Sample records for diffuse solar radiation

  1. Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS -- Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis and global solar radiation, a knowledge of the diffuse or sky radiation is required. Diffuse solar radiation

  2. An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due...

  3. An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due...

  4. Effects of Radiative Diffusion on Thin Flux Tubes in Turbulent Solar-like Convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Maria A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch (2011, Astrophys. J., 741, 11; 2013, Solar Phys., 287, 239), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on flux tubes of large-scale active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of less than or equal to 60 kG subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward due to the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution as a result of the inclusion of radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic fie...

  5. An improved multipyranometer array for the measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, Bryce Kirtley

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN IMPROVED MULTIPYRANOMETER ARRAY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSE SOLAR RADIATION A Thesis by BRYCE KIRTLEY MUNGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulffllment of the requirements... Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Haberl (Co-Chair of ommittee) W. D. Turner (C -Chair of Committee) J. Trost (Member) Suhada...

  6. Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development of simplified procedures for a multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA...

  7. Solar UV-B in tropical forest gaps: Analysis using direct and diffuse radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments with natural levels of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) have recently shown inhibition of the growth of some tropical forest tree seedlings. A knowledge of forest radiation environments is needed to help assess UV-B effects in natural situations. Although forest canopies strongly attenuate solar radiation, treefall gaps provide a very different radiation environment. We simultaneously measured both UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in forest gaps on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Outside the forest, UV-B is predominately diffuse even under clear sky conditions. In sunflecks of small forest gaps, most of the UV-B was in the direct beam component. Compared to conditions outside the forest, the UV-B in these sunflecks was low relative to PAR. Shaded portions of the gap, in contrast, had proportionately high levels of UV-B relative to PAR. There are indications in the literature that relatively low UV-B levels may be effective under low PFD. Seasonal trends of PAR and UV-B in different locations in gaps can be inferred from hemispherical canopy photographs.

  8. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,

  9. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  10. Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

  11. Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    in the enhancement of radiation belt electrons yet leaves a significant portion of the variance unaccounted for. We

  12. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  13. Solar radiation intensity calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

  14. Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data

  15. SOLAR CELL BASED PYRANOMETERS: EVALUATION OF THE DIFFUSE RESPONSE Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    260 SOLAR CELL BASED PYRANOMETERS: EVALUATION OF THE DIFFUSE RESPONSE Frank Vignola Department The responsivity to diffuse radiation of a solar cell based pyranometer is studied. Diffuse measurements are made of the LiCor pyranometer is presented. Implication of the spectral dependence of the solar cell based

  16. Solar radiation intensity calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , radiation per unit area per unit time, on a flat-plate collector is given by: I = I cos B (2. 1a) where I is the solar constant. insolation received at one astro- nomical unit from the sun. Since clear sky conditions are assumed I o w i 1 1 b e a.... INSOLATION EQUATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page III. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX VITA 25 47 48 52 Vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. Optimal Inclination for Ap=O, No Checks for Ip &0 and a Time Independent Solar Constant. II. Optimal...

  17. Solar Radiation and Meteorological Data Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Solar Radiation and Meteorological Data Support for the Long Island Solar Farm and NSERCand NSERC-9 2011March 8 9, 2011 #12;LISF Solar Radiation and Meteorological Sensor Network ·· Technology Needs on intermittent source of solar radiationintermittent source of solar radiation #12;LISF Solar Radiation

  18. Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studies due several new features, including: the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, and a routine that corrects the spectral response of photovoltaic-type sensors used...

  19. 7, 499535, 2007 Solar radiation during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 499­535, 2007 Solar radiation during a total solar eclipse C. Emde and B. Mayer Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Simulation of solar radiation during a total solar eclipse: a challenge­535, 2007 Solar radiation during a total solar eclipse C. Emde and B. Mayer Title Page Abstract Introduction

  20. Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

  1. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2000-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  2. Analytical and experimental determination of radiation and temperature distributions inside solar receivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    concentrated solar radiation is modelized, using the diffuse and semi-gray surface hypothesis and the net absorptance for solar radiation. Theoretical thermal efficiency of the cavity. Surface hemispherical emittance PHYSIQUE APPLIQU�E - TS, N° 2, F�VRIER1980 Incident solar flux density. Net radiative flux density. Net

  3. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    medium term operational solar radiation forecasts in the US.term forecasting of solar radiation: a statistical approachterm forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data.

  4. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Solar Radiation Atlas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas provides a record of monthly mean solar radiation generated by a Climatological Solar Radiation model, using quasi-climatological inputs of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, and atmospheric pressure.

  5. 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the purpose, benefit, and features of the newly updated National Solar Radiation Database.

  6. Diffusion processes in general relativistic radiating spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreto, W.; Herrera, L.; Santos, N.O. (Oriente Universidad, Cumana (Venezuela); Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of diffusion processes on the dynamics of general relativistic radiating spheres is systematically studied by means of two examples. Differences between the streaming-out limit and the diffusion limit are exhibited, for both models, through the evolution curves of dynamical variables. In particular it is shown the Bondi mass decreases, for both models, in the diffusion limit as compared with its value at the streaming-out regime. 15 refs.

  7. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation Solar Radiation: Effects of atmosphere, angular dependence of radiation, variation of solar radiation ­ Calculation of Solar Radiation: · Estimate of intensity of solar radiation · Angular Dependence ­ Solar Noon

  8. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  9. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. F. Geisz, “Superior radiation resistance of In 1-x Ga x Nand H. Itoh, “Proton radiation analysis of multi-junction56326 High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells Final

  10. VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    18 VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data gathered by the UO Solar Monitoring Network is presented in tabular and pictorial form and related to similar information from other Western U.S. sites. A comparison of the amount of incident solar radiation is made us

  11. Peer Effects in the Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Peer Effects in the Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Panels Bryan Bollinger NYU Stern School base of consumers in the reference group. We study the diffusion of solar photovoltaic panels of an environmentally beneficial technology, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. Policymakers are particularly interested

  12. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  13. Big Data Projects on Solar Technology Evolution and Diffusion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Projects on Solar Technology Evolution and Diffusion: Kickoff Meeting Graphic showing a web of people with energy bolts connecting them. Through the SEEDS program, seven projects...

  14. Interim Solar Radiation Data Manual: 30-Year Statistics from the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 30-year (1961-1990) statistics contained in this document have been derived from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). They outline solar radiation sources, as well as 30-year monthly and annual means of 5 solar radiation elements (three surface and two extraterrestrial) and 12 meteorological elements for 239 locations.

  15. Frank Vignola Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    , and company image was a higher priority than a solar system's installation cost and performance. As total solar projects that are now being submitted to banks, bonding companies, and eveFrank Vignola Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory 1274 ­ University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403

  16. Solar radiation data manual for buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.; Wilcox, S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Architects and engineers use solar resource information to help design passive solar and daylighting features for buildings. Solar resource information includes data on how much solar radiation and illuminance are available for different window orientations, and how they vary. This manual provides solar radiation and illuminance values for a horizontal window and four vertical windows (facing north, east, south, and west) for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The solar radiation values are monthly and yearly averages for the period of 1961--1990. Included are values showing the solar radiation incident on the window and the amount transmitted into the living space, with and without exterior shading of the window. Illuminance values are presented r average dismal profiles for 4 months of the year. In addition to the solar radiation and illuminance data, this manual contains tables listing climatic condition such as average temperature, average daily minimum and maximum temperature, record minimum and maxi mum temperature, average heating and cooling degree days, average humidity ratio, average wind speed, an average clearness index. The solar radiation, illuminance, and climatic data a presented in tables. Data for each station are presented on a single page, and the pages are arranged alphabetically by the state or territory two-letter abbreviation. Within a state or territory, the pages are arranged alp betically by city or island.

  17. Forecasting of Solar Radiation Detlev Heinemann, Elke Lorenz, Marco Girodo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Forecasting of Solar Radiation Detlev Heinemann, Elke Lorenz, Marco Girodo Oldenburg University have been presented more than twenty years ago (Jensenius, 1981), when daily solar radiation forecasts

  18. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and...

  19. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  20. The solar radiation climate of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Vaughan Walter

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE OF TEXAS A Thesis By VAUGHAN W. HALL Major& USAF Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1967 Major Subject...: METEOROLOGY THE SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE OF TEXAS A Thesis By VAUGHAN W. HALL Major, USAF Approved as to style and content by: Ch irman o ommittee Head of epa ent Member / ' 6p trCc-aCZm ~ Me er May 1967 The Solar Radiation Climate of Texas. (May...

  1. Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  2. III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    5 III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce due answered. The utilizability of 5, 15, and 30-year solar radiation data sets is summarized as follows. · 5-year data sets determine the long-term average solar radiation with a fair degree of accuracy, but do

  3. RADIATIVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, Thomas G., E-mail: moran@grace.nascom.nasa.gov [Physics Department, Catholic University of America, 200 Hannan Hall, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of solar visible and infrared radiation on electrons in the Sun's atmosphere using a Monte Carlo simulation of the wave-particle interaction and conclude that sunlight provides at least 40% and possibly all of the power required to heat the corona, with the exception of dense magnetic flux loops. The simulation uses a radiation waveform comprising 100 frequency components spanning the solar blackbody spectrum. Coronal electrons are heated in a stochastic manner by low coherence solar electromagnetic radiation. The wave 'coherence time' and 'coherence volume' for each component is determined from optical theory. The low coherence of solar radiation allows moving electrons to gain energy from the chaotic wave field which imparts multiple random velocity 'kicks' to these particles causing their velocity distribution to broaden or heat. Monte Carlo simulations of broadband solar radiative heating on ensembles of 1000 electrons show heating at per particle levels of 4.0 x 10{sup -21} to 4.0 x 10{sup -20} W, as compared with non-loop radiative loss rates of {approx}1 x 10{sup -20} W per electron. Since radiative losses comprise nearly all of the power losses in the corona, sunlight alone can explain the elevated temperatures in this region. The volume electron heating rate is proportional to density, and protons are assumed to be heated either by plasma waves or through collisions with electrons.

  4. By Stanley Micklavzina, James Utterback and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory significantly change the incident solar radiation and this will affect the experimental results. The idea, obtains a reading of current from the diffuse solar radiation, light from the sky, ground, surrounding

  5. Absorption of solar radiation by solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Duplancic; P. Minkowski; J. Trampetic

    2004-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the absorption probability of photons radiated from the surface of the Sun by a left-handed neutrino with definite mass and a typical momentum for which we choose |p_1|=0.2 MeV, producing a heavier right-handed antineutrino. Considering two transitions the \

  6. Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ls determined by a four parameter system including the two parameters which characterize the transmission of the direct solar radiation. The four parameter model ls )ustified in terms of actual measurements for clear sky conditions. The system... Sketch Illustrating Coordinate System, . 39 4, 2 The Coordinate System Used to Describe the Multiple Scattering Radiation Field 41 4, 3 Optical Thickness Coordinate Schematic of the Zv + 2 Radiant Fluxes of the Diffuse Radiation Field Model 47 4. 5...

  7. The European Solar Radiation Atlas 1 Page J., M. Albuisson, L. Wald, 2001. The European solar radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The European Solar Radiation Atlas 1 Page J., M. Albuisson, L. Wald, 2001. The European solar radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy, 71, 81-83, 2001.1 The European Solar Radiation Atlas European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA) is now available. It is published by Les Presses de l'Ecole des Mines

  8. 20 Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at NREL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    20 Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at NREL Tom to provide for: · Maximum annual solar access · Continuous measurements of key solar radiation resources · Calibrations of instruments used to measure solar radiation · Training of meteorological station operators

  9. Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Vitko Jr. , Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudyet al. , Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observa-1999 Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:

  10. Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation and Evapotranspiration In Puerto Ricoand Evapotranspiration In Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation radiation, therefore, solar radiation measurements throughout the island are essential. #12;Currently, including solar radiation ·In PR, solar radiation is only available at selected locations. · The majority

  11. Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shell, Karen M.

    Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton K. M. Shell and R. Frouin Scripps the absorption of solar radiation, affecting upper ocean temperature and circulation. These changes, in turn: phytoplankton, atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), absorption of solar radiation, seasonal cycle, sea

  12. A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION in the realm of solar radiation forecasting. In this work, two forecasting models: Autoregressive Moving. The very first results show an improvement brought by this approach. 1. INTRODUCTION Solar radiation

  13. FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION -- PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH BASED UPON THE NATIONAL, and undertake a preliminary evaluation of, a simple solar radiation forecast model using sky cover predictions forecasts is 0.05o in latitude and longitude. Solar Radiation model: The model presented in this paper

  14. ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar Sanford A. Klein William A beckman@engr.wisc.edu ABSTRACT Solar radiation data are available for many locations on an hourly basis annual performance, although solar radiation can exhibit wide variations during an hour. Variations

  15. Solar radiation decreases parasitism in Daphnia Erin P. Overholt,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cáceres, Carla E.

    LETTER Solar radiation decreases parasitism in Daphnia Erin P. Overholt,1 * Spencer R. Hall,2 Craig spores but did not affect host susceptibility to infection. The parasiteÃ?s sensitivity to solar radiation may underlie patterns in a lake survey: higher penetration of solar radiation into lakes correlated

  16. Spatial Evidence for Transition Radiation in a Solar Radio Burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelu M. Nita; Dale E. Gary; Gregory D. Fleishman

    2005-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Microturbulence, i.e. enhanced fluctuations of plasma density, electric and magnetic fields, is of great interest in astrophysical plasmas, but occurs on spatial scales far too small to resolve by remote sensing, e.g., at ~ 1-100 cm in the solar corona. This paper reports spatially resolved observations that offer strong support for the presence in solar flares of a suspected radio emission mechanism, resonant transition radiation, which is tightly coupled to the level of microturbulence and provides direct diagnostics of the existence and level of fluctuations on decimeter spatial scales. Although the level of the microturbulence derived from the radio data is not particularly high, /n^2 ~ 10^{-5}$, it is large enough to affect the charged particle diffusion and give rise to effective stochastic acceleration. This finding has exceptionally broad astrophysical implications since modern sophisticated numerical models predict generation of much stronger turbulence in relativistic objects, e.g., in gamma-ray burst sources.

  17. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. FY 1991 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU`s), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  18. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta Majumdar, M R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar energy, beamed solar energy, LSC, dielectric mirror, optical fibre, Photo-Voltaic

  19. Shining On: A primer on solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlap, M.A.; Cook, G. [eds.; Marion, B.; Riordan, C.; Renne, D.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a primer on solar radiation data. General uses of solar energy are presented. The manner in which solar radiation data is used to aid engineers in optimizing the use of solar thermal conversion and photovoltaic conversion is discussed. Methods for acquiring and assimilating the solar radiation data are illustrated. This would include the design and use of pyranometers and pyrheliometers. Seasonal and geographical variations in solar flux reaching the earth are evaluated. Other uses of compiled data include the determination of meteorological impacts of atmospheric disturbances such as volcano eruptions.

  20. Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. Program overview of fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project is to provide essential information about the solar radiation resource to users and planners of solar technologies so that they can make informed and timely decisions concerning applications of those technologies. The project team accomplishes this by producing and disseminating relevant and reliable information about solar radiation. Topics include: Variability of solar radiation, measurements of solar radiation, spectral distribution of solar radiation, and assessment of the solar resource. FY 1993 accomplishments are detailed.

  1. Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data Elke Lorenz, Annette Hammer University, D-26111 Oldenburg Forecasting of solar irradiance will become a major issue in the future integration of solar energy resources into existing energy supply structures. Fluctuations of solar irradiance

  2. Glass diffusion source for constraining BSF region of a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lesk, I.A.; Pryor, R.A.; Coleman, M.G.

    1982-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating a solar cell comprising simultaneous diffusion of the p and n dopant materials into the solar cell substrate. The simultaneous diffusion process is preceded by deposition of a capping layer impervious to doping by thermal diffusion processes.

  3. INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

  4. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

  5. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Mat. and Solar Cells 75, 261-9 (2003) andD. J. , “Advanced Space Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res.Igari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version

  6. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of diffuse solar radiation, Renew Energ, 33 (2008) [solar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energsolar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energ

  7. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan Abstract Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation

  8. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dunlop, PV-GIS: a web-based solar radiation database for the2010. 10. NREL, National Solar Radiation Database, 1991-200514. S. Wilcox, National solar radiation database 1991-2005

  9. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Huang, Li; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors. Building andEFFECTS OF SHORT-WAVE SOLAR RADIATION INDOORS Edward ARENSK. The effects of solar radiation on thermal comfort.

  10. Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D. Department. Greenhouse Glazing & Solar Radiation Transmission Workshop, October 1998 © CCEA, Center for Controlled

  11. Diabat L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004. SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE IN AFRICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diabaté L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004 is very useful for preliminary assessment and modeling of solar energy systems. Following the approach: clearness index, atmosphere optics, clustering, interpolation, map, solar energy systems Nomenclature: (KTd

  12. Spectral Solar Radiation Data Base at NREL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    *In September 1991 the Solar Energy Research Institute became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Description taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/spectral/

  13. LYAPUNOV AND DIFFUSION TIMESCALES IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje Avenue 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate the Lyapunov times (characteristic times of predictability of motion) in Quillen's models for the dynamics in the solar neighborhood. These models take into account perturbations due to the Galactic bar and spiral arms. For estimating the Lyapunov times, an approach based on the separatrix map theory is used. The Lyapunov times turn out to be typically of the order of 10 Galactic years. We show that only in a narrow range of possible values of the problem parameters the Galactic chaos is adiabatic; usually it is not slow. We also estimate the characteristic diffusion times in the chaotic domain. In a number of models, the diffusion times turn out to be small enough to permit migration of the Sun from the inner regions of the Milky Way to its current location. Moreover, due to the possibility of ballistic flights inside the chaotic layer, the chaotic mixing might be even far more effective and quicker than in the case of normal diffusion. This confirms the dynamical possibility of Minchev and Famaey's migration concept.

  14. Radiation monitoring during criticality at a gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goebel, G.R.; Hines, T.W.; Carver, A.M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP) has two systems of radiation detection units that monitor radiation associated with a nuclear criticality accident (NCA). The primary system, the criticality accident alarm system (CAAS), is composed of several detection units that alarm when gamma-radiation levels exceed 10 mR/h. The CAAS provides the means to initiate emergency-evacuation procedures in the event of an NCA. This system is augmented with a second system of radiation detectors, which is referred to as the argon gamma graph (AGG) system. The AGG system is utilized specifically for the remote monitoring of radiation during an NCA and is a primary tool used by emergency response personnel. The remote radiation readings supplied by the AGG system provide the means to quickly locate and characterize an NCA. The centralized remote monitoring of radiation during an NCA permits important data to be collected efficiently without subjecting personnel to unknown and unquantified radiation fields. Calculations of the expected radiation readings on the AGG system were performed for a postulated NCA at four different locations at PGDP.

  15. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  16. Denoising solar radiation data using coiflet wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my; Janier, Josefina B., E-mail: josefinajanier@petronas.com.my; Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram, E-mail: mohana.muthuvalu@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Hasan, Mohammad Khatim, E-mail: khatim@ftsm.ukm.my [Jabatan Komputeran Industri, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, Jumat, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my [Program Matematik dengan Ekonomi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Beg Berkunci 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Ismail, Mohd Tahir [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Signal denoising and smoothing plays an important role in processing the given signal either from experiment or data collection through observations. Data collection usually was mixed between true data and some error or noise. This noise might be coming from the apparatus to measure or collect the data or human error in handling the data. Normally before the data is use for further processing purposes, the unwanted noise need to be filtered out. One of the efficient methods that can be used to filter the data is wavelet transform. Due to the fact that the received solar radiation data fluctuates according to time, there exist few unwanted oscillation namely noise and it must be filtered out before the data is used for developing mathematical model. In order to apply denoising using wavelet transform (WT), the thresholding values need to be calculated. In this paper the new thresholding approach is proposed. The coiflet2 wavelet with variation diminishing 4 is utilized for our purpose. From numerical results it can be seen clearly that, the new thresholding approach give better results as compare with existing approach namely global thresholding value.

  17. Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J., E-mail: james.bullock@anu.edu.au; Yan, D.; Wan, Y.; Cuevas, A. [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of micro engineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronic Laboratory, Maladière 71, CH-200 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue, we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n{sup +}) and boron (p{sup +}) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10, respectively. Conversely, the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm{sup 2} for n{sup +} and ?100 m? cm{sup 2} for p{sup +} surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer, as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n{sup +} surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

  18. Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of solar radiation management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, Kelly E

    Solar radiation management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to alleviate the climate impacts of ongoing anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, its efficacy depends on its indefinite maintenance, without ...

