currently requires detailed characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume headspaces (drum headspace, the large polymer bag headspace, and the innermost layers of confinement headspace) of the waste drums. A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine if the drum headspace VOC concentration is representative of the concentration in the entire drum void space and demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. A comparison of model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement with actual measurement from transuranic waste drums demonstrate that this method may be useful in characterizing VOC concentration in a vented waste drum.

  6. Enhanced performance of wearable piezoelectric nanogenerator fabricated by two-step hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Yu; Lei, Jixue; Yin, Bing; Zhang, Heqiu; Ji, Jiuyu; Hu, Lizhong; Bian, Jiming; Liu, Yanhong; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Yingmin

    2014-03-17

    A simple two-step hydrothermal process was proposed for enhancing the performance of the nanogenerator on flexible and wearable terylene-fabric substrate. With this method, a significant enhancement in output voltage of the nanogenerator from ∼10 mV to 7 V was achieved, comparing with the one by conventional one-step process. In addition, another advantage with the devices synthesized by two-step hydrothermal process was that their output voltages are only sensitive to strain rather than strain rate. The devices with a high output voltage have the ability to power common electric devices and will have important applications in flexible electronics and wearable devices.

  7. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  8. Interfacial hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods towards photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, L.R. Lian, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, L.H.; Yuan, C.Z.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy was developed. 1D SnO{sub 2} nanorods as an advanced photocatalyst. SnO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit photocatalytic degradation of the MO. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) SnO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) have been successfully synthesized by means of an efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy. The resulting product was physically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, etc. The as-fabricated SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of the methyl orange with high degradation efficiency of 99.3% with only 60 min ultra violet light irradiation. Meanwhile, the 1D SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited intriguing photostability after four recycles.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan; Lai Qiongyu; Xu Xiaoyun

    2010-11-15

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  10. Sonochemical and hydrothermal synthesis of PbTe nanostructures with the aid of a novel capping agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fard-Fini, Shahla Ahmadian; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mohandes, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PbTe nanostructures were prepared with the aid of Schiff-base compound. • Sonochemical and hydrothermal methods were employed to fabricate PbTe nanostrucrues. • The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of PbTe was investigated. - Abstract: In this work, a new Schiff-base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde marked as (2-HyNa)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized, and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe nanostructures. To fabricate PbTe nanostructures, two different synthesis methods; hydrothermal and sonochemical routes, were applied. To further investigate, the effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis and sonication time in the presence of ultrasound irradiation on the morphology and purity of the final products was tested. The products were analyzed with the aid of SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe nanostructures have been obtained by hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. Besides, SEM images showed that cubic-like and rod-like PbTe nanostructures have been formed by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, respectively. Sonochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures was favorable, because the synthesis time of sonochemical method was shorter than that of hydrothermal method.

  11. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  12. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  13. Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass March 26, 2015 Thermochemical Conversion Doug Elliott, Rich Hallen, and Andy Schmidt Pacific Northwest National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Advance HTL technology towards 2020 goal of $3/gge at 50% reduced GHG. Improve overall process performance and economics Determine the value and best pathway to market for the product Demonstrate high process and carbon

  14. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara ; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  15. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  16. Laboratory determination of gas-side mass transfer coefficients applicable to soil-venting systems for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from vadose-zone soils. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valkenburg, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface environment by organic solvents has become a national problem. The EPA's Superfund list (40 CFR Part 300, 1990) continues to grow, with continual discovery of new hazardous waste sites. Various techniques are employed to remediate these sites, including excavation and removal of the contaminated soil for proper disposal, pumping and treatment of contaminated ground water and an organic phase if present, containment by slurried soil-bentonite cut-off barriers, in situ biological treatment of the organic wastes, and vadose zone soil venting for gas absorption of volatiles. Each technique, or combination, may have merit at a given site. The soil venting process, an inexpensive but relatively successful technique for removal of contaminants from the vadose (unsaturated) zone, is the focus of the research.

  17. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake

  18. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  19. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  20. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the 105-KW Basin integrated water treatment system filter vessel sparging vent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamberg, L.D.

    1998-02-23

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Filter Vessel Sparging Vent at 105-KW Basin. Additionally, the following description, and references are provided as the notices of startup, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) and (2) in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The 105-K West Reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin were constructed in the early 1950s and are located on the Hanford Site in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KW Basin contains 964 Metric Tons of SNF stored under water in approximately 3,800 closed canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 17 years. The 105-KW Basin is constructed of concrete with an epoxy coating and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The IWTS, which has been described in the Radioactive Air Emissions NOC for Fuel Removal for 105-KW Basin (DOE/RL-97-28 and page changes per US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office letter 97-EAP-814) will be used to remove radionuclides from the basin water during fuel removal operations. The purpose of the modification described herein is to provide operational flexibility for the IWTS at the 105-KW basin. The proposed modification is scheduled to begin in calendar year 1998.

  1. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-10-15

    Exhaust ventilation and corresponding outdoor air strategies are being implemented in high-performance new construction multifamily buildings to meet program or code requirements for improved indoor air quality, but a lack of clear design guidance is resulting in poor performance of these systems despite the best intentions of the programs or standards. CARB's 2014 'Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings' consistently demonstrated that commonly used outdoor air strategies are not performing as expected. Of the four strategies evaluated in 2014, the exhaust ventilation system that relied on outdoor air from a pressurized corridor was ruled out as a potential best practice due to its conflict with meeting requirements within most fire codes. Outdoor air that is ducted directly to the apartments was a strategy determined to have the highest likelihood of success, but with higher first costs and operating costs. Outdoor air through space conditioning systems was also determined to have good performance potential, with proper design and execution. The fourth strategy, passive systems, was identified as the least expensive option for providing outdoor air directly to apartments, with respect to both first costs and operating costs. However, little is known about how they actually perform in real-world conditions or how to implement them effectively. Based on the lack of data available on the performance of these low-cost systems and their frequent use in the high-performance building programs that require a provision for outdoor air, this research project sought to further evaluate the performance of passive vents.

  2. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  3. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  4. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.829.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.547.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.451.47, and 1.831.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  5. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  6. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  8. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  9. Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

  10. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  11. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UVvis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  13. Efficient removal rhodamine B over hydrothermally synthesized fishbone like BiVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Hongji; Yu, Lili; Zhao, Han; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongjv

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product was synthesized through hydrothermal method. BiVO{sub 4} sample was characterized by various characterization technologies. Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} presented outstanding photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The pH value was found to play an important role in the formation of this morphology. The band gap of the as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample was estimated to be about 2.36 eV from the onset of UVvis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UVvis DRS) of the photocatalyst. The as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) (0.005 mmol L{sup ?1}) was obtained after visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm) for 180 min. This is much higher than that of bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample prepared by solid-state reaction. The reason for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample and bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample was further investigated.

  14. Low temperature hydrothermal maturation of organic matter in sediments form the Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.; Grimalt, J.O.; Hayes, J.M.; Hartman, H.

    1987-04-01

    Hydrocarbons and bulk organic matter of two sediment cores located within the Atlantis II Deep have been analyzed. Although the brines overlying the coring areas were reported to be sterile, microbial inputs and minor terrestrial sources represent the major sedimentary organic material. This input is derived from the upper water column above the brines. Both steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons show that extensive acid-catalyzed reactions are occurring in the sediments. In comparison with other hydrothermal or intrusive systems, the Atlantis II Deep exhibits a lower degree of thermal maturation. This is easily deduced from the elemental composition of the kerogens and the absence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of a pyrolytic origin in the bitumen. The lack of carbon number preference among the n-alkanes suggests, especially in the case of the long chain homologs, that the organic matter of Atlantis II Deep sediments has undergone some degree catagenesis. However, the yields of hydrocarbons are much lower than those observed in other hydrothermal areas. The effect of lower temperature and poor source-rock characteristics appear to be responsible for the differences.

  15. The low temperature hydrothermal system of Campiglia, Tuscany (Italy); A geochemical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celati, R.; Grassi, S.; D'Amore, F.; Marcolini, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Campiglia hydrothermal system which is a low temperature hydrothermal system located in southwestern Tuscany, a region of Italy characterized by intense geothermal activity and by the presence of high temperature exploited geothermal reservoirs. Six water-points, with temperatures ranging between 20 and 47{degrees} C and different chemical and isotopic compositions, are found close to the margins of outcrops of the main regional aquifer formation. Systematic hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic observations and temperature measurements were carried out on the different springs and wells for a period of three years (1984-1986). Constant water characteristics with time were observed in four water-points; two wells had variable trends depending on mixing processes. A groundwater circulation model characterized by flowpaths of different length and depth is suggested by the variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics and is consistent with geothermometry, which indicates temperatures up to 25{degrees} C higher than those measured at the spring emergencies. An important water supply to the system comes from local recharge, although regional circulation may also be present, particularly in the eastern part of the investigated area.

  16. Hydrothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SubTER Crosscut The US Energy Department and National Laboratories have created a crosscutting initiative focused on revolutionizing sustainable subsurface energy production and ...

  17. Hydrothermal Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These geothermal systems can occur in widely diverse geologic settings, sometimes without clear surface manifestations of the underlying resource. In 2008, the U.S. Geological ...

  18. wipp _vents.png

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1998 1 1999-2000 Winter Fuels Outlook Introduction This winter--defined as the period from October 1999 to March 2000--is expected to witness both higher space heating fuel demand and prices than those during the previous winter season, during which an economic slide in several emerging markets and a warmer-than- normal winter helped to depress both consumption and prices. Several factors have contributed to the marked oil price increases since the lows of last winter. These are: economic

  19. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  20. Funding Opportunity: Geothermal Technologies Program Seeks Technologies to Reduce Levelized Cost of Electricity for Hydrothermal Development and EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Program seeks non-prime mover technologies that have the potential to contribute to reducing the levelized cost of electricity from new hydrothermal development to 6¢/ kWh by 2020 and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to 6¢/ kWh by 2030.

  1. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X

  2. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  3. Preliminary evidence for fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes in ore-forming hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastoe, C.J.; Guilbert, J.M. ); Kaufmann, R.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Chloride from fluid inclusions in hydrothermal minerals is found to have variable and distinctive {delta}{sup 37}Cl values spanning the range -1.1 0/{per thousand} to +0.8 {per thousand}. In Mississippi Valley-type deposits of Tennessee, brines of high (>0{per thousand}) and low (near -1{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 37}Cl are present. High {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines may be saline formation waters, but low {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines remain unexplained. In porphyry copper deposits, both high {delta}{sup 37}Cl (0.8{per thousand}, 0.3{per thousand}) and low {delta}{sup 37}Cl (-1.1{per thousand}, 0.7{per thousand}) hypersaline brines of probable magmatic origin occur. High-salinity magmatic brines with low {delta}{sup 37}Cl values contrast isotopically with high {delta}{sup 37}Cl, less concentrated brines responsible for quartz-sericite-pyrite assemblages.

  4. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

    1982-08-01

    The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

  5. Process improvement studies on the Battelle Hydrothermal Coal Process. Final report, April 1978-April 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stambaugh, E.P.; Miller, J.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Mezey, E.J.; Smith, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for (1) separating the spent leachant and residual sodium from the coal product, (2) reducing the moisture content of the coal product, and (3) regenerating the leachant. In addition, coal desulfurization experiments were performed and economic studies were conducted to evaluate the impacts of process improvements on coal desulfurization costs. Using countercurrent washing, the optimum washing circuit was composed of four disc-filter stages, six belt-filter stages to separate spent leachant and sodium from the clean coal, and a centrifuge stage to dewater the coal. Several regenerates were found to be effective in removing greater than about 85% of the total sulfide sulfur from the spent leachant: iron carbonate was the leading candidate.

  6. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  7. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  8. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► The γ-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ► Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ► Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ► A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the γ-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of anions-doped calcium molybdate red powder phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shikao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ji

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Four anion-doped CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. Some samples exhibit nearly spherical morphology and well-distributed fine particles. The red luminescence can be obviously enhanced after certain amount of anion doping. The improved phosphor system is a potential candidate for white LED applications. - Abstract: Applying hydrothermal and subsequent heat-treatment process, CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} was doped with four anions (SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}) to prepare fine red powder phosphors. The introduction of small amount of anions into the host had little influence on the structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The anion-doped phosphor samples (except SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) exhibited nearly spherical morphology, and the particle sizes were in the range of 0.30.4 ?m for SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}-doped samples, and 0.81.2 ?m for PO{sub 4}{sup 3?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples. Excited with 395 nm near-UV light, all samples showed typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission at 615 nm, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples enhanced the red luminescence as compared with the individual CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} sample. In particular, relative emission intensity for optimum ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped phosphors reached more than 6-fold that of the commercial red phosphor, which is highly desirable for the powder phosphors used in the solid-state lighting industry.

  10. Characterization of the Aqueous Fractions from Hydrotreatment and Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panisko, Ellen A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Howe, Daniel T.

    2015-03-01

    In this study the aqueous phases resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass and the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis bio-oils were analyzed via TC, COD, GC-MS, GC-FID, HPLC, and ICP-OES to determine the organic and inorganic species present and the quantitative amounts of each. This work is necessary to address a significant knowledge gap in the literature related to the aqueous phases from thermochemical processes. Results showed that water from the hydrotreatment of eight different bio-oils contained less than 1 wt% total carbon, in many cases less than 0.2%. Negligible organic carbon was observed. Hydrothermal liquefaction samples contained between 1-2 wt% carbon, accounting for 34 – 45% of the total carbon sent to the reactor. The majority of this carbon was present as acids, with glycolic acid and acetic acid having the highest concentrations. Alcohols, specifically methanol and ethanol, were also present. Numerous ketones were observed, consisting of mainly acetone and cyclopenta-ones. The amount of the total carbon identified and quantified in the HTL samples ranged from 64 – 82%. Inorganic species present in the HT samples were sodium, silicon, and sulfur. The highest levels of sulfur were observed in the grasses and agricultural residue (corn stover). The HTL samples exhibited much higher inorganic content, with very high levels of sodium and potassium. Alkali and alkali earth metals, as well as sulfur, were also present at levels high enough to raise concerns for the use of catalysts in downstream upgrading or reforming processes.