  19. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2005 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual describes how to obtain and interpret the data products from the updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This is an update of the original 1961-1990 NSRDB released in 1992.

  20. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2010 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This user's manual provides information on the updated 1991-2010 National Solar Radiation Database. Included are data format descriptions, data sources, production processes, and information about data uncertainty.

  1. Public engagement on solar radiation management and why it needs to happen now

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Laurie

    Public engagement on solar radiation management and why it needs to happen now Wylie A. Carr, and governance of one branch of geoengineering, solar radiation management (SRM), in three key ways: 1;1 The context for public engagement in solar radiation management Solar radiation management (SRM) has recently

  2. Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    conversion efficiency of solar cells made from this material [1]. One of the special qualities of the CIGS improve the solar cell performance. In many of the different CIGS fabrication techniques, an in depthDiffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A

  3. The optimization of solar radiation upon a rectangular building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingle, James Allen

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAMES ALLEN INGLF. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19... 3 Major Subjeoti Meteorology THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAILS ALLEN INGLE Approved as to style and content bye Cha an of ittee Mr, ' ohn F, Griffiths Member Dro Robert CD Runnels Head...

  4. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. [3] Blum HF. Solar heat load, its relationship to theS, Parsons K. The effects of solar radiation on thermalParsons K. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-

  5. Zooplankton behavioral responses to solar UV radiation vary within and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Craig E.

    - and low-UV lake at varying times of day and cloud cover. In the high-UV lake, the cladoceran Daphnia, our understanding of effects of ultra- violet radiation (UVR) on aquatic ecosystems has increasedZooplankton behavioral responses to solar UV radiation vary within and among lakes DINA M. LEECH

  6. A Coupled Model for Radiative Transfer: Doppler Effects, Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Diffusion Asymptotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goudon, Thierry

    A Coupled Model for Radiative Transfer: Doppler Effects, Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Diffusion. The interaction terms take into account both scattering and absorption/emission phenomena, as well as Doppler-diffusion equations. Key words. Hydrodynamic limits. Diffusion approximation. Radiative transfer. Doppler correction

  7. Progress Toward an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on an updated National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). Focus on this year's work was on preparing a test-year database for evaluating several solar radiation models that could be used to replace the METSTAT model used in the original 1961-1990 NSRDB. That model is no longer compatible with cloud observations reported by the National Weather Service. We have also included a satellite-based model that will increase the spatial resolution of solar radiation for GIS or mapping applications. Work also included development of improved estimates for aerosols, water vapor, and ozone. High-quality solar measurements were obtained for 33 sites near National Weather Service stations, and model runs were completed for test years 1999 and 2000.

  8. Solar Radiation Durability Framework Applied To Acrylic Solar Myles P. Murraya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Solar Radiation Durability Framework Applied To Acrylic Solar Mirrors Myles P. Murraya , Devin) when compared with traditional flat panel PV technologies. In MAPV systems electrical output per unit browning, and very rapid power degradation. Due in part to this failure, module manufactures may not honor

  9. 12th North America Bangla Literature and Culture Convention 2010 (NABLCC10) EFFECT OF SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    scatters and burns part of the incoming particles. However, the visible and near-infrared solar radiation penetrate through the earth's atmosphere. Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere and Grrenhouse Effect The solar radiation entering its atmosphere through an energy cycle called the Greenhouse effect. Of the total solar

  10. VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola Department of Physics ra- diation. This article examines at the variability of beam and global solar radiation over short solar radiation values with ground-based data. 1. INTRODUCTION It is difficult to evaluate solar

  11. Solar Radiation Prediction and Energy Allocation for Energy Harvesting Base Stations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Radiation Prediction and Energy Allocation for Energy Harvesting Base Stations Yanan Bao@tsinghua.edu.cn Abstract--In this paper, we study how to use the solar radiation model to predict energy arrivals solar radiation is reviewed and summarized. We present two solar energy models for cloudless days

  12. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Appendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. ConversSolar Data a. Solar Radiation. , , . , . . , , , , . , . . .

  13. ON THE SOLAR RADIATION BUDGET AND THE CLOUD ABSORPTION ANOMALY DEBATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    ON THE SOLAR RADIATION BUDGET AND THE CLOUD ABSORPTION ANOMALY DEBATE ZHANQING LI Department-of-the-art radiative transfer models. 1. Introduction Solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy for the planet of solar radiation, which is unfortunately still fraught with large uncertainties (Wild et al. 1995; Li et

  14. A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery; published 30 January 2004. [1] Solar radiation assessment by satellite is constrained by physical Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation; KEYWORDS: solar radiation, satellite

  15. Hourly global and diffuse radiation of Lagos, Nigeria-correlation with some atmospheric parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chendo, M.A.C.; Maduekwe, A.A.L. (Univ. of Lagos, Akoka (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of four climatic parameters on the hourly diffuse fraction in Lagos, Nigeria, has been studied. Using data for two years, new correlations were established. The standard error of the Liu and Jordan-type equation was reduced by 12.83% when solar elevation, ambient temperature, and relative humidity were used together as predictor variables for the entire data set. Ambient temperature and relative humidity proved to be very important variables for predicting the diffuse fraction of the solar radiation passing through the humid atmosphere of the coastal and tropic city of Lagos. Seasonal analysis carried out with the data showed improvements on the standard errors for the new seasonal correlations. In the case of the dry season, the improvement was 18.37%, whole for the wet season, this was 12.37%. Comparison with existing correlations showed that the performance of the one parameter model (namely K[sub t]), of Orgill and Hollands and Reindl, Beckman, and Duffie were very different from the Liu and Jordan-type model obtained for Lagos.

  16. Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Ya. Kezerashvili; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

  17. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  18. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  20. Microcavity effects on the generation,fluorescence, and diffusion of excitons in organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozyreff, G; Vuong, L T; Silleras, O Nieto; Martorell, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the short-circuit diffusion current of excitons in an organic solar cell, with special emphasis on fluorescence losses. The exciton diffusion length is not uniform but varies with its position within the device, even with moderate fluorescence quantum efficiency. With large quantum efficiencies, the rate of fluorescence can be strongly reduced with proper choices of the geometrical and dielectric parameters. In this way, the diffusion length can be increased and the device performance significantly improved.

  1. "Diffusion of Innovation: Solar Oven Use in Lesotho (Africa)." Grundy, William and Roy Grundy. Advances in Solar Cooking: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Solar Cooker Use and Technology. Shyam S. Nandwani, ed. July 12-15, 1994.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, William Stafford

    "Diffusion of Innovation: Solar Oven Use in Lesotho (Africa)." Grundy, William and Roy Grundy. Advances in Solar Cooking: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Solar Cooker Use and Technology. Shyam S. Nandwani, ed. July 12-15, 1994. pp. 240-247. 1 DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION: SOLAR OVEN USE

  2. Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moharil, Ravindra M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India); Kulkarni, Prakash S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440011, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with hourly mean solar radiation (HMSR) method are compared. The comparison is carried on the basis of predicted electrical power generation with actual power generated by SPV system. Estimation of solar photovoltaic power using HMSR method is close to the actual power generated by SPV system. The deviation in monsoon months is due to the cloud cover. In later part of the paper various reliability indices are obtained by HMSR method using MCS technique. Load model used is IEEE-RTS. Reliability indices, additional load hours (ALH) and additional power (AP) reduces exponentially with increase in load indicates that a SPV source will offset maximum fuel when all of its generated energy is utilized. Fuel saving calculation is also investigated. Case studies are presented for Sagardeep Island in West Bengal state of India. (author)

  4. Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    S1 Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties..................................................................................................7 Figure S3. A typical solar and spectral flux density of radiation, D0(), from the irradiation

  5. SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS Annette governing the insolation, forecasting of solar radiation makes the description of development of the cloud

  6. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a panel’s solar conversion efficiency, power output can besolar panels, since incident radiation is nearly linearly proportional to power outputfor power output. To maximize absorption of solar radiation

  7. SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS Myles P. Murray 1 exposed photovoltaic materials, is defined as the rate of photodarkening or photobleaching of a material testing. The potential to predict power losses in a photovoltaic system over time caused

  8. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.; Riordan, C.; Hammond, E.; Ismailidis, T.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report summaries the activities and accomplishments of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1992 (1 October to 30 September 1992). Managed by the Analytic Studies Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, this project is the major activity of the US Department of Energy's Resource Assessment Program.

  9. Are energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Are energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt? Xinlin Li,1 D. N in the solar wind are the source of the outer rela- tivistic electron radiation belt. Though there is some radiation belt, the phase space density of 20-200 keV electrons in the solar wind is not adequate to supply

  10. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings Friedhelm) Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential the history of cosmic radiation and solar activity over many millennia. Although records from different

  11. Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2 A. Hall,1 and K November 2006. [1] We developed a three-dimensional radiative transfer model simulating solar fluxes over (2006), Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D

  12. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  13. Using observations of deep convective systems to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    column absorption of solar radiation (Acol) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle.e., the Acol values at both regions converge to the same value ($0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the optically thick limit, J. Geophys. Res

  14. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasullo, John

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly. T. Fasullo (2009), Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett

  15. Impacts of a New Solar Radiation Parameterization on the CPTEC AGCM Climatological Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Henrique

    Impacts of a New Solar Radiation Parameterization on the CPTEC AGCM Climatological Features H. M. J with a new solar radiation scheme are used. There is an 8% increase in the annual mean global average atmo%), which were not considered in the operational solar radiation scheme. Under clear-sky conditions

  16. IV. STATION CONFIGURATION AND SENSOR COMPARISONS Comparison of solar radiation data gathered at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    8 IV. STATION CONFIGURATION AND SENSOR COMPARISONS Comparison of solar radiation data gathered of the instruments used to monitor the incident solar radiation. Five types of so- lar sensors and several different data loggers have been used to gather the solar radiation data presented in this data book

  17. Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks Christophe prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE ~ 21 t or at day d and year y d H0 Extraterrestrial solar radiation coefficient for day d [MJ/m²] xt, xd,y Time

  18. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE EFFECTS ON VERY HIGH-ECCENTRIC FORMATION J. Fontdecaba Baig1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE EFFECTS ON VERY HIGH-ECCENTRIC FORMATION FLYING J. Fontdecaba Baig1 , G. M this particular relative motion is the scoop of this paper. Main perturbation in HEO orbits are solar radiation. Key words: formation flying, HEO orbits, solar radiation pressure. 1. INTRODUCTION Formation flying

  19. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis products of downward surface solar radiation over East Asia: Spatial and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis products of downward surface solar radiation over East Asia Received 29 July 2012; revised 27 February 2013; accepted 18 March 2013. [1] Surface solar radiation plays hydrological models. In this study, the downward surface solar radiation (DSSR) from two satellite products

  20. Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric aerosol forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric, the positive trend is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear-sky global solar radiation ratio of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption

  1. 794 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Effect of Solar Radiation on Severity of Soybean Rust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuerger, Andrew C.

    794 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Mycology Effect of Solar Radiation on Severity of Soybean Rust Heather M. Young., and Marois, J. J. 2012. Effect of solar radiation on disease severity of soybean rust. Phytopathology 102). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how

  2. VALIDATION OF SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM OPERATIONAL SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS IN THE US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    VALIDATION OF SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM OPERATIONAL SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS IN THE US Richard Perez This paper presents an initial validation of a solar radiation service that provides historical, as well observed solar radiation conditions based on immediate measured history: The position and impact of future

  3. THE RESPONSE OF HONEY BEES TO VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE RESPONSE OF HONEY BEES TO VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE Robert M. BURRILL elements, solar radiation and temperature are considered. While these two elements are naturally numbers of departures. In the case of solar radiation intensity, the response is both positive

  4. Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary satellites data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary global solar radiation. In this paper, we use geostationary satellites data to generate 2-D time series of solar radiation for the next hour. The results presented in this paper relate to a particular territory

  5. 2008 European PV Conference, Valencia, Spain COMPARISON OF SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS FOR THE USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    2008 European PV Conference, Valencia, Spain COMPARISON OF SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS FOR THE USA J models 1 INTRODUCTION Solar radiation and PV production forecasts are becoming increasingly important/) three teams of experts are benchmarking their solar radiation forecast against ground truth data

  6. ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE between the methods. A comparison between estimated and observed solar radiation is also presented for the period April 1 through June 21, 2009, which indicates a need for calibration of the solar radiation

  7. Satellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data A Review of Current European

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Satellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data ­ A Review of Current European of solar radiation (clouds, water vapor, aerosols, ozone) through the use of twelve spectral radiometer of application- specific solar radiation data. Especially the integration into energy structures makes

  8. Assessing the individual contributions of variations in temperature, solar radiation and precipitation to crop yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Andrew W.

    Short Title:15 Contributions, Temperature, Solar radiation, Precipitation, Crop yield16 Page 1 of 41 The results showed that year-to-year variations in temperature, solar radiation and precipitation28 in solar radiation showed the strongest isolated impact on simulated yields.34 Its decrease caused

  9. Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Zhongping

    Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters in the upper ocean, the vertical distribution of solar radiation (ESR) in the shortwave domain plays (2005), Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal

  10. USING LEARNING MACHINES TO CREATE SOLAR RADIATION MAPS FROM NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION MODELS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    USING LEARNING MACHINES TO CREATE SOLAR RADIATION MAPS FROM NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION MODELS to develop a methodology to generate solar radiation maps using information from different sources. First with conclusions and next works in the last section. Keywords: Solar Radiation maps, Numerical Weather Predictions

  11. Search for possible solar neutrino radiative decays during total solar eclipses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Cecchini; D. Centomo; G. Giacomelli; R. Giacomelli; V. Popa

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Total solar eclipses (TSEs) offer a good opportunity to look for photons produced in possible radiative decays of solar neutrinos. In this paper we briefly review the physics bases of such searches as well as the existing limits on the neutrino proper lifetimes obtained by such experiments. We the report on the observations performed in occasion of the 29 March 2006 TSE, from Waw an Namos, Libya.

  12. Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ANALYSIS OF THE EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN VISUAL SOLAR RADIATION, THE SOLAR ALTITUDE AND THE TRANSPARENCY OF THE ATMOSPHERE A Thesis A. Garcia Occhipinti Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM Untverstty in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Oceanography ANALYSIS OF THE EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN VISIBLE SOLAR RADIATION, THE SOLAR ALTITUDE AND THE TRANSPARENCY OF THE ATMOSPHERE A Thesis A. Garcia Occhipinti...

  13. Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatiev, A. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number_sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

  14. Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatiev, A [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

  15. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  16. MODELING THE DYNAMICAL COUPLING OF SOLAR CONVECTION WITH THE RADIATIVE INTERIOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miesch, Mark S. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Toomre, Juri [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global dynamics of a rotating star like the Sun involves the coupling of a highly turbulent convective envelope overlying a seemingly benign radiative interior. We use the anelastic spherical harmonic code to develop a new class of three-dimensional models that nonlinearly couple the convective envelope to a deep stable radiative interior. The numerical simulation assumes a realistic solar stratification from r = 0.07 up to 0.97R (with R the solar radius), thus encompassing part of the nuclear core up through most of the convection zone. We find that a tachocline naturally establishes itself between the differentially rotating convective envelope and the solid body rotation of the interior, with a slow spreading that is here diffusively controlled. The rapid angular momentum redistribution in the convective envelope leads to a fast equator and slow poles, with a conical differential rotation achieved at mid-latitudes, much as has been deduced by helioseismology. The convective motions are able to overshoot downward about 0.04R into the radiative interior. However, the convective meridional circulation there is confined to a smaller penetration depth and is directed mostly equatorward at the base of the convection zone. Thermal wind balance is established in the lower convection zone and tachocline but departures are evident in the upper convection zone. Internal gravity waves are excited by the convective overshooting, yielding a complex wave field throughout the radiative interior.

  17. ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT Marion Solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, passive solar heating and operating of solar energy systems and as basis data set for electricity load forecasting. Both long term

  18. Passive Sorting of Asteroid Material Using Solar Radiation Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yárnoz, Daniel García; McInnes, Colin R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding dust dynamics in the vicinity of asteroids is key for future science missions and, in the long-term, for asteroid exploitation. This paper analyzes the feasibility of manipulating asteroid material by means of solar radiation pressure. A novel method is proposed for passively sorting material as a function of its grain size or density, where solar radiation pressure is used as a passive in-situ "mass spectrometer". A simplified analysis shows that in principle this method allows an effective sorting of regolith material. This could have immediate applications for a sample return mission, and for industrial scale in-situ resource utilization to separate and concentrate regolith according to particle size or composition.

  19. Prediction of Solar Radiation on Building Rooftops: A Data-Mining Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. The accurate measurement of solar radiation data is essential for optimum site selection of future distributed solar power plants as well as sizing photovoltaic systems. However, solar radiation data are not readily available because measured sequences of radiation values are obtained for a few locations in a country. When the data are available, they are usually at different time periods and spatial scale. The availability of solar radiation data at hourly or daily time scale will enhance the integration of solar energy into electricity generation and promote a sustainable energy future. The ability to generate approximate solar radiation values is often the only practical way to obtain radiation data at hourly or daily time scale. As a result, several models have been developed for estimating solar radiation values based on analytical, numerical simulation, and statistical approaches. However, these models have inherent challenges. We will discuss some of those challenges in this paper. To enhance the prediction of solar radiation values, a novel approach is presented for estimating solar radiation values using support vector machine technique. The approach accounts for unique characteristics that influence solar radiation values. The preliminary results obtained offer useful insights for model enhancements.

  20. NEW SOLAR RADIATION PARAMETERIZATION IN CPTEC/COLA GCM Henrique M. J. Barbosa and Tatiana A. Tarasova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Henrique

    NEW SOLAR RADIATION PARAMETERIZATION IN CPTEC/COLA GCM Henrique M. J. Barbosa and Tatiana A The fundamental energy source causing atmospheric motions is the solar radiation absorbed at the Earth's surface solar radiation absorption and consequently overestimates the incident solar radiation at the surface

  1. Observed reductions of surface solar radiation at Sites in the United States and worldwide from 1961 to 1990

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observed reductions of surface solar radiation at Sites in the United States and worldwide from-20146 Hamburg, Germany). ABSTRACT Surface solar radiation revealed an estimated 7W/m2 or 4% decline in solar radiation in the United States can be explained. It is shown that solar radiation declined below

  2. Multijunction solar cell efficiencies: effect of spectral window, optical environment and radiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Multijunction solar cell efficiencies: effect of spectral window, optical environment and radiative,9 The optical environment of a solar cell controls where the radiated photons from a subcell are directed*a Solar cell efficiency is maximized through multijunction architectures that minimize carrier

  3. Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior Y. Fan National the e ect of radiative heating on the evolution of thin magnetic ux tubes in the solar interior Solar Observatoryy, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719. G. H. Fisher Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ

  4. Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles with the existing observations. 1 Introduction The approach used for particle acceleration models proposed for solar

  5. General Solution of a Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation for Solar Cosmic-Ray Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Rocca; A. R. Plastino; A. Plastino; A. L. De Paoli

    2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this effort we exactly solve the fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport proposed in \\cite{LE2014} and give its {\\it general solution} in terms of hypergeometric distributions. Also, we regain all the results and approximations given in \\cite{LE2014} as {\\it particular cases} of our general solution.

  6. Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendra K. Verma

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

  7. Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions Zhanqing Li1. Introduction [2] Solar radiative heating is the primary driving force of atmospheric and oceanic movements underlines the impact of surface inhomogeneity on the closure of SW radiative transfer. It also leads

  8. Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site D--Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar updated. Index Terms- CRATERRE project, Radiation belts activity, Space environment I. INTRODUCTION

  9. Transient multidimensional second law analysis of solar collectors subjected to time-varying insolation with diffuse components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onyegegbu, S.O. (Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)); Morhenne, J. (Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an unsteady two-dimensional analysis of a flat-plate solar collector subjected to time varying insolation with considerable diffuse components as a better characterization of practical solar collectors. The analysis considers the thermal masses of the absorber, tube, glazing, and the working fluid in the system, as well as the different optical and thermodynamic properties of beam and diffuse radiation. Using two sets of insolation data, one for a near clear day and the other for an overcast day, an exergetic optimization of the system was carried out and flow rates which maximize the total energy output (extracted and accumulated) were determined for flow update periods of once very 30 min, 1 h, and the entire daylight period. The instantaneous optimum flow rates were found to follow the insolation pattern. On a daily basis, the optimum exergetic efficiencies and optimum flow rates were almost independent of the choice of the interval of fluid update, but were about 30% and 10%, respectively, higher for the clear day than for the overcast day.