  11. Eruptive history and petrochemistry of the Bulusan volcanic complex: Implications for the hydrothermal system and volcanic hazards of Mt. Bulusan, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Panem, C.C.; Defant, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Two contrasting conceptual models of the postcaldera magmatic system of the Bulusan volcanic complex are constructed on the basis of a synthesis of volcanological, petrochemical, and petrologic data. These models predict that hydrothermal convection below the complex will occur either in discrete, structurally-focused zones or over a much broader area. Both models, however, agree that hydrothermal fluids at depth will be highly acidic and volcanic-related. Future ash-fall eruptions and mudflows are likely to affect the area previously chosen for possible drilling. Such risks, combined with the expected acidic character of the hydrothermal system, argue against drilling into this system.

  12. Luminescent nanocrystals in the rare-earth niobatezirconia system formed via hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Masanori Dozono, Hayato

    2013-08-15

    Luminescent nanocrystals based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}, were hydrothermally formed as cubic phase under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The lattice parameter of the as-prepared nanoparticles corresponding to the composition of Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7}4ZrO{sub 2} that was estimated as a single phase of cubic gradually increased as the content of europium x increased. The existence of small absorbance peaks at 395 and 466 nm corresponding to the Eu{sup 3+7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}L{sub 6}, and {sup 7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}D{sub 2} excitation transition, respectively, was clearly observed in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the as-prepared samples containing europium. The optical band gap of the as-prepared samples was in the range from 3.5 to 3.7 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared nanocrystals containing europium showed orange and red luminescences with main peaks at 590 and 610 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, under excitation at 395 nm Xe lamp. The emission intensity corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition increased as heat-treatment temperature rose from 800 to 1200 C. - Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectra and a transmission electron microscopy image of nanocrystals (with composition based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}) formed via hydrothermal route. Display Omitted - Highlights: Nanocrystals composed of 50 mol% Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2} was directly formed. The nanocrystals were hydrothermally formed under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} showed an UV-blue and broad

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles and their application for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Zhigang; Zheng, Feng; Yu, Hongchun; Jiang, Ziran; Liu, Kanglian

    2013-02-15

    SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles consist of tetragonal nanorods with size readily tunable. Their electrochemical properties and application as anode for lithium-ion battery were evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge testing and cycle voltammetry. SnO{sub 2} nanorod flowers possess improved discharge capacity of 694 mA h g{sup −1} up to 40th cycle at 0.1 C. - Highlights: ► The flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles with tunable size by controlling concentration of SnCl{sub 4}. ► A probable formation mechanism of SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles has been proposed.

  15. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic performance of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Fei; Zhu, Rongshu; Song, Kelin; Niu, Minli; Ouyang, Feng; Cao, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) was prepared. • The activities splitting water to hydrogen under visible light were evaluated. • The activity achieved the best when hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. • The activity order is related to the surface morphology and surface defects. - Abstract: A series of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method with different hydrothermal temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) and characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV–vis, XRD, SEM, BET and PL. The results indicated that these photocatalysts had a similar band gap. The hydrothermal temperature had a huge influence on the properties of the photocatalysts such as the BET surface area, the total pore volume, the average pore diameter, the defects and the morphology. The photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated based on photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible-light irradiation. The activity order is attributed to the coefficient of the surface morphology and the surface defects. The hydrogen production efficiency achieved the best when the hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. On the basis of the characterization of the catalysts, the effects of the hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were discussed.

  16. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  17. Temporal relations of volcanism and hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Goff, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Two hydrothermal alteration events (8.07 Ma, one sample; 6.51-5.60 Ma, six samples) related to the waning stages of late Miocene volcanism ({ge} 13 to {le} 5.8 Ma) are recognized at the Cochiti district (southeast Jemez Mountains). Most of the K/Ar dates (0.83 {plus minus} 0.11-0.66 {plus minus} 0.21 Ma, four samples) in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A at Sulfur Springs, Valles caldera, indicate post-Valles caldera hydrothermal alteration. A sample from acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole was too young to be dated by the K/Ar method and is possibly associated with current hot-spring activity and the youngest pulses of volcanism. Oxygen-isotope data from illite/smectite clays in the Cochiti district are zonally distributed and range from {minus}2.15{per thousand} to {plus}7.97{per thousand} (SMOW), depending upon temperature, extent of rock-fluid interaction, and composition. The samples from VC-2A get lighter with depth ({minus}0.20{per thousand} to {plus}1.62{per thousand}). The K/Ar and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were deposited in the late Miocene (5.99-5.60 Ma) and mid-Quaternary ({approximately}0.66 Ma), respectively, by hydrothermal fluids composed primarily of meteoric water.

  18. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-05-15

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles [1-2], among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials [3] and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique [4], including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak

  19. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-10-12

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles, among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique, including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak broadening evident

  20. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  1. Flower-like NiO structures: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical characteristic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Hui; Chen, Xuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Jia, Dianzeng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Bao, Shujuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Zhou, Wanyong

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained via thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process using hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors (ECs), which may be attributed to the unique microstrcture of NiO. Data analyses indicated that NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical and large-scale applications in electrochemical capacitors. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis and characterization of NiO with novel porous structure is presented in this work. ? The electrochemical performance of product was examined. ? NiO with excellent performance as electrode materials may be due to the unique microstrcture. ? NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical with high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}). -- Abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained by thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process with hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resulting structures of NiO exhibited porous like petal building blocks. The electrochemical measurements results demonstrated that flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

  2. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanotubes as novel lithium adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Hajipour, Hengameh; Askari, Masoud; Nusheh, Mohammad

    2015-01-15

    The ion exchange process is a promising method for lithium extraction from brine and seawater having low concentrations of this element. To achieve this goal, it is vital to use an effective adsorbent with maximum lithium adsorption potential together with a stable structure during extraction and insertion of the ions. In this study, titanium dioxide and then lithium titanate spinel with nanotube morphology was synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal process. The produced Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinel ternary oxide nanotube with about 70 nm diameter was then treated with dilute acidic solution in order to prepare an adsorbent suitable for lithium adsorption from local brine. Morphological and phase analysis of the obtained nanostructured samples were done by using transmission and scanning electron microscopes along with X-ray diffraction. Lithium ion exchange capacity of this adsorbent was finally evaluated by means of adsorption isotherm. The results showed titanium dioxide adsorbent could recover 39.43 mg/g of the lithium present in 120 mg/L of lithium solution.

  4. One-step synthesis of titanium oxide nanocrystal- rutile by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Evyan Yang Chia; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2014-09-03

    Pure rutile phase titanium oxides (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals were synthesized via hydrothermal method with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and water (H{sub 2}O) treated in an autoclave. The particle size and phase assemblages were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the nanocrystals was estimated from the Ultra violet – visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectra. It was demonstrated that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be prepared through increasing of temperature and period of treatment. It is believed that the presence of acid chloride (HCl) as by-product during the hydrolysis played an important role in controlling the growth of morphology and crystal structures. The E{sub g} of the samples were estimated from the plot of modified Kubelka-Munk function were in the range of 3.04 – 3.26eV for the samples synthesized at temperature ranging from 50 to 200°C for 16 hours.

  5. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  6. Turbine exhaust diffuser flow path with region of reduced total flow area

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orosa, John A.

    2012-12-25

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary has a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub. The region can begin at a point that is substantially aligned with the downstream end of the hub or, alternatively, at a point that is proximately upstream of the downstream end of the hub. The region directs at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub. As a result, the exhaust diffuser system and method can achieve the performance of a long hub system while enjoying the costs of a short hub system.

  7. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  8. Contact metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals in the SH2 deep well, Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarretta, G.; Tecce, F.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals were logged throughout the SH2 geothermal well, which reached a depth of 2498 m in the Sabatini volcanic district. Below 460 m of volcanics, where the newly formed minerals were mainly chlorite, calcite and zeolites (mostly phillipsite), drilling entered the Allochthonous Flysch Complex. Evidence of the ''Cicerchina facies'' was found down to 1600 m depth. Starting from 1070 m, down to hole bottom, a contact metasomatic complex was defined by the appearance of garnet. Garnet together with K-fledspar, vesuvianite, wilkeite, cuspidine, harkerite, wollastonite and apatite prevail in the top part of the contact metasomatic complex. Vesuvianite and phlogopite characterize the middle part. Phlogopite, pyroxene, spinel and cancrinite predominate in the bottom part. The 1500 m thick metasomatic complex indicates the presence at depth of the intrusion of a trachytic magma which released hot fluids involved in metasomatic mineral-forming reactions. Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district. The system is at present sealed by abundant calcite and anhydrite. It is proposed that most, if not all, of the sulphates formed after reaction of SO/sub 2/ with aqueous calcium species rather than from sulphates being remobilized from evaporitic (Triassic) rocks as previously inferred. The hypothesis of a CO/sub 2/-rich deep-derived fluid ascending through major fracture systems and contrasting cooling in the hottest areas of Latium is presented.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and afterglow luminescence properties of hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres for potential application in drug delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiachi Qin, Qingsong; Hu, Rui; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: We designed a novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} for the first time. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres with afterglow were prepared by hydrothermal method. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} is a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery. - Abstract: A novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} with hollow sphere shape and intense afterglow luminescence is prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 C for the first time. The morphology and the sphere growth process of this material are investigated by scanning electron microscopy in detail. The afterglow measurement shows that this hydrothermal obtained material exhibits obvious red afterglow luminescence (550700 nm) of Sm{sup 3+} which can last for 542 s (0.32 mcd/m{sup 2}). The depth of traps in this hydrothermal obtained material is calculated to be as shallow as 0.58 eV. The results demonstrate that although it is necessary to further improve the afterglow performance of the hydrothermal derived hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres, it still can be regarded as a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery.

  10. Effect of reductant and PVP on morphology and magnetic property of ultrafine Ni powders prepared via hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jun Wang, Xiucai; Li, Lili; Li, Chengxuan; Peng, Shuge

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The ultrafine Ni powders with the shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using different reductants. Their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity sequentially increase, and the coercivity of hexagonal sheet-like Ni powders increases by 25% compared with the Ni bulk counterpart. - Highlights: • The ultrafine Ni powders with various shapes of sphere, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet, etc. • Facile and one-step hydrothermal reduction using three reductants and PVP additive was developed. • Magnetic properties of the ultrafine Ni powders with different shapes were measured. • Compared with bulk Ni material, coercivity of hexagonal sheet Ni increases by 25%. • The formation mechanism of the shapes was suggested. - Abstract: The ultrafine nickel particles with different shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using hydrazine hydrate, sodium hypophosphite and ethylene glycol as reductants, polyvinylpyrrolidone as structure-directing agent. It has been verified with the characterization of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission/scanning electronic microscopy that as-prepared products belong to face-centered cubic structure of nickel microcrystals with high purity and fine dispersity. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature reveal that the values of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity rise sequentially from silknet, sphere to hexagonal sheet. In comparison with nickel bulk counterpart, the coercivity of the hexagonal sheet nickel powders increases by 25%.

  11. Origin of fluids and the evolution of the Atlantis II deep hydrothermal system, Red Sea: Strontium isotope study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anschutz, P.; Blanc, G.; Stille, P.

    1995-12-31

    Atlantis II is the largest and most mineralized of the deeps along the axis of the Red Sea spreading center. Its basaltic substratum is covered by recent layered metalliferous sediments, which precipitated from an overlying brine pool. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and the strontium concentration of interstitial waters within these sediments range between 0.70708 and 0.70725 and between 43 and 53 ppm, respectively. They are close to what is found for the present-day deep brine pool (0.707105, 45.10 ppm). The strontium concentration and the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of the Atlantis II Deep brines can be derived from those of the interstitial waters of the surrounding Miocene evaporite by hydrothermal interaction with oceanic basaltic rocks at a maximal water/rock ratio 2-3. This water/rock ratio is similar to that calculated for oceanic hydrothermal systems on sediment-free ridges. Interstitial waters show a linear trend on plot of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr vs. 1/Sr. The highest strontium concentration and the most radiogenic interstitial waters correspond to sediment samples enriched in iron and manganese oxide minerals. These waters reflect the diagenetic release of strontium by oxide minerals and initially precipitated at the interface between the brine pool and more radiogenic seawater. The solid fraction of the sediment has {sup 87}sr{sup 86}Sr isotopic compositions intermediate to those of the brines and seawater. The solid fraction of the sediment has {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic compositions intermediate to those of the brines and seawater. The most radiogenic strontium values were observed in samples strongly enriched in marine microbiota. The gradual isotopic evolution in the lowest part of the western basin sediments testifies to the gradual influence of the hydrothermal activity in the deep in the beginning of the Atlantis II Deep sedimentary history. 62 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  13. Extrinsic and intrinsic properties in metalinsulator transition of hydrothermally prepared vanadium dioxide crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2014-03-01

    The clear insulator (monoclinic-VO{sub 2}) to metal (rutile-VO{sub 2}) transition (IMT) was observed in electrical conductivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements at around 340 K, which is IMT temperature (T{sub H}), in the hydrothermally prepared VO{sub 2} crystals. The occurrence of metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (T{sub C}) was observed below 333 K during the first resistance measurement cycle in the most of cases. The sudden jump of the electrical resistance at IMT and MIT points was amplified several times than that of the first cycle during the repeated successive thermal cycles (heating and cooling across the IMT and MIT temperatures). T{sub C} and T{sub H} shifted to higher temperature by the repeated successive thermal cycles. This shift and the amplified jump might be related to the mechanical stress between the VO{sub 2} crystals, i.e. extrinsic properties. However, the starting point of MIT, T{sub CS} = ? 336 K, and the starting point of IMT, T{sub HS} = ? 338 K, kept almost constant during the repeated thermal cycles (< 10 times). These two temperatures may be related to the intrinsic properties of the VO{sub 2}: the phase transitions initiated at these temperatures regardless of the number of the repeated thermal cycles. The neat surface of the VO{sub 2} crystals was severely damaged and the average size of particles reduced from 110 nm to 7090 nm after extensively repeated thermal cycles (> 70 times). The damaged surface and the smaller particles, which would be originated from the mechanical stress caused by crystal volume change during the first order transition of the VO{sub 2}, would weaken the electrical conduction path (loosen grain boundaries) between the VO{sub 2} single crystals and would result in the amplified jump at the following MIT. This report may boost the study for the improved stability and lifetime of the VO{sub 2} based electronic devices. - Highlights: The sharp phase transition in

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Novel Zn-Triazole-Benzenedicarboxylate Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyunsoo; Moureau, David M.; Parise, John B.