  10. OUMBE, Armel, WALD, Lucien, BLANC, Philippe, and SCHROEDTER-HOMSCHEIDT, Marion. Exploitation of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric constituents, Germany * Corresponding Author, armel.oumbe@ensmp.fr Abstract Solar radiation is modified in its way: solar radiation, atmospheric optics, satellite images, Heliosat method 1. Introduction A wealth

  11. A Module for Radiation Hydrodynamic Calculations With ZEUS-2D Using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Turner; J. M. Stone

    2001-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A module for the ZEUS-2D code is described which may be used to solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order unity in v/c, in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. In this approximation, the tensor Eddington factor f which closes the radiation moment equations is chosen to be an empirical function of radiation energy density. This is easier to implement and faster than full-transport techniques, in which f is computed by solving the transfer equation. However, FLD is less accurate when the flux has a component perpendicular to the gradient in radiation energy density, and in optically thin regions when the radiation field depends strongly on angle. The material component of the fluid is here assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy equations are operator-split, with transport terms, radiation diffusion term, and other source terms evolved separately. Transport terms are applied using the same consistent transport algorithm as in ZEUS-2D. The radiation diffusion term is updated using an alternating-direction implicit method with convergence checking. Remaining source terms are advanced together implicitly using numerical root-finding. However when absorption opacity is zero, accuracy is improved by treating compression and expansion source terms using time-centered differencing. Results are discussed for test problems including radiation-damped linear waves, radiation fronts propagating in optically-thin media, subcritical and supercritical radiating shocks, and an optically-thick shock in which radiation dominates downstream pressure.

  12. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  13. Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klima, Peter Miloslaw

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...

  14. National Solar Radiation Data Bases (NSRDB): 1961 to 1990 and 1991 to 2005

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Solar Radiation Data Base 1961-1990 (NSRDB) contains 30 years of solar radiation and supplementary meteorological data from 237 NWS sites in the U.S., plus sites in Guam and Puerto Rico. The updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database holds solar and meteorological data for 1,454 locations in the United States and its territories. See also the interactive data maps for the 1961 to 1990 data at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1961-1990/redbook/atlas/.

  15. A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

  16. Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

  17. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  18. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  19. Solar2014: The 52nd Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council 1 Open cavity receiver geometry influence on radiative losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    geometry influence on radiative losses Charles-Alexis Asselineau 1 , Ehsan Abbasi 1 , John Pye 1 1 Solar concentrated solar radiation at high temperatures. Using ray-tracing and a stochastic optimisation method with comparable radiative performances. 1 - Open cavity receivers losses in concentrated solar applications

  20. Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    radio noise, and solar EUV radiation J. Y. Liu Institute of Space Science and Center for Space are important for the saturation features. INDEX TERMS: 2479 Ionosphere: Solar radiation and cosmic ray effects: Solar radiation and cosmic ray effects; KEYWORDS: saturation effect, ionospheric foF2, sunspot number

  1. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  2. Simulated Co-Optimization of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Throughput and Efficiency Using Continuously Ramping Phosphorus Diffusion Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morishige, Ashley Elizabeth

    Defect engineering is essential for the production of high-performance silicon photovoltaic (PV) devices with cost-effective solar-grade Si input materials. Phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG) can mitigate the detrimental ...

  3. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E Girish; S Aranya

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

  4. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girish, T E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the l...

  5. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO 2 and CO 18 O exchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface model with BOREAS aspen and jack pine tower fluxes,to diffuse radiation by an aspen-dominated northern hardwood

  6. Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stramski, Dariusz

    Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative light field Apparent optical properties Mesopelagic zone Radiative transfer modeling a b s t r a c t The solar light field within the ocean from the sea surface to the bottom of the mesopelagic zone

  7. Progress on an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base for the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1992, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB), a 30-year set of hourly solar radiation data. In 2003, NREL undertook an NSRDB update project for the decade of 1991-2000.

  8. Will Geoengineering With Solar Radiation Management Ever Be Used?1 Alan Robock4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Will Geoengineering With Solar Radiation Management Ever Be Used?1 2 3 Alan Robock4 5 Department University39 14 College Farm Road40 New Brunswick, NJ 0890141 Phone: 732-881-161042 Fax: 732-932-864443 E will use the term to refer to solar radiation management, ideas about reducing52 incoming sunlight to cool

  9. Evaluation of solar radiation measurement systems: EPRI/NREL final test report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Riordan, C.; Bigger, J.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measured solar radiation resource data are needed by electric utilities to evaluate the potential of renewable energy options like photovoltaics in their service territory. In this final test report, we document a cooperative project of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to compare available measurement system options for performing solar radiation resource assessments. We present the detailed results of a 6-month field comparison of thermopile-based pyranometer and pyrheliometer solar irradiance measurement systems with two different implementations of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) concept installed at NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado.

  10. Energetic outer radiation-belt electron precipitation during recurrent solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    on the atmosphere [Seppälä et al., 2004]. During some intense solar storms solar protons in the energy range 1Energetic outer radiation-belt electron precipitation during recurrent solar activity Mark A and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia. Russell S. Grew School of Mathematical

  11. High-Temperature Processing of Solids Through Solar Nebular Bow Shocks: 3D Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations with Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boley, A C; Desch, S J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in Solar System formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks has been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H$_2$ is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulati...

  12. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study using data,3* Abstract Background: Exposure to solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a major source of vitamin D3AUR 17326E125C4(7E3E3C7E>4(72B43.EE7D4" 7D4":BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Solar

  13. Relationships between inherent optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation in optically complex coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    Relationships between inherent optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation in optically complex coastal waters, J

  14. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal

  15. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review,”forecasting of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol.sequences of global solar radiation data for isolated sites:

  16. Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jochen E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the practical approach to evaluate the incoming solar radiation on buildings based on atmospheric composition and cloud cover is presented. The effects of absorption and scattering due to atmospheric composition is taken into account to calculate, using radiative transfer models, the net incoming solar radiation at surface level. A specific validation of the Alpine Region in Europe is presented with a special focus on the region of South Tyrol.

  17. PERSPECTIVE www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    species and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, rivers, marshes, oceans). Solar UV radiation penetrates and high to mid latitudes have aroused concern about the effects of increased solar UV-B radiation of low temperatures.7 Exposure to solar UV radiation can reduce productivity, affect reproduction

  18. RAMI4PILPS: An intercomparison of formulations for the partitioning of solar radiation in land surface models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni-Meister, Wenge

    RAMI4PILPS: An intercomparison of formulations for the partitioning of solar radiation in land for the partitioning of solar radiation in land surface models, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G02019, doi:10.1029/2010JG001511 [e.g., Zeng et al., 2000; Dai et al., 2004]. The partitioning of solar radiation between

  19. In Vivo Identification of Solar Radiation-Responsive Gene Network: Role of the p38 Stress-Dependent Kinase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In Vivo Identification of Solar Radiation-Responsive Gene Network: Role of the p38 Stress Solar radiation is one of the most common threats to the skin, with exposure eliciting a specific 44K) to study epidermis gene expression in vivo in skin exposed to simulated solar radiation (SSR

  20. Ann. For. Sci. 64 (2007) 899909; DOI: 10.1051/forest:2007072 Multiscale computation of solar radiation for predictive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Solar radiation is a fundamental component of ecological processes, but is poorly used at this scale due to the lack of available data. Here we present a GIS program allowing to calculate solar radiation as well and cloudiness data. Solar radiation measured from 88 meteorological stations used for validation indicated a R

  1. Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft of 0.33 0.04 for the total atmosphere (surface to top). The absorptance of solar radiation estimated more solar radiation than is predicted by theory [e.g., Stephens and Tsay 1990]. Recently, and nearly

  2. Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric Aerosol Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric.S. the strengthening is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear sky global solar radiation of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption and declined light

  3. Using remotely sensed solar radiation data for reference1 evapotranspiration estimation at a daily time step2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Using remotely sensed solar radiation data for reference1 evapotranspiration estimation: +33 5 57 35 07 59. Email: k-van-leeuwen@enitab.fr13 14 15 Abstract16 Solar radiation is an important database, which displays spatialized19 solar radiation data at a daily time step for Europe and Africa

  4. Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal surface at sea level in the Italian climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    219- Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal- nalières du rayonnement solaire. Abstract. 2014 The knowledge of hourly data of solar radiation is required data measured in Italian stations and propose a method to estimate hourly solar radiation

  5. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote 2013. [1] Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin (2013), Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans

  6. New formulae to evaluate the atmospheric layers of precipitable water and gases, applicable in solar radiation computing models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in solar radiation computing models V. B0103descu Energetica, Centrale Electrice, Polytechn. Inst irradiance. In this context, the relatively low density of solar radiation recording stations favoured measurements. Reviews and classifications of the main calculations procedures of solar radiation have been

  7. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the primary output relevant to solar power variability isQuantifying PV power output variability. Solar Energy 84,power output variability. Clouds cause spatio-temporal variability of solar

  8. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Daily Solar Radiation Data. Proceedings of the 1977from total horizontal radiation data, they both suffer froma. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide a measure of

  9. The influence of stratus, stratocumulus, and altocumulus clouds on the spectral distribution of solar radiation over Antarctic waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettett, James Eugene

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    function of local solar time. 14 Stratus extinction of solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local solar time. 15 Stratocumulus extinction of solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local... solar time . . . ~ . . . . . ~ . ~ . ~ 53 16 Altocumulus extinction of Solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local solar time 55 LIST OP TABLES Tab le Page Per cent of daily total flux contained in three spectral...

  10. Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han Kima,b*, Juan-Carlos Baltazarb, and Jeff S. Haberla,b aDepartment of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137, U.S.A. bEnergy Systems Laboratory, Texas A... for measured solar radiation data and, as a result, rely on the values from typical meteorological years. Texas, in a similar fashion as other states in the US, does not have an active network for solar radiation data and has a variety of weather conditions...

  11. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perfor- mance of Focusing Collectors," Solar Energy ResearchCollectors," Proceedings of the 1979 International Congress of the International Solar

  12. A unified model for radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technical Inst., Nagoya (Japan); Katsumoto, Shingo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Amano, Chikara [NTT Opto-Electrical Labs., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    1-MeV electron irradiation effects on MBE-grown InGaAs and AlGaAs solar cells have been examined in comparison with previous results for radiation damage of InP and GaAs solar cells in order to clarify radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells. Moreover, 1-MeV electron irradiation results of several space solar cells such as InP, InGaP, InGaAsP, GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, Si, Ge, and CuInSe{sub 2} cells have also been analyzed by considering their damage constants, bandgap energies and optical absorption coefficients. The authors believe that this study will provide a unified model for radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells.

  13. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  14. OVERSTORY-IMPOSED HETEROGENEITY IN SOLAR RADIATION AND SOIL MOISTURE IN A SEMIARID WOODLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breshears, David D.; Rich, Paul M.; Barnes, Fairley J.; Katherine, Campbell

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plants and the intercanopy patches that separate them, yielding an overstory with intermediate closure. Field measurements of microclimate at the scale of canopy patches, particularly for near-ground solar radiation and soil moisture, are largely lacking...

  15. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

  16. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

  17. Ice-induced enhancement of solar radiation beneath overcast skies near Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Nicholas Charles

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF SOLAR RADIATION BENEATH OVERCAST SKIES NEAR ANTARCTICA A Thesis by NICHOLAS CHARLES HORVATH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIFNCE May 1981 Major Subject: Meteorology ICE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF SOLAR RADIATION BENEATH OVERCAST SKIES NEAR ANTARCTICA A Thesis by NICHOLAS CHARLES HORVATH Approsed as to style and content by: (Ch irman of Committee) (Member...

  18. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  19. Tuesday, 31 July, 2012 Rapid radiation belt losses occurring during high speed solar wind stream1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    Tuesday, 31 July, 2012 1 Rapid radiation belt losses occurring during high speed solar wind stream1 Raita11 Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Sodankylä, Finland12 Abstract. Recent geomagnetic disturbances triggered by the arrival of a Solar14 Wind Stream Interface (SWSI). In the current

  20. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  1. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  2. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar Zenith Angle Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar 19 November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating at a variety of solar zenith angles ( o trajectories and is used to drive an offline microphysical model that includes the influence of radiation

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation in Hot QCD Matter: Rates, Electric Conductivity, Flavor Susceptibility and Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang-Hwan Lee; Ismail Zahed

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the general features of the electromagnetic radiation from a thermal hadronic gas as constrained by chiral symmetry. The medium effects on the electromagnetic spectral functions and the partial restoration of chiral symmetry are quantified in terms of the pion densities. The results are compared with the electromagnetic radiation from a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma in terms of the leading gluon condensate operators. We use the spectral functions as constrained by the emission rates to estimate the electric conductivity, the light flavor susceptibility and diffusion constant across the transition from the correlated hadronic gas to a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma.

  4. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)for supplementing solar radiation network data,” FinalEstimating incident solar radiation at the surface from geo-

  5. Transition radiation in turbulent astrophysical medium. Application to solar radio bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory D. Fleishman; Dale E. Gary; Gelu M. Nita

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern observations and models of various astrophysical objects suggest that many of their physical parameters fluctuate substantially at different spatial scales. The rich variety of the emission processes, including Transition Radiation but not limited to it, arising in such turbulent media constitutes the scope of Stochastic Theory of Radiation. We review general approaches applied in the stochastic theory of radiation and specific methods used to calculate the transition radiation produced by fast particles in the magnetized randomly inhomogeneous plasma. The importance of the theory of transition radiation for astrophysics is illustrated by one example of its detailed application to a solar radio burst, including specially designed algorithms of the spectral forward fitting.

  6. Beyer H.-G., Czeplak G., Terzenbach U., Wald L., 1997. Assessment of the method used to construct clearness index maps for the new european solar radiation atlas (ESRA). Solar Energy, 61, 6, 389-397.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    clearness index maps for the new european solar radiation atlas (ESRA). Solar Energy, 61, 6, 389-397. Assessement of the method used to construct clearness index maps for the new European Solar Radiation Atlas of the methods used to construct maps for a new Solar Radiation Atlas for Europe. For this atlas station data

  7. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the Solar Radiation Monitoring LaboratoryG:SourcesforBackgroundInformation© Useful Web Sites: UO Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Website: http://solardata.uoregon.edu/Educational Solar Radiation Basics Solar Electric Lesson Plans o What is a KiloWatt Hour? o Experiments

  8. Broadband Model Performance for an Updated National Solar Radiation Database in the United States of America: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S.; Marion, W.; George, R.; Anderberg, M.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Updated review of broadband model performance in a project being done to update the existing United States National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB).

  9. Response of five tropical plant species to natural solar ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searles, P.S.; Caldwell, M.M. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)); Winter, K. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa (Panama))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tropical latitudes currently receive high solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) even without ozone depletion. Thus, the influence of natural, present-day UV-B irradiance was examined for three native rainforest tree species and two economically important species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (9[degrees] N). Solar UV-B radiation conditions were obtained using a UV-B excluding plastic film or a near-ambient UV-B transmitting film over potted plants in a small clearing. Significant differences were often exhibited as increased foliar UV-B absorbing compounds, increased leaf mass pre area, and reduced leaf blade length for plants receiving solar UV-B radiation. Plant height was typically reduced under solar UV-B, but some variation among species in response was seen. Biomass and photosystem II function were generally unaffected. The results provide evidence that tropical vegetation responds to the present level of Solar UV-B radiation. This suggests even a small increase in UV-B radiation with ozone depletion may have biological implications.

  10. Determination of the Dark Matter profile from the EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic gamma radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Weber

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The excess above 1 GeV in the energy spectrum of the diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, measured with the EGRET experiment, can be interpreted as the annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles. The DM is distributed in a halo around the Milky Way. Considering the directionality of the gamma ray flux it is possible to determine the halo profile. The DM within the halo has a smooth and a clumpy component.These components can have different profiles as suggested by N-body simulations and the data is indeed compatible with a NFW profile for the diffuse component and a cored profile for the clumpy component.These DM clumps can be partly destroyed by tidal forces from interactions with stars and the gravitational potential of the Galactic disc.This effect mainly decreases the annihilation signal from the Galactic centre (GC). In this paper constraints on the different profiles and the survival probability of the clumps are discussed.

  11. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the Solar Radiation Monitoring LaboratoryH:PVKitComponents© TableH.1:ContentsofPVKitandpartsrequiredforcomponents Quantity Item Quantity Item 1 Solar panel 1

  12. Multigroup radiation hydrodynamics with flux-limited diffusion and adaptive mesh refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González, Matthias; Commerçon, Benoît; Masson, Jacques

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative transfer plays a key role in the star formation process. Due to a high computational cost, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations performed up to now have mainly been carried out in the grey approximation. In recent years, multi-frequency radiation-hydrodynamics models have started to emerge, in an attempt to better account for the large variations of opacities as a function of frequency. We wish to develop an efficient multigroup algorithm for the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES which is suited to heavy proto-stellar collapse calculations. Due to prohibitive timestep constraints of an explicit radiative transfer method, we constructed a time-implicit solver based on a stabilised bi-conjugate gradient algorithm, and implemented it in RAMSES under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We present a series of tests which demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in dealing with frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamic flows. We also present a preliminary simulation of a three-dimensional p...

  13. Superior radiation-resistant properties of InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Okuda, T.; Taylor, S.J.; Takamoto, T. [Toyota Technological Institute 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468 (Japan)] [Toyota Technological Institute 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468 (Japan); Ikeda, E.; Kurita, H. [Central Resource Laboratory, Japan Energy Company, Niizo-Minami, Toda, Saitama 335 (Japan)] [Central Resource Laboratory, Japan Energy Company, Niizo-Minami, Toda, Saitama 335 (Japan)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The observation of minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing of radiation damage to InGa{sub 0.5}P{sub 0.5}/GaAs tandem solar cells is reported. Radiation resistance of InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells as is similar with GaAs-on-Ge cells have been confirmed with 1 MeV electron irradiations. Moreover, minority-carrier injection under light illumination and forward bias conditions is shown to enhance defect annealing in InGaP and to result in the recovery of InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cell properties. These results suggest that the InGaP/GaAs(/Ge) multijunction solar cells and InGaP-based devices have great potential for space applications. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. A link between solar events and congenital malformations: Is ionizing radiation enough to explain it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overholt, A C; Atri, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic rays are known to cause biological effects directly and through ionizing radiation produced by their secondaries. These effects have been detected in airline crews and other specific cases where members of the population are exposed to above average secondary fluxes. Recent work has found a correlation between solar particle events and congenital malformations. In this work we use the results of computational simulations to approximate the ionizing radiation from such events as well as longer term increases in cosmic ray flux. We find that the amounts of ionizing radiation produced by these events are insufficient to produce congenital malformations under the current paradigm regarding muon ionizing radiation. We believe that further work is needed to determine the correct ionizing radiation contribution of cosmogenic muons. We suggest that more extensive measurements of muon radiation effects may show a larger contribution to ionizing radiation dose than currently assumed.

  15. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    ESL-PA-13-11-02 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Improved Methodology to Measure Normal... Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array Juan-Carlos Baltazar*, Yifu Sun, Jeff Haberl Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A. Abstract...

  16. A Monte Carlo synthetic-acceleration method for solving the thermal radiation diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Thomas M., E-mail: evanstm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mosher, Scott W., E-mail: moshersw@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Slattery, Stuart R., E-mail: sslattery@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53716 (United States); Hamilton, Steven P., E-mail: hamiltonsp@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel synthetic-acceleration-based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diffusion equation in three spatial dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that our Monte Carlo method is an effective solver for sparse matrix systems. For solutions converged to the same tolerance, it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned conjugate gradient and GMRES. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

  17. Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. Harrington

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.

  18. National Solar Radiation Data Base (1961-1990). Final technical report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) for the United States was completed in September 1992. This was the final product of four years of work under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The NSRDB contains 30 years of hourly data for five solar radiation elements and 15 meteorological elements for 239 sites. The user`s manual (NSRDB-Volume 1, 1992) for the NSRDB provides detailed information on the structure of the data base and the products that have been produced from it. Most users of the data base will find all of the information that they need in Volume 1. Volume 2 has been written primarily for researchers who need more information about the methods employed in producing the data base. In addition to research results, we have included information on practical lessons learned from this project. Therefore, Volume 2 should be of value to anyone developing a similar data base for other regions or other countries. Most of the solar radiation data in the NSRDB and the previous SOLMET (SOLar METeorological) data base were generated by computer models. Therefore, a major part of this report is centered around the METeorological/STATistical (METSTAT) model (Section 3.0), its input data (Sections 5.0 and 6.0), its use in producing the NSRDB (Sections 4.0 and 7.0), and comparisons with the models used in producing the SOLMET data base (Section 10.0).

  19. From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wild, Martin F.; Gilgen, Hans; Roesch, Andreas; Ohmura, Atsumu; Long, Charles N.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Forgan, B. W.; Kallis, A.; Russak, V.; Tsvetkov, Anatoly

    2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Variations in solar radiation incident at Earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment. A decline in solar radiation at land surfaces has become apparent in many observational records up to 1990, a phenomenon known as global dimming. Newly available surface observations from 1990 to the present, primarily from the Northern Hemisphere, show that the dimming did not persist into the 1990s. Instead, a widespread brightening has been observed since the late 1980s. This reversal is reconcilable with changes in cloudiness and atmospheric transmission and may substantially affect surface climate, the hydrological cycle, glaciers, and ecosystems.

  20. Dynamic Implicit 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL] [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multiphysics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent linear solver convergence.

  1. A Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo model with multi-cellular meridional circulation in advection- and diffusion-dominated regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belucz, Bernadett; Forgacs-Dajka, Emese

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock-Leighton type solar dynamo models with single-celled meridional circulation are successful in reproducing many solar cycle features. Recent observations and theoretical models of meridional circulation do not indicate a single-celled flow pattern. We examine the role of complex multi-cellular circulation patterns in a Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo in advection- and diffusion-dominated regimes. We show from simulations that presence of a weak, second, high-latitude reverse cell speeds up the cycle and slightly enhances the poleward branch in butterfly diagram, whereas the presence of a second cell in depth reverses the tilt of butterfly wing to an anti-solar type. A butterfly diagram constructed from middle of convection zone yields a solar-like pattern, but this may be difficult to realize in the Sun because of magnetic buoyancy effects. Each of the above cases behaves similarly in higher and lower magnetic diffusivity regimes. However, our dynamo with a meridional circulation containing four cells in...

  2. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

  3. 2D radiative modelling of He I spectral lines formed in solar prominences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Leger; F. Paletou

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present preliminary results of 2D radiative modelling of He I lines in solar prominences, using a new numerical code developed by us (Leger, Chevallier and Paletou 2007). It treats self-consistently the radiation transfer and the non-LTE statistical equilibrium of H and, in a second stage, the one of He using a detailed atomic model. Preliminary comparisons with new visible plus near-infrared observations made at high spectral resolution with THeMIS are very satisfactory.

  4. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  5. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Desch, S. J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ?few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ?}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  6. A study to determine statistically and empirically the influence of solar radiation on physiological responses of dairy cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, James Stanley

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as to st@Is aad osutea4 bgs ( 1957 IHTRQDUCTIOH REVIEU Qy THE LITERATURE General Observations on Clinstic Causes of Cattle Atnospheric Tenperature and Hnnid1ty Solar Radiation Analysis of the Data Analysis of Variance of Body Teaperature Analysis... ~ vtdenee and no ?xtensive research, tho offsets of solar radiation have been assnned to bs of little inportanoe. This study, a pzo]oot of the Southern Regional Dairy Researsh pro- gras, was designed to dotoznine the relative inportnnoo of solar...

  7. Rigollier C., Bauer O., Wald L., 2000. On the clear sky model of the 4th European Solar Radiation Atlas with respect to the Heliosat method. Solar Energy, 68(1), 33-48.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rigollier C., Bauer O., Wald L., 2000. On the clear sky model of the 4th European Solar Radiation Paris - Armines 1 ON THE CLEAR SKY MODEL OF THE ESRA - EUROPEAN SOLAR RADIATION ATLAS WITH RESPECT, which has been developed in the framework of the new digital European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA

  8. Rigollier C., Wald L., 1999. The HelioClim Project: from satellite images to solar radiation maps. In Proceedings of the ISES Solar World Congress 1999, Jerusalem, Israel, July 4-9, 1999, volume I, pp 427-431.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rigollier C., Wald L., 1999. The HelioClim Project: from satellite images to solar radiation maps-431. THE HELIOCLIM PROJECT: FROM SATELLITE IMAGES TO SOLAR RADIATION MAPS C. Rigollier, L. Wald Ecole des Mines de such a climatological database of solar radiation, images of the visible channel of the series of Meteosat

  9. Lecture 3 week 2/3 2012: Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....cycles of cold and warm climate. Averaged over the globe, sunlight falling on Earth in July (aphelion) is indeedLecture 3 week 2/3 2012: H 222c Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine http://en.wikipedia.org/ #12;#12;The 3 streams of this course (see syllabus) 1.Energy forms of energy concentrated, dilute

  10. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. Annual progress report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.; Riordan, C.; Hammond, E.; Ismailidis, T.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report summaries the activities and accomplishments of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1992 (1 October to 30 September 1992). Managed by the Analytic Studies Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, this project is the major activity of the US Department of Energy`s Resource Assessment Program.

  11. Estimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    scenes. We first determine the global occurrence of events in 2006 with high effective cloud fractionEstimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data P potentially have a large heating effect if they are situated above bright clouds. However, the detection

  12. By Raghu Parthasarathy for the Meyer for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page 7.1 6

  13. By Stanley Micklavzina and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page 2.1 6

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA SOLAR RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NEEDS FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA SUMMARY AND DESCRIPTION OFSOURCES OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA CALI FORN IA SOLAR DATA MANNEED FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA - Made direct contacts with

  15. Measurements and modeling of soot formation and radiation in microgravity jet diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, J.C.; Tong, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Greenberg, P.S. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Microgravity Combustion Branch

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. On modeling, the authors have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed {beta}-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude-Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar flames and turbulent jet flames. Predicted soot volume fraction results also agree with the data for 1-g and 0-g laminar jet flames as well as 1-g turbulent jet flames.

  16. PROCEEDINGS O F THE IEEE, VOL.56, NO. 1, JANUARY196837 [`I J. J. Wysocki,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    ,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar cells," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science. vol.NS-13, pp. 168-173, December 1966. X-713-6548, November1965. 161 ~ , "Thermalannealing of radiation damagein solar cells," ['I R. L. Tech. J.,vol. 41, pp.1573-1588,September 1962. ["I R. L. Statler, "Radiation damage insilicon solar

  17. P.A. Nelson S.M. Kajiura G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV-filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kajiura, Stephen

    P.A. Nelson Ã? S.M. Kajiura Ã? G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV levels of solar radiation than they had previously experienced in the source habitat in the turbid waters spectrum, but sharks exposed to greater solar radiation showed increased UV blocking in their corneal

  18. Effects of the diurnal cycle in solar radiation on the tropical Indian Ocean mixed layer variability during wintertime Madden-Julian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of the diurnal cycle in solar radiation on the tropical Indian Ocean mixed layer September 2013; accepted 6 September 2013; published 3 October 2013. [1] The effects of solar radiation in the main run. The results show that the diurnal cycle of solar radiation generally warms the Indian Ocean

  19. ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 21, NO. 1, 2004, 112 1 A Possible Role of Solar Radiation and Ocean in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 21, NO. 1, 2004, 1­12 1 A Possible Role of Solar Radiation to simulate the climate of the mid-Holocene period. The role of the solar radiation and ocean in the mid solar radiation induced by the changed orbital parameters and the changed SST simulated by the OGCM

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, Vincent P. (Los Alamos, NM); Barron, Michael H. (Los Alamos, NM); Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  2. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  3. A comparison of data from SOLMET/ERSATZ and the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.; Myers, D.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compares data from the new National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) with data from the earlier SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. It compares the two data bases, station-by-station, with respect to their long-term average daily values of global horizontal and direct normal solar radiation. We conclude that on an annual basis, NSRDB values for global horizontal radiation are within [plus minus]5% of SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 60% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 30% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 10% of the stations. On an annual basis for direct nominal radiation, the NSRDB values are with [plus minus]5% of the SOLMET/ERSATZ data for only 40% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 45% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 15% of the stations. In general, the NSRDB shows higher values of solar radiation for the eastern United States, particularly the Northeast, and lower values for some of the western states (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming). However, because some of the stations within a state show higher values of solar radiation while others show lower values, this generalization may be misleading when concerned with a particular station. Consequently, the appendices provide tables showing a station-by-station comparison of the NSRDB and SOLMET/ERSATZ data. In addition to comparing annual values, the tables compare the two data bases for the months of August and December. This comparison shows larger differences between the two data bases for December.

  4. A comparison of data from SOLMET/ERSATZ and the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.; Myers, D.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compares data from the new National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) with data from the earlier SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. It compares the two data bases, station-by-station, with respect to their long-term average daily values of global horizontal and direct normal solar radiation. We conclude that on an annual basis, NSRDB values for global horizontal radiation are within {plus_minus}5% of SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 60% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 30% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 10% of the stations. On an annual basis for direct nominal radiation, the NSRDB values are with {plus_minus}5% of the SOLMET/ERSATZ data for only 40% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 45% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 15% of the stations. In general, the NSRDB shows higher values of solar radiation for the eastern United States, particularly the Northeast, and lower values for some of the western states (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming). However, because some of the stations within a state show higher values of solar radiation while others show lower values, this generalization may be misleading when concerned with a particular station. Consequently, the appendices provide tables showing a station-by-station comparison of the NSRDB and SOLMET/ERSATZ data. In addition to comparing annual values, the tables compare the two data bases for the months of August and December. This comparison shows larger differences between the two data bases for December.

  5. Helium diffusion during the evolution of solar-type stars : asteroseismic tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Castro; S. Vauclair

    2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The element diffusion, described by Michaud (1970), is now recognized to occur in all kinds of stars. We attempt to give evidence of signatures of helium diffusion below the convective zone by the way of asteroseismology.

  6. On linearization and preconditioning for radiation diffusion coupled to material thermal conduction equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Tao, E-mail: fengtao2@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052 (China) [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052 (China); Graduate School of China Academy Engineering Physics, Beijing 100083 (China); An, Hengbin, E-mail: an_hengbin@iapcm.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Yu, Xijun, E-mail: yuxj@iapcm.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Qin, E-mail: liqin@lsec.cc.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Chinese Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Rongpei, E-mail: zhangrongpei@163.com [Graduate School of China Academy Engineering Physics, Beijing 100083 (China)] [Graduate School of China Academy Engineering Physics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method is an effective algorithm for solving large scale nonlinear equations. One of the most important advantages of JFNK method is that there is no necessity to form and store the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system when JFNK method is employed. However, an approximation of the Jacobian is needed for the purpose of preconditioning. In this paper, JFNK method is employed to solve a class of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion coupled to material thermal conduction equations, and two preconditioners are designed by linearizing the equations in two methods. Numerical results show that the two preconditioning methods can improve the convergence behavior and efficiency of JFNK method.

  7. A new correlation between solar energy radiation and some atmospheric parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Antonio; Bonnici, Maurizio; Madonia, Mauro; Trancossi, Michele

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy balance for an atmospheric layer near the soil is evaluated. By integrating it over the whole day period a linear relationship between the global daily solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface and the product of the sunshine hours at clear sky with the maximum temperature variation in the day is achieved. The results show a comparable accuracy with some well recognized solar energy models such as the \\ang-Prescott one, at least for Mediterranean climatic area. Validation of the result has been performed using old dataset which are almost contemporary and relative to the same sites with the ones used for comparison.

  8. Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

    ESL-PA-13-11-01 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Evaluation of Meteorological Base Models... for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han Kima,b*, Juan-Carlos Baltazarb, and Jeff S. Haberla,b aDepartment of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137, U.S.A. bEnergy Systems Laboratory, Texas A...

  9. Non LTE radiation processes: application to the solar corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzy Collin

    2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    These lectures are intended to present a simple but relatively complete description of the theory needed to understand the formation of lines in non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE), without appealing to any previous knowledge except a few basics of physics and spectroscopy. After recalling elementary notions of radiation transfer, the chapter is focussed on the computation of the level populations, the source function, the ionization state, and finally the line intensity. An application is made to forbidden coronal lines which were observed during eclipses since decades.

  10. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Philip; Z. Wang; M.A. Berrill; M. Birke; M. Pernice

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton–Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  11. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

  12. Energy Balance in the Solar Transition Region. IV. Hydrogen and Helium Mass Flows With Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Fontenla; E. H. Avrett; R. Loeser

    2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have extended our previous modeling of energy balance in the chromosphere-corona transition region to cases with particle and mass flows. The cases considered here are quasi-steady, and satisfy the momentum and energy balance equations in the transition region. We include in all equations the flow velocity terms and neglect the partial derivatives with respect to time. We present a complete and physically consistent formulation and method for solving the non-LTE and energy balance equations in these situations, including both particle diffusion and flows of H and He. Our results show quantitatively how mass flows affect the ionization and radiative losses of H and He, thereby affecting the structure and extent of the transition region. Also, our computations show that the H and He line profiles are greatly affected by flows. We find that line shifts are much less important than the changes in line intensity and central reversal due to the effects of flows. In this paper we use fixed conditions at the base of the transition region and in the chromosphere because our intent is to show the physical effects of flows and not to match any particular observations. However, we note that the profiles we compute can explain the range of observed high spectral and spatial resolution Lyman alpha profiles from the quiet Sun. We suggest that dedicated modeling of specific sequences of observations based on physically consistent methods like those presented here will substantially improve our understanding of the energy balance in the chromosphere and corona.

  13. High-sensitivity observations of solar flare decimeter radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Peter Messmer; Christian Monstein

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A new acousto-optic radio spectrometer has observed the 1 - 2 GHz radio emission of solar flares with unprecedented sensitivity. The number of detected decimeter type III bursts is greatly enhanced compared to observations by conventional spectrometers observing only one frequency at the time. The observations indicate a large number of electron beams propagating in dense plasmas. For the first time, we report weak, reversed drifting type III bursts at frequencies above simultaneous narrowband decimeter spikes. The type III bursts are reliable signatures of electron beams propagating downward in the corona, apparently away from the source of the spikes. The observations contradict the most popular spike model that places the spike sources at the footpoints of loops. Conspicuous also was an apparent bidirectional type U burst forming a fish-like pattern. It occurs simultaneously with an intense U-burst at 600-370 MHz observed in Tremsdorf. We suggest that it intermodulated with strong terrestrial interference (cellular phones) causing a spurious symmetric pattern in the spectrogram at 1.4 GHz. Symmetric features in the 1 - 2 GHz range, some already reported in the literature, therefore must be considered with utmost caution.

  14. Millimeter radiation from a 3D model of the solar atmosphere I. Diagnosing chromospheric thermal structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loukitcheva, Maria; Carlsson, Mats; White, Stephen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. We use advanced 3D NLTE radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric diagnostics at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Methods. We focused on the diagnostics of the thermal structure of the chromosphere in the wavelength bands from 0.4 mm up to 9.6 mm that can be accessed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and investigated how these diagnostics are affected by the instrumental resolution. Results. We find that the formation height range of the millimeter radiation depends on the location in the simulation domain and is related to the underlying magnetic structure. Nonetheless, the brightness temperature is a reasonable measure of the gas temperature at the effective formation height at a given location on the solar surface. There is considerable scatter in this relationship, but this is significantly reduced when very weak magnetic fields are avoided. Our results indicate that although instrumental smearin...

  15. Time-independent hybrid enrichment for finite element solution of transient conduction–radiation in diffusive grey media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, M. Shadi, E-mail: m.s.mohamed@durham.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effectiveness of the partition-of-unity finite element method for transient conduction–radiation problems in diffusive grey media. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary diffusion approximation to the radiation in grey media. The coupled equations are integrated in time using a semi-implicit method in the finite element framework. We show that for the considered problems, a combination of hyperbolic and exponential enrichment functions based on an approximation of the boundary layer leads to improved accuracy compared to the conventional finite element method. It is illustrated that this approach can be more efficient than using h adaptivity to increase the accuracy of the finite element method near the boundary walls. The performance of the proposed partition-of-unity method is analyzed on several test examples for transient conduction–radiation problems in two space dimensions.

  16. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

  17. Remund J., Wald L., Page, J., 2003. Chain of algorithms to calculate advanced radiation parameters. Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress, 16-19 June, Gteborg, Sweden, CD-ROM published by International Solar Energy Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    al., 1998) chains leading onto the definition of a new standard in the modelling of solar radiationRemund J., Wald L., Page, J., 2003. Chain of algorithms to calculate advanced radiation parameters. Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress, 16-19 June, Gteborg, Sweden, CD-ROM published by International Solar

  18. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  19. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

  20. Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used to drive heterogeneous electrochemical reactions at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used and an efficient means for solar radiation delivery and trapping, poses a major challenge to the commercialization material with superior intrinsic properties, but a synergetic and intimately coupled combination of solar

  1. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimum tilt of a solar collector, Solar & Wind Technology.and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Darussalam,Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors, Energy Sources.

  2. Longitudinal variation of tides in the MLT region: 2. Relative effects of solar radiative and latent heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbes, Jeffrey

    of solar radiative and latent heating Xiaoli Zhang,1 Jeffrey M. Forbes,1 and Maura E. Hagan2 Received 11 study examines the relative importance of radiative heating and latent heating in accounting (GSWM) and new tidal heating rates derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP

  3. HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRIES OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETISM: RADIATIVE, PARTICULATE, AND HELIOSPHERIC IMPACTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Burkepile, Joan; Miesch, Mark; Markel, Robert S.; Sitongia, Leonard [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Gurman, Joseph B. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Olive, Jean-Philippe [Astrium SAS, 6 rue Laurent Pichat, F-75016 Paris (France); Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Hathaway, David H. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Among many other measurable quantities, the summer of 2009 saw a considerable low in the radiative output of the Sun that was temporally coincident with the largest cosmic-ray flux ever measured at 1 AU. Combining measurements and observations made by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft we begin to explore the complexities of the descending phase of solar cycle 23, through the 2009 minimum into the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. A hemispheric asymmetry in magnetic activity is clearly observed and its evolution monitored and the resulting (prolonged) magnetic imbalance must have had a considerable impact on the structure and energetics of the heliosphere. While we cannot uniquely tie the variance and scale of the surface magnetism to the dwindling radiative and particulate output of the star, or the increased cosmic-ray flux through the 2009 minimum, the timing of the decline and rapid recovery in early 2010 would appear to inextricably link them. These observations support a picture where the Sun's hemispheres are significantly out of phase with each other. Studying historical sunspot records with this picture in mind shows that the northern hemisphere has been leading since the middle of the last century and that the hemispheric ''dominance'' has changed twice in the past 130 years. The observations presented give clear cause for concern, especially with respect to our present understanding of the processes that produce the surface magnetism in the (hidden) solar interior-hemispheric asymmetry is the normal state-the strong symmetry shown in 1996 was abnormal. Further, these observations show that the mechanism(s) which create and transport the magnetic flux are slowly changing with time and, it appears, with only loose coupling across the equator such that those asymmetries can persist for a considerable time. As the current asymmetry persists and the basal energetics of the system continue to dwindle we anticipate new radiative and particulate lows coupled with increased cosmic-ray fluxes heading into the next solar minimum.

  4. Time series modeling and large scale global solar radiation forecasting from geostationary satellites data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a territory is poorly instrumented, geostationary satellites data can be useful to predict global solar radiation. In this paper, we use geostationary satellites data to generate 2-D time series of solar radiation for the next hour. The results presented in this paper relate to a particular territory, the Corsica Island, but as data used are available for the entire surface of the globe, our method can be easily exploited to another place. Indeed 2-D hourly time series are extracted from the HelioClim-3 surface solar irradiation database treated by the Heliosat-2 model. Each point of the map have been used as training data and inputs of artificial neural networks (ANN) and as inputs for two persistence models (scaled or not). Comparisons between these models and clear sky estimations were proceeded to evaluate the performances. We found a normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) close to 16.5% for the two best predictors (scaled persistence and ANN) equivalent to 35-45% related to ground measurements. F...

  5. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  6. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarnopolski, S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Lyman-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere, assess importance of this effect for interpretation of heliospheric measurements. Based on available data, we construct a model of evolution of the solar Lyman-alpha line profile with solar activity. Modify existing test-particle code calculating distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere to take into account the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear at ~ 10 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 2 at 1 AU. The classical model overestimates density everywhere except a ~ 60 deg cone around the downwind direction, where a density deficit appears. The magnitude of discrepancies depends appreciably on the phase of solar cycle, but only weakly on the parameters of the gas at the termination shock. The intensity of backscatter radiati...