    2008-10-03

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers were synthesized hydrothermally using Zn2+ ion, 1,2,4-triazole, and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC): Zn5(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)3 {center_dot} 3.9H2O (1), Zn2(C2H2N3)2(C2H3N3)(C8H4O4) {center_dot} 2.5H2O (2), and Zn4(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)2 {center_dot} 14H2O (3). Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their thermal properties were examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Structure 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 10.192(2) {angstrom}, b = 17.764(4) {angstrom}, c = 24.437(5) {angstrom}, {beta} = 91.19(3){sup o}, and V = 4423.3(15) {angstrom}3. Structure 2 crystallizes in the triclinic P space group with a = 7.797(2) {angstrom}, b = 10.047(2) {angstrom}, c = 13.577(3) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 110.18(3){sup o}, {beta} = 105.46(3){sup o}, {gamma} = 93.90(3){sup o}, and V = 947.0(3) {angstrom}3. Structure 3 crystallizes in monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 13.475(3) {angstrom}, b = 26.949(5) {angstrom}, c = 13.509(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 95.18(3){sup o}, and V = 4885.7(17) {angstrom}3. In structure 1, the units of the triazole-Zn polyhedra are linked by BDC in a zigzag fashion to create the stacking of phenyl groups along the a axis. In structure 2, both triazole and BDC bridge Zn polyhedra in the (011) plane, resulting in the eight-membered channels along the a axis. In the case of structure 3, the BDC links the Zn polyhedra along the b axis to form a pillared open framework. This structure is the most porous of the compounds presented in this work.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z. Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 210 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

  16. Investigation of the long-term performance of betafite and zirconolite in hydrothermal veins from Adamello, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumpkin, G.R.; Day, R.A.; McGlinn, P.J.; Payne, T.E.; Giere, R.; Williams, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    Betafite and zirconolite occur in Ti-rich hydrothermal veins emplaced within dolomite marble in the contact aureole of the Adamello batholith, northern Italy. Zirconolite contains up to 18 wt% ThO{sub 2} and 24 wt% UO{sub 2}, and exhibits strong compositional zoning. Some zirconolite grains were corroded by the hydrothermal fluid. Betafite, the Ti-rich member of the pyrochlore group, often occurs as overgrowths on zirconolite. The betafite is weakly zoned and contains 29--34 wt% UO{sub 2}. In terms of end-members, betafite contains approximately 50 mole percent CaUTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is the closest known natural composition to the pyrochlore phase proposed for use in titanate waste forms. Amorphization and volume expansion of the betafite caused cracks to form in the enclosing silicate mineral grains. Backscattered electron images reveal that betafite was subsequently altered along crystal rims, particularly near the cracks. EPMA data reveal little difference in composition between altered and unaltered areas, except for lower totals, suggesting that alteration is primarily due to hydration. The available evidence demonstrates that both betafite and zirconolite retained actinides for approximately 40 million years after the final stage of vein formation. During this time, betafite and zirconolite accumulated a total alpha-decay dose of 3--4 x 10{sup 16} and 0.2--2 x 10{sup 16} {alpha}/mg, respectively.

  17. The structure and stability of aqueous rare-earth elements in hydrothermal fluids: New results on neodymium(III) aqua and chloroaqua complexes in aqueous solutions to 500 °C and 520 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayanovic, R.A.; Anderson, A.J.; Bassett, W.A.; Chou, I.-M.

    2009-02-04

    that of heavy REE chloride complexes in low pH fluids at elevated temperatures consistent with REE analysis of fluids from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

  18. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  19. Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muramoto, F.S.; Elders, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to the physical properties of the rocks. Three hydrothermal and one unaltered zone can be identified from log data on shales. These are: (1) the unaltered montmorillonite zone (<100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C); (2) the illite zone (100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C); (3) the chlorite zone (230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C to 290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and (4) the feldspar zone (>290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C). The characteristic responses on well logs by which these zones are identified result primarily from changes in clay mineralogy of the shales and increases in density with progressive hydrothermal metamorphism. In the Westmorland geothermal field, differentiating mineral zones from log responses was only partially successful. However, analyses of both well log and petrologic data for wells Landers 1 and Kalin Farms 1 suggest that the former is heating up and the latter is cooling.

  20. Synthesis of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite via facile hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Wai Kian; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia; Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-03-15

    ZnO composite films consisting of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets were prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal processing at 80 C on seeded glass substrates. The seed layer was coated on glass substrates by solgel dip-coating and pre-heated at 300 C for 10 min prior to hydrothermal growth. The size of the grain formed after pre-heat treatment was ?40 nm. A preferred orientation seed layer at the c-axis was obtained, which promoted vertical growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays and formation of the ZnO nanosheets. X-ray diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the ZnO nanorods and nanosheets consist of single crystalline and polycrystalline structures, respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite films exhibited band-edge ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission (blue and green) indicating the formation of ZnO crystals with good crystallinity and are supported by Raman scattering results. The formation of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays and two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanosheet films using seeded substrates in a single low-temperature hydrothermal step would be beneficial for realization of device applications that utilize substrates with limited temperature stability. The ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity during degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite structure formation by hydrothermal at low-temperature of 80 C against time. Highlights: Novel simultaneous formation of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure. Facile single hydrothermal step formation at low-temperature. Photoluminescence showed ultraviolet and visible emission. Feasible application on substrates with low temperature stability. Improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation.

  1. Surfactant free hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods with their microstructure and Raman studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amutha, A.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Amirthapanian, S.; Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    SnO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method without any surfactant. Their microstructure was studied with X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The range of nanorods diameter size is ∼3 to 19 nm. The crystal structure was confirmed to be SnO{sub 2} rutile tetragonal structure. The nanorods were single crystalline in nature as confirmed by HRTEM. Electron energy loss studies were carried out. EELS analysis showed presence SnO{sub 2} phase and SnO phase was not observed. New Raman modes (352 and 579 cm{sup −1}) corresponding to small size effects were observed for the SnO{sub 2} nanorods.

  2. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from

  3. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    165,360 165,928 209,439 212,848 260,394 288,743 1936-2014 Alaska 6,481 10,173 10,966 11,769 7,219 6,554 1967-2014 Alaska Onshore 5,271 8,034 9,276 9,244 5,670 5,779 1992-2014 Alaska State Offshore 1,210 2,139 1,690 2,525 1,549 776 1992-2014 Arkansas 141 425 494 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California 2,501 2,790 2,424 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California Onshore 2,501 2,790 2,424 NA NA NA 1992-2014 California State Offshore 0 0 0 NA NA NA 2003-2014 Federal Offshore California NA NA 2003-2014 Colorado 1,411 1,242

  4. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 ...

  5. CX_Vent_System.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  6. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Utah NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 West Virginia NA NA NA NA NA

  7. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhixin; Li Danzhen; Xiao Guangcan; He Yunhui; Xu Yijun

    2012-02-15

    Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method with the temperature ranging from 80 to 195 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that the crystallographic structure and optical property of the products synthesized at different temperatures were almost the same. The degradation of methyl orange (MO) under the visible light irradiation has been used as a probe reaction to investigate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, which shows that the ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} sample synthesized at 195 Degree-Sign C shows the best photocatalytic activity for MO degradation. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of all the samples prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method are better than those prepared by a normal hydrothermal method, which could be attributed to the formation of more defect sites during the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 80-195 Degree-Sign C with a very short reaction time of 10 min. The as-prepared ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} sample can be used as visible light photocatalyst for degradation of organic dyes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure and optical property of the products were almost the same. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increment of the temperature renders high surface area due to the bubbling effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} synthesized at 195 Degree-Sign C shows the best visible catalytic activity for MO.

  8. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xinxiang; Cao Yanning; Zhang Hanhui Chen Yiping; Chen Xuehuan; Chai Xiaochuan

    2008-05-15

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C{sub 5}NH{sub 6}){sub 2}[Bi{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 4}].2H{sub 2}O 1 and (NH{sub 4})[Bi(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}/c space group with a=10.378(2) A, b=17.285(3) A, c=16.563(5) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=119.66(2) deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=2581.8(10) A{sup 3}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0355 and wR{sub 2}=0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2{sigma}(I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4{sub 1}/amd space group with a=11.7026(17) A, b=11.7026(17) A, c=9.2233(18) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=90 deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=1263.1(4) A{sup 3}, Z=32, R{sub 1}=0.0208 and wR{sub 2}=0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2{sigma}(I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 deg. C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS). - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3-D extended porous coordination polymers have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Both compounds are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers. Study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange.

  10. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, M. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.

    2015-07-15

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni{sub 59}Zr{sub 20}Ti{sub 16}Si{sub 2}Sn{sub 3} metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO{sub 3}, ZrTiO{sub 4} and ZrSnO{sub 4} ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  11. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.

  12. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  13. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  14. Microstructure and magnetic properties of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn) ferrite nanocrystals prepared using colloid mill and hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei Ding, Zui; Zhao, Xiruo; Wu, Sizhu; Li, Feng; Yue, Ming; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-05-07

    Three kinds of spinel ferrite nanocrystals, MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn), are synthesized using colloid mill and hydrothermal method. During the synthesis process, a rapid mixing and reduction of cations with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) take place in a colloid mill then through a hydrothermal reaction, a slow oxidation and structural transformation of the spinel ferrite nanocrystals occur. The phase purity and crystal lattice parameters are estimated by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals. Raman spectrum reveals active phonon modes at room temperature, and a shifting of the modes implies cation redistribution in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Magnetic measurements show that all the obtained samples exhibit higher saturation magnetization (M{sub s}). Meanwhile, experiments demonstrate that the hydrothermal reaction time has significant effects on microstructure, morphologies, and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals.

  15. Facile fabrication of rutile monolayer films consisting of well crystalline nanorods by following an IL-assisted hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng Peng; Liu Xiaodi; Sun, Chuansheng; Ma Jianmin; Zheng Wenjun

    2009-05-15

    In this study, rutile films consisting of rectangular nanorods were facilely deposited on glass substrates from strongly acid solution of TiCl{sub 4}. The highly ordered array of nanorods was realized in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br by following a hydrothermal process. In this process, Degussa P25 nanoparticles served as seeds that were pre-deposited on the substrates to facilitate the array of rutile nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectrum were used to characterize the obtained nanorod films. The measurements showed that the nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, and grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate. The presence of IL was found vital for the formation of rutile nanorods, and the suitable molar ratio of [Bmim]Br to TiCl{sub 4} ranged from 500:1 to 1500:1. The excessive [Bmim]Br may hinder the precipitation of rutile particles. - Graphical abstract: The rutile film consisting of rectangular nanorods is successfully deposited on glass substrate in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br. The nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, which grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate.

  16. Partitioning and Leaching Behavior of Actinides and Rare Earth Elements in a Zirconolite- Bearing Hydrothermal Vein System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Hart, Kaye P.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; McGlinn, Peter J.; Giere, Reto

    2007-07-01

    Chemical extraction techniques and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the distribution and behavior of actinides and rare earth elements (REE) in hydrothermal veins at Adamello (Italy). The six samples discussed in this paper were from the phlogopite zone, which is one of the major vein zones. The samples were similar in their bulk chemical composition, mineralogy, and leaching behavior of major elements (determined by extraction with 9 M HCl). However, there were major differences in the extractability of REE and actinides. The most significant influence on the leaching characteristics appears to be the amounts of U, Th and REE incorporated in resistant host phases (zirconolite and titanite) rather than readily leached phases (such as apatite). Uranium and Th are very highly enriched in zirconolite grains. Actinides were more readily leached from samples with a higher content of U and Th, relative to the amount of zirconium. The results show that REE and actinides present in chemically resistant host minerals can be retained under aggressive leaching conditions. (authors)

  17. Laser hydrothermal reductive ablation of titanium monoxide: Hydrated TiO particles with modified Ti/O surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Jandova, Vera; Kupcik, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdenek; Subrt, Jan; Bezdicka, Petr; Pola, Josef

    2013-01-15

    IR laser- and UV laser-induced ablation of titanium monoxide (TM) in hydrogen (50 Torr) is compared to the same process induced in vacuum and shown to result in deposition of hydrated surface modified nanostructured titanium suboxide films. Complementary analyses of the films deposited in vacuum and in hydrogen by Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed to determine different features of both films and propose a mechanism of surface modification of ejected particles, which involves hydrothermal reduction of TM and subsequent reactions of evolved water. The films exert good adhesion to metal and quartz surfaces and are hydrophobic in spite of having their surface coated with adsorbed water. - Graphical abstract: Laser ablation of titanium monoxide (TiO) in hydrogen involves a sequence of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O eliminations and additions and yields hydrated amorphous nanostructured titanium suboxide which is richer in oxygen than TiO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR and UV laser ablated particles of titanium monoxide (TiO) undergo amorphization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in vacuum have TiO stoichiometry and are oxidized in atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in hydrogen are hydrated and have more O in topmost layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films modification in hydrogen is explained by reactions in hydrogen plasma.

  18. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of coral-like Au/ZnO catalyst and photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.K.; Lee, G.J.; Davies, S.H.; Masten, S.J.; Amutha, R.; Wu, J.J.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Coral-like Au/ZnO was successfully prepared using green synthetic method. ? Gold nanoparticles were deposited on the ZnO structure using NaBH{sub 4} and ?-D-glucose. ? Coral-like Au/ZnO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to degrade Orange II. - Abstract: A porous coral-like zinc oxide (c-ZnO) photocatalyst was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The coral-like structure was obtained by precipitating Zn{sub 4}(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 6}H{sub 2}O (ZnCH), which forms nanosheets that aggregate together to form microspheres with the coral-like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that after heating at 550 C the ZnCH microspheres can be converted to ZnO microspheres with a morphology similar to that of ZnCH microspheres. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows this conversion takes place at approximately 260 C. A simple electrostatic self-assembly method has been employed to uniformly disperse Au nanoparticles (1 wt.%) on the ZnO surface. In this procedure ?-D-glucose was used to stabilize the Au nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the diameter of coral-like ZnO microspheres (c-ZnO) is about 8 ?m. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO is highly crystalline with a wurtzite structure and the Au metallic particles have an average size of about 13 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies have confirmed the presence of ZnO and also showed that the Au is present in the metallic state. The photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye, with either ultraviolet or visible light, is faster on Au/c-ZnO than on c-ZnO.