  7. Numerical simulation of coastal flows when solar radiation is blocked by smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molenkamp, C. R.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Smoke from fires ignited in a large-scale nuclear exchange would greatly reduce the flux of solar radiation at the ground and lead to rapid cooling over continental regions. Because of its large heat capacity, the ocean would cool more slowly so that a thermal gradient would tend to develop at the continental coastlines. In order to investigate the hypothesis that these thermal gradients would lead to zones of persistent precipitation along the coastlines, a modified version of the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model has been used to simulate the evolution of atmospheric flows for both West and East coasts assuming a moderate westerly synoptic flow of 5 m s/sup /minus/1/. In both cases a layer of fog forms over the ground, effectively limiting the rate of cooling over land. This fog layer grows in height as the atmosphere aloft cools, forming a stratus cloud. Moisture from the ocean surface, mixed vertically into a radiatively cooled atmosphere, causes a cloud layer to form over the ocean as well. With both land and sea covered by clouds, there is no differential cooling, anomalous flow fields, or enhanced precipitation. These simulations also demonstrate the important role of moisture in moderating the initial rate of atmospheric cooling when solar radiation is blocked by smoke.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA SOLAR RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUMMARY OF USERS' NEEDS FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA SUMMARY ANDCALIFORNIA SOURCES OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA CALI FORN IADETERMINED NEED FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA - Made direct

  9. Gschwind Benot, Lionel Mnard, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Paul Stackhouse, 2007. A proposal for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski and M. Romaniuk (Eds), Shaker Verlag,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski in Solar Radiation Benoît Gschwind1 , Lionel Ménard1 , Thierry Ranchin1 , Lucien Wald1 and Paul Stackhouse2 energies. This communication focuses on solar energy and more specifically on aspects in solar radiation

  10. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  11. Solar light bulb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.A.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating light directly using solar energy is provided herein. It includes a concentrator and accumulator for the sun's rays to generate a concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. A distributor shaft is provided for distributing the beam of visible solar radiation. A fork is provided in the distributor shaft to define a plurality of branch lines, each provided with a mirror at the intersection to direct the beam down the respective branch line to permit parallel fractions of the beam to be reflected off the respective mirrors and to pass down the respective branch line. A solar bulb is provided including a double walled upper bulbous portion including the inlet from the branch line and a pair of heat outlet tubes, and a double walled lower bulbous portion, the upper portion thereof being divergently reflective, with the lower portion having walls which are either transparent or translucent to provide greater light diffusion, and the space between the two walls being maintained under vacuum to provide heat insulation values. A structure is provided within the solar bulb for the absorption and radiation of the concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. Preferably structure is provided connected to the solar bulb to draw in outside air in the summer to direct it past the solar bulb and to air vent hot air produced at the solar bulb to the outside, thereby providing light with minimal heat in the summer. The same structure is operated in the winter to draw in household air to direct it past the solar bulb and to recirculate such heated air produced at the solar bulb to the house, thereby providing light and heat in the winter.

  12. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  13. Potential-induced degradation in solar cells: Electronic structure and diffusion mechanism of sodium in stacking faults of silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebarth, Benedikt, E-mail: Benedikt.Ziebarth@iwm.fraunhofer.de; Gumbsch, Peter [Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoffmechanik IWM, Wöhlerstr. 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Ausgewandte Materialien (IAM-ZBS), Engelbert-Arnold-Str. 4, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mrovec, Matous; Elsässer, Christian [Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoffmechanik IWM, Wöhlerstr. 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium decorated stacking faults (SFs) were recently identified as the primary cause of potential-induced degradation in silicon (Si) solar-cells due to local electrical short-circuiting of the p-n junctions. In the present study, we investigate these defects by first principles calculations based on density functional theory in order to elucidate their structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties. Our calculations show that the presence of sodium (Na) atoms leads to a substantial elongation of the Si-Si bonds across the SF, and the coverage and continuity of the Na layer strongly affect the diffusion behavior of Na within the SF. An analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the presence of Na in the SF gives rise to partially occupied defect levels within the Si band gap that participate in electrical conduction along the SF.

  14. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Variability of Solar Heavy Ions at High Energieset al. “A Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques. ”of Electrons and Ions in Solar Flares”. Astrophysical

  15. Numerical Study on In-Situ Prominence Formation by Radiative Condensation in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Takafumi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an in-situ formation model for inverse-polarity solar prominence and demonstrate it using self-consistent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, including thermal conduction along magnetic fields and optically thin radiative cooling. The model enables us to form cool dense plasma clouds inside a flux rope by radiative condensation, which is regarded as an inverse-polarity prominence. Radiative condensation is triggered by changes in the magnetic topology, i.e., formation of the flux rope from the sheared arcade field, and by thermal imbalance due to the dense plasma trapped inside the flux rope. The flux rope is created by imposing converging and shearing motion on the arcade field. Either when the footpoint motion is in the anti-shearing direction or when heating is proportional to local density, the thermal state inside the flux rope becomes cooling-dominant, leading to radiative condensation. By controlling the temperature of condensation, we investigate the relationship between the t...

  16. SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University..................................................................................................................... 1 2 Solar Resource Assessment ........................................................................................... 2 2.1 Solar Radiation

  17. Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

  18. High-efficiency radiation-resistant InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamoto, T. [Toyota Technological Inst., Tempaku, Nagoya (Japan); [Japan Energy Corp., Toda, Saitama (Japan); Yamaguchi, M.; Taylor, S.J. [Toyota Technological Inst., Tempaku, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeda, E.; Agui, T.; Kurita, H. [Japan Energy Corp., Toda, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A world-record efficiency of 26.9% (AM0, 28 C) has been obtained for InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells fabricated by the MOCVD method. The radiation resistance of the InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells has also been evaluated following 1 MeV electron irradiation. Degradation in the tandem cell performance has been confirmed to be mainly attributed to large degradation in the GaAs bottom cell, which features a highly doped base layer. Similar radiation-resistance with GaAs-on-Ge cells has been observed for the InGaP/GaAs tandem cell. However, some recovery of the tandem cell performance has been found due to minority-carrier injection under light illumination of forward bias, which causes defect annealing in InGaP cells. The optimal design of the InGaP base layer thickness for current matching at end of life (EOL) (after irradiation with 10{sup 15} electrons cm{sup {minus}2}) has been examined.

  19. Minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing of radiation damage to InGaP solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Okuda, T.; Taylor, S.J. [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468 (Japan)] [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468 (Japan)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The observation of minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing of radiation-induced defects in InGaP is reported. 1-MeV electron irradiation results demonstrate superior radiation-resistance of InGa{sub 0.5}P{sub 0.5} solar cells compared to GaAs-on-Ge cells. Moreover, minority-carrier injection under forward bias conditions is shown to enhance defect annealing in InGaP and to result in the recovery of InGaP solar cell properties. These results suggest that the radiation-resistance of InGaP-based devices such as InGaP/GaAs(/Ge) multijunction solar cells and InGaP(As) light-emitting devices is further improved under minority-carrier injection condition. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Tracking for Capturing Solar Radiation in the ContinentalTime Scales of the Surface Solar Radiation Field, Journal ofof Tracking for Capturing Solar Radiation in the Continental

  1. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions with a solar tracking system’, Solar Energy 83 (GI reaching a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Mapincrease in GI reaching a tracking solar panel over a panel

  2. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Tarnopolski; M. Bzowski

    2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Lyman-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere and assess importance of this effect for interpretation of heliospheric in situ measurements. Based on available data, construct a model of evolution of the solar Lyman-alpha line profile with solar activity. Modify an existing test-particle code calculating distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere to take into account the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear at ~ 5 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 1.5 at 1 AU. The classical model overestimates density everywhere except a ~ 60 deg cone around the downwind direction, where a density deficit appears. The magnitude of discrepancies depends appreciably on the phase of solar cycle, but only weakly on the parameters of the gas at the termination shock. For in situ measurements of neutral atoms performed at ~ 1 AU, as those planned for IBEX, the Doppler correction will need to be taken into account, because the modifications include both the magnitude and direction of the local flux by a few km/s and degree, which, when unaccounted for, would bring an error of a few degrees and a few km/s in determination of the bulk velocity vector at the termination shock. The Doppler correction is appreciable for in situ observations of neutral H populations and their derivatives performed a few AU from the Sun.

  3. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  4. An improved multipyranometer array for the measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, Bryce Kirtley

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrected and Switched MPA Solution. . . . . 66 Table 5. 2: Hourly RMSE & R2 . 67 Table 5. 3: Curtiss Ib, T/C & Uniform Albedo Results (from Curtiss (1990)). . . . . . . . . . 67 Table D. I: Geometric Shade Factors for the Eppley Shadow Band (Eppley Labs...

  5. The long term dynamics of the solar radiative zone associated to new results from SoHO and young solar analogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvaine Turck-Chieze; Sebastien Couvidat; Antonio Eff-Darwich; Vincent Duez; Rafael A. Garcia; Stephane Mathis; Savita Mathur; Laurent Piau; David Salabert

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Standard Solar Model (SSM) is no more sufficient to interpret all the observations of the radiative zone obtained with the SoHO satellite. We recall our present knowledge of this internal region and compare the recent results to models beyond the SSM assumptions. Then we discuss the missing processes and quantify some of them in using young analog observations to build a more realistic view of our star. This progress will be useful for solar-like stars observed by COROT and KEPLER.

  6. 2009 US-Japan Workshop on Advanced Simulation Methods in Plasma Physics MHD Simulations of the Solar Astmosphere: Effects of Weak Ionization and Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Atsushi

    of the Solar Astmosphere: Effects of Weak Ionization and Radiation Hiroaki Isobe1 1 Unit of Synergetic Studies subject in solar physics is to understand the variety of dynamics and structure formation a key role in many cases. In this talk I will first review the plasma parameters in the solar atmosphere

  7. Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook, Phillip S. Johnson, Xiaosong Liu, An-Li Chin, and F. J. Himpsela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook, Phillip S. Johnson for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells phthalocyanines and for a biological analog the charge transfer carriers in a solar cell. © 2009 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3267849 I. INTRODUCTION

  8. Asymptotic Accuracy of the Equilibrium Diffusion Approximation and Semi-analytic Solutions of Radiating Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Jim Michael

    2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 I.4 State-of-the-art computational methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 CHAPTER II RADIATION TRANSPORT AND RADIATION HYDRODY- NAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 II.1 Radiation transport without material... recombination at the front of the expanding shock. Adapted from the March 24, 2005, Astronomy Picture of the Day [16]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure I.2 SN1987A was viewed from earth on February 23, 1987. Only 168,000 light...

  9. Back-junction back-contact n-type silicon solar cell with diffused boron emitter locally blocked by implanted phosphorus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Müller, Ralph, E-mail: ralph.mueller@ise.fraunhofer.de; Schrof, Julian; Reichel, Christian; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, Freiburg D-79110 (Germany)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The highest energy conversion efficiencies in the field of silicon-based photovoltaics have been achieved with back-junction back-contact (BJBC) silicon solar cells by several companies and research groups. One of the most complex parts of this cell structure is the fabrication of the locally doped p- and n-type regions, both on the back side of the solar cell. In this work, we introduce a process sequence based on a synergistic use of ion implantation and furnace diffusion. This sequence enables the formation of all doped regions for a BJBC silicon solar cell in only three processing steps. We observed that implanted phosphorus can block the diffusion of boron atoms into the silicon substrate by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, locally implanted phosphorus can be used as an in-situ mask for a subsequent boron diffusion which simultaneously anneals the implanted phosphorus and forms the boron emitter. BJBC silicon solar cells produced with such an easy-to-fabricate process achieved conversion efficiencies of up to 21.7%. An open-circuit voltage of 674?mV and a fill factor of 80.6% prove that there is no significant recombination at the sharp transition between the highly doped emitter and the highly doped back surface field at the device level.

  10. A new parameterization of canopy spectral response to incident solar radiation: case study with hyperspectral data from pine dominant forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    A new parameterization of canopy spectral response to incident solar radiation: case study, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland c Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland d VTT Automation, Remote Sensing Group, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland Received 27

  11. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM

  12. Radiative hydrodynamic modelling and observations of the X-class solar flare on 2011 March 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Michael B; Allred, Joel C; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the response of the solar atmosphere to non-thermal electron beam heating using the radiative transfer and hydrodynamics modelling code RADYN. The temporal evolution of the parameters that describe the non-thermal electron energy distribution were derived from hard X-ray observations of a particular flare, and we compared the modelled and observed parameters. The evolution of the non-thermal electron beam parameters during the X1.5 solar flare on 2011 March 9 were obtained from analysis of RHESSI X-ray spectra. The RADYN flare model was allowed to evolve for 110 seconds, after which the electron beam heating was ended, and was then allowed to continue evolving for a further 300s. The modelled flare parameters were compared to the observed parameters determined from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy. The model produced a hotter and denser flare loop than that observed and also cooled more rapidly, suggesting that additional energy input in the decay phase of the flare is required. In the explosi...

  13. Solar surface emerging flux regions: a comparative study of radiative MHD modeling and Hinode SOT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. M. Cheung; M. Schuessler; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from numerical modeling of emerging flux regions on the solar surface. The modeling was carried out by means of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux undulates it to form serpentine field lines emerging into the photosphere. Observational characteristics including the pattern of emerging flux regions, the cancellation of surface flux and associated high speed downflows, the convective collapse of photospheric flux tubes, the appearance of anomalous darkenings, the formation of bright points and the possible existence of transient kilogauss horizontal fields are discussed in the context of new observations from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. Implications for the local helioseismology of emerging flux regions are also discussed.

  14. Proceedings of Eurosun 2004, published by PSE GmbH, Freiburg, Germany, pp. (3) 916-920, 2004 HelioClim: a long-term database on solar radiation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Clim: a long-term database on solar radiation for Europe and Africa S. Cros, M. Albuisson, M. Lefèvre, C-series of solar radiation data. Daily irradiation values are available over Europe, Africa and Atlantic Ocean stations only. INTRODUCTION Time series of solar radiation at ground level open the way to many

  15. Lefvre M., Cros S., Albuisson M., Wald L., 2003. Developing a database using Meteosat data for the de-livery of solar radiation assessments at ground level. In Proceedings of the 23rd EARSeL Annual Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for the de- livery of solar radiation assessments at ground level. In Proceedings of the 23rd EARSeL Annual, Meteosat, solar radiation, climatology, database, information system ABSTRACT: An information system, called HelioClim, is offered for answering the needs for long-term time-series of solar radiation data

  16. Bois B., Wald L., Pieri P., Van Leeuwen C., Commagnac L., Chery Ph., Christen M., Gaudillre J.-P., Saur E., Estimating spatial and temporal variations in solar radiation within bordeaux winegrowing region using remotely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .-P., Saur E., Estimating spatial and temporal variations in solar radiation within bordeaux winegrowing-25, 2008. ESTIMATING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION WITHIN BORDEAUX WINEGROWING REGION presents a study solar radiation spatial and temporal variations in Bordeaux winegrowing area, for a 20

  17. Sri M., Huld T., Dunlop E.D., Albuisson M., Lefvre M., Wald L., 2007. Uncertainties in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd European ELECTRICITY YIELD PREDICTION FROM FLUCTUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION Marcel Súri1 , Thomas Huld1 , Ewan D. Dunlop1Clim, PVGIS, solar radiation, interannual variability, PV yield prediction 1 INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV

  18. Cros S., Wald L., 2003. Survey of the main databases providing solar radiation data at ground level. In Proceedings of the 23rd EARSeL Annual Symposium "Remote Sensing in Transition", 2-4 June 2003, Ghent,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cros S., Wald L., 2003. Survey of the main databases providing solar radiation data at ground level providing solar radiation data at the ground level S. Cros & L. Wald Remote Sensing and Modeling Group, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France Keywords: solar radiation, database, information system, climatology

  19. AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY 14 8 ( 20 0 8 ) 1 6 9 6 1 7 0 6; doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.06.001 Efficient assessment of topographic solar radiation to improve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .06.001 Efficient assessment of topographic solar radiation to improve plant distribution models Christian Piedallu of solar radiation for decades but have difficulty measuring it on plots. Proxies recorded on the ground topographic solar radiation, from the simplest ones (proxies based on slope, and sine or cosine transformed

  20. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation at Earth Surface: An Example Abstract--The HelioClim-1 database contains daily values of the solar radiation reaching the ground and accurate knowledge of the solar radiation and its daily, seasonal and annual variations over recent years

  1. Gschwind B., Mnard L., Albuisson M., Wald L., 2005. Three years of experience with the SoDa web service delivering solar radiation information: lessons learned and perspectives. In Proceedings of the 19th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    service delivering solar radiation information: lessons learned and perspectives. In Proceedings of the 19 of experience with the SoDa web service delivering solar radiation information: lessons learned and perspectives Benoît Gschwind, Lionel Ménard, Michel Albuisson and Lucien Wald1 Abstract Information on solar radiation

  2. Rigollier C., Lefvre M., Cros S., Wald L., 2003, Heliosat 2: an improved method for the mapping of the solar radiation from Meteosat imagery. In Proceedings of the 2002 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the solar radiation from Meteosat imagery. In Proceedings of the 2002 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite. HELIOSAT 2: AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE MAPPING OF THE SOLAR RADIATION FROM METEOSAT IMAGERY C. Rigollier, M INTRODUCTION Mapping solar radiation at the ground level is an important issue for several applications

  3. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Map of theannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined withand azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for a

  4. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Map of theand azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for aannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined with

  5. Effects of solar radiation on manganese oxide reactions with selected organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, D.J.; Zepp, R.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of sunlight on aqueous redox reactions between manganese oxides (MnO{sub x}) and selected organic substances are reported. No sunlight-induced rate enhancement was observed for the MnO{sub x} oxidation of substituted phenols, anisole, o-dichlorobenzene, or p-chloroaniline. On the other hand, solar radiation did accelerate the reduction of manganese oxides by dissolved organic matter (DOM) from aquatic environments. The photoreduction of MnO{sub x} by DOM was little affected by molecular oxygen in air-saturated water (250 {mu}M), but was inhibited by 2,6-dichloroindophenol (0.5-6 {mu}M), and excellent electron acceptor. MnO{sub x} reduction also was photosensitized by anthraquinone-2-sulfonate. These results indicate that the photoreduction probably involves electron transfer from excited states of sorbed DOM to the oxide surface. Wavelength studies indicated that ultraviolet-B radiation (280-320 nm) plays an important role in this photoreduction.

  6. Microstructural Evolution and Radiation Effects of Uranium-Bearing Diffusion Couples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Chao-Chen

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    bombarded regions. Additionally, the mechanism of intermetallics formation (e.g.Fe23Zr6) and radiation stability were discussed. Second, a matrix of uranium-bearing couples is established. 1) Depleted uranium (DU) was bonded with polycrystalline iron...

  7. Hypofractionation vs Conventional Radiation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Matched-Cohort Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, Geert O., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jansen, Marc H. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lauwers, Selmer J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bouffet, Eric [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Saran, Frank [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schieving, Jolanda H. [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Kaspers, Gertjan J. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hargrave, Darren [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Despite conventional radiation therapy, 54 Gy in single doses of 1.8 Gy (54/1.8 Gy) over 6 weeks, most children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the role of hypofractionation radiation therapy given over 3 to 4 weeks. A 1:1 matched-cohort analysis with conventional radiation therapy was performed to assess response and survival. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven children, aged 3 to 14, were treated according to 1 of 2 hypofractionation regimens over 3 to 4 weeks (39/3 Gy, n=16 or 44.8/2.8 Gy, n=11). All patients had symptoms for {<=}3 months, {>=}2 signs of the neurologic triad (cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, long tract signs), and characteristic features of DIPG on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-seven patients fulfilling the same diagnostic criteria and receiving at least 50/1.8 to 2.0 Gy were eligible for the matched-cohort analysis. Results: With hypofractionation radiation therapy, the overall survival at 6, 9, and 12 months was 74%, 44%, and 22%, respectively. Progression-free survival at 3, 6, and 9 months was 77%, 43%, and 12%, respectively. Temporary discontinuation of steroids was observed in 21 of 27 (78%) patients. No significant difference in median overall survival (9.0 vs 9.4 months; P=.84) and time to progression (5.0 vs 7.6 months; P=.24) was observed between hypofractionation vs conventional radiation therapy, respectively. Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed DIPG, a hypofractionation regimen, given over 3 to 4 weeks, offers equal overall survival with less treatment burden compared with a conventional regimen of 6 weeks.