  20. Hydrothermal dolomitization of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones in the southern Alps (Italy): Relation to tectonics and volcanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervato, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitization has affected up to 750m of the Jurassic and Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the southern continental margin of the Alpine Tethys; the sequence crops out in the southern Alps of Italy (Monti Lessini). Late Paleocene to Miocene extrusion of basaltic tuffs, breccias, and lavas was contemporaneous with the dolomitization was was associated with extensive tectonism in an ancient back-arc basin. More than 200 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratios (carbon, oxygen, strontium), and clay mineralogy. The dolomite contains 40% to 50% MgCO{sub 3}. In thin sections, the crystal size distribution is unimodal (about 100 {mu}m), possibly indicating a single nucleation for the main crystallization phase. The {delta}{sup 13}C of the dolomite is not appreciably different from the undolomitized pelagic limestone (+1.0{per thousand} to +2.0{per thousand} Peedee belemnite (PDB)). The {delta}{sup 18}O variation (-5.0{per thousand} to -13.0{per thousand} PDB) is due to temperature variation in the system. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in the dolomite (0.70839-0.70867) is consistent with the ratio in late Oligocene-Miocene marine water. Clay minerals in limestone and dolomite differ in the presence of neoformed Mg-chlorite, indicating a maximum temperature of about 150C for dolomitization. The dolomite is suggested to have a hydrothermal origin. The heat flow associated with the volcanism allowed marine water to penetrate the system and circulate in convective cells through the tectonic breccias, locally dolomitizing the limestone.

  1. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  2. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  3. Structural and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-03-15

    TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO{sub 2}. The obtained ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO{sub 2} and ZnO phases in TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E{sub a} = 101 meV.

  4. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO{sub 2} synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Garca, Hugo A.; Romero-Ibarra, Issis C.; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2014-10-15

    Hierarchical growth of cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants (cationic, non-ionic and anionic) and sodium hydroxide. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different ZrO{sub 2} powders were performed using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption, scanning electron microscopy and infrared. Results indicated that sodium addition stabilized the cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase by a Na-doping process, independently of the surfactant used. In contrast, microstructural characteristics varied as a function of the surfactant and sodium presence. In addition, water vapor (H{sub 2}O) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sorption properties were evaluated on ZrO{sub 2} samples. Results evidenced that sample surface reactivity changed as a function of the sodium content. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction using the different synthesized samples, obtaining yields of 93%. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical growth of cubic Na-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized by hydrothermal processes in the presence of surfactants and sodium. Sodium addition stabilized the cubic phase by a Na-doping process, while the microstructural characteristics varied with surfactants. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction. - Highlights: Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process. ZrO{sub 2} structure and microstructures changed as a function of the surfactant. Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction.

  5. In situ synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on metallic titanium foil through gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Na; Wang, Guancong; Liu, Hong; Ohachi, Tadashi

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The reaction mechanism for in situ synthesizing TiH{sub 2} layer on titanium foil by a gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal methodology. - Highlights: • A dense TiH{sub 2} layer is synthesized by a hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method. • Hydrogen in a TiH{sub 2} layer synthesized can release at low temperature. • During the dehydrogenation process, there is no any intermediate phase forming. • We report a method of low-cost, low-risk and convenience toward productive TiH{sub 2}. - Abstract: A novel strategy for synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on surface of metallic titanium by using an acid-hydrothermal method was proposed. During the synthesis process, no any elemental hydrogen was involved. X-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that a TiH{sub 2} layer of 20 μm thickness on a Ti foil surface can be formed in situ by an interface reaction of metallic titanium with sulfuric acid solution, hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid, which is a hydrogen self-storage process. By tuning reaction parameters, for example, concentration of acid, composition and morphology of TiH{sub 2}-Ti hybrid materials can be adjusted. The TiH{sub 2} layer on a metallic titanium surface can be decompounded completely heated below 400 °C. This convenient, safe and low-cost method is a promising gaseous hydrogen free approach for the synthesis of hydride-based hydrogen storage materials.

  6. Selective hydrothermal synthesis of BiOBr microflowers and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao Peipei; Zhu Lingling; Zhu Yongchun; Qian Yitai

    2011-06-15

    Through controlling the amount of NaOH added, BiOBr and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with different shapes were hydrothermally synthesized in the reaction system of Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-NaOH. As 8 mmol of NaOH was added, BiOBr microflowers constructed of nanoflakes were synthesized. The thickness of these single-crystal nanoflakes was about 20 nm. In the similar condition, when the amount of NaOH added was 28 mmol, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were obtained. The length of these shuttles was 100 {mu}m and the diameter at the middle of these shuttles was 50 {mu}m. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared BiOBr microflowers was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation ({lambda}>420 nm), which was up to 96% within 90 min. - Graphical abstract: Through controlling the amount of NaOH added, BiOBr microflowers and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were hydrothermally synthesized in the reaction system of Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-NaOH. Highlights: > BiOBr microflowers constructed of nanoflakes were synthesized hydrothermally. > Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were also synthesized. > Their formation mechanisms were studied based on the experimental results. > The photocatalytic activity of BiOBr microflowers was evaluated under visible-light irradiation.

  7. TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposite via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy for visible light photodegradation of eosin Y

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yingliang; Pei, Fuyun Lu, Ruijuan; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is synthesized via in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are chemically anchored on N-graphene nanosheets. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is red-shifted from neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. 5-NGT nanocomposite has the best visible light photodegradation performance. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites are synthesized via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy in order to improve the photocatalytic efficiency for pollutant photodegradation under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared nanocomposites are respectively characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Results indicated that neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have an average diameter about 6.70 nm while TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites synthesized through in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy bear an average diameter of ?1 nm and are anchored on N-graphene nanosheets via chemical bonding. Both neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and chemically anchored TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites take on the crystal type of anatase. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites is red-shifted compared with neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The evaluation of photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation suggested that the nanocomposite with 5 wt% N-graphene content has the best visible light photodegradation performance.

  8. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase α-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  9. Characterization, properties and catalytic application of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Wang, Huijuan; Wei, Xiuzhen; Zhu, Liping

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, BrunauerEmmettTeller method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSCTG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the catalyst revealed an excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B could be up to 96%. Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method. ? TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and BET were used to study morphology and crystalline structure. ? FTIR, DSC-TG was used to investigate pyrolytic process and phase structure. ? UVvis absorption spectra were used to evaluate the photocatalysis of catalysts. ? Dye degradation result showed that the catalyst had excellent photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the anatase nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B

  10. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} by one step template-free hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Keqing; Liu, Jiajia; Wen, Panyue; Hu, Yuan Gui, Zhou

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystals had been synthesized by one step template-free hydrothermal method. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plays a crucial role in morphological control of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • The morphology has significant effect on the optical property of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: We had developed a facile synthetic route of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystals with different morphologies via one step template-free hydrothermal method. The phase and composition of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectrum. The morphology and structure of the synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} played a crucial role in morphological control of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. It only obtained Co-based precursor in the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. On the contrary, the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} with different morphologies including nanoparticles, nano-discs and well-defined octahedral nanostructures were synthesized in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In addition, the optical property of the obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples was investigated by UV–vis spectra.

  11. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  12. Effects of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Cocations on the Activity and Hydrothermal Stability of Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yilin; Washton, Nancy M.; Kollar, Marton; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-10-13

    Using a three-step aqueous solution ion-exchange method, cocation modified Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts were synthesized. These catalysts, in both fresh and hydrothermally aged forms, were characterized with several methods including temperature-programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), and 27Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diffuse reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopies. Their catalytic performance was probed using steady-state standard NH3-SCR. Characterization results indicate that cocations weaken interactions between Cu-ions and the CHA framework making them more readily reducible. By removing a portion of Brønsted acid sites, cocations also help to mitigate hydrolysis of the zeolite catalysts during hydrothermal aging as evidenced from 27Al NMR. Reaction tests show that certain cocations, especially Li+ and Na+, promote low-temperature SCR rates while others show much less pronounced effects. In terms of applications, our results indicate that introducing cocations can be a viable strategy to improve both low- and high-temperature performance of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts.

  13. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Exploration methods are categorized into five groups: Geology Characterizing geology-rock types, structures, faults, and temperatures- is a fundamental step in discovering new ...

  14. Hydrothermal chemistry of Th(IV) with aromatic dicarboxylates: New framework compounds and in situ ligand syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegelgruber, Kate L.; Knope, Karah E.; Frisch, Mark; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2008-02-15

    A novel thorium (IV) coordination polymer, Th(C{sub 5}H{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), has been prepared under the hydrothermal reaction of thorium nitrate tetrahydrate and 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}pdc). Compound 1 (orthorhombic, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a=6.9362(5) A, b=10.7806(8) A, c=17.9915(14) A, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0210, wR{sub 2}=0.0470) consists of thorium metal centers connected via H{sub 3}pdc linkages to form an overall three-dimensional structure containing {pi}-{pi} interactions between the pyrazole rings. 2,3-Pyrazinedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}pzdc) was explored as well to (1) study the effect of the location of the carboxylic groups around the aromatic ring and (2) produce heterometallic compounds. Thorium (IV) and copper (II) were combined with H{sub 2}pzdc, resulting in an interesting decomposition reaction characterized though the isolation of Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (2) (monoclinic, C2/c, a=13.8507(12) A, b=7.8719(7) A, c=10.7961(16) A, {beta}=118.0310(10){sup o}, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0160, wR{sub 2}=0.0349), Cu(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) (3) (monoclinic, C2/c, a=11.499(3) A, b=7.502(2) A, c=7.402(2) A, {beta}=93.892(5){sup o}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0472, wR{sub 2}=0.0745) and Cu(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}O{sub 2})(NO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O) (4). The capture of these species provides mechanistic evidence for the formation of the oxalate anions observed in 2 via the decarboxylation of H{sub 2}pzdc to yield the linker in 4: 2-pyrazinecarboxylate anions. - Graphical abstract: 3,5-Pyrazoledicarboxylic and 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid were utilized in synthesizing two novel thorium (IV) coordination polymers. Attempts to synthesize a Th-Cu bimetallic compound with 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid resulted in a triphasic mixture (2, 3 and 4, respectively). The oxalate anion observed in Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (2) is theorized to result from decarboxylation of 2

  15. Direct synthesis of Al-SBA-15 containing aluminosilicate species plugs in an acid-free medium and structural adjustment by hydrothermal post-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Lei; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Na; Lin, Sen; Li, Xiangping; Guo, Peng; Li, Xuebing

    2013-07-15

    A series of Al-SBA-15 with controllable aluminosilicate plug structures inside straight mesopores has been hydrothermally synthesized in a one-step synthesis in an environmentally friendly acid-free medium, using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent, water as solvent, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and aluminum nitrate (Al(NO){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O) as silica and aluminum sources, respectively. The effects of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution and aging temperature on the structural properties of the resulting materials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption at 77 K, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG), FT-IR spectra and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses. The nature of the Al species and the acidity of the resultant samples were studied by solid state {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and pyridine adsorption measurements. The specific surface area (935–755 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}), pore volume (1.03–0.56 cm{sup 3}g{sup −1}) and especially the concentration and distribution of open type mesopores (0–68% to the total pores) of the synthesized Al-SBA-15 can be controlled by a simple adjustment of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution. Moreover, increasing the aging temperature higher than 363 K can remarkably decrease the formation of plug structures to obtain “open” form mesopores. The observation by TEM of alternate defined gray and white areas inside the mesopores gives the strong evidence of isolated microporous aluminosilicate plugs inside the channels. In addition, a moderate hydrothermal post-treatment can finely modify the mesostructures through the partial or complete dissolution of the aluminosilicate plugs. - Graphical abstract: The plugs-containing structures can be interpreted as the distribution of individual isolated plugs along the mesoporous channel. - Highlights: • Al-SBA-15 with controllable

  16. Shewanella loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial mats in the Pacific Ocean A novel marine bacterial strain, PV-4T, isolated from a microbial mat located at a hydrothermal vent...

  17. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  18. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  19. Flower-like nanostructure MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) with high surface area: Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xue; Jing, Yan; Yang, Jia; Ju, Jing; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} was prepared by a mild two-step hydrothermal method. • Their flower-like nanostructure morphology was studied by SEM and TEM. • High BET surface areas for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (∼50 m{sup 2}/g) and ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (∼100 m{sup 2}/g). • Band gap energies were estimated by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. • Photocatalytic activities were evaluated under UV-light irradiation. - Abstract: Nano-scaled MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) was successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal method. It is important to control the exact pH of the reaction solution in order to obtain pure products. The as-prepared samples both crystallize in the columbite structure. Interestingly, the products possess a flower-like morphology in a pseudo-six-fold symmetry, which is in fact arrayed by two-dimensional nanosheets. Their surface areas (51 m{sup 2}/g for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and 103 m{sup 2}/g for ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are about 25–50 times of those prepared by solid state reaction. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra show the nano-scaled sample has a stronger absorption and a narrower band gap than its bulk form. The estimated band gap energies are 2.70 eV (MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and 3.77 eV (ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}), respectively. The nano-scaled ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} exhibits a double enhancement of photocatalytic activity in the decolorization of methylene blue than bulk ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zima, Tatyana; Baklanova, Natalya; Bataev, Ivan

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

  1. Preparation of magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-functionalized graphene sheets via a facile hydrothermal method and their adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Nianwu; Zheng Mingbo; Chang Xiaofeng; Ji Guangbin; Lu Hongling; Xue Luping; Pan Lijia; Cao Jieming

    2011-04-15

    Magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-functionalized graphene sheets (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS) nanocomposites have been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of inorganic salts and thermal exfoliated graphene sheets. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with sizes of 10-40 nm are well dispersed on graphene sheets. OH{sup -} was recognized as a tie to integrate the inorganic salts with the graphene sheets, which made reaction started and developed on the surface of graphene sheets and formed cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The adsorption kinetics investigation revealed that the adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution over the as-prepared CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS nanocomposites followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption capacity was examined as high as 71.54 mg g{sup -1}. The combination of the superior adsorption of FGS and the magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be used as a powerful separation tool to deal with water pollution. -- Graphical abstract: OH{sup -} was recognized as a tie to integrate the inorganic salts with the graphene sheets, which made reaction started and developed on the surface of graphene sheets and formed cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on graphene sheets. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with sizes of 10-40 nm are well dispersed on graphene sheets. {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS with superior adsorption can be used for water treatment.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A.; Espina, Aránzazu; Amghouz, Zakariae; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A.; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-15

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of urchin-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures and their electrochemical sensing performance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkaoui, Sami; Haddaoui, Marwa; Dhaouadi, Hassouna; Raouafi, Noureddine; Touati, Fathi

    2015-08-15

    Nanostructured tricobalt tetraoxide, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, was hydrothermally synthesized starting from cobalt dichloride hexahydrate (CoCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O) and urea (H{sub 2}NCONH{sub 2}) as precursor and polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) as a structure-directing agent. Uniform urchin-like nanostructures were hydrothermally obtained at 150 °C for 16 h, and the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} morphology did not collapse after a subsequent calcination at 300 °C for 2 h. XRD measurements indicated that the average sizes of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles prior and after heating at 300 °C are 64 and 44 nm, respectively. This material has been successfully used for the nanostructuration of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) which were used for the sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The sensor is endowed with a large dynamic range (0.1 to 50 µM) and a limit of detection of 0.145 µM. The as obtained results show that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterial could be a candidate to be used as sensors for the detection of analytes. - Graphical abstract: The nanowires appear to have a common center and grow to the outside along the radial direction. - Highlights: • Nanostructured was hydrothermally prepared using PEG-400. • Uniform urchin-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures were hydrothermally obtained. • X-ray diffraction showed a cubic structure after calcinations process. • Nanostructured Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was used for the sensitive electrochemical detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2.} • The sensor is endowed with a large dynamic range 0.1 to 50 µM.

  4. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. The nanofibers calcined at 100700 C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. The calcined nanofibers at 400 C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 2090 nm in diameter and 27 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300400 C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 6001000 C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300700 C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 8001000 C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the

  5. Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    09 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 165,360 165,928 209,439 212,848 260,394 288,743 1936-2014 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico 14,754 13,971 15,502 16,296 14,619 15,123 1997-2014 Alabama 2,495 2,617 3,491 0 NA NA 1967-2014 Alaska 6,481 10,173 10,966 11,769 7,219 6,554 1967-2014 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 1971-2014 Arkansas 141 425 494 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California 2,501 2,790 2,424 0 NA NA 1967-2014 Colorado 1,411 1,242 1,291 0 NA NA 1967-2014 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 1971-2014 Illinois 0 0 0 0 0 0

  6. Generator stator core vent duct spacer posts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, John Wesley; Tong, Wei

    2003-06-24

    Generator stator cores are constructed by stacking many layers of magnetic laminations. Ventilation ducts may be inserted between these layers by inserting spacers into the core stack. The ventilation ducts allow for the passage of cooling gas through the core during operation. The spacers or spacer posts are positioned between groups of the magnetic laminations to define the ventilation ducts. The spacer posts are secured with longitudinal axes thereof substantially parallel to the core axis. With this structure, core tightness can be assured while maximizing ventilation duct cross section for gas flow and minimizing magnetic loss in the spacers.

  7. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Venting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MARVIN S. FERTEL President and Chief Executive Officer 1201 F Street, NW, Suite 1100 Washington, DC 20004 P: 202.739.8125 msf@nei.org nei.org May 5, 2014 The Honorable Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585 Dear Secretary Moniz: On behalf of the U.S. nuclear energy industry, the Nuclear Energy Institute 1 (NEI) appreciates the opportunity to provide comments on the Department of Energy's excess uranium inventory management

  8. Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Alabama NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Alaska NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Arizona NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Florida NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Illinois NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Indiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Kentucky NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Louisiana

  9. Integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system, B. C. , Mexico, based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and core at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced. A map showing the first occurrence of hydrothermal epidote shows a dome-shaped top to the steam-producing zone. The hottest of the mapped mineral zones - the biotite vermiculite zone - shows a dome displaced to the northeast relative to the epidote zone. Patterns of mineral zones observed in wells are consistent with patterns of oxygen isotopic ratios in calcite and quartz. Using both criteria all of the boreholes so far studied were classified as belonging to one of four different regimes. These are: (a) the thermal plume of upward flowing water close to boiling, marked by a regular sequence of prograde mineral zones and large isotopic shifts; (b) the discharge system where fluid leaks to the surface, as indicated by the occurrence of only a few low temperature mineral zones, which extend over large depth intervals with little isotope exchange; (c) the horizontal flow zone, in which boreholes penetrate reversals of both mineral zones and isotope shifts with increasing depth; and (d) the recharge zone where cold water is descending. Plotting these four types of boreholes on a map reveals a simple, consistent, pattern. This is interpreted to have been produced by a thermal plume dipping at 45/sup 0/ to the northeast.

  10. Microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Wohn Lee, Soo

    2013-01-15

    Simulated solar light responsive Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} composite photocatalyst was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal process. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and BET surface area analyzer to investigate the crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition, optical properties and surface area of the composite photocatalyst. This photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Dye degradation efficiency of composite photocatalyst was found to be increased significantly as compared to that of the commercial WO{sub 3} nanopowder. Increase in photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was explained on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect caused by the silver nanoparticles present in the composite photocatalyst. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic experiment was performed under simulated solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite photocatalyst was very active as compared to WO{sub 3} commercial powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPR effect due to Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity.

  11. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic activity of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} for the degradation of dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wenjuan; Li Danzhen; Sun Meng; Shao Yu; Chen Zhixin; Xiao Guangcan; Fu Xianzhi

    2010-10-15

    AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} powders were successfully synthesized by a microwave hydrothermal method for the first time. This method is a mild and highly efficient route involves no templates, catalysts, or surfactants. Therefore, it is very promising for the low-cost and large-scale industrial production. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} nanoparticles was investigated through the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} has exhibited a superior activity under the same condition. A liquid chromatogram-mass spectrometer was used to separate and identify the dye and degradation products generated during the reaction. According to the experiment results, a possible mechanism for the degradation of organic pollutant over AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} was proposed. - Graphical abstract: Compared with TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} has exhibited a superior activity under the same condition.

  12. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  13. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Qingyun Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: • Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflakes with thicknesses of ∼25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50–500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}, and 523 mAh g{sup −1} at 1.5 A g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g{sup −1} is achieved at 2 A g{sup −1} and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport.

  14. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  15. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    across a range of temperatures (25-200 °C) that represent hydrothermal conditions representative of the underground nuclear test cavities (when groundwater has re-saturated the nuclear melt glass and glass dissolution occurs). Colloid loads and Pu concentrations were monitored along with the mineralogy of both the colloids and the secondary mineral phases. The intent was to establish an upper limit for Pu concentrations at the NNSS, provide context regarding the Pu concentrations observed at the NNSS to date and the Pu concentrations that may be observed in the future. The results provide a conceptual model for the risks posed by Pu migration at the NNSS.

  16. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  17. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the underlying resource.1 Occurrence Models "To search efficiently for blind geothermal systems, general geographic regions must first be identified based upon...

  18. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  19. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    those promising locations to focus exploration efforts and investment. In so doing, such models can increase the expected success rate of exploratory drilling, reduce risk, and...

  20. Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often,...

  1. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of Wet Wastes James Oyler July 2014 Slide 1 Slide 2 Q: What is possible with Waste-to-Energy (WTE)? A: Up to 25% of US Liquid Fuel Supply. 25% Sounds High-Is That Possible? * Available technology and wet wastes can start toward this goal now * 285,000 barrels of oil per day by 2025 - 3.3 million bbl/d by 2045 (17% of US demand); also produces more than 6 million MCF/d of methane - Continue growing to 25% of US demand by adding more feedstocks (chart shown later) * Using wastes solves

  2. A highly coercive carbon nanotube coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Huiqun; Zhu Meifang Li Yaogang; Liu Jianhong; Ni Zhuo; Qin Zongyi

    2007-11-15

    Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), etc. A temperature of about 200 deg. C was identified to be an appropriate hydrothermal condition to obtain Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs, being lower than the synthesis temperature of a single-phase Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. The sizes of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the composites were smaller than those of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in single phase. The composites exhibited more superparamagnetic than Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in their relaxation behaviors. The magnetic properties measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe at room temperature, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. - Graphical abstract: Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals.

  3. Geology, hydrothermal petrology, stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion geothermometry of LASL geothermal test well C/T-1 (Mesa 31-1), East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.R.; Elders, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    Borehole Mesa 31-1 (LASL C/T-1) is an 1899-m (6231-ft) deep well located in the northwestern part of the East Mesa Geothermal Field. Mesa 31-1 is the first Calibration/Test Well (C/T-1) in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. The purpose of this study is to provide a compilation of drillhole data, drill cuttings, well lithology, and formation petrology that will serve to support the use of well LASL C/T-1 as a calibration/test well for geothermal logging. In addition, reviews of fluid chemistry, stable isotope studies, isotopic and fluid inclusion geothermometry, and the temperature log data are presented. This study provides the basic data on the geology and hydrothermal alteration of the rocks in LASL C/T-1 as background for the interpretation of wireline logs.

  4. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0?x?1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  5. Novel Y doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst: Hydrothermal fabrication, characterization and enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B degradation and photocurrent generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ranran; Huang, Hongwei; Tian, Na; Zhang, Yihe; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-03-15

    Visible-light-driven (VLD) Yttrium (Y) ion doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. Incorporation of Y{sup 3} {sup +} into Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} lattice was successfully confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ICP analysis. The microstructure and optical property of the as-prepared samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic experiments indicated that the Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} showed a much higher photocatalytic activity than the pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and photocurrent (PC) generation. This enhancement should be ascribed to the slightly increased band gap and the generated defects by Y{sup 3} {sup +} doping, thus resulting in a much lower recombination rate of the photoinduced electrons and holes. Such a process was verified by the photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In addition, the active species trapping experiments indicated that holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) play important roles in the photocatalytic reaction. - Highlights: • Novel Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. • Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} exhibits a much higher photocatalytic activity than pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) are the two main active species. • Y{sup 3} {sup +} ion can result in a low recombination of photogenerated electron and hole.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanotubes for enhanced photoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Linhui; Wang, Guangfa; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Weijie; Ou, Guofu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes. • Hydrothermal synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanostructures assissted with a further heat treatment. • Tunable coating ratios of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphor. • Enhanced photoluminescence intensity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} more than 60% by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface coating. - Abstract: Novel Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanotubes with different coating ratios were synthesized successfully by a facile two-step process, including hydrothermal synthesis of Y(OH){sub 3} coated Y(OH){sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} as precursors and then calcination of them at 1000 °C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction patterns and field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated these Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors possess tubular nanostructures. The photoluminescence properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} were systematically investigated by photoluminescence spectra, and photoluminescence enhancement was observed after proper coating. In other words, the coating ratio played a crucial role in photoluminescence efficiency. When it was 1/9, the photoluminescence intensity of {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} emission (about 613 nm) was 60% higher than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} phosphors under 255 nm excitation. Therefore, surface coating may be an alternative route for enhanced photoluminescence properties of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} red-emitting phosphor.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new inorganic/organic hybrid of scandium sulfate: (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Jianjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: j.lu@anl.gov; Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geiser, Urs [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The first organically templated layered structure of scandium sulfate, (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}, (en=ethylenediamine) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the title compound, scandium ions are bridged by sulfate groups with a ratio of 1:2 into a 4{sub 3}{sup 6} layer structure. These layers are parallel packed and separated from each other by ethylenediammonium dications and water molecules. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c, with cell parameters a=8.5966(13)A, b=5.1068(8)A, c=18.847(3)A, {beta}=91.210(3){sup o}, V=827.2(2)A{sup 3} and Z=2. Refinement gave R{sub 1}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0354 and wR{sub 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0878. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that this material is thermally stable to above 400 deg. C.

  8. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 1,558 1,263 834 2,137 1,398 797 60 0 0 1980's 0 194 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 5 12 23 29 17 5 2 9 2010's 24 21 0

  9. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  10. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,992 5,987 4,058 1970's 2,909 2,823 5,696 3,791 1,227 1,642 1,519 5,065 8,163 4,636 1980's 5,211 6,877 4,767 6,236 6,335 5,869 4,080 3,811 3,582 4,419 1990's 1,679 1,365 1,626 1,581 1,963 2,144 2,700 2,786 2,673 2,715 2000's 3,130 3,256 2,849 2,347 3,525 3,533 2,869 929 803 481 2010's 1,586 4,360 12,259 21,053 22,143

  11. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 7 2,926 2,883 3,744 2,400 3,773 3,720 2,802 4,012 5,036 1990's 375 1 13 14 11 0 3 5 5 5 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  12. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 25,795 22,050 22,955 1970's 19,862 2,686 20,786 22,533 17,860 2,155 2,737 1,116 6,788 26,932 1980's 7,975 698 1 996 2,018 2,984 6,853 2,771 2,771 2,050 1990's 3,642 2,603 2,197 2,337 2,492 4,300 2,957 3,534 4,371 2,693 2000's 3,290 3,166 2,791 2,070 2,198 3,260 7,460 10,500 25,700 26,876 2010's 24,582 49,652 79,564 102,855 129,384

  13. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  14. Alabama Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 360 422 795 1970's 656 308 966 1,890 1,492 1,107 1,088 1,180 1,695 1,497 1980's 3,175 2,485 2,806 1,793 1,829 1,426 1,310 1,356 1,824 1,503 1990's 1,933 2,193 1,799 1,798 2,650 2,935 1,853 1,563 1,462 1,085 2000's 1,262 1,039 1,331 1,611 2,316 2,485 3,525 2,372 1,801 2,495 2010's 2,617 3,491 0

  15. The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospira...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Susan 4 ; Malfatti, Stephanie 9 ; Massey, Steven E 1 ; Martin, Darlene D 1 ; ... H 12 ; Paulsen, Ian T 13 ; Reep, Douglas K 1 ; Ren, Qinghu 13 ; Ross, Rachel L ...

  16. The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospiracrunogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A. ; Massey, Steven E. ; Martin, Darlene D. ; McCuddin, Zoe ; Meyer, Folker ; Moore, Jessica L. ; Ocampo, Luis H. ; Paul,John H. ; Paulsen, Ian T. ; Reep, Douglas K. ; Ren, ...

  17. Other States Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    654 1995 667 594 663 634 643 626 643 663 603 553 567 578 1996 549 538 625 620 693 703 709 715 676 708 682 690 1997 133 124 135 142 147 142 149 177 160 150 159 161 1998 147 134...

  18. Building America Case Study: Design Guidance for Passive Vents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PERFORMANCE CRITERIA * Continuous exhaust: >3 required ASHRAE 62.2 outdoor air CFM * ... ASHRAE Standard 62.2, or similar, can be used to determine the whole-house ventilation ...