  8. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FOR DAILY SOLAR RADIATION DATA ABSTRACT Daily totala corrected solar radiation data base for 19 locations infor Daily Solar Radiation Data Appendix A SUMMARIES OF

  9. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  10. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  11. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar System, it is likely to see strong competition from various nations and private industry. China

  12. The influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exhanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Biraud, S.C.; Noone, D.C.; Buenning, N.H.; Randerson, J.T.; Torn, M.S.; Welker, J.; White, J.W.C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G.D.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} isotope fluxes ('isofluxes') in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C{sub 4} grassland), in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model, ISOLSM. Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C{sub 4} grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2} may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  13. Simulation of coastal flow fields when the incident solar radiation is obscured

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molenkamp, C.R.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the aftermath of a large scale nuclear exchange, smoke from fires started by the explosions would be lofted into the troposphere and lower stratosphere. If sufficient amounts are injected, this smoke would be so thick that very little solar radiation would penetrate to the ground. The ground surface, obscured from insolation by the smoke, would cool rapidly leading to temperature decreases of 10 to 25/sup 0/C in the lower atmosphere. Among the many possible effects accompanying this cooling, a suggestion has been made that regions of enhanced and persistent precipitation could occur along continental coastlines due to the response of the flow fields to the more rapid cooling of air over land than over the oceans. This paper describes a simulation intended to investigate this super land breeze hypothesis using a mesoscale model that has been used to simulate normal land and sea breeze flows. The simulation shows that fog and clouds form over both land and sea with the net result that there is no dramatic temperature difference at the continental coastline and no significant induced flow or vertical motion. This simulation again contravenes the super land breeze precipitation hypothesis. In addition, it points out the moderating effect cloud and fog formation would have on the rate of cooling over the continents.

  14. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities and counties in North Carolina generally may not adopt ordinances prohibiting the installation of "a solar collector that gathers solar radiation as a substitute for traditional energy for...

  15. SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR IRRADIATION Markus Pfänder1 temperature, pyrometric temperature measurement, solar-blind ------------------------------------ 1 #12-called solar-blind spectral measurement ranges, where the contribution of reflected solar radiation

  16. A Monte Carlo Synthetic-Acceleration Method for Solving the Thermal Radiation Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL] [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL] [ORNL; Slattery, Stuart [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel synthetic-acceleration based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diusion equation in three dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that not only can our Monte Carlo method be an eective solver for sparse matrix systems, but also that it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned Conjugate Gradient while producing numerically identical results. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.

  17. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO 2 and CO 18 O exchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cover, radiation, meteorological and water isotope data tohere, radiation, cloud property, and aerosol data wereData were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation

  18. Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 , A.E. Pantoja 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 ice show daily oscillations consistent with heating by solar radiation. We present and solve a heat for solar power absorption based on Monte Carlo scatter­ ing simulations of penetrating photons. We observe

  19. Solar Sail Technology for Nanosatellites Michael D. Souder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Matthew

    vector fsrp Solar radiation pressure force vector, N P Solar radiation pressure in Earth's vicinity, N/m2

  20. Inward shift of outer radiation belt electrons as a function of Dst index and the influence of the solar wind on electron injections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Inward shift of outer radiation belt electrons as a function of Dst index and the influence of the solar wind on electron injections into the slot region H. Zhao1 and X. Li1 Received 30 July 2012; revised 11 November 2012; accepted 13 November 2012. [1] The radial positioning of radiation belt

  1. PSW1-C0.2-D0.1-E2.4-F0.1-PSRB2-0021-02 SOLAR WIND-DRIVEN ELECTRON RADIATION BELT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    linear filters, to remove unwanted "col- ored noise" from solar wind and radiation belt electron data output might be achieved with: 1) additional simultaneous solar wind inputs; 2) more sophisticated quality of solar, solar-wind, and magnetospheric data that has become available in recent years has led

  2. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Huang, Li; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE);comfort and on the air conditioning energy needed to correctby energy-intensive air-conditioning. Second, solar gain in

  3. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    direct solar radiation onto the PEC cell and tracking isTracking Concentration…………………….39 Figure 1.20: PV-RO System……………………………………………………………..42 Figure 1.21: Solar

  4. Simulation of Infrared Laser Heating of Silica Using Heat Conduction and Multifrequency Radiation Diffusion Equations Adapted for Homogeneous Refractive Lossy Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shestakov, A I; Matthews, M J; Vignes, R M; Stolken, J S

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Localized, transient heating of materials using micro-scale, highly absorbing laser light has been used in many industries to anneal, melt and ablate material with high precision. Accurate modeling of the relative contributions of conductive, convective and radiative losses as a function of laser parameters is essential to optimizing micro-scale laser processing of materials. In bulk semi-transparent materials such as silicate glass melts, radiation transport is known to play a significantly larger role as the temperature increases. Conventionally, radiation is treated in the frequency-averaged diffusive limit (Rosseland approximation). However, the role and proper treatment of radiative processes under rapidly heated, high thermal gradient conditions, often created through laser-matter interactions, is at present not clear. Starting from the radiation transport equation for homogeneous, refractive lossy media, they derive the corresponding time-dependent multi-frequency diffusion equations. Zeroth and first moments of the transport equation couple the energy density, flux and pressure tensor. The system is closed by neglecting the temporal derivative of the flux and replacing the pressure tensor by its diagonal analogue. The radiation equations are coupled to a diffusion equation for the matter temperature. They are interested in modeling infrared laser heating of silica over sub-millimeter length scales, and at possibly rapid rates. Hence, in contrast to related work, they retain the temporal derivative of the radiation field. They derive boundary conditions at a planar air-silica interface taking account of reflectivities obtained from the Fresnel relations that include absorption. The effect of a temperature-dependent absorption index is explored through construction of a multi-phonon dielectric function that includes mode dispersion. The spectral dimension is discretized into a finite number of intervals yielding a system of multigroup diffusion equations. Simulations are presented. To demonstrate the bulk heat loss due to radiation and the effect of the radiation's temporal derivative, they model cooling of a silica slab, initially at 2500 K, for 10 s. Retaining the derivative enables correctly modeling the loss of photons initially present in the slab. Other simulations model irradiating silica discs (of approximately 5 mm radii and thickness) with a CO2 laser: {lambda} = 10.59 and 4.6 um, Gaussian profile, r{sub 0} = 0.5 mm for 1/e decay. By surrounding the disks in room-temperature air, they make use of the boundary conditions described above.

  5. 38Name ________________________________ Solar Proton Events can cause satellite damage and produce harmful radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the solar panels 10% larger to they produce 4900 watts at launch. By the end of 2004, the power will have38Name ________________________________ Solar Proton Events can cause satellite damage and produce the SPEs between 1997 and 2004 with intensities greater than 300 pico-Flux Units (pFU). Study this table

  6. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risø fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  8. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to  predict daily solar radiation.   Agriculture and Forest and Chuo, S.   2008.  Solar radiation forecasting using Short?term forecasting of solar radiation:   A statistical 

  9. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operation of a solar radiation data collection network inimplementation of a solar radiation data collection networka high quality solar radiation data base for well-located

  10. Radiation response of single and dual junction p{sup +}n InGaP/GaAs space solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.J.; Xapsos, M.A.; Summers, G.P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Cotal, H.L.; Messenger, S.R. [SFA, Inc., Largo, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation response of single and dual-junction p{sup +}n InGaP/GaAs solar cells is studied. The degradation mechanisms of single-junction InGaP cells are identified, and characteristic degradation curves in terms of displacement damage dose are calculated. The response of dual-junction cells is presented, and the response of each sub-cell is discussed. The cell response is compared with those of other technologies. The effect of current injection on irradiated InGaP cell is presented.

  11. Market diffusion and the effect of demonstrations : a study of the Denver Metro Passive Solar Home program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilien, Gary L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a report on the reactions to and effects of the Denver Metro Passive Solar Home demonstration program, conducted in the Spring of 1981. The purpose of the program was to provide impetus to builders for ...

  12. Combined Modeling of Acceleration, Transport, and Hydrodynamic Response in Solar Flares. II. Inclusion of Radiative Transfer with RADYN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares involve complex processes that are coupled together and span a wide range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales. Modeling such processes self-consistently has been a challenge in the past. Here we present such a model to simulate the coupling of high-energy particle kinetics with hydrodynamics of the atmospheric plasma. We combine the Stanford unified Fokker-Planck code that models particle acceleration, transport, and bremsstrahlung radiation with the RADYN hydrodynamic code that models the atmospheric response to collisional heating by non-thermal electrons through detailed radiative transfer calculations. We perform simulations using different injection electron spectra, including an {\\it ad hoc} power law and more realistic spectra predicted by the stochastic acceleration model due to turbulence or plasma waves. Surprisingly, stochastically accelerated electrons, even with energy flux $\\ll 10^{10}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, cause "explosive" chromospheric evaporation and drive stronger up- an...

  13. NEW Fe IX LINE IDENTIFICATIONS USING SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY/SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET MEASUREMENT OF EMITTED RADIATION AND HINODE/EIS JOINT OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Young, P. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 5}4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve the accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.

  14. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under the influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarnopolski, S; 10.1051/0004-6361:20077058

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the plethora of detailed results from heliospheric missions and at the advent of the first mission dedicated IBEX, we have entered the era of precision heliospheric studies. Interpretation of these data require precision modeling, with second-order effects quantitatively taken into account. We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Ly-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere. Based on available data, we (i) construct a model of evolution for the solar Ly-alpha line profile with solar activity, (ii) modify an existing test-particle code used to calculate the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere so that it takes the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity into account, and (iii) compare the results of the old and new version. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear between ~5 and ~3 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 1.5 at 1 AU. The classical model overestima...

  15. A preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude in the north of Buenos Aires provence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cionco, R; Rodriguez, R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using irradiance and temperature measurements obtained at the Facultad Regional San Nicol\\'as of UTN, we performed a preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude. The results show a very satisfactory adjustment (R = 0.848, RMS = 0.066, RMS% = 9.690 %), even taking into account the limited number of months (36). Thus, we have a formula of predictive nature, capable of estimating mean monthly solar radiation for various applications. We expect to have new data sets to expand and improve the statistical significance of these results.

  16. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under the influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Tarnopolski; M. Bzowski

    2008-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    With the plethora of detailed results from heliospheric missions and at the advent of the first mission dedicated IBEX, we have entered the era of precision heliospheric studies. Interpretation of these data require precision modeling, with second-order effects quantitatively taken into account. We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Ly-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere. Based on available data, we (i) construct a model of evolution for the solar Ly-alpha line profile with solar activity, (ii) modify an existing test-particle code used to calculate the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere so that it takes the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity into account, and (iii) compare the results of the old and new version. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear between ~5 and ~3 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 1.5 at 1 AU. The classical model overestimates the density everywhere except for a ~60-degr cone around the downwind direction, where a density deficit appears. The magnitude of the discrepancies appreciably depends on the phase of the solar cycle, but only weakly on the parameters of the gas at the termination shock. For in situ measurements of neutral atoms performed at ~1 AU, the Doppler correction will need to be taken into account, because the modifications include both the magnitude and direction of the local flux by a few km/s and degrees, respectively, which, when unaccounted for, would introduce an error of a few km/s and degrees in determination of the magnitude and direction of the bulk velocity vector at the termination shock.

  17. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  18. Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    with high first ionization potential are underrepresented in solar wind. Probable cause: ambipolar diffusion: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere Potential explanation: belt due to higher pressurePetrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE 1951: First

  19. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process in the Adoption of Solar Energy Systems." Journal ofthe diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri2010. Washington, DC, Solar Energy Industries Association:

  20. SchroedterHomscheidt M., Betcke J., Breitkreuz H., Hammer A., Heinemann D., Petrack S., HolzerPopp T., Wald L., 2006. Energyspecific solar radiation data from MSG: The Heliosat3 project. In Proceedings of the 3rd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    de Paris ABSTRACT Solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants MSG RAO Workshop, Helsinki : Finland (2006)" #12;Figure 2. Hourly effective energy production (solidPopp T., Wald L., 2006. Energyspecific solar radiation data from MSG: The Heliosat3 project

  1. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  2. Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

  3. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of minute solar radiation data, Solar Energy, 55 (1995) 21-0.1? National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB-SUNY) cellsa month of 1 minute radiation data from 11 sites over 75 x

  4. Using Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, .Dake

    Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean RONG-HUA ZHANG State Key Laboratory of Satellite OceanUsing Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Hangzhou, Zhejiang

  5. By Asher Tubman for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page F.1 6/20/2011 Appendix F: Review of PV Panels Labs These kits were used for the first year of a two IB physics class used primarily as a followup/ reinforcement/ application of an electrical circuits unit. I would like

  6. Note: Calibration of EBT3 radiochromic film for measuring solar ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, S. L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, P. K. N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar (UVA + UVB) exposure was assessed using the Gafchromic EBT3 film. The coloration change was represented by the net reflective optical density (Net ROD). Through calibrations against a UV-tube lamp, operational relationships were obtained between Net ROD and the (UVA + UVB) exposures (in J?cm{sup ?2} or J?m{sup ?2}). The useful range was from ?0.2 to ?30 J?cm{sup ?2}. The uniformity of UV irradiation was crucial for an accurate calibration. For solar exposures ranging from 2 to 11 J?cm{sup ?2}, the predicted Net ROD agreed with the recorded values within 9%, while the predicted exposures agreed with the recorded values within 15%.

  7. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at different tilt and azimuth angles, and that can be used to estimate the normal incident component without the tracking devices that require more detailed installation and maintenance.. The array’s sensors are of the photovoltaic type, which require both... for photovoltaic-type solar sensor, and using similar approach, a number of solutions for switching schemes was presented by Miloslaw [7]. However, those methods still cannot provide high accuracy for the whole estimation period and the methods still present...

  8. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplanis, S., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr; Kaplani, E., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr [Renewable Energy Systems Lab., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, Koukouli 26 334, Patra (Greece)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, ?, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2°}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2°}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  9. Axion mechanism of Sun luminosity and TSI variations: light shining through the solar radiation zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusov, V D; Sharf, I V; Eingorn, M V; Smolyar, V P; Vlasenko, D S; Zelentsova, T N; Linnik, E P; Beglaryan, M E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the hypothesis of the axion mechanism of Sun luminosity suggesting that the solar axion-like particles are born in the core of the Sun and may be efficiently converted back into $\\gamma$-quanta in the magnetic field of the solar overshoot tachocline is physically relevant. As a result, it is also shown that the intensity variations of the $\\gamma$-quanta of axion origin, induced by the magnetic field variations in the tachocline, directly cause the Sun luminosity and total solar irradiance (TSI) variations and eventually characterize the active and quiet states of the Sun. Within the framework of this mechanism estimations of the strength of the axion coupling to a photon ($g_{a \\gamma} = 7.2 \\cdot 10^{-11} GeV^{-1}$) and the axion-like particle mass ($m_a \\sim 10^{-5} eV$) have been obtained. It is also shown that the claimed axion parameters do not contradict any known experimental and theoretical model-independent limitations.

  10. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  11. Project Profile: Helios: Understanding Solar Evolution through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analytics Project Profile: Helios: Understanding Solar Evolution through Text Analytics Logo of SRI International. SRI International, under the Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion...

  12. NREL: MIDC/University of Texas Panamerican Solar Radiation Lab (26.49 N,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isDataWorking withFuelSolar51 m,98.17 W, 45

  13. PoPulation Differentiation anD raPiD evolution of egg Color in aCCorDanCe with Solar raDiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lahti, David C.

    PoPulation Differentiation anD raPiD evolution of egg Color in aCCorDanCe with Solar raDiation Davi, . Diferenciación entre Poblaciones y Evolución Rápida del Color de los Huevos de Acuerdo a la Radiación Solar Uy C P' R d Pm wb, ://www.j. m/I.. DOI: 10.1525/k.2008.07033DOI: 10.1525/k.2008.07033 Bird egg color

  14. Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITYResponses:December562JeffersonControl inRadiation

  15. Ultrahigh Efficiency Multiband Solar Cells Final Report for Director's Innovation Initiative Project DII-2005-1221

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, Kin Man

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Multijunction Solar Cell Performance in RadiationIgari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Versionof Multijunction Solar Cell Performance in Radiation

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Diffusion Bonding Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory (NESL) Transient Nuclear Fuels Testing Radiation Effects Sciences Solar Electric Propulsion Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Experimental Testing...

  17. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  18. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Cnossen; J. Sanz-Forcada; F. Favata; O. Witasse; T. Zegers; N. F. Arnold

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water vapor, etc., have only negligible effects, but changes in CO2 concentration can cause large differences in surface flux. Differences due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels on the Archean Earth were several orders of magnitude higher in the 200-300 nm wavelength range than current levels in this range. That means that any form of life that might have been present at Earth's surface 4-3.5 Ga must have been exposed to much higher quantities of damaging radiation than at present.

  19. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    year (TMY) solar radiation data. The goal here is toTMY or actual solar radiation data, and thus serves theusing actual solar radiation data, though this data must be

  20. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang (Cornell); (Guangdong); (UMM)

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  1. Parameterization of solar flare dose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare ...

  2. Solar variability of four sites across the state of Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dampen fluctuations in solar power output of the average ofthat solar radiation is proportional to PV power output and

  3. Variation in rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate of cattle as related to variations in solar radiation, air temperature, wind velocity, and vapor pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quazi, Mohammad Fazlur Rahim

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VARIATION IN RECTAL TEMPERATURE, RESPIRATORY RATE, AND PULSE RATE GF CATTLE AS RELATED TO VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION, AIR TEMPERATURE, WIND VELOCITY, AND VAPOR PRESSURE A Dissertation By Mohammad Fazlur Rahim Quazi Approved as to style... Dissertation By Mohammad Fazlur Rahim tyiazi Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 1955 Major Subject: Genetics ? ?4...

  4. Solar Energy Fundamentals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harlan H. Bengtson; Harlan H. Bengtson

    Solar energy travels from the sun to the earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation. In this course properties of electromagnetic radiation will be discussed and basic calculations for electromagnetic radiation will be described. Several solar position parameters will be discussed along with means of calculating

  5. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WR7. Solar Radiation Data (SoDa) Service. http://www.soda-1995). In National Solar Radiation Data Base—Final TechnicalMeteosat derived gridded radiation data for Europe. This

  6. Multi-horizon solar radiation forecasting for Mediterranean locations using time series models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering the grid manager's point of view, needs in terms of prediction of intermittent energy like the photovoltaic resource can be distinguished according to the considered horizon: following days (d+1, d+2 and d+3), next day by hourly step (h+24), next hour (h+1) and next few minutes (m+5 e.g.). Through this work, we have identified methodologies using time series models for the prediction horizon of global radiation and photovoltaic power. What we present here is a comparison of different predictors developed and tested to propose a hierarchy. For horizons d+1 and h+1, without advanced ad hoc time series pre-processing (stationarity) we find it is not easy to differentiate between autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). However we observed that using exogenous variables improves significantly the results for MLP . We have shown that the MLP were more adapted for horizons h+24 and m+5. In summary, our results are complementary and improve the existing prediction techniques ...

  7. Solar Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For both residential and non-residential systems, the exemption applies to solar-energy systems that utilize solar radiation to produce energy designed to provide heating, cooling, hot water and/or...

  8. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. TheLSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. Thesolar concentrators based on lens and mirrors with tracking

  9. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of exi nc :;:; ;;;- radiation data radiation data and recommendations for thevertical surface solar radiation data, for example); and (2)

  10. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  11. absorption solar cooling: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: loads with solar radiation intensity is an important advantage when utilizing solar energy in air, solar energy J.P. Praene Education: At the University of Reunion...

  12. Global Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installation Market to be Propelled...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of humid climatic conditions and irregular intensities of solar radiations. The key companies operating in the global solar photovoltaic installation market are Trina Solar...

  13. Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS Large scale (up to 100 Mm) anomalies in the structure and radiation of the solar atmosphere. Photosphere : AR = cluster of strong magnetic flux tubes of facular points. Filamentary structure due to supergranulation. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle

  14. Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu,,In,Ga...Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    .1063/1.3291046 Cu In,Ga Se2 CIGS solar cells have achieved efficien- cies above 19% using a compositionally graded,S 2 films.7­9 However, the best CIGS solar cells have a compo- sitionally graded profile.10 The graded in compositionally graded CIGS solar cells. Energy dependent EBIC measurements were collected in the planar

  15. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ?15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

  16. Scaling anisotropy of the power in parallel and perpendicular components of the solar wind magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughton, Sean

    superthermal particles and cosmic rays appear to be diffusively coupled to the solar wind, allowing exchange

  17. A Search for a keV Signature of Radiatively Decaying Dark Matter with Suzaku XIS Observations of the X-ray Diffuse Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekiya, Norio; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed the deepest search for an X-ray emission line between 0.5 and 7 keV from non-baryonic dark matter with the Suzaku XIS. Dark matter associated with the Milky Way galaxy was selected as the target to obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio. From the Suzaku archive, we selected 187 data sets of blank sky regions which were dominated by the X-ray diffuse background. The data sets were from 2005 to 2013. Instrumental responses were adjusted by multiple calibration data sets of the Crab Nebula. We also improved the technique of subtracting lines of instrumental origin. These energy spectra were well described by X-ray emission due to charge exchange around the Solar System, hot plasma in and around the Milky Way and superposition of extra-galactic point sources. A signal of a narrow emission line was searched for, and the significance of detection was evaluated in consideration of the blind search method (the Look-elsewhere Effect). Our results exhibited no significant detection of an emission line featu...