  19. Alaska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,390 24,258 32,543 1970's 34,808 33,880 21,590 4,979 11,524 10,401 6,554 15,644 8,492 4,526 1980's 4,820 5,630 6,946 5,027 11,670 6,296 8,862 15,603 9,018 9,786 1990's 10,727 10,784 14,097 22,485 13,240 8,736 7,070 8,269 8,171 7,098 2000's 7,546 7,686 7,312 6,345 6,088 6,429 7,125 6,458 10,023 6,481 2010's 10,173 10,966 11,769 7,219 6,554

  20. Arkansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 997 895 1,326 1970's 226 1,734 2,649 1,947 1,716 1,318 1,227 1,153 869 471 1980's 394 552 973 973 2,225 824 1,760 1,068 1,110 1,110 1990's 284 208 371 409 313 313 270 134 45 6,005 2000's 206 431 251 354 241 241 12 11 114 141 2010's 425 494 0

  1. Arkansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 23 13 12 7 13 28 28 30 36 9 5 5 1992 33 29 32 31 30 29 30 30 30 32 32 33 1993 36 32 35 33 34 32 33 33 33 35 35 37 1994 27 25 27 25 26 25 25 26 25 27 27 28 1995 27 24 27 25 26 25 25 26 25 27 27 28 1996 17 23 8 0 31 45 28 29 25 19 25 21 1997 5 0 6 7 7 8 13 32 16 4 19 17 1998 2 0 2 2 2 3 4 11 5 1 6 6 1999 607 269 535 439 561 494 583 216 469 689 668 472 2000 1 0 1 16 21 17 23 23 27 23 24 30 2001 2 1 2 33 45 35 48 48 57 47 50 63 2002 12 15 29

  2. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 97 103 109 107 107 104 108 107 104 108 106 108 1997 111 113 85 88 213 140 121 108 122 171 175 144 1998 235 192 246 157 166 129 173 167 152 132 127 76 1999 165 135 173 110 116 91 121 117 106 92 89 53 2000 266 218 279 178 188 146 196 189 172 149 144 86 2001 207 169 217 138 146 114 152 146 134 116 111 67 2002 324 265 340 216 228 178 238 230 209 181 175 105 2003 266 228 237 343 405 431 342 333 276 316 593 170 2004 217 186 193 280 331 352 279

  3. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 112 77 78 91 100 89 100 106 97 121 155 102 1997 173 188 180 168 228 187 188 102 189 192 185 199 1998 92 166 98 92 98 115 222 83 82 92 95 10 1999 70 71 70 65 68 66 66 66 63 67 65 64 2000 67 64 68 65 68 66 67 68 65 69 69 70 2001 77 69 75 71 73 74 73 78 76 79 78 83 2002 83 75 84 79 79 77 79 80 72 80 72 75 2003 96 86 95 92 95 92 94 96 94 98 95 90 2004 99 89 98 94 98 95 97 99 97 101 98 93 2005 103 94 103 99 103 99 102 104 102 106 102 98 2006

  4. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  5. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 63 63 63 61 62 57 57 55 56 58 59 61 1997 60 55 60 59 62 60 58 54 50 54 54 54 1998 55 50 54 52 52 52 45 48 48 51 49 50 1999 52 44 47 46 46 47 46 46 44 45 44 46 2000 47 43 45 50 45 44 45 45 42 42 41 41 2001 42 37 41 40 41 39 41 41 39 40 39 40 2002 40 36 40 38 40 39 39 39 36 37 36 37 2003 36 32 36 35 36 34 36 36 35 35 34 34 2004 34 32 34 33 34 33 35 34 33 33 32 32 2005 32 30 32 32 32 30 32 33 31 32 31 31 2006 30 27 30 30 30 30 31 32 31 30 31

  6. Alaska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    514 674 605 615 1996 682 532 552 569 588 618 691 545 634 560 528 570 1997 798 623 646 666 687 723 808 637 741 654 618 666 1998 788 615 639 658 679 715 799 630 733 647 610 658...

  7. Issues related to venting of attics and cathedral ceilings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TenWolde, A.; Rose, W.B.

    1999-07-01

    Current model building codes require attic ventilation in all US climates. Originally, these requirements were strictly based on concerns for condensation in attics during winter in cold climates, and they were based on limited technical information. Nevertheless, attic ventilation has become the uncontested strategy to minimize condensation and ice dams during winter and extreme attic temperatures during summer. However, other strategies exist that address each of these problems as well as or better than attic ventilation. This paper examines issues such as summer attic temperatures, ice dams, and shingle durability and discusses the relative merits of attic ventilation compared to alternative design approaches in various climates. The authors support current recommendations for attic ventilation in cold and mixed climates but recommend that attic ventilation be treated as a design option in warm, humid climates. The authors review the new information on attic and roof ventilation in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals and discuss the reasons for the changes.

  8. Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deformation. Authors John C. Eichelberger, Thomas A. Vogel, Leland W. Younker, C. Dan Miller, Grant H. Heiken and Kenneth H. Wohletz Published Journal Journal of Geophysical...

  9. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 2,478 2,147 2,113 2,353 3,203 2,833 3,175 2,684 2,296 2,457 2,750 2,150 1992 1,337 1,107 1,379 1,254 1,439 1,833 2,083 1,970 2,009 1,630 1,835 1,812 1993 3,276 3,172 2,618 2,863 2,492 2,286 2,563 2,471 2,865 3,708 2,934 3,238 1994 3,225 3,330 3,515 3,403 3,959 4,686 3,429 2,766 3,188 3,543 3,122 3,871 1995 3,543 3,658 3,862 3,738 4,350 5,148 3,768 3,039 3,503 3,893 3,430 4,252 1996 3,461 3,537 3,340 3,922 3,459 4,520 4,339 3,794 3,556

  10. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,000 2,906 2,802 1970's 2,852 2,926 5,506 7,664 5,259 1,806 1,048 691 469 560 1980's 2,439 2,740 3,682 1,572 1,766 1,161 1990's 1,338 1,625 1,284 2,153 3,363 35,069 27,277 16,790 19,365 13,835 2000's 1,941 1,847 955 705 688 595 585 1,005 1,285 1,398 2010's 2,080 1,755 0

  11. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  12. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,630 2,529 2,666 1970's 2,713 2,669 2,681 2,377 889 846 831 783 861 801 1980's 737 641 431 436 467 514 450 458 578 509 1990's 557 628 642 670 715 723 716 680 605 555 2000's 527 481 456 420 398 378 365 363 373 353 2010's 323 307 0

  14. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 161,849 166,439 158,852 1970's 154,089 103,564 63,667 102,091 31,572 25,459 31,467 33,251 29,807 26,061 1980's 22,851 23,042 19,781 25,651 25,008 25,013 24,173 25,290 22,835 21,898 1990's 20,660 20,415 20,538 19,580 19,689 18,729 21,705 21,928 19,543 21,509 2000's 20,266 11,750 10,957 9,283 5,015 5,228 6,665 6,496 4,021 4,336 2010's 4,578 6,302 0 3,912 4,143

  15. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  16. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,861 1,120 808 1970's 809 1,032 1,117 1,268 1,612 2,042 2,291 2,736 2,960 1980's 3,433 3,310 3,320 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,705 3,324 4,070 1990's 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 2000's 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 2010's 3,324 3,324 0

  17. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 7,098 5,910 8,097 1970's 7,233 5,090 3,672 10,767 10,787 11,862 13,599 13,514 36,273 38,417 1980's 16,627 12,188 10,799 8,694 9,862 4,097 4,845 4,112 5,512 4,201 1990's 3,628 2,799 3,076 2,222 1,928 2,234 2,677 2,742 2,798 2,745 2000's 2,477 2,961 3,267 3,501 3,812 3,944 4,575 5,909 7,504 7,875 2010's 8,685 9,593 0

  18. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 NA NA 2010's NA NA NA 0 0

  19. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,022 12,551 26,458 1970's 5,203 4,917 4,222 3,691 3,901 3,202 2,070 1,095 1,408 1,689 1980's 1,705 1,896 1,667 1,549 1,285 1,460 1,468 1,181 1,146 1,099 1990's 886 772 763 758 551 417 596 1,120 1,274 317 2000's 488 404 349 403 1,071 629 1,173 3,721 6,863 7,001 2010's 5,722 4,878 0

  20. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-07-29

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

  1. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2011 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 7 8 7 8 2012 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 7 8 7 8 2013 25 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 2014 30 27 30 29 30 29 30 30 29 30 29 30 2015 8 8 8 8 8 27 30 30 29 30 29 30 2016 33 30 33 32 47 46

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  2. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 21 19 21 20 21 20 21 21 20 21 20 21 2011 22 20 22 21 22 21 22 22 21 22 21 22 2012 22 20 22 21 22 21 22 22 21 22 21 22 2013 29 27 29 28 29 28 29 29 28 29 28 29 2014 34 31 34 33 34 33 34 34 33 34 33 34 2015 24 22 24 24 24 32 34 34 33 34 33 34 2016 38 35 38 37 44 43

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  3. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 16 14 16 15 16 15 16 16 15 16 15 16 2011 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2012 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2013 13 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 2014 15 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 2015 14 12 14 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 2016 17 15 17 17 16 15

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  4. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 25 23 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2011 25 23 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2012 25 24 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2013 26 24 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 2014 31 28 31 30 31 30 31 31 30 31 30 31 2015 28 26 28 27 28 29 31 31 30 31 30 31 2016 35 31 35 33 37 36 Feet)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

  5. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.13 4.08 4.19 3.17 3.89 3.76 3.48 4.95 4.83 2000's 4.48 -- 4.14 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  6. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2012 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2013 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2014 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 2015 2 1 2 2 2 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 2016 10 9 10 9 21 20

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.29 4.11 4.35 4.63 5.69 5.08 5.49

  7. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 198 179 198 192 198 192 198 198 192 198 192 198 2011 187 169 187 181 187 181 187 187 181 187 181 187 2012 187 175 187 181 187 181 187 187 181 187 181 187 2013 255 230 255 247 255 247 255 255 247 255 247 255 2014 300 271 300 290 300 290 300 300 290 300 290 300 2015 210 190 210 203 210 276 300 300 290 300 290 300 2016 333 301 333 322 393 380

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price

  8. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 17 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 2011 25 22 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2012 24 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 2013 19 17 19 18 19 18 19 19 18 19 18 19 2014 22 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 2015 28 25 28 27 28 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 2016 25 22 25 24 24 23

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  9. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2014 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2015 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 Feet)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.90 2.90 3.82 2.08 2.20

  10. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2012 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 2 2 2 2 2 2

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.66 5.74 5.66 4.62 5.34 5.24 5.56 6.30

  11. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

  12. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  13. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,498 13,038 17,632 1970's 18,419 3,860 8,376 6,618 6,102 3,223 1,916 699 559 1,830 1980's 1,117 983 2,149 5,233 3,271 1,330 2,413 25,107 45,342 47,793 1990's 63,216 82,854 89,736 126,362 126,722 148,721 145,452 140,147 8,711 9,002 2000's 9,945 7,462 12,356 16,685 16,848 31,161 31,661 47,783 42,346 42,530 2010's 42,101 57,711 45,429 34,622 29,641

  14. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 646 1995 696 4,590 4,767 4,382 4,389 4,603 4,932 5,137 1996 5,088 4,788 2,269 2,009 2,564 1,687 1,695 1,724 1,229 1,255 1,547 1,422 1997 2,411 2,381 1,594 942 490 1,391 1,344 1,185 1,114 1,130 1,058 1,750 1998 909 697 700 689 1,194 1,161 2,299 2,625 2,235 2,226 2,258 2,373 1999 1,462 1,480 993 1,254 1,131 1,316 904 776 1,291 1,249 894 1,084 2000 158 65 69 100 91 626 87 119 185 220 123 99 2001 129 98 83 55 49 47 79 274 242 254 469 68 2002

  15. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  16. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 5,712 5,109 6,529 6,408 6,948 6,430 7,035 7,792 7,475 7,837 7,649 7,930 1992 7,430 7,009 7,475 7,039 5,797 7,809 8,770 8,218 7,442 7,505 7,662 7,580 1993 10,674 10,789 10,568 10,480 11,572 12,350 10,996 8,163 9,912 10,526 9,870 10,463 1994 11,590 11,569 11,181 10,129 9,324 10,365 10,174 10,394 10,578 10,635 10,629 10,155 1995 13,046 11,867 11,628 12,102 14,419 12,911 12,917 10,472 12,302 12,592 11,896 12,569 1996 13,000 12,042 12,951

  17. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1,153 1,041 1,153 1,116 1,153 1,116 1,153 1,153 1,116 1,153 1,116 1,153 2011 1,245 1,125 1,245 1,205 1,245 1,205 1,245 1,245 1,205 1,245 1,205 1,245 2012 1,243 1,162 1,243 1,203 1,243 1,203 1,243 1,243 1,203 1,243 1,203 1,243 2013 1,199 1,083 1,199 1,161 1,199 1,161 1,199 1,199 1,161 1,199 1,161 1,199 2014 1,408 1,272 1,408 1,363 1,408 1,363 1,408 1,408 1,363 1,408 1,363 1,408 2015 1,398 1,263 1,398 1,353 1,398 1,299 1,408 1,408 1,363

  18. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 21 19 21 20 21 20 21 21 20 21 20 21 2011 24 22 24 23 24 23 24 24 23 24 23 24 2012 24 22 24 23 24 23 24 24 23 24 23 24 2013 23 21 23 22 23 22 23 23 22 23 22 23 2014 27 24 27 26 27 26 27 27 26 27 26 27 2015 27 24 27 26 27 25 27 27 26 27 26 27 2016 30 27 30 29 31 30

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  19. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2011 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2012 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2013 15 13 15 14 15 14 15 15 14 15 14 15 2014 18 16 18 17 18 17 18 18 17 18 17 18 2015 8 7 8 8 8 16 18 18 17 18 17 18 2016 19 18 19 19 27 26

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2.75

  20. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2012 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 2 2 2 2 8 7

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.69 4.71 4.25 5.23 5.11 7.13 7.20 5.53

  1. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 3 2 3 3 4 4

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.78 5.30 4.62 5.10 5.54 6.68 6.75 6.68

  2. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2012 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2013 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2014 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 2015 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 2016 5 5 5 5 5 5

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.24 3.56 4.30 3.47 2.36 2.99 3.53 5.57

  3. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 17 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 2011 19 17 19 18 19 18 19 19 18 19 18 19 2012 19 17 19 18 19 18 19 19 18 19 18 19 2013 17 15 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 2014 20 18 20 19 20 19 20 20 19 20 19 20 2015 21 19 21 20 21 19 20 20 19 20 19 20 2016 22 20 22 22 22 22

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  4. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 22 20 22 21 22 21 22 22 21 22 21 22 2011 28 25 28 27 28 27 28 28 27 28 27 28 2012 28 26 28 27 28 27 28 28 27 28 27 28 2013 29 26 29 28 29 28 29 29 28 29 28 29 2014 34 31 34 33 34 33 34 34 33 34 33 34 2015 32 29 32 31 32 32 34 34 33 34 33 34 2016 38 35 38 37 42 4

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  5. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 2 2 2 2 7 7 Feet)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.82 1.63 2.51 2.76 2.79 2.91

  6. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 2012 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 2013 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 2014 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2015 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2016 5 4 5 4 10 10

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.37 2.74 3.19 3.79 3.38 3.04 2000's

  7. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  8. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2011 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2012 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2013 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2014 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2015 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 2016 5 5 5 5 5 5

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.67 2010's 15.10 15.29 - = No Data

  9. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 71 64 71 69 71 69 71 71 69 71 69 71 2011 50 45 50 49 50 49 50 50 49 50 49 50 2012 50 47 50 48 50 48 50 50 48 50 48 50 2013 51 46 51 49 51 49 51 51 49 51 49 51 2014 60 54 60 58 60 58 60 60 58 60 58 60 2015 56 51 56 54 56 55 60 60 58 60 58 60 2016 66 60 66 64 92 89

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  10. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 25 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 2011 21 19 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 2012 21 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 2013 13 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 2014 16 14 16 15 16 15 16 16 15 16 15 16 2015 24 22 24 23 24 14 16 16 15 16 15 16 2016 17 16 17 17 15 14

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

  11. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 305 275 305 295 305 295 305 305 295 305 295 305 2011 328 297 328 318 328 318 328 328 318 328 318 328 2012 326 305 326 316 326 316 326 326 316 326 316 326 2013 282 254 282 273 282 273 282 282 273 282 273 282 2014 331 299 331 320 331 320 331 331 320 331 320 331 2015 367 332 367 355 367 305 331 331 320 331 320 331 2016 367 332 367 356 347 33

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price

  12. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas

  13. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,630 2,529 2,666 1970's 2,713 2,669 2,681 2,377 889 846 831 783 861 801 1980's 737 641 431 436...

  14. Condensing Furnace Venting Part 2: Evaluation of Same-Chimney...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  15. Alabama Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 194 200 140 132 106 82 205 152 157 192 159 134 1997 134 110 90 112 98 125 119 114 118 91 227 224 1998 125 101 87 104 91 ...

  16. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 1,788 1,684 1,571 1,593 1,807 1,690 2,042 1,781 1,437 1,867 1,649 1,505 1992 1,707 1,639 1,564 1,775 1,752 2,153 1,623 1,737 1,907 1,568 1,595 1,518 1993 1,588 1,460 1,500 1,708 1,614 1,590 1,778 1,711 2,014 1,500 1,482 1,636 1994 1,597 1,468 1,509 1,717 1,623 1,599 1,788 1,720 2,025 1,509 1,490 1,645 1995 1,519 1,396 1,435 1,633 1,544 1,521 1,701 1,636 1,926 1,435 1,418 1,565 1996 1,545 1,443 1,514 1,471 1,528 1,939 2,042 2,033 1,985

  17. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  18. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1997 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1998 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1999 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2000 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2001 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2002 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2003 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2004 277 277 277 277

  19. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 217 199 223 219 237 234 239 235 213 224 218 220 1997 214 202 214 209 221 223 218 242 235 258 250 256 1998 250 222 245 225 233 220 238 232 235 234 227 236 1999 230 217 247 232 239 233 234 231 226 223 214 219 2000 205 161 204 193 213 198 210 214 205 223 216 235 2001 236 216 234 241 248 236 265 266 242 260 251 267 2002 259 299 266 255 266 262 267 274 276 280 267 298 2003 293 261 282 277 284 285 244 304 306 323 305 337 2004 319 321 331 325

  20. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  1. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 32 38 34 40 43 27 63 59 60 71 67 62 1997 67 60 71 62 66 83 72 92 47 118 186 195 1998 189 147 159 177 107 76 155 129 136 0 0 0 1999 47 54 50 52 56 58 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 43 39 41 44 49 44 44 36 36 39 43 28 2001 36 32 40 35 36 36 35 33 34 32 28 27 2002 30 25 27 31 31 30 28 32 30 29 28 27 2003 34 28 30 33 34 36 32 32 29 30 43 43 2004 49 41 37 81 85 91 97 125 135 150 125 55 2005 42 36 52 46 57 57 60 55 52 56 51 66 2006 74 75 73 86 111 99 94 87

  2. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2003 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2004 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2005 4 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 2006 5 2 2 1

  3. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  4. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 236 220 240 230 241 229 217 221 212 215 216 223 1997 241 220 245 236 243 225 235 239 231 240 217 213 1998 231 211 235 227 233 215 226 229 221 230 209 205 1999 232 210 231 226 225 229 230 235 224 235 229 212 2000 289 245 293 242 287 251 285 246 240 278 233 242 2001 249 226 245 237 213 175 179 384 317 237 505 288 2002 304 207 214 254 269 249 266 263 247 216 202 159 2003 179 154 198 210 234 226 221 285 199 193 127 121 2004 124 128 292 275

  5. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,565 2,780 3,074 1970's 2,499 575 1,999 1,560 1,537 1,288 1,038 960 1,253 1980's 1,386 1,907 1,907 1,135 2,116 2,200 2,750 2,734 2,733 2,731 1990's 1,244 1,429 751 580 830 1,250 1,268 1,590 1,952 1,367 2000's 2,210 1,717 2,690 3,940 3,215 2,120 1,562 1,879 2,127 2,501 2010's 2,790 2,424 0

  6. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,656 1,514 1,326 1970's 7,126 2,843 4,758 3,008 2,957 2,516 1,836 1,528 1,108 1,199 1980's 796 1,195 1,223 1,360 1,000 1,821 1,577 2,360 4,593 3,961 1990's 4,719 2,890 1,868 2,024 2,476 1,510 1,230 2,178 1,244 802 2000's 805 908 935 1,123 1,158 1,215 1,291 1,333 1,501 1,411 2010's 1,242 1,291 0

  7. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, Bruce A.; Siminovitch, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures.

  8. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1993 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1994 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  9. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 232 193 232 176 230 258 269 324 298 334 213 199 1997 229 264 293 280 303 313 258 301 327 330 321 315 1998 308 301 334 380 418 459 435 425 310 328 345 330 1999 231 194 245 204 202 206 231 307 232 227 202 212 2000 225 218 226 237 257 271 292 327 293 333 311 300 2001 269 246 276 255 245 263 289 283 250 260 281 249 2002 231 221 210 235 250 238 258 245 257 222 210 214 2003 196 167 193 174 167 161 158 171 164 181 168 170 2004 197 157 166 150

  10. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  11. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 384 350 382 380 382 376 405 418 397 439 445 486 1992 455 445 448 468 497 447 465 459 438 450 440 465 1993 463 417 484 453 478 459 497 500 495 545 507 435 1994 385 324 383 373 409 424 506 590 595 591 601 625 1995 640 570 637 609 617 602 617 637 578 526 540 549 1996 533 516 618 620 662 658 680 685 650 689 657 669 1997 128 123 129 135 139 134 135 145 143 146 140 143 1998 145 134 148 145 129 114 122 121 118 119 114 117 1999 147 136 151 148

  12. Differential vent and bar actuated circulating valve and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E. F.

    1985-07-16

    A tool for use downhole in a borehole for carrying out a backsurging method whereby existing open perforations are cleaned. The tool comprises an annular body having spaced cylindrical walls, each of which reciprocatingly receives spaced pistons which move individually relative to one another. A port is formed through each of the walls of each of the cylinders with the first port being normally closed by a first piston and the second port being normally open. The second piston is moved to close the second port. The tool is placed on the end of a tubing string or within a tool string and run downhole into the borehole. A packer device enables the pressure between the lower annulus, the upper annulus, and the tubing to be adjusted relative to one another. A bar is then dropped down the tubing string, contacts the second piston and moves the second piston to cover the second port. The tubing pressure is reduced to provide a pressure differential between the lower annulus and the interior of the tubing. The first valve automatically opens when a predetermined pressure differential is achieved between the tubing and lower annulus, thereby providing a predetermined pressure differential across the old perforations, and cleaning debris therefrom upon the opening of the first port.

  13. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 5 5 1980's 5 52 54 85 165 194 140 0 0 0 1990's 3,648 4,844 5,476 5,732 5,805 7,122 7,636 1,639 1,526 1,555 2000's 1,806 2,043 1,880 2,100 2,135 2,071 1,931 2,177 2,073 2,160 2010's 2,136 2,120 0

  14. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 129,403 124,584 111,499 1970's 100,305 70,222 59,821 36,133 34,431 31,295 30,402 27,340 25,556 27,350 1980's 28,837 32,907 33,061 28,420 32,256 30,776 26,050 29,325 31,832 29,770 1990's 28,247 30,638 19,689 34,486 42,037 46,183 45,382 47,922 25,949 35,675 2000's 32,010 26,823 27,379 23,781 26,947 38,654 43,169 36,682 42,541 41,234 2010's 39,569 35,248 47,530 76,113 81,755

  15. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented Tide Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  16. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented Wave Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  17. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Vented Pressure Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  18. Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that thisoutcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of...

  19. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Biddy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAL-DERIVED BIOFUEL; HYDROCARBON FUEL; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy MICROALGAE;...

  20. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. ... to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, ... Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries. Final ...

  1. Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Resource Potential Estimate

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Compilation of data (spreadsheet and shapefiles) for several low-temperature resource types, including isolated springs and wells, delineated area convection systems, sedimentary basins and coastal plains sedimentary systems. For each system, we include estimates of the accessible resource base, mean extractable resource and beneficial heat. Data compiled from USGS and other sources. The paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis is also included.

  2. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  3. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Industries and municipalities generate substantial amounts of biomass as high-moisture waste streams, such as animal manure, food processing sludge, stillage from ethanol production, and municipal wastewater sludge.

  4. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  5. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO. Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ...

  6. Raman spectroscopic investigations of hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There is still very little information about the stoichiometries, structures and stabilities of metal complexes at high temperatures and pressures. Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to probe and study concentrated electrolyte solutions at the molecular level. This thesis includes the design and construction of a Raman cell operable up to 300C and 15MPa. In order to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information from Raman spectroscopic measurements, a chemically inert internal standard must be used. Perchlorate is commonly used for this purpose at low temperatures, but it may be unstable at high temperatures and its explosive properties make it undesirable. A new preferred internal standard; trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is introduced and its spectra p to 300C discussed. The use of this compound as a high temperature internal standard enabled stepwise stability constants of zinc-bromo complexes to be determined. Although bromide is not an important ligand in geologic systems, its chemical similarity to chloride can provide insights into the study of zinc-chloro species which do not have very informative Raman spectra. The importance of organic ligands in geologic settings such as the Mississippi-Valley Type Pb-Zn sulfide deposits is now being realized. Chapter four presents the first high temperature spectroscopic measurements of lead and zinc acetate aqueous solutions. Not only do these studies verify the stability of lead and zinc acetate complexes up to 250 C but they also show that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, metal-ligand ratio and temperature, thus having important implications for zoning of Pb-Zn sulfide deposits.

  7. Fractional Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Optimize byproduct streams for use as chemicalpetrochemical to increase co-product value. Financing Financing will be determined by projected cost of production, profitability, ...

  8. Hydrothermal Photo Library | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To extend the available heat extraction per well, the Office partnered with FORO Energy to design a high-power laser system with the potential to decrease hard-rock drilling costs. ...

  9. Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (weather, vegetation patterns, groundwater flow), and other relevant factors. Literature searches were conducted in each of these 21 regions for the application of field...

  10. Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    could invade carbonate rocks which were otherwise essentially impermeable. Alteration intensity (and correspondingly inferred paleopermeability) is only slightly higher in...

  11. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  12. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean-Energy Reserves New geothermal data could open up clean energy reserves nationwide. Scientific American reported that the National Geothermal Data System is helping to...

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC ...

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulletin; Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: ... Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANISOTROPY; ...

  15. Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on May 2008 a multidisciplinary study involving Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Self-Potential (SP), CO2 soil diffuse degassing and soil...

  16. Stratigraphy, Structure, Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore Mineralizatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scientific Drilling Program) Corehole VC-2A, Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico- a Detailed Overview. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah University Research Institution....

  17. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  18. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013 (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. ...

  19. Facile hydrothermal method synthesis of coralline-like Li{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} hierarchical architectures as superior cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Xianhua; Huang, Yanling; Ma, Shaomeng; Zou, Xiaoli; Hu, Shejun; Wu, Yuping

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A coralline-like Li{sub 1.20}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} cathode was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Initial discharge capacity of 250.2 mAh g{sup −1} for the cathode was obtained at 0.1 C. • A high reversible specific capacity of 210.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles was acquired. • The high capacity retention of 84.5% was obtained even after 200 cycles at 10 C. - Abstract: A coralline-like lithium-rich layered cathode material with homogeneous composition of Li{sub 1.20}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} has been successfully synthesized via a facile ethanolamine (EA)-mediated hydrothermal method route, with subsequent calcination at 850 °C. An initial specific discharge capacity of 250.2 mAh g{sup −1} and a reversible specific capacity of 210.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a constant density of 25 mA g{sup −1} (1 C = 250 mA g{sup −1}) are acquired. Even at 10 C, it still delivers a discharge capacity of approximately 100 mA h g{sup −1}, thereby indicating its excellent high power performance. The sample also shows enhanced cycling performance with 88.5%, 79.9% and 90.5% of capacity retention after 100 cycles at 0.5, 5 and 10 C rates, respectively. Besides, 84.5% of initial capacity is retained even after 200 cycles at 10 C. Consequently, the fascinating electrochemical performance may facilitate the coralline-like LMNCO composite to be a promising alternative cathode for LIBs with a high application potential.

  20. The Calyptogena magnifica chemoautotrophic symbiont genome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, I.L.; Woyke, T.; Auchtung, T.A.; Dilly, G.F.; Dutton,R.J.; Fisher, M.C.; Fontanez, K.M.; Lau, E.; Stewart, F.J.; Richardson,P.M.; Barry, K.W.; Saunders, E.; Detter, J.C.; Wu, D.; Eisen, J.A.; Cavanaugh, C.M.