  18. Hydrogen H$?$ line polarization in solar flares. Theoretical investigation of atomic polarization by proton beams considering self-consistent NLTE polarized radiative transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiri Stepan; Petr Heinzel; Sylvie Sahal-Brechot

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. We present a theoretical review of the effect of impact polarization of a hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line due to an expected proton beam bombardment in solar flares. Aims. Several observations indicate the presence of the linear polarization of the hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line observed near the solar limb above 5% and preferentially in the radial direction. We theoretically review the problem of deceleration of the beam originating in the coronal reconnection site due to its interaction with the chromospheric plasma, and describe the formalism of the density matrix used in our description of the atomic processes and the treatment of collisional rates. Methods. We solve the self-consistent NLTE radiation transfer problem for the particular semiempirical chromosphere models for both intensity and linear polarization components of the radiation field. Results. In contrast to recent calculations, our results show that the energy distribution of the proton beam at H$\\alpha$ formation levels and depolarizing collisions by background electrons and protons cause a significant reduction of the effect below 0.1%. The radiation transfer solution shows that tangential resonance-scattering polarization dominates over the impact polarization effect in all considered models. Conclusions. In the models studied, proton beams are unlikely to be a satisfying explanation for the observed linear polarization of the H$\\alpha$ line.

  19. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  20. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5°N during indicated four distinct tempera- ture regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermody- namic and solar

  1. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Ian M.

    A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5°N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermody- namic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt

  2. Abrams Primary School passive solar design. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general project documentation and the design process documentation for the project are presented. The following are appended: analysis of thermal transfer and internal heat contributions to the heating and cooling loads for a typical four-classroom teaching module using bin-chart temperature data, trace simulation for the original building design, Teanet simulation of original building design for the month of January 1959, Teanet simulation of Solar 2 for the month of January 1959, incremental solar cost assessment, and diffuse radiation incident on the monitor glass. (MHR)

  3. Spectral solar irradiance before and during a Harmattan dust spell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyefa, Z.D. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Akure (Nigeria)] [Federal Univ. of Technology, Akure (Nigeria); Holmgren, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the ground-level spectral distributions of the direct, diffuse and global solar irradiance between 300 and 1100 nm were made at Akure (7.15{degree}N, 5.5{degree}E), Nigeria, in December 1991 before and during a Harmattan dust spell employing a spectroradiometer (LICOR LI-1800) with 6 nm resolution. The direct spectral solar irradiance which was initially reduced before the dust storm was further attenuated by about 50% after the spell. Estimated values of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} indicated an increase of about 146% of this parameter while the Angstrom wavelength-exponent {alpha} decreased by about 65% within the 2-day study period. The spectral diffuse-to-direct and diffuse-to-global ratios suggest that the main cause of the significant reduction in solar irradiance at the surface was the scattering by the aerosol which led to an increase in the diffuse component. The global irradiance though reduced, was less sensitive to changing Harmattan conditions. It is recommended that solar energy devices that use radiation from Sun and sky be used under fluctuating Harmattan conditions. There are some deviations from the Angstrom formula under very turbid Harmattan conditions which could be explained by the relative increase of the particle sizes. 31 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Transmission of Solar Radiation by Clouds over Snow and Ice Surfaces. Part II: Cloud Optical Depth and Shortwave Radiative Forcing from Pyranometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Stephen

    coincident hourly sea ice reports, instantaneous cloud radiative forcing and effective cloud optical depth. "Effective" optical depths (for a radiatively equivalent horizontally homogeneous cloud) are classified a characteristic optical depth of 15 at 47°S, increasing to 24 in the region of maximum cloud cover at 58°S

  5. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  6. NEW CONCEPTS FOR STATIC CONCENTRATION OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSE RADIATION A. Luque, J. Eguren, J.M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. del Alamo, J.M. Gomez, M.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    .M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. del Alamo, J.M. Gomez, M. Acuna and G. Sala Instituto de Energia Solar (E light are upper bounds when using practical ~! erials. Practical bifacial solar cells required with g =-1 c Tnree rules can be immedia .. f· solar cell: aJ to use bifac ,

  7. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  8. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  9. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar panels were calculated for a grid of 0.1? by 0.1? National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB-SUNY) cells

  10. Cardiac Mortality in Patients With Stage I and II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With and Without Radiation: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.pugh@ucdenver.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Ballonoff, Ari; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Standard therapy for stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of combined modality therapy with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, anti-CD20 antibody, and radiation therapy (RT). Curative approaches without RT typically utilize more intensive and/or protracted chemotherapy schedules. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens are associated with a dose-dependent risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We hypothesize that patients treated without RT, i.e., those who are treated with greater total chemotherapy cycles and hence cumulative anthracycline exposure, are at increased risk of cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: The rate of cardiac-specific mortality (CSM) was analyzed in patients with stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 by querying the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Results: A total of 15,454 patients met selection criteria; 6,021 (39%) patients received RT. The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 6-180 months). The median age was 64 years. The actuarial incidence rates of CSM at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.3%, 9.0%, and 13.8%, respectively, in patients treated with RT vs. 5.9%, 10.8% and 16.1%, respectively, in patients treated without RT (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.56). The increase in cardiac deaths for patients treated without RT persisted throughout the follow-up period. On multivariate analysis, treatment without RT remained independently associated with an increased risk of CSM (Cox hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54; p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Increased anthracycline exposure in patients treated only with chemotherapy regimens may result in an increase in cardiac deaths, detectable only through analysis of large sample sizes. Confirmatory evaluation through meta-analysis of randomized data and design of large prospective trials is warranted.

  11. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  12. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  13. Are Standard Solar Models Reliable?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John N. Bahcall; M. H. Pinsonneault; Sarbani Basu; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard

    1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The sound speeds of solar models that include element diffusion agree with helioseismological measurements to a rms discrepancy of better than 0.2% throughout almost the entire sun. Models that do not include diffusion, or in which the interior of the sun is assumed to be significantly mixed, are effectively ruled out by helioseismology. Standard solar models predict the measured properties of the sun more accurately than is required for applications involving solar neutrinos.

  14. Impact of Consolidation Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma With Negative Post-Chemotherapy Radiologic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorth, Jennifer A., E-mail: jennifer.dorth@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Cancer Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Cancer Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Diehl, Louis F.; Beaven, Anne W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Coleman, R. Edward [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: While consolidation radiation therapy (i.e., RT administered after chemotherapy) is routine treatment for patients with early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the role of consolidation RT in stage III-IV DLBCL is controversial. Methods and Materials: Cases of patients with stage III-IV DLBCL treated from 1991 to 2009 at Duke University, who achieved a complete response to chemotherapy were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared between patients who did and did not receive RT, using the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Seventy-nine patients were identified. Chemotherapy (median, 6 cycles) consisted of anti-CD20 antibody rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP; 65%); cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP; 22%); or other (13%). Post-chemotherapy imaging consisted of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (73%); gallium with CT (14%); or CT only (13%). Consolidation RT (median, 25 Gy) was given to involved sites of disease in 38 (48%) patients. Receipt of consolidation RT was associated with improved in-field control (92% vs. 69%, respectively, p = 0.028) and event-free survival (85% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.014) but no difference in overall survival (85% vs. 78%, respectively, p = 0.15) when compared to patients who did not receive consolidation RT. On multivariate analysis, no RT was predictive of increased risk of in-field failure (hazard ratio [HR], 8.01, p = 0.014) and worse event-free survival (HR, 4.3, p = 0.014). Conclusions: Patients with stage III-IV DLBCL who achieve negative post-chemotherapy imaging have improved in-field control and event-free survival with low-dose consolidation RT.

  15. Site-specific solar resource measurements for industrial solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar industry can borrow solar radiation measuring equipment from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as part of NREL`s Solar Industrial Program. This program provides assistance to qualified parties in quantifying the solar radiation resource at prospective sites to reduce the risks of deploying industrial solar energy systems. Up-to-date solar radiation measurements permit comparisons of fresh data with existing data to verify established data bases and also provide data based on actual measurements instead of on less accurate models. This report outlines the responsibilities and obligations of NREL and the solar industry participant. It also describes the equipment for measuring solar radiation, the data quality assessment procedures, and the format of the data provided.

  16. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parts of the solar spectrum, the power output of the LSC PVson our lab. The power output of the solar simulator is aboutinput solar radiation, the higher the power output. Solar

  17. Solar variability of four sites across the state of Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a month of 1 minute radiation data from 11 sites over 75 xwealth of solar radiation data is available throughSolar Radiation Database (NSRDB), these data are only

  18. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Dornfeld (2008). Environmental metrics for solar energy.provides solar radiation and other environmental data forenvironmental resources limit wind, geothermal, and hydropower; while solar

  19. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar radiation is proportional to PV power output and we use radiant flux density (solar radiation over short timescales also decreased significantly for the averaged irradiance. Power spectral density

  1. Passive solar design handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume Three updates Volume Two by presenting extensive new data on the optimum mix of conservation and solar direct gain, sunspaces, thermal storage walls, and solar radiation. The direct gain, thermal storage wall, and solar radiation data are greatly expanded relative to the Volume 2 coverage. The needed flexibility to analyze a variety of system designs is accommodated by the large number of reference designs to be encompassed - 94 in contrast to 6 in Volume two - and the large amount of sensitivity data for direct gain and sunspace systems - approximately 1100 separate curves.

  2. Origin of the Solar System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials: The Role of Synchrotron Radiation Analyses in the Study of Our Solar System Stephen R. Sutton University of Chicago APS Colloquium GeoSoilEnviroCARS...

  3. Hierarchical diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachas, C.P.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the solution and properties of the diffusion equation in a hierarchical or ultrametric space. 11 refs.

  4. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    i UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni- toring Laboratory has been measuring incident solar radiation since 1975. Current support for this work comes from the Regional Solar Radiation Monitoring Project (RSRMP), a utility consortium project including the Bon

  5. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions: The future of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    ;5 Record efficiencies #12;6 Diffused-junction solar cells Diffused-junction solar cell Chemical passivation to ~650 mV #12;7 Silicon heterojunction solar cells a-Si:H provides excellent passivation of c-Si surface Heterojunction solar cell Chemical passivation Chemical passivation #12;8 Voc and silicon heterojunction solar

  6. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to increase the power density of solar radiation, the costat a power density of 1000W/m 2 [GKK00]. Solar technologies

  7. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fractional solar data error and the fractional output errorthe output that would be predicted if the solar data weresolar radiation data is the actual realization of an output

  8. Parameterization of solar flare dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very...

  9. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Downward surface solar radiation  data released at 12 UTC forecast shortwave radiation with data obtained from the radiation:   A statistical approach using satellite data.   

  10. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar radiation data. The goal here is to estimate generic output datasolar radiation data. The goal here is to estimate generic output data

  11. Coupled Orbit-Attitude Dynamics of High Area-to-Mass Ratio (HAMR) Objects: Influence of Solar Radiation Pressure, Earth's Shadow and the Visibility in Light Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frueh, Carolin; Kelecy, Thomas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The orbital and attitude dynamics of uncontrolled Earth orbiting objects are perturbed by a variety of sources. In research, emphasis has been put on operational space vehicles. Operational satellites typically have a relatively compact shape, and hence, a low area-to-mass ratio (AMR), and are in most cases actively or passively attitude stabilized. This enables one to treat the orbit and attitude propagation as decoupled problems, and in many cases the attitude dynamics can be neglected completely. The situation is different for space debris objects, which are in an uncontrolled attitude state. Furthermore, the assumption that a steady-state attitude motion can be averaged over data reduction intervals may no longer be valid. Additionally, a subset of the debris objects have significantly high area-to-mass ratio values, resulting in highly perturbed orbits, e.g. by solar radiation pressure, even if a stable AMR value is assumed. This assumption implies a steady-state attitude such that the average cross-sect...

  12. Solar variability of four sites across the state of Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar radiation is proportional to PV power output and we use radiant flux density (solar radiation over short timescales also decreased significantly for the averaged irradiance. Power spectral density

  13. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  14. Stimulated Radiative Molecular Association in the Early Solar System: Orbital Radii of Satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present investigation relates the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model is developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among the photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In this model thermal energy is extracted from each disk due to a resonance at radii where there is a match between the temperature in the disk and a photon energy. Matter accumulates at these radii, and satellites and rings are ultimately formed. Orbital radii of satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, and Neptune are related to photon energies ($E_{PM}$ values) in the spectrum of molecular hydrogen. Orbital radii of satellites of Saturn are related to photon energies ($E_{PA}$ values) in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. The first hint that such relationships exist is found in the linearity of the graphs of orbital radii of uranian satellites vs. or...

  15. Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa...

  16. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2010, Louisiana enacted solar rights legislation (HB 751) that prohibits certain entities from unreasonably restricting a property owner from installing a solar collector. Solar collectors...

  17. Solar Energy System and Cogeneration System Personal Property Tax Credit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eligible solar systems Solar energy is defined by D.C. Code § 34-1431 to mean "radiant energy, direct, diffuse, or reflected, received from the sun at wavelengths suitable for conversion into the...

  18. Microscopic diffusion of partly ionized metals in the Sun and metal-poor stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlattl, H

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved microscopic diffusion in stars is presented considering in detail the partly ionized stages of metals. Besides,the influence of degenerate electron-gas and of the contribution of radiation to the total pressure has been accounted for. The solution of the diffusion equations is then performed following the scheme of Thoul et al. (1994). By defining one mean charged ion per element very few modifications are necessary to solve the improved diffusion scheme. (A portable FORTRAN routine is provided.) The change in the sound-speed profile of a solar model obtained with the new diffusion description is at most about 25% at r=0.6 R(sun). The biggest effect on low-mass stars is expected near the turn-off, where the convective envelope is shallowest. However, only a difference of at most 40 K in the effective temperature could be observed when assuming either fully or partly ionized metals in the diffusion equation. Nevertheless, the surface metal distribution is strongly altered.

  19. Solar skylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamson, James C. (Osprey La., Rumson, NJ 07760)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  20. Dye alignment in luminescent solar concentrators: I. Vertical alignment for improved waveguide coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulder, Carlijn L.; Reusswig, Phil D.; Velazquez, Amador M.; Kim, Heekyung; Rotschild, Carmel; Baldo, Marc

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use dye molecules embedded in a flat-plate waveguide to absorb solar radiation. Ideally, the dyes re-emit the absorbed light into waveguide modes that are coupled to solar cells. But some photons are always lost, re-emitted through the face of the LSC and coupled out of the waveguide. In this work, we improve the fundamental efficiency limit of an LSC by controlling the orientation of dye molecules using a liquid crystalline host. First, we present a theoretical model for the waveguide trapping efficiency as a function of dipole orientation. Next, we demonstrate an increase in the trapping efficiency from 66% for LSCs with no dye alignment to 81% for a LSC with vertical dye alignment. Finally, we show that the enhanced trapping efficiency is preserved for geometric gains up to 30, and demonstrate that an external diffuser can alleviate weak absorption in LSCs with vertically-aligned dyes.

  1. Solar Resource Measurements in Cocoa, Florida (FSEC) - Equipment Loaned to NREL: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-318

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Afshin, A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Site-specific measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance components, passively separated by alternate shading and unshading of a pyranometer mounted under a shading band with alternating opaque and open panels (for a site other than NREL) are needed to verify the underlying theory and mathematical techniques for developing direct, global and diffuse renewable resource data from such a system. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: Establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; Support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; Provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations. NREL will provide the supporting equipment (Shadow Bank Stand) for the specially designed shading band. FSEC will provide the calibrated pyranometer and perform data acquisition of the radiometer signal. Data acquired under this agreement will be shared with the NREL Principle Investigator for the purposes of validating techniques for estimating direct radiation from global and diffuse components measured with the ZEBRA system.

  2. Cosmic-ray diffusion in magnetized turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tautz, R C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of cosmic-ray scattering in the turbulent electromagnetic fields of the interstellar medium and the solar wind is of great importance due to the variety of applications of the resulting diffusion coefficients. Examples are diffusive shock acceleration, cosmic-ray observations, and, in the solar system, the propagation of coronal mass ejections. In recent years, it was found that the simple diffusive motion that had been assumed for decades is often in disagreement both with numerical and observational results. Here, an overview is given of the interaction processes of cosmic rays and turbulent electromagnetic fields. First, the formation of turbulent fields due to plasma instabilities is treated, where especially the non-linear behavior of the resulting unstable wave modes is discussed. Second, the analytical and the numerical side of high-energy particle propagation will be reviewed by presenting non-linear analytical theories and Monte-Carlo simulations. For the example of the solar wind, the im...

  3. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for using solar radiation or other environmental energiesand environmental factors in- fluencing the widespread use of solarenvironmental, and social data generated by passive solar

  4. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  5. Radiation and porosity effects on the magnetohydrodynamic flow near a vertical plate that applies shear stress to the fluid with mass diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This article studies the radiation and porosity effects on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an infinite vertical plate that applies a shear stress f(t) to the fluid. Conjugate phenomenon of heat and mass transfer is considered. General solutions of the dimensionless governing equations along with imposed initial and boundary conditions are determined using Laplace transform technique. The solution of velocity is presented as a sum of mechanical and non mechanical parts. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some known solutions from the literature as special cases. The results for embedded parameters are shown graphically. Numerical results for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and presented in tabular forms.

  6. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and less surface solar radiation in China from 1955 to 2000,2001 in China, and meanwhile, both surface solar radiationsolar heating greatly decreases RH in the lower troposphere for both China and

  7. Optical Spectroscopy of Diffuse Ionized Gas in M31

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Greenawalt; R. A. M. Walterbos; R. Braun

    1997-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have obtained sensitive long-slit spectra of Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) in the Andromeda Galaxy, M31, covering the wavelength range of 3550-6850 Angs. By co-adding extracted DIG spectra, we reached a 1 sigma uncertainty of 9.3E-19 ergs/s/cm^{2}/arcsec^{2} corresponding to .46 pc/cm^{6} in Emission Measure. We present average spectra of DIG at four brightness levels with Emission Measures ranging from 9 to 59 pc/cm^{6}. We present the first measurements of [OII]\\lambda3727 and [OIII]\\lambda5007 of the truly diffuse ionized medium in the disk of an external spiral galaxy. We find that I_[OII]/I_H\\alpha=.9-1.4. The [OIII] line is weak (I_[OIII]/I_H\\beta = .5), but stronger than in the Galactic DIG. Measurements of [NII]\\lambda6583 and [SII](\\lambda6717+\\lambda6731) are also presented. The [SII] lines are clearly stronger than typical HII regions (I_[SII]/I_H\\alpha = .5 compared to .2). Overall, the line ratios are in agreement with predictions of photoionization models for diffuse gas exposed to a dilute stellar radiation field, but the line ratios of the DIG in M31 are somewhat different than observed for Galactic DIG. The differences indicate a less diluted radiation field in the DIG of M31's spiral arms compared to DIG in the Solar Neighborhood of the Milky Way. We have also detected HeI\\lambda5876 emission from the brightest DIG in M31. The HeI line appears to be stronger than in the Galactic DIG, possibly indicating that most of the Helium in the bright DIG in M31 is fully ionized. However, this result is somewhat tentative.

  8. Proceedings of 2004 Solar Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Proceedings of 2004 Solar Conference July 11­14, 2004, Portland, Oregon USA ISEC2004-65168 A HYBRID using a hybrid of Hay, Davies, Klucher, Reindl (HDKR) method for calculating total solar radiation the 1970s and 1980s as companies sought to reduce heating costs. As awareness of the potential for natural

  9. The Solar Chimney Schlaich Bergermann und Partner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucier, Bradley J.

    . Designing large solar chimneys 10 6. Energy Production Costs 12 7. References 14 Author: Schlaich Bergermann with solar radiation in their desert areas. Usbe Ukra WeiÃ? RuÃ?l Keni GR Arge Syri Jord Saud Vene Trin E Tsch does anything. Why? Because apparently it must be a well-kept secret that large-scale solar energy

  10. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  11. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  12. Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  13. Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  14. II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    2 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar Monitoring Laboratory has operated a solar radiation monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest. The number of stations participat of utilities headed by the Eugene Water and Electric Board initiated the Re- gional Solar Radiation Monitoring

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improving our understanding of how clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and the effects of these interactions on climate. Photo courtesy Argonne National...

  16. NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) Location: San...

  17. Effects of turbulent diffusion on the chemistry of diffuse clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Lesaffre; M. Gerin; P. Hennebelle

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. We probe the effect of turbulent diffusion on the chemistry at the interface between a cold neutral medium (CNM) cloudlet and the warm neutral medium (WNM). Methods. We perform moving grid, multifluid, 1D, hydrodynamical simulations with chemistry including thermal and chemical diffusion. The diffusion coefficients are enhanced to account for turbulent diffusion. We post-process the steady-states of our simulations with a crude model of radiative transfer to compute line profiles. Results. Turbulent diffusion spreads out the transition region between the CNM and the WNM. We find that the CNM slightly expands and heats up: its CH and H$_2$ content decreases due to the lower density. The change of physical conditions and diffusive transport increase the H$^+$ content in the CNM which results in increased OH and H$_2$O. Diffusion transports some CO out of the CNM. It also brings H$_2$ into contact with the warm gas with enhanced production of CH$^+$, H$_3^+$, OH and H$_2$O at the interface. O lines are sensitive to the spread of the thermal profile in the intermediate region between the CNM and the WNM. Enhanced molecular content at the interface of the cloud broadens the molecular line profiles and helps exciting transitions of intermediate energy. The relative molecular yield are found higher for bigger clouds. Conclusions. Turbulent diffusion can be the source of additional molecular production and should be included in chemical models of the interstellar medium (ISM). It also is a good candidate for the interpretation of observational problems such as warm H$_2$, CH$^+$ formation and presence of H$_3^+$.

  18. Solar Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginia's solar easement law is similar to those in effect in other states. The Virginia Solar Easements Act of 1978 allows property owners to create binding solar easements for the purpose of...

  19. The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012, Hangzhou, China Gettering of n-type multicrystalline silicon solar cells by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Hangzhou, China Gettering of n-type multicrystalline silicon solar cells by phosphorus diffusion, boron in heavily dislocated regions. 1. INTRODUCTION N-type multicrystalline silicon has great potential as solar+ diffused region in n- type silicon solar cells with either aluminum annealing or boron diffusion are good

  20. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Study: Sun Light Energy Study: Solar RadiationS, Perkins, If Sun 'Tracking Solar Energy Collector ll , N77L. Berger, "The Sun, a New Source of Energy", AD B 026689,

  1. MEASUREMENT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION - STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    15, 1976. "Circumsolar Radiation Data for Central Receiverdata on the instantaneous values of circum- solar radiation andradiation over the course of a day, month or year; and 3) detailed data

  2. X. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN DIFFUSE AND GLOBAL IRRADIANCE For numerous applications, particularly those

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    in the Pacific Northwest along with cor- responding data from the Solar Energy Mete- orological Research33 X. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN DIFFUSE AND GLOBAL IRRADIANCE For numerous applications, particularly the direct and diffuse components of the incident solar intensity. Because constant care is needed to measure

  3. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700251 Control of Specular and Diffuse Reflection of Light Using Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ilsoon

    reflectors are widely used in the back-light units of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels,[1­4] light-emitting diodes (LED)[5,6] and solar cell devices.[7,8] A perfect diffuse reflector is matter that reflects and low solar absorption, metals easily satisfy the general requirements for diffuse reflectors

  4. November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 1 Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 1 ­ Solar Cells Prepared for the Oregon Million Solar Roofs Coalition By Frank Vignola ­ University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Lab John Hocken ­ South Eugene High School Gary Grace ­ South Eugene High School In Schools #12;1 Solar Cells Lesson Plan Content

  5. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  6. The Future of Passive Solar in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wulfinghoff, D. R.

    . For illumination, there are glazing units which would \\~sually be smaller and more numerous, and these might also include thermal shutters, light diffusers, and devices for distributing the light. Passive solar cannot be characterized by clearly established.... components. Thermal mass, if carefully designed, may cost little more than the HOW MUCH DOES PASSIVE SOLAR COST? marginal cost of the materials. The big unknown is the ultimate cost of effective The cost elements of passive solar sunlight control devices...

  7. Is Arnold diffusion relevant to global diffusion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seiichiro Honjo; Kunihiko Kaneko

    2003-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Global diffusion of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is investigated by using a coupled standard maps. Arnold web is visualized in the frequency space, using local rotation numbers, while Arnold diffusion and resonance overlaps are distinguished by the residence time distributions at resonance layers. Global diffusion in the phase space is shown to be accelerated by diffusion across overlapped resonances generated by the coupling term, rather than Arnold diffusion along the lower-order resonances. The former plays roles of hubs for transport in the phase space, and accelerate the diffusion.

  8. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hourly satellite solar radiation information is used to determine the amount of annual solar energy that can be pro- duced from PV for the designated area populated with PV....

  9. Solar 2014: The 52 Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermal power plants aims to achieve the stable operation of the plant under variable solar radiation corresponds to the variables in a mathematical model of the plant. A control oriented model for a solar abstracted variables to estimate the internal behaviour of the plant [2]. #12;Solar 2014: The 52 nd Annual

  10. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure),...

  11. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  12. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  13. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  15. advanced solar thermal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have significant contributions to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Alternative energy resources, such as solar radiation, may help abate emissions but ... El Khaja,...

  16. absorbers solar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photonic crystal absorbers and emitters Engineering Websites Summary: ) systems convert solar energy into electricity via thermally radiated photons at tailored wavelengths...

  17. Modeling of dual-metal Schottky contacts based silicon micro and nano wire solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anantaram, M. P.

    Modeling of dual-metal Schottky contacts based silicon micro and nano wire solar cells M. Golam Work function Lifetime Diffusion length Interdigitated solar cell a b s t r a c t We study solar cell nanowires and nanotubes are considered to be potential candidates for low cost and high efficiency solar

  18. Angular Signatures of Dark Matter in the Diffuse Gamma Ray Spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter annihilating in our Galaxy's halo and elsewhere in the universe is expected to generate a diffuse flux of gamma rays, potentially observable with next generation satellite-based experiments, such as GLAST. In this article, we study the signatures of dark matter in the angular distribution of this radiation. Pertaining to the extragalactic contribution, we discuss the effect of the motion of the solar system with respect to the cosmological rest frame, and anisotropies due to the structure of our local universe. For the gamma ray flux from dark matter in our own Galactic halo, we discuss the effects of the offset position of the solar system, the Compton-Getting effect, the asphericity of the Milky Way halo, and the signatures of nearby substructure. We explore the prospects for the detection of these features by the GLAST satellite and find that, if {approx} 10% or more of the diffuse gamma ray background observed by EGRET is the result of dark matter annihilations, then GLAST should be sensitive to anisotropies down to the 0.1% level. Such precision would be sufficient to detect many, if not all, of the signatures discussed in this paper.

  19. Central solar energy receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  20. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  1. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  2. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  3. Radiation Modeling In Fluid Flow Iain D. Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Collector #12;4 Fundamentals of Radiation (1) · All matter with non-zero temperature emits thermal radiation with energy flux given by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law: e.g., Sun: T=5800 K, total radiated power = 4 distribution (Planck spectrum) !q =T 4 W/m2 #12;5 Planck Radiation Spectrum #12;6 Solar Radiation Spectrum

  4. Fabrication of solar cells with counter doping prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Timothy D; Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell fabrication process includes printing of dopant sources over a polysilicon layer over backside of a solar cell substrate. The dopant sources are cured to diffuse dopants from the dopant sources into the polysilicon layer to form diffusion regions, and to crosslink the dopant sources to make them resistant to a subsequently performed texturing process. To prevent counter doping, dopants from one of the dopant sources are prevented from outgassing and diffusing into the other dopant source. For example, phosphorus from an N-type dopant source is prevented from diffusing to a P-type dopant source comprising boron.

  5. THE DIFFUSION APPROXIMATION FOR THE LINEAR BOLTZMANN EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE DIFFUSION APPROXIMATION FOR THE LINEAR BOLTZMANN EQUATION WITH VANISHING SCATTERING COEFFICIENT equation, Diffusion approximation, Neutron transport equation, Radiative transfer equation subject, 23], neutron transport theory [27]. A typical model linear Boltzmann equation is (t +· x)f(t,x,)= 1

  6. alpha radiation effectively: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    perturbations at the heliospheric boundaries and local (i.e. within 10-20 AU from the Sun) effects of the solar ionization, charge exchange, solar gravitation and radiation...

  7. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  8. A simple evaluation of global and diffuse Luminous Efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical and humid climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A simple evaluation of global and diffuse Luminous Efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical to determine luminous efficacy under different sky conditions. A comparison between these empirical constants. Keywords Global and diffuse luminous efficacy, different sky conditions, solar irradiance, solar

  9. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  10. A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SYMBOLS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX 53 56 58 Data 59 LIST OF FIGURES F igure s I. Infrared Spectrum Transmission of Tedlar I I. Spectral Transmission of Tedlar and Glass I I I. Transmittance ? Absorption Characteristics of Page 16 16 Solar Heaters... by radiation and convection through the upper sections of the solar heater. In order to utilize this correlation along with the transmittance ? absorption product of a parti- cular solar heater for accurate scale-up calculations, one must not change certain...

  11. Solar Central Receiver with an Irising Aperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If the aperture is small, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is inclined due to spillage. However, if the aperture is large, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is normal, due to excess heat radiation and convection...

  12. Solar Central Receiver with an Irising Aperture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If the aperture is small, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is inclined due to spillage. However, if the aperture is large, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is normal, due to excess heat radiation and convection...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Facility NSTTF Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State Lighting SSLS Connect Contact Us RSS...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NSTTF Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State Lighting SSLS Connect Contact Us RSS Google+...

  15. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A survey of good practices for reflectivity measurement in CSP applications was completed by Solar of reflectivity includes both specular and diffuse reflectivity as well a directional and spectral measurement

  16. 8, 453488, 2008 Long-term solar UV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    irradiance is25 modeled, and the cloud effect subsequently accounted for by cloud modification factors 454ACPD 8, 453­488, 2008 Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by ANN U. Feister et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by Artificial Neural Networks

  17. Continental-scale net radiation and evapotranspiration estimated using MODIS satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mean direct and diffuse radiation data from the GEWEX/SRBa new generation of radiation budget data that use up to 11Project Surface Radiation Budget (GAPP/SRB) data (http://

  18. atmospheric longwave radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: 72010 1 The atmosphere absorbs part of the outgoing longwave energy Incoming solar radiation; Aerosol effects from IPCC 2001; CO2+ The Greenhouse Effect The White House...

  19. Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 2 Solar Electric Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    rating of a photovoltaic module is typically quoted as the power output of the module when the incidentNovember 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 2 ­ Solar Electric Arrays Prepared for the Oregon Million Solar Roofs Coalition By Frank Vignola ­ University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Lab John Hocken

  1. Thermo-quantum diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roumen Tsekov

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to thermo-quantum diffusion is proposed and a nonlinear quantum Smoluchowski equation is derived, which describes classical diffusion in the field of the Bohm quantum potential. A nonlinear thermo-quantum expression for the diffusion front is obtained, being a quantum generalization of the classical Einstein law. The quantum diffusion at zero temperature is also described and a new dependence of the position dispersion on time is derived. A stochastic Bohm-Langevin equation is also proposed.

  2. Solar Car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Des Moines Central Academy Middle School students compete in the Solar Car Challenge at the National Science Bowl, May 2 in Washington D.C.

  3. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maine law requires that any municipal ordinance, bylaw, or regulation adopted after September 30, 2009 regulating solar energy devices on residential property follow certain requirements. The rules...

  4. Use of OCA and APOLLO in Heliosat-4 method for the assessment of surface downwelling solar irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the German Aerospace Center (DLR), for the assessment of surface downwelling solar irradiance (SSI). Each-based assessments of surface downwelling solar irradiance (SSI) are more and more used in the domain of solar energy, diffuse and direct surface irradiance for use in various domains: solar energy, biomass, agriculture

  5. Design and Analysis of a High-Efficiency, Cost-Effective Solar Concentrator John H. Reif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    , wind and sand loading, and abrasion. Many arid and desert areas, best suited for solar energy on a given surface area over a given time; in particular, it is the amount of solar radiation energy radiation scattered by the atmosphere. There are many areas of the world ideally suited for solar energy

  6. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  7. Geant4 applications in the heliospheric radiation environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Brogueira; Patrícia Gonçalves; Ana Keating; Dalmiro Maia; Mário Pimenta; Bernardo Tomé

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy ionizing radiation environment in the solar system consists of three main sources: the radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. Geant4 is a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation toolkit, with applications in areas as high energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics or medical physics research. In this poster, Geant4 applications to model and study the effects of the heliospheric radiation environment are presented. Specific applications are being developed to study the effect of the radiation environment on detector components, to describe the response and to optimise the design of radiation monitors for future space missions and to predict the radiation environment in Mars surface, orbits and moons.

  8. NEW SOLAR COMPOSITION: THE PROBLEM WITH SOLAR MODELS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serenelli, Aldo M.; Asplund, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 1, Garching D-85471 (Germany); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ferguson, Jason W. [Department of Physics, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260-0032 (United States)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct updated solar models with different sets of solar abundances, including the most recent determinations by Asplund et al. The latter work predicts a larger (approx10%) solar metallicity compared to previous measurements by the same authors but significantly lower (approx25%) than the recommended value from a decade ago by Grevesse and Sauval. We compare the results of our models with determinations of the solar structure inferred through helioseismology measurements. The model that uses the most recent solar abundance determinations predicts the base of the solar convective envelope to be located at R {sub CZ} = 0.724 R{sub sun} and a surface helium mass fraction of Y{sub surf} = 0.231. These results are in conflict with helioseismology data (R{sub CZ} = 0.713 +- 0.001 R{sub sun} and Y{sub surf} = 0.2485 +- 0.0035) at 5sigma and 11sigma levels, respectively. Using the new solar abundances, we calculate the magnitude by which radiative opacities should be modified in order to restore agreement with helioseismology. We find that a maximum change of approx15% at the base of the convective zone is required with a smooth decrease toward the core, where the change needed is approx5%. The required change at the base of the convective envelope is about half the value estimated previously. We also present the solar neutrino fluxes predicted by the new models. The most important changes brought about by the new solar abundances are the increase by approx10% in the predicted {sup 13}N and {sup 15}O fluxes that arise mostly due to the increase in the C and N abundances in the newly determined solar composition.

  9. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the invention to provide a monolithic tandem photovoltaic solar cell which is highly radiation resistant and efficient; in which the energy bandgap of the lower subcell can be tailored for specific applications; solar cell comprising layers of InP and GaInAsP (or GaInAs), where said photovoltaic cell is useful, for example, in space power applications; having an improved power-to-mass ratio; in which subcells are lattice-matches; and are both two terminal and three terminal monolithic tandem photovoltaic solar cells. To achieve the foregoing and other objects and in accordance with the purpose of the present invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, the monolithic tandem photovoltaic solar cell may comprise; (a) an InP substrate having an upper surface; (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate; wherein the first subcell comprises GaInAs (which could include GaInAsP) and includes a homojunction; and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; wherein the second subcell comprises InP and includes a homojunction. The cell is described in detail. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan M. Johnson

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.

  11. Flare Ribbons Observed with G-band and FeI 6302A Filters of the Solar Optical Telescope on Board Hinode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Isobe; M. Kubo; T. Minoshima; K. Ichimoto; Y. Katsukawa; T. D. Tarbell; S. Tsuneta; T. E. Berger; B. W. Lites; S. Nagata; T. Shimizu; R. A. Shine; Y. Suematsu; A. Title

    2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode satellite observed an X3.4 class flare on 2006 December 13. Typical two-ribbon structure was observed, not only in the chromospheric CaII H line but also in G-band and FeI 6302A line. The high-resolution, seeing-free images achieved by SOT revealed, for the first time, the sub-arcsec fine structures of the "white light" flare. The G-band flare ribbons on sunspot umbrae showed a sharp leading edge followed by a diffuse inside, as well as previously known core-halo structure. The underlying structures such as umbral dots, penumbral filaments and granules were visible in the flare ribbons. Assuming that the sharp leading edge was directly heated by particle beam and the diffuse parts were heated by radiative back-warming, we estimate the depth of the diffuse flare emission using the intensity profile of the flare ribbon. We found that the depth of the diffuse emission is about 100 km or less from the height of the source of radiative back-warming. The flare ribbons were also visible in the Stokes-V images of FeI 6302A, as a transient polarity reversal. This is probably related to "magnetic transient" reported in the literature. The intensity increase in Stokes-I images indicates that the FeI 6302A line was significantly deformed by the flare, which may cause such a magnetic transient.

  12. A 927 MHz Solar Powered Active Antenna Oscillator Beacon Signal Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    . Properly placed solar cells and a regulator are used to bias the device by scavenging solar energy from technology, which scavenges through solar energy the power necessary for operation. Starting from a folded the radiation performances. After that, solar cells were properly inserted for energy scavenging purposes

  13. Gain Scheduled Control of a Solar Power Plant Tor A. Johansen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Gain Scheduled Control of a Solar Power Plant Tor A. Johansen1 , Kenneth J. Hunt2 and Idar Petersen to a pilot-scale solar power plant is described. A eld of parabolic collectors focus the solar radiation onto. Solar power plant, nonlinear control, gain scheduling, system identi cation. 1 Introduction

  14. Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Tor A. Johansena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Field Tor A. Johansena Camilla Storaaa that the primary energy source, solar radiation, cannot be manipulated. The distributed solar collector eld may, Norway. Model-based control of the outlet temperature of a distributed solar col- lector eld is studied

  15. Solar2011, the 49th AuSES Annual Conference 1 November -2 December 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Solar Cooling in Australia M. Dennis 1 , I. Doemland 2 , L. Hou 3 1,2 Research School of Engineering The Australian Solar Cooling Interest Group (AusSCIG), research activities and direction, local program funding of a cooling system driven by solar heat has some appeal due to the causal relationship between solar radiation

  16. SiGe thin-film structures for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bremond, G.; Daami, A.; Laugier, A. [Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere] [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study their applicability as the active base material in Si thin crystalline film solar cell technology, SiGe relaxed layers grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Si substrates are investigated by optical and electrical measurements (TEM, EXD, PL, EBIC). The main results of this work is to point out the improvement of the SiGe active base layer by using smooth Ge graded SiGe buffer layer and remote plasma hydrogenation. TEM, EXD, PL experiments show the effect of the Ge graded buffer layer grown using LPE, by confining the threading dislocations in the SiGe buffer layer close to the Si/SiGe interface. EBIC measurements reveal low recombination activity of dislocations at 300 K providing the diffusion length exceeds the 15 {micro}m layer thickness. The enhanced luminescence of SiGe near bandgap indicates that remote plasma hydrogenation induces a decrease of the non-radiative recombination pathways due to dislocations on CVD layers where defect recombinations dominate as indicated by EBIC measurements. This study points out the importance of controlling relaxed SiGe layers with good minority carrier recombination quality as a key issue for the optimization of new SiGe/Si based solar cells.

  17. Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, E. Bruce

    Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals X June 2006 Editor: P. Deines Abstract Oxygen diffusion in natural and synthetic single-crystal titanite be recognized as responsible for oxygen diffusion. The diffusion profiles showed two segments: a steep one close

  18. N-PERT BACK JUNCTION SOLAR CELLS: AN OPTION FOR THE NEXT INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY GENERATION?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are introducing a new solar cell design: the Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC), which features a full-PERT (Passivated Emitter, Rear Totally Diffused) solar cells with a processing sequence based on an industrialN-PERT BACK JUNCTION SOLAR CELLS: AN OPTION FOR THE NEXT INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY GENERATION? Bianca

  19. Preprint 24th EU PVSEC, 2009, Hamburg FITTING OF LATERAL RESISTANCES IN SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junk, Michael

    Preprint 24th EU PVSEC, 2009, Hamburg FITTING OF LATERAL RESISTANCES IN SILICON SOLAR CELLS cell from electroluminescence (EL) is introduced. A two-dimensional model of the solar cell screen printed monocrystalline silicon solar cell are shown and the influence of lateral diffusion

  20. Engineering the optical properties of luminescent solar concentrators at the molecular scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulder, Carlijn Lucinde

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) concentrate solar radiation onto photovoltaic (PV) cells using an inexpensive collector plate to absorb incoming photons and waveguide fluorescently re-emitted photons to PVs at the ...