    2007-03-01

    Chemoautotrophic endosymbionts are the metabolic cornerstone of hydrothermal vent communities, providing invertebrate hosts with nearly all of their nutrition. The Calyptogena magnifica (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) symbiont, Candidatus Ruthia magnifica, is the first intracellular sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiont to have its genome sequenced, revealing a suite of metabolic capabilities. The genome encodes major chemoautotrophic pathways as well as pathways for biosynthesis of vitamins, cofactors, and all 20 amino acids required by the clam.

  1. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water-Rock Reactions Produce Hydrogen Gas at Temperatures within the Limits of Life June 2013 SSRL Science Summary by Manuel Gnida, SLAC Office of Communications and Lisa E. Mayhew, University of Colorado - Boulder Figure Hydrogen gas is produced in chemical reactions between anoxic water and iron-rich rocks at temperatures above 200°C - conditions too hot to support life. However, at hydrothermal vents or hot springs, where hydrogen-rich fluids mix with cooler waters and temperatures have

  2. An oxides-hydrothermal approach from bulky V{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder to V{sub 3}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O nanoribbons or V{sub 3}O{sub 7} nanoflowers in various ethanol/water mixed solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Jie; Wu Qingsheng Chen Yijun

    2009-05-06

    V{sub 3}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O nanoribbons and V{sub 3}O{sub 7} nanoflowers are firstly obtained via facile oxides-hydrothermal (O-HT) route. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} bulk-phase powder is directly used as precursor. The 1:1 ethanol/water and absolute ethanol are made as solvent for obtaining nanomaterials of vanadium oxides with different morphologies and structures. Characterizations of the samples are carried out using XRD, TG, FTIR, Raman-Spectra, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAED, and UV-vis. The large-scale fine ribbon-like V{sub 3}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O nanobelts with thickness ca. 20 nm and length ca. 20-40 {mu}m are obtained in 1:1 (v/v) ethanol/water mixed solvent. The V{sub 3}O{sub 7} nanoflowers are constructed by numerous whisker-like nanocrystal or petal-like are obtained in absolute ethanol solvent with the thickness about 20 nm and the size ca. 2-3 {mu}m. The formation mechanism of the sample is discussed.

  3. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System for EGS Project Type Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Project Type Topic 2 Drilling Systems Project...

  4. Hydrothermal Alteration and Past and Present Thermal Regimes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (2) Core Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey, Et Al., 1991) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Flexser, 1991) Areas (1) Long Valley...

  5. Graphitic biocarbon from metal-catalyzed hydrothermal carbonization of lignin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demir, Muslum; Kahveci, Zafer; Aksoy, Burak; Palapati, Naveen K. R.; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Cullinan, Harry T.; El-Kaderi, Hani M.; Harris, Charles T.; Gupta, Ram B.

    2015-10-09

    Lignin is a high-volume byproduct from the pulp and paper industry and is currently burned to generate electricity and process heat. Moreover, the industry has been searching for high value-added uses of lignin to improve the process economics. In addition, battery manufacturers are seeking nonfossil sources of graphitic carbon for environmental sustainability. In our work, lignin (which is a cross-linked polymer of phenols, a component of biomass) is converted into graphitic porous carbon using a two-step conversion. Lignin is first carbonized in water at 300 °C and 1500 psi to produce biochar, which is then graphitized using a metal nitratemore » catalyst at 900–1100 °C in an inert gas at 15 psi. Graphitization effectiveness of three different catalysts—iron, cobalt, and manganese nitrates—is examined. The product is analyzed for morphology, thermal stability, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. Both temperature and catalyst type influenced the degree of graphitization. A good quality graphitic carbon was obtained using catalysis by Mn(NO3)2 at 900 °C and Co(NO3)2 at 1100 °C.« less

  6. Low-to-moderate-temperature hydrothermal reservoir engineering handbook. [Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: units and conversions, glossary of terms, instrumentation, fabrication of instruments, VARFLOW program user's guide, and reference bibliography.

  7. Hydrothermal oxidation of Navy shipboard excess hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Haroldsen, B.L.; Rice, S.F.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-03-01

    This study demonstrated effective destruction, using a novel supercritical water oxidation reactor, of oil, jet fuel, and hydraulic fluid, common excess hazardous materials found on-board Navy vessels. This reactor uses an advanced injector design to mix the hazardous compounds with water, oxidizer, and a supplementary fuel and it uses a transpiring wall to protect the surface of the reactor from corrosion and salt deposition. Our program was divided into four parts. First, basic chemical kinetic data were generated in a simple, tubular-configured reactor for short reaction times (<1 second) and long reaction times (>5 seconds) as a function of temperature. Second, using the data, an engineering model was developed for the more complicated industrial reactor mentioned above. Third, the three hazardous materials were destroyed in a quarter-scale version of the industrial reactor. Finally, the test data were compared with the model. The model and the experimental results for the quarter-scale reactor are described and compared in this report. A companion report discusses the first part of the program to generate basic chemical kinetic data. The injector and reactor worked as expected. The oxidation reaction with the supplementary fuel was initiated between 400 {degrees}C and 450 {degrees}C. The released energy raised the reactor temperature to greater than 600 {degrees}C. At that temperature, the hazardous materials were efficiently destroyed in less than five seconds. The model shows good agreement with the test data and has proven to be a useful tool in designing the system and understanding the test results. 16 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tracking changes in river solute flux. Authors Shaul Hurwitz, Jacob B. Lowenstern and Henry Heasler Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2007 DOI Not...

  9. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the history of the system. Authors Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano and Joseph N. Moore Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1983 DOI Not...

  10. Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    remained closed to the diffusion of He and H2 since their formation. Authors Joseph N. Moore, David I. Norman and B. Mack Kennedy Published Journal Chemical Geology, 2001 DOI...

  11. The Shallow Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Gene A. Suemnicht, Michael L. Sorey, Joseph N. Moore and Robert Sullivan Conference Stanford, CaliforniaThirty-Second Workshop on...

  12. GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    measurements that were conducted on the core sample are presented. Authors Jones, C.; Moore, J.; Teplow, W.; Craig and S. Published PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on...

  13. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of this zone would allow a pressure change induced at distances of several kilometers below the well to be observable within a matter of days. This indicates that...

  14. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrates chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICPAES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  15. Graphitic biocarbon from metal-catalyzed hydrothermal carbonization of lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demir, Muslum; Kahveci, Zafer; Aksoy, Burak; Palapati, Naveen K. R.; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Cullinan, Harry T.; El-Kaderi, Hani M.; Harris, Charles T.; Gupta, Ram B.

    2015-10-09

    Lignin is a high-volume byproduct from the pulp and paper industry and is currently burned to generate electricity and process heat. Moreover, the industry has been searching for high value-added uses of lignin to improve the process economics. In addition, battery manufacturers are seeking nonfossil sources of graphitic carbon for environmental sustainability. In our work, lignin (which is a cross-linked polymer of phenols, a component of biomass) is converted into graphitic porous carbon using a two-step conversion. Lignin is first carbonized in water at 300 °C and 1500 psi to produce biochar, which is then graphitized using a metal nitrate catalyst at 900–1100 °C in an inert gas at 15 psi. Graphitization effectiveness of three different catalysts—iron, cobalt, and manganese nitrates—is examined. The product is analyzed for morphology, thermal stability, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. Both temperature and catalyst type influenced the degree of graphitization. A good quality graphitic carbon was obtained using catalysis by Mn(NO3)2 at 900 °C and Co(NO3)2 at 1100 °C.

  16. Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to exist beneath the western moat, perhaps beneath Mammoth Mountain. Authors Brian M. Smith and Gene A. Suemnicht Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  17. Geochemical Modeling of the Near-Surface Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with non-thermal groundwater. Our conceptual model is based on hypotheses in the literature and published geochemical and petrologic data. Mixing of thermal and non-thermal...

  18. A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to drive and sustain extensional geothermal systems. (c) 2005 CNR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Authors B. M. Kennedy and M. C. van Soest Published Journal...

  19. Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that...

  20. Temporal Relations of Volcanism and Hydrothermal Systems in Two...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were...

  1. An Overview of Hydrothermal Alteration and Vein Mineralization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jamie N. Gardner, Fraser E. Goff, Dennis L. Nielson, M. Lemieux, P. Snow, K. Meeker, J.A. Musgrave and J. Moore Conference IAVCEI General Assembly; Santa Fe, NM; 06251989...

  2. Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and modulated on short time scales by surface recharge. Authors Paul A. Bedrosian, Martyn J. Unsworth and Malcolm J. S. Johnston Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and...

  3. Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are formed by cooling and crystallization of melt in magma chambers. Authors S. C. Singh, J. S. Collier, A. J. Harding, G. M. Kent and J. A. Orcutt Published Journal Publisher Not...

  4. Focal Hydrothermal Ablation: Preliminary Investigation of a New Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Sumit

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo determine whether focal tissue ablation is possible with interstitial instillation of steam.MethodsFresh swine livers were used. Through a 20 gauge needle, steam was instilled every 5 s, 3 (n = 5), 6 (n = 5), 9 (n = 5), or 12 (n = 5 + 5) times in a liver lobe. The ablated zones were sectioned parallel (n = 20) or perpendicular (n = 5) to the needle track. The longitudinal long and short axis diameters, or transverse long and short axis diameters of areas with discoloration on macroscopic examination, were measured. The experiment was repeated in vivo on a pig. Steam instillation was performed once every 5 s for 5 min in the liver (n = 3) and in muscle (n = 4), and temperature changes at three neighboring sites were monitored. Long and short axis diameters of the discolored areas were measured.ResultsA well-defined area of discoloration was invariably present at the site of steam instillation. The median longitudinal long axis diameter were 2.0, 2.5, 2.5, and 3.5 cm for 3, 6, 9, and 12 steam instillations in vitro, while median short axis diameters were 1.0, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.5 cm, respectively. Six attempts at ablation in vivo could be successfully completed. The long axis diameters of the ablated zones in the liver were 7.0 and 8.0 cm, while in muscle it ranged from 5.5 to 7.0 cm.ConclusionInstillation of steam in the liver in vitro and in vivo, and in muscle in vivo rapidly leads to circumscribed zones of coagulation necrosis.

  5. Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mississippi Missouri Montana N Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota O Ohio O cont. Oklahoma Oregon P Pennsylvania R Rhode...

  6. Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana N Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota O Ohio O cont....

  7. Measurement and control of pH in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen-electrode concentration cells with liquid junction are routinely used to measure the pH of aqueous solutions from 0 to 300 C. Results include the dissociation constants of common acids and bases and the hydrolysis and complexation of metal ions in aqueous electrolytes over a wide range of salinities. Recently, we have utilized these cells to examine the sorption of H{sup +} on mineral surfaces, the solubility of minerals with continuous in situ pH measurement, and the thermal decompositon rates of organic acids.

  8. Altered Tectonic and Hydrothermal Breccias in Corehole VC-1,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or stockworks created by hydraulic fracturing can provide significant secondary permeability, as demonstrated by their frequent occurrence as ore hosts (Sillitoe, 1985)....

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Studies in Long Valley, In- Proceeding...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Long Valley Caldera; Mammoth Lakes, CA; 07151986 Published Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org...

  10. Mapping the Hydrothermal System Beneath the Western Moat of Long...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    papers or abstracts of papers presented at a two-day symposium held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on 17 and 18 March 1987. Speakers presented a large body of new...

  11. New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wells, Fluid Sampling, Electrical Geophysics, And Age Determinations Of Hot-Spring Deposits. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 48(3-4):229-263. Related Geothermal...

  12. Ion adsorption on metal oxide surface to hydrothermal conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, D. J.; Machesky, M. L.; Ridley, M. K.; Palmer, D. A.; Zhang, Z.; Fenter, P.; Predota, M.; Vlcek, L.; ORNL; Illinois State Water Survey; Texsas Tech Univ.; Unv. of South Bohemia; Vanderbilt Univ.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we review the sorption of multivalent cations on rutile (alpha-TiO2) powder surfaces in aqueous 1:1 electrolyte media from room temperature to 250 degrees C. All cations are shown to occupy 'inner sphere' sorption sites in contact with surface oxygens and hydroxyl groups, as well as the diffuse portion of the electrical double layer (EDL). Sorption is shown to increase strongly with increasing temperature, and the sorption affinity is strongly-related to cation radius and charge. Macroscopic powder pH-titration results obtained with ORNL's high temperature hydrogen electrode concentration cells can be rationalized with Gouy-Chapman-Stern models of the EDL, augmented by atomic-scale structural and proton affinity data from synchrotron X-ray studies and computational modeling approaches.

  13. Environmental, Transient, Three-Dimensional, Hydrothermal, Mass Transport Code - FLESCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Bao, Jie; Glass, Kevin A.; Eyler, L. L.; Okumura, Masahiko

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of the project was to modify and apply the transient, three-dimensional FLESCOT code to be able to effectively simulate cesium behavior in Fukushima lakes/dam reservoirs, river mouths, and coastal areas. The ultimate objective of the FLESCOT simulation is to predict future changes of cesium accumulation in Fukushima area reservoirs and costal water. These evaluation results will assist ongoing and future environmental remediation activities and policies in a systematic and comprehensive manner.

  14. Present State of the Hydrothermal System in Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    laterally from west to east at depths less than 1 km within and around the resurgent dome. Maximum measured temperatures within these zones are near 170C but estimates from...

  15. Hydrothermal Regime of the Southwest Moat of the Long Valley...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as well as some preliminary speculations as to the meaning of the results. Authors T.C. Urban, W.H. Diment and Michael L. Sorey Conference GRC Annual Meeting; Sparks, NV; 1987...

  16. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    near-vertical fractures intersect the megabreccia units. Authors Peter B. Larson and Hugh P. Taylor Jr Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  17. Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sheets, yet have thus far been largely undocumented. Authors Lisa Shevenell and Fraser Goff Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1995 DOI Not Provided...

  18. Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    volcanics are < 100,000 years. Authors Usha Rao, U. Fehn, R. T. D. Teng and Fraser E. Goff Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1996 DOI Not Provided...

  19. The Hydrothermal Outflow Plume of Valles Caldera, New Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that they can be as old as 106 years and display episodic behavior. Authors Fraser E. Goff, Lisa Shevenell, Jamie N. Gardner, Francois D. Vuataz and Charles O. Grigsby Published...

  20. U.S. Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 12,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 11,000 9,000 9,000 10,000 12,000 10,000 10,000 11,000 1981 10,000 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 7,000 7,000 6,